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					Midlothian migration and commuting patterns

MIDLOTHIAN
In 2001 the population of Midlothian was 80,941, 61% of which were of working age.

MIGRATION
Table 1 below shows UK migration to and from Midlothian in the year to the Census in 2001. Table 1: Migration by total and working-age population (UK only1), 2001. Total outTotal inmigration migration Net migration Total migration 2,614 2,066 -548 Working-age migration 2,478 1,815 -663
Source: Census Origin-Destination tables, 2001.

In the year to 2001 Midlothian experienced an overall net out-migration of total and workingage population. Figure 1 presents total in-migration to Midlothian from the UK and overseas. Figure 1: Total2 in-migration to Midlothian, 2001.
Scotland 68%

England & Wales

13%

Origin unknown

12%

Rest of the world

6%

N. Ireland

1%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

Of the total number of people migrating to Midlothian (3,034) between 2000 and 2001 more than two-thirds (68%) came from elsewhere in Scotland; 13% (386) came from England & Wales; 14% from an unknown place of origin; and only 6% (170) came from a country outside the UK.

1

The Census data provides information on immigration to Midlothian from outside the UK however there is no data relating to emigration to locations outside the UK. The numbers presented in Table 1 are for movements within the UK only. 2 Including people from outside the UK and people with no address the year before the census.

Midlothian migration and commuting patterns Figure 2 below shows in-migration to Midlothian from other Scottish local authorities only. Figure 2: Total in-migration to Midlothian from Scottish local authorities, 2001
Edinburgh East Lothian Scottish Borders West Lothian Fife Glasgow Aberdeen Highland Falkirk Aberdeenshire 0% 10% 5% 3% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 68%

Of the 2,068 people migrating to Midlothian in 2001 from elsewhere in Scotland, over twothirds (68%) were from neighbouring Edinburgh. The next most popular origins for migrants were East Lothian (8%) and Scottish Borders (5%). Figure 3 below shows out-migrants from Midlothian to other Scottish local authorities only. Figure 3: Out-migration from Midlothian to Scottish local authorities, 2001.
Edinburgh Scottish Borders East Lothian West Lothian Fife Highland Stirling South Lanarkshire Glasgow Aberdeen 13% 10% 6% 5% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 45%

Of the 2,134 people moving out of Midlothian to other Scottish areas, the highest proportion moved to adjoining Edinburgh (45%). Scottish Borders (13%) and East Lothian (10%) were the next most popular destinations for out-migrants.

Midlothian migration and commuting patterns Figures 4 and 5 below show in and out-migration by age group. Figure 4: In-migration3 by age, 2001.
Aged 0-15 5% 12%

Figure 5: Out-migration4 by age, 2001.
Aged 0-15 5% 16% Aged 16-24

22%

Aged 16-24

13%

Aged 25-34 17% 13% Aged 35-44

Aged 25-34 13% 25% Aged 35-44

Aged 45-64 32% Aged 65+

Aged 45-64 28% Aged 65+

The largest groups migrating to Midlothian are those aged 25-34 (32%) followed by 0-15 year olds (22%). For out-migration, the largest groups are 25-34 (28%) and 16-24 year olds (25%).

TRAVEL TO WORK PATTERNS
Table 2 below provides an overview of Midlothian’s residents and workforce. Table 2: Midlothian residents and workforce, 2001. No. Total population Working-age population Total Midlothian residents in employment …who work in Midlothian ...who are out-commuters Total Midlothian workforce …who are Midlothian residents ….who are in-commuters 80,941 49,649 37,687 17,241 20,446 24,850 17,241 7,609 % 100% 61% 100% 46% 54% 100% 69% 31%

Source: ONS: Mid-year population estimates and Origin-Destination statistics (Census 2001).

Table 2 shows that of the 49,649 working-age population 37,687 are in employment – 46% in Midlothian and 54% outwith the area. Of the area’s 24,850 workforce, 69% are residents and 31% are in-commuters. Table 3 shows where Midlothian’s workforce lives. Table 3: Place of residence of Midlothian workforce, 2001. Midlothian workforce Place of residence Midlothian Edinburgh City East Lothian Scottish Borders West Lothian Fife Falkirk South Lanarkshire North Lanarkshire Stirling Other Scottish LAs Total workforce
3 4

No. of workforce 17,241 4,100 1,488 805 487 251 111 102 51 32 182 24,850

% of total workforce 69% 16% 6% 3% 2% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0.7% 100.0%

% of total incommuters 53.9% 19.6% 10.6% 6.4% 3.3% 1.5% 1.3% 0.7% 0.4% 2.4% 100.0%

Based on total number of people migrating to Midlothian. Based on Scotland and UK only.

Midlothian migration and commuting patterns Table 3 shows that Edinburgh supplies Midlothian with approximately 4,100 workers – equivalent to 16% of the workforce and 53.9% of in-commuters. Table 4 below shows where Midlothian residents work. Table 4: Place of work of Midlothian residents, 2001. Midlothian residents Place of work Edinburgh City Midlothian East Lothian West Lothian Fife Scottish Borders Glasgow City Falkirk North Lanarkshire Aberdeen City Other Scottish LAs Total residents No. of residents 17,700 17,241 1,052 739 227 198 119 95 94 46 176 37,687 % of total residents 47.0% 45.7% 2.8% 2.0% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 100.0% % of total outcommuters 86.6% 5.1% 3.6% 1.1% 1.0% 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.2% 0.9% 100%

Table 4 shows that less than half (45.7%) of Midlothian’s residents work locally – the only area in the East of Scotland where this is the case. 47% of residents travel to work in Edinburgh each day – representing 86.6% of all out-commuting. Table 5 below compares employment status of the total Midlothian workforce to in-commuters. Table 5: Employment status of Midlothian workforce, 2001. Total Employment status workforce % of total In-commuters Full-time 18,739 75% 25,258 Part-time 6,111 25% 7,201 Total 24,850 100% 32,459 Employed 21,433 86% 28,531 Self-employed 3,417 14% 3,928 Total 24,850 100% 32,459 % of incommuters 78% 22% 100% 88% 12% 100%

Of those working in Midlothian, 75% are employed full-time, however for in-commuters this rises slightly to 78%. 86% of the workforce are employees, again this is higher for those incommuting (88%). Therefore in-commuters to Midlothian are slightly more likely to be fulltime employees than residents working there. Table 6 shows the employment status of all Midlothian residents compared to out-commuters. Table 6: Employment status of Midlothian residents, 2001. Employment status Full-time Part-time Total Employed Self-employed Total Total residents 28,994 8,693 37,687 34,037 3,650 37,687 % of total 77% 23% 100% 90% 10% 100% Outcommuters 16,774 3,672 20,446 19,702 744 20,446 % of outcommuters 82% 18% 100% 96% 4% 100%

Midlothian migration and commuting patterns Table 6 shows that 77% of employed Midlothian residents work full-time, for out-commuters this rises to 82%. Out-commuters are also more likely to be employees (96%) compared with all employed Midlothian residents (90%). Figure 6 compares industry of employment for in-commuters and Midlothian residents. Figure 6: Midlothian workforce by industry and place of residence, 2001.
Wholesale & retail trade Construction Health & social work Mining etc.; manufacturing; elec., gas & water Real estate & business act Education Transport, storage & com. Other Public admin. & defence Hotels & restaurants Agriculture, forestry & fishing Financial intermediation 0% 4% 4% 4% 3% 2% 2% 1% 1% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 1% 5% 2% 1% 3% 7% 4% 9% 9% 9% 4% 11% 3% 3% 4% 4%

Midlothian residents working in Midlothian

Non-Midlothian residents

Of Midlothian’s 24,850 workforce 15% are employed in ‘wholesale and retail trade’ with over one-quarter of sector employees in-commuting. ‘Construction’ is the next largest sector with 12% of Midlothian’s jobs, a quarter of which are held by in-commuters. Figure 7 compares industry of employment for Midlothian residents who work locally and those who out-commute to work. Figure 7: Midlothian residents by industry and destination, 2001.
Wholesale & retail trade Construction Health & social work Mining etc.; manufacturing; elec., gas & water Real estate & business act Education Transport, storage & com. Other Public admin. & defence Hotels & restaurants Agriculture, forestry & fishing Financial intermediation 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 2% 1% 1% 0% 2% 4% 8% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 2% 2% 5% 4% 4% 6% 6% 6% 7% 5% 7% 2% 8% 7%

Midlothian residents working in Midlothian

Midlothian residents working outwith Midlothian

Figure 7 shows that wholesale and retail trade is the largest employing sector for Midlothian’s 37,687 residents – half of which out-commute to work. The largest sectors for residents outcommuting are ‘health and social work’ and ‘financial intermediation’ – both representing 8% of Midlothian’s employed residents.

Midlothian migration and commuting patterns Figure 8 below compares the occupations of Midlothian residents and in-commuters working in Midlothian. Figure 8: Midlothian workforce by occupation and place of residence, 2001.
Large employers & higher managerial occ. Higher professional occ. Lower managerial & professional occ. Intermediate occ. Small employers & own account workers Lower supervisory & technical occ. Semi-routine occ. 8% 1% 2%

2%

4%

12%

11%

3%

10%

1%

8%

3%

15%

3%

Routine occ. 0%

12% 5% 10%

3% 15% 20% 25%
Non-Midlothian residents

30%

Midlothian residents working in Midlothian

Figure 8 shows that in-commuters account for a significant proportion of all occupational groups working in Midlothian although they represent a smaller proportion of workers in small employers and own account workers, semi-routine and routine occupations. Figure 9 below compares the occupations of Midlothian residents working in Midlothian and those out-commuting. Figure 9: Midlothian residents by occupation and place of employment, 2001.
Large employers & higher 1% 2% managerial occ. Higher professional occ. Lower managerial & professional occ. Intermediate occ. Small employers & own account workers Lower supervisory & technical occ. Semi-routine occ. 5% 2% 4%

8%

16%

12%

6%

1%

5%

5%

10%

8%

Routine occ. 0%

8% 5%

5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%

Midlothian residents working in Midlothian

Midlothian residents working outwith Midlothian

Figures 8 and 9 show that the overall occupational profiles of Midlothian’s workforce and residents are relatively similar. The largest occupation for residents is lower managerial and professional occupations – almost a quarter of resident’s occupations – two-thirds of which are employed outwith the Midlothian area.

Midlothian migration and commuting patterns Figures 10 and 11 below show in and out-commuting by gender. Figure 10: In-commuters by gender, 2001. Figure 11: Out-commuters by gender, 2001.

Female, 40%

Female, 48%
Male, 60%

Male, 52%

Figure 10 and 11 show that a clear majority of commuters are male. However, females represent a slightly higher percentage of out-commuters (48%) than in-commuters (40%). Figures 12 and 13 show in and out-commuting by age. Figure 12: In-commuters by age-group, 2001.
Aged 16-24, 8%

Figure 13: Out-commuters by age-groups, 2001.
Aged 16-24, 12%

Aged 25-29, 12% Aged 45-74, 37% Aged 45-74, 35%

Aged 25-29, 10%

Aged 30-44, 43%

Aged 30-44, 42%

Figure 12 and 13 show that a clear majority of commuters are aged 30+. The overall age structures for in and out-commuting are very similar. Figure 14 below shows commuting by mode of transport for residents working in Midlothian, residents out-commuting to their place of work and in-commuters to Midlothian. Figure 14: Commuters by mode of transport, 2001.
100% 90% 80% 10% 70% 13% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Midlothian Out-commuters from Midlothian In-commuters Car/motorcycle 65% 57% 82% Bus/train Carpassenger/taxi 21% 1% 8% 2% 6% Foot/bicycle 10% 26%

Figure 14 shows that 57% of Midlothian residents travelling to work within Midlothian do so by car (as a driver) and only 13% by bus or train. Of all out-commuters, almost two-thirds drive to work and 26% use a bus or train. However public transport (bus and train) use is far lower for in-commuters (10%) and travel by car is higher (82%).

Midlothian migration and commuting patterns

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW
Table 7: Change in total and working-age population in Midlothian, 1998-2003. Midlothian 1998 2003 Change 1998-2003 Total population 80,100 79,700 -400 -0.5% Working-age population 50800 (63%) 50000 (63%) -800 -1.6%
Source: Mid-year estimates, General Register Office (GRO) Scotland

Table 8: Midlothian residents by place of birth, 2001. Place of birth % Scotland 89.9% England 6.6% Wales 0.3% Northern Ireland 0.5% Republic of Ireland 0.3% Other EU countries 0.7% Elsewhere 1.6%
Source: Census 2001

Table 9: Job density5, 2002. 2002 Midlothian East of Scotland Scotland
Source: Office of National Statistics (ONS)

0.57 0.86 0.82

Table 10: Claimant count rate, November 2004. Claimant count Midlothian 1.9% East of Scotland 2.3% Scotland 2.7%
Source: Claimant Register, Nomis

Table 11: Resident and workplace based gross weekly earnings, 2003. Residents Workplace based based Midlothian £348.3 £336.5 East of Scotland £374.0 £372.7 Scotland £367.2 £365.8
Source: Nomis: New Earnings Survey, 2004.

5

Ratio of filled jobs to working-age residents


				
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