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					Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Fall 2008

the

CORNUCOPIA
including AGFD abstracts for the 236th American Chemical Society National Meeting August 17-21, 2008 in

PHILADELPHIA
Deepthi K. Weerasinghe, Program Chair
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CELEBRATING 100 YEARS OF AGFD
CONTENTS Message from the Chair Cornucopia editorial staff and contact information Future AGFD programs and other programs Meeting minutes Roster of officers and committee members Latest installment in the continuing illustrated saga - Mussinan’s Memoirs Puzzle page Membership application - get the next Cornucopia delivered to your lab or home! Commemorative History of the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division Election of Division Councilors Award News AGFD technical program Abstracts for AGFD symposium papers Author/Paper index visit our website: http://membership.acs.org/a/agfd deadline for submission of content for Spring 2009 Cornucopia: January 15

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MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR
It is my pleasure to serve as Chair during the division’s centennial celebration year. Since December 1908, our Division has met the needs of a diverse world of scientists working in biotechnology, nutrition, fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, herbicides, fermentation, crops, flavor, and food technology. While our division excelled this year in conducting more than 11 symposia related to flavor, it also presented symposia addressing progress in other areas including human health. It is befitting that ACS is focusing more on health and disease prevention, both timely topics. I thank the previous division chairs, immediate past chair, executive committee members, subdivision committees, as well as councilors and alternate councilors, for their hard work and dedication and for providing timely and appropriate direction during my tenure as division chair. Last spring, in New Orleans, we had a successful program with 17 sessions. Thanks to all symposium organizers, it was indeed a great success, with a large audience in each session. While every organization strives towards success, realizing success comes only with planning ahead. Our division, even though already successful, conducted a worthwhile strategic planning workshop during the New Orleans meeting. Please join me in thanking both, DK Weerasinghe and Keith Cadwallader, who worked tirelessly, organizing the strategic planning workshop. You will start seeing the outcome of the workshop in the form of better communication from division leaders, including communication leader, Dr. Bob McGorrin. Better communication will definitely promote member involvement and will keep division activities relevant to the needs of members. In Philadelphia, our division excelled in arranging 14 symposia and 8 co-organized symposia. The division appreciates the efforts of the symposium chairs and organizers. Being a centennial year, we have planned several exciting special events in Philadelphia and I encourage you to attend these once-in-life-time division events, especially the Centennial Banquet which is scheduled for Tuesday at 6:00 p.m . Other special events include the Presidential Session, celebrating several Division Centennials, the AGFD 100th Anniversary Symposium on Sunday and Monday. Mike Tunick and Charles Brine worked hard to make sure 100th Anniversary Symposium will be enjoyable, educational and memorable. I strongly urge both long-time members and newcomers to the division to participate in divisional activities and consider leadership opportunities. Come to the Future Program s meeting on Monday at 12:15 p.m., and the Business meeting on Tuesday at noon, and get involved in division activities. Your input and feedback will help guide the division towards meeting your needs. During the conference, please stop by the AGFD hospitality table located just outside our technical session rooms. ACS Symposium Series books developed from past AGFD symposia will be on display and available for sale at the exposition. I look forward to working with you to make sure our Division goals are accomplished and w ish you a happy and enjoyable trip to Philadelphia, where we can join in the AGFD centennial celebration.

Bhimu Patil 2008 AGFD Chair bpatil@ag.tamu.edu

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Editor-in-Chief

CORNUCOPIA EDITORIAL STAFF & CONTACT INFORMATION
C. Frey, Pepsi-Cola R&D, 100 Stevens Avenue, Valhalla NY 10595 carl.frey@pepsi.com 914-742-4832 914-749-3329 (fax) P. White C. Kent, L. Lane, J. Olsen

General Manager Staff

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FUTURE PROGRAMS
submit abstracts via the On-line Abstract Submittal System (OASYS) - http://oasys.acs.org/oasys.htm

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH - March 22-26, 2009

Botanicals and Personal Care Products – Fereidoon Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Biochemistry fshahidi@mun.ca Discovery of Antifungal Agents for Crop Protection - Agnes M. Rimando, USDA-ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit; University, MS agnes.rimando@.ars.usda.gov Charles C. Cantrell, USDA-ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, University, MS clcantr1@olemiss.edu Food Proteins/Food-based Protein Chemistry – John Finley, Louisiana State University Agcenter jfinley@agcenter.lsu.edu Food-related Nanotechnology - James D. Oxley, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX james.oxley@swri.org Graduate Student Symposium - Charles J. Brine, CJ Brine & Associates, brinec11@verizon.net; Agnes M. Rimando, USDA-ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit; University, MS agnes.rimando@.ars.usda.gov General Papers and General Posters - Deepthi Weerasinghe, Pepsi-Cola Company, Ingredient Science and Technology dkweerasinghe@worldnet.att.net Process and Stress-induced Changes in Phytochemicals - Fereidoon Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Biochemistry fshahidi@mun.ca

WASHINGTON, D.C. - August 16-20,

2009 AGFD Division Award Symposium - Deepthi Weerasinghe, Pepsi-Cola Company, Ingredient Science and Technology dkweerasinghe@worldnet.att.net Bioactives: New Production Technologies - Agnes Rimando; USDA ARS, NPURU agnes.rimando@ars.usda.gov Cheryl Frankfater; USDA-ARS-SRRC Cheryl.Frankfater@ars.usda.gov Controlling Maillard Pathways to Generate Flavors - Donald S. Mottram, The University of Reading, School of Food Biosciences d.s.mottram@reading.ac.uk Andy J. Taylor, The University of Nottingham, andy.taylor@nottingham.ac.uk Food Texture – Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing and Products Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center michael.tunick@.ars.usda.gov Mary Anne Drake, Dept. of Food Science, North Carolina State Univ. mdrake@unity.ncsu.edu Fungal Genomics - Robert Proctor, USDA-ARS-NCAUR robert.proctor@ars.usda.gov Global Challenges in Food Analysis (Co-sponsored with ANYL) - Gregory Noonan, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US FDA Gregory.noonan@fda.hhs.gov Lowri de Jager, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US FDA lowri.dejager@fda.hhs.gov Globalization of Food - Marshall Philips, editor37@comcast.net Sara Risch sjrisch@sbcglobal.net

General Papers and General Posters - Michael Appell michael.appell@ars.usda.gov

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New Structures and Applications of Food Polymers - Qingrong Huang, Department of Food Science, Rutgers University qhuang@aesop.rutgers.edu Organic Foods - Ingolf Gruen, Dept. of Food Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia grueni@missouri.edu Alyson Mitchell, University of California, Davis aemitchell@ucdavis.edu James N. Seiber, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS jseiber@pw.usda Sterling Hendricks Memorial Lectureship - (co-sponsored w/AGRO) James N. Seiber, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS jseiber@pw.usda.gov Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing and Products Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center michael.tunick@ars.usda.gov Volatile Sulfur Compounds - Michael Qian, Department of Food Science & Technology, Oregon State University michael.qian@oregonstate.edu Xuetong Fan, USDA-ARS-ERRC, Food Safety Intervention Technologies Research Unit , xuetong.fan@ars.usda..gov

SAN FRANCISCO - March 21-25, 2010

Food Packaging - Sara Risch sjrisch@sbcglobal.net Graduate Student Symposium - Charles J. Brine, CJ Brine & Associates, brinec11@verizon.net Agnes M. Rimando, USDA-ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit; University, MS agnes.rimando@.ars.usda.gov. General Papers and General Posters - Michael Appell michael.appell@ars.usda.gov Reactive Carbonyl Species - Chi-Tang Ho; Rutgers University ho@aesop.rutgers.edu. Dr. Gow-Chin Yen; National Chung Hsiung University, Taiwan gcyen@nchu.edu.tw Dr. Mingfu Wang, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong mfwang@hkusua.hku.hk. Shengmin Sang, North Carolina Central University ssang@nccu.edu Wine and Food Matching - Michael Qian, Department of Food Science & Technology, Oregon State University michael.qian@oregonstate.

BOSTON - August 22-26,

2010 AGFD Division Award Symposium - Michael Appell michael.appell@ars.usda.gov Bioactives: Recent Developments - Agnes Rimando; USDA ARS NPURU agnes.rimando@ars.usda.gov Lucy Yu; University of Maryland, Department of Nutrition and Food Science lyu5@umd.edu General Papers and General Posters Flavormetrics and Metabolomics - Gary Reineccius, Department of Food Science and Nutrition University of Minnesota greinecc@umn.edu Chi-Tang Ho; Rutgers University ho@aesop.rutgers.edu Isolation and Characterization of Natural Products - Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M University b-patil@tamu.edu Sterling Hendricks Memorial Lectureship - (co-sponsored w/AGRO) James N. Seiber, Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS jseiber@pw.usda.gov Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing and Products Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Center michael.tunick@ars.usda.gov Synthesis of Natural Products: New Reagents and Reactions - Michael Appell; USDA-ARS-NCAUR michael.appell@ars.usda.gov Richard Petroski USDA-ARS-NCAUR richard.petroski@ars.usda.gov Tropical Fruits: Flavors, Color and Health Benefits - Bhimu Patil, Vegetable and Fruit Improvem ent Center, Texas A&M Univ., b-patil@tamu.edu Russell Rouseff, Kanjana Mahattanatawee, Coralia Osorio, Karl-Heinz Engel

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FUTURE PROGRAMS beyond fall 2010 -

(also see pages 7 & 8) Pacifichem 2010 - Honolulu, Hawaii, December 15-20, 2010 ACS - Anaheim spring 2011 & Denver fall 2011 Authentication and Adulteration of Food - Fereidoon Shahidi Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Biochemistry fshahidi@mun.ca Discovering Active Compounds - John Finley, Louisiana State University Agcenter jfinley@agcenter.lsu.edu Flavor Chemistry of Beer and Hops - Michael Qian, Dept of Food Science & Technology, Oregon State University michael.qian@oregonstate.edu Thomas Shellhammer, Dept of Food Science & Technology, Oregon State University Flavor Chemistry of Non-Meat Thermally Generated Brown Flavors - Mathias Sucan, Pepsi-Cola Company, Flavor Innovation and Technology, Valhalla, NY 914-742-4994 Flavor Stability: Chemical Changes in Flavor Molecules, Flavor-Food Matrix Interactions, Flavor Encapsulation - Mathias Sucan, Pepsi-Cola Co., Flavor Innovation and Technology, Valhalla, NY 914-742-4994 Natural Products for Health and Pharmaceuticals and Biotech - John Finley, Louisiana State University Agcenter jfinley@agcenter.lsu.edu Nano-Biotechnology in Foods and Nutraceuticals - Fereidoon Shahidi Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Biochemistry fshahidi@mun.ca
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AGFD Executive Committee MEETING MINUTES
Sunday, April 6, 2008 Marriott Convention Center, New Orleans, LA Takes place at each ACS National Meeting Attendees: Michael Appell, Keith Cadwallader, Victoria Finkenstadt, John Finley, Robert Hauserman, Lauren Jackson, Guddadarang K. Jayaprakasha, Jane Leland, Robert McGorrin, Alyson Mitchell, Michael Morello, Kotamballi N.C. Murthy, Cynthia Mussinan, Bhimanagouda Patil, Michael Qian, Agnes Rimando, Navinda Seeram, James Seiber, David Sherman, Michael Tunick, Deepthi Weerasinghe AGFD Chair Bhimu Patil called the meeting to order at 5:00 p.m. The minutes of the previous meeting were approved with no changes. Cynthia Mussinan distributed the Finance report, which stated that the total assets for AGFD are $453,700. The investments lost $30,500 last year. The Flavor Conference in Greece was cancelled. The Flavor Workshop in Boston had 40 attendees, which should net the division over $10,000, but ACS has not reimbursed us yet. The Strategic Planning Session in New Orleans will cost $16,000. The social events for the year will be budgeted at $20,000 because of the 100th Anniv. Banquet in Philadelphia. The cost of the Boston meeting was $17,700, which was larger than usual. Program Chair Bhimu Patil reported that the New Orleans meeting has six symposia with 19 sessions. The program for Philadelphia has 11 symposia and 32 sessions. The ACS President will have a 100th Anniversary Session for AGFD, I&EC, ORGN, and PHYS on Monday morning of that meeting. The chair and one speaker from each of the four divisions will make presentations. AGFD is to suggest two speakers, and possible nominees were discussed. A $24,000 spending cap for that meeting was approved. Mike Morello, Cynthia Mussinan, Agnes Rimando, and John Finley will comprise a Finance Committee to determine how money should be spent for symposia. Bob Hauserman of ACS Books reported that online proposals, chapter submissions, reviews, etc., for books will begin later this year. E-mail alerts to book editors concerning arrival of manuscripts will begin. Symposium Series Books will be digitized and sold institutionally, with free access to subscribers. More than 1200 books are on the backlist and will become available in this manner, with current books being moved to the backlist a year after

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publication. Some of the revenue from this will go to the divisions. An annual gift of $1000 from ACS Books to AGFD has begun. Mike Tunick, who is co-organizing the 100th Anniversary Awards Banquet at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, reported that the Foundation needs the names of attendees in advance. The tickets for this event will cost $50 each, but free tickets will be provided to awardees. The dinner will cost around $120 per person, so Keith Cadwallader and Mike Tunick will draft a letter for soliciting sponsors. Deepthi Weerasinghe will look into providing a memento for the division centennial to each AGFD member who attends the Fall Meeting. A special Cornucopia issue with a color cover and a history of AGFD may be prepared. Jim Seiber said that the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) will support the 100th anniversary and will place a notice about it in the journal. JAFC will publish the papers resulting from the anniversary symposium. The journal’s editors had a small Strategic Planning meeting where hot areas were defined. There are 4000 manuscripts arriving each year, and reviews, perspective papers, and symposium papers are being solicited. JAFC is trying to move more content “up front.” ACS is now placing Power Point presentations of posters on the web for meeting attendees, and John Finley suggested placing Power Points of symposium presentations on the web also. Bhimu Patil, reporting for Steve Nagy, announced that the AGFD Award for Advancement of Application of Agricultural and Food Chemistry will be presented to Donald Mottram and that James Kennedy won the Young Scientist Award. Chi-Tang Ho’s committee selected Imelda Ryona as the Teranishi Fellowship winner. The Executive Committee chose Fereidoon Shahidi as the AGFD Distinguished Service Award winner. Mike Morello reported on the Multidisciplinary Program Planning Group (MPPG), which he will chair in 2009. Marshall Phillips is our representative to MPPG. The New Orleans meeting theme is Energy and the Environment, and the Philadelphia theme, under which AGFD has five symposia, will be Chemistry for Health. Each thematic program symposium receives $1000 from ACS. For the 2009 meetings, the themes will be Nanotechnology (Salt Lake City) and Globalization of Chemistry (Washington). All divisions will vote on the tentative topics for the 2010 meetings, Green Chemistry for a Sustainable World (San Francisco) and Chemistry for Fighting/Prevention of Disease (Boston). Jane Leland noted it is difficult to get funding for thematic symposia; she has 30 speakers for her symposium in Philadelphia, many of them foreign, but no funds yet. There may be some relief from the even programming requirement to avoid conflicts between thematic and non-thematic symposia. Deepthi Weerasinghe reported on the AGFD Strategic Planning Session held during the previous two days. Bob McGorrin, Mike Morello, and Sara Risch will be in charge of the three goals that were decided upon, which are: develop focused and timely programs, products and services that engage those involved in agriculture, food chemistry, and related fields; enhance communication and market our programs, products, and services more effectively; and expand global impact by developing the infrastructure to deliver technical programming for targeted international audiences. Bob McGorrin, Alyson Mitchell, and Mike Tunick have formed a new Communications Committee for the second goal. It was felt that once the second goal is achieved the other two will follow. A budget of $5000 for designing and launching a new website was approved. Mike Tunick reported for Lucy Yu - AGFD membership is 2691. Twenty-four people will get 25-year pins. Immediate Past Chair Agnes Rimando gave the Nominations for the 2008 slate of officers. Alyson Mitchell was nominated for Vice-Chair, Cynthia Mussinan for Treasurer, Mike Tunick for Secretary, John Finley and Mike Morello for Councilor, and Keith Cadwallader for Alternate Councilor. The slate will be voted upon at the Business Meeting in August. In New Business, Mike Tunick suggested that ACS Books be designated as the sponsor for the WithycombeCharalambous Graduate Student Symposium. Their $1000 annual gift would cover the prize money. Each of the six participants will receive an ACS Symposium Series Book from the Hospitality Table display. This idea was approved. The meeting was adjourned at 7:10 p.m. (Submitted by Michael Tunick, AGFD Secretary)

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12TH International Flavor Conference

May 25-29, 2009

Γε ι α′ σ α ς ! Join the 12th International Flavor Conference/4th George Charalambous Memorial Symposium,

sponsored by AGFD/ACS. The conference will take place on the beautiful island of Skiathos, off the eastern shore of mainland Greece. Skiathos has mountainous terrain and lies amid the blue Aegean. Access is by ferry or plane. The venue is the Skiathos Palace Hotel, located on a small hill overlooking Koukounaries Bay and Maratha Beach. With splendid views, the Skiathos Palace Hotel offers your entire family a wid e variety of resort facilities including swimming, tennis, table tennis, a children’s playground, and excursions. A nearby scuba diving center has courses and equipment for hire for all levels of diving. Participants can book conference lodging at the hotel at half-board. Leaders in the field of flavor and food chemistry will present their recent research activities. As in the last three such conferences, this one serves as a memorial to George Charalambous, the driving force of the first nine symposia. While the International Flavor Conference stresses oral and poster presentations on flavors, topics can also include food chemistry (analytical methods, packaging, storage, etc.) and production (safety, patents). Previous proceedings have also addressed positive flavor notes and how to enhance them in foods, and undesirable flavors and proposals to eliminate or reduce them. Since packaging controls sensory attribute appearance and microbiological safety, presentations can also describe the chemistry of foods and food packaging in detail. Information gained by researchers in food chemistry have found numerous practical applications for improving foods, and symposia such as this have the goal of transferring basic knowledge to finished products. Make plans to join us in Greece in 2009! OPA! Look for registration and abstract submission info on the official web site, www.emich.edu/flavor, through the ACS site for conferences or contact the organizing committee: Cynthia Mussinan cynthia.mussinan@iff.com Chi-Tang Ho ho@aesop.rutgers.edu +732.335.2401 +732.932.9611 x235 +709.737.8552 +734.487.0281

Fereidoon Shahidi fshahidi@morgan.ucs.mun.ca Ellene Tratras econtis@emich.edu

AGFD’s 100th Anniversary Banquet
Tuesday, August 19, 2008
6:00 - 9:30 p.m. Chemical Heritage Foundation 315 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA (about a mile from the Convention Center) Join the Division’s centennial celebration. The Foundation’s exhibit hall and displays are open during the social hour. Get your ticket ($50) at the AGFD Hospitality table (near the Tech Sessions). Free admission to AGFD members that attended the 50th anniversary banquet. If you plan to attend, you can e-mail your choice of entrée (short ribs, chicken, or eggplant) to Michael.Tunick@ars.usda.gov AGFD’s 75th anniversary emblem

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42nd American Chemical Society Western Regional Meeting - September 24-27, 2008
The Changing Face of Chemistry in the 21st Century - Riviera Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada
Hosted by the Southern Nevada Local Section and the Two Year College Chemistry Consortium (2YC3) http://membership.acs.org/w/WRM2008

During the past 200 years chemists have contributed to changes that have created today's multifaceted world. How are chemists and chemistry adapting to a complex, ever-changing interdisciplinary future? Come to WRM 2008 and learn. Symposia Macromolecular Architectures Advances in Chemometrics Nuclear Fuel Cycle Chemistry Agriculture & Food Chemistry, Agro Polymer Chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry Radionuclides, Speciation, Fate, Transport Biosensors and Electrochemistry Small Chemical Businesses Careers in Chemistry for the 21st Century Strategies for Combating Cancer Chemical Education, K-20 Water Treatment Technologies: Energy, Conventional - Personal Care Products Energy, Renewable - Endocrine Disruptors Forensics, Chemical - Perchlorates Public Health Forensics, Nuclear, Homeland Security. - Water Resources Green Chemistry and Engineering - Macromolecule-water Interactions Preparation & Analysis of Nanoparticles by: SEM, TEM, STM, or Other Methods, Quantitation, Toxicity

Special Symposia : Cope Scholar Symposium, Organic Chemistry and Industrial Innovations Awards Symposia
Special Events Awards Luncheon 2YC3 Banquet Cope Award Banquet Education Awards Luncheon Women's Chemistry Committee Luncheon

Two Year College Chemist Consortium (2YC3) examines the role of the two-year college in changing the face of chemistry in the coming years. This 2YC3 Program will examine the challenges and benefits of introducing research into the 2-year college curriculum. Exhibit space is available for companies and organizations to present their products and services. The exposition will open on Wednesday evening and continue into Friday afternoon. A Wednesday evening reception and poster session in the exposition hall will initiate events. A second poster session will be held Thursday evening in the exposition hall. The exhibitors are encouraged to apply early for space in the 12,000 sq. ft. Exhibit Hall located across the hall from the meeting rooms in the Riviera Convention Center. Organizing Committee Awards: Marcos Cheney marcos.cheney@unlv.edu Arrangements: Onofrio Gaglione OGGAG@aol.com Program: Vernon Hodge hodgev@unlv.nevada.edu Treasurer: Shirley Emerson semer@unlv.nevada.edu General: David Emerson emerson@unlv.nevada.edu and Jeanette Van Emon VanEmonJeanette@epamail.epa.gov Education: MaryKay Orgill marykay.orgill@unlv.edu and Kent Crippen kcrippen@unlv.nevada.edu Exhibits: John Gerlach Cheloniaig@aol.com and James Cizdziel cizdziei@unlv.nevada.edu

Session Break
If you are reading this you are obviously not concentrating on the AGFD technical sessions - so why not take a break? How about something that’s more than a little odd? Visit the Mutter Museum for a view of the world of pathology and historical medical instruments that you will not soon forget. You can find the Mutter Museum at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 19 South 22nd Street. Open every day 105. Best to go before a meal rather than after. For more info call 215-563-3737

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2008 AGFD OFFICERS & COMMITTEE MEMBERS
Chair - Serves 1 year. Presides over Division meetings, appoints committees and chairs Spring Meeting Program. Bhimu Patil Texas A&M University 1500 Research Pkwy, A120 College Station TX 77845 979-458-8090 b-patil@tamu.edu Chair-Elect - Serves 1 year. Substitutes for the chair as needed and chairs Spring Meeting Program. Deepthi Weerasinghe Pepsi-Cola R&D Ingredient Science and Technology 100 E. Stevens Ave. Valhalla NY 10595 914-742-4917 dkweerasinghe@ att.net Vice Chair - Serves 1 year. Assists Chairelect in developing future technical programs. Michael Appell, USDA-ARS National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research 1815 N. University St. Peoria, IL 61604 309-681-6249, Michael.Appell@ars.usda.gov Secretary - Responsible for Division correspondence and meeting minutes. Michael Tunick USDA-ARS Eastern Regional Research Center 600 E. Mermaid La. Wyndmoor PA 19038 215-233-6454 Michael.Tunick@ars.usda.gov Treasurer - Responsible for Division finances. Cynthia Mussinan International Flavors & Fragrances R&D 1515 Hwy. 36 Union Beach NJ 07735 732-335-2401 cynthia.mussinan@iff.com Cornucopia Editor - Edits newsletter. Carl Frey Pepsi-Cola R&D, 100 E. Stevens Avenue, Valhalla NY 10595 914-742-4832 carl.frey@pepsi.com Councilors - Represent Division for 3 years on ACS council. John Finley (thru ‘08), jfinley@agcenter.lsu.edu Michael Morello (thru ‘08), Mike_Morello@quakeroats.com Marshall Phillips (thru ‘09), editor37@comcast.net Sara Risch (thru ‘10), sjrisch@sbcglobal.net Alternate Councilors - Substitute for Councilors that can not attend Council meetings. Serve 3 years. Charles Brine (thru ‘09), ccbrine74@aol.com Chi-Tang Ho (thru ‘10), ho@aesop.rutgers.edu Alyson Mitchell (thru ’08), aemitchell@ucdavis.edu Russ Rouseff (thru ‘10), rlr@crec.ifas.ufl.edu At-Large Executive Committee Members - Assist in management of Division. Serve 3 years. Terry Acree (thru ‘10), tea2@cornell.edu Kathryn Deibler (thru ‘08), kdd3@cornell.edu Robert McGorrin (thru ‘08), robert.mcgorrin@oregonstate.edu Harold Pattee (thru ‘10), Harold_Pattee@ncsu.edu Awards Committee - Solicits nominations and oversees awards process. Chair - Steve Nagy agscience@juno.com Student Awards - Chi-Tang Ho ho@aesop.rutgers.edu Fellow Awards - Fereidoon Shahidi fshahidi@mun.ca Awards Canvassing - Lauren Jackson lsj@cfsan.fda.gov Finance - Monitors the Division’s finances for 1 year. Filled by Immediate Past Chair Agnes Rimando arimando@msa-oxford.ars.usda.gov Hospitality - Organizes Spring Reception and Spring Banquet. Charles Brine - ccbrine74@aol.com Membership - Responsible for recruitment and retention of Division members. Lucy Yu - lyu5@umd.edu Nominations - Develops slate of officers. Serves 1 year. Filled by Immediate Past Chair. Agnes Rimando arimando@msa-oxford.ars.usda.gov Publications- Explores options for publication of Division proceedings. Charles Brine, ccbrine74@aol.com Robert McGorrin, robert.mcgorrin@oregonstate.edu Michael Morello, Mike_Morello@quakeroats.com Marshall Phillips, editor37@comcast.net Public Relations - Publicizes Division. Charles Brine - ccbrine74@aol.com Web Master - Lord of the web site. Terry Acree - tea2@cornell.edu Flavor subdivision - Develops symposia. Chair - Sree Raghavan sree.raghavan@conagrafoods.com Chair-Elect - Kanjana Manhattanatawee kanjana@siam.edu Vice-Chair, Mathias Sucan, mksucan@aol.com Secretary - K.N.C Murthy, kncmurthy@neo.tamu.edu Functional Foods & Natural Products subdivision - Develops symposia. Chair- Alyson Mitchell, aemitchell@ucdavis.edu Chair-Elect - David Schmidt, schmidt@ific.org Vice-Chair - Richard Petroski, petrosrj@ncaur.usda.gov Secretary, G. K. Jayaprakasha, gkjp@tamu.edu

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MUSSINAN’S MEMOIRS
Tunicks Take to the Swamp! Quite a title, eh? I’ll explain in a minute. First, a few things to get out of the way. Here is Miss Mae! This run was the “Dropoff” at Big Mountain, not Bourbon Street, but, what the heck? After this, not because of it (or the black diamond she skied), one of her front teeth fell out. Upon returning home to NJ, her comrade in equestrian adventures (Zorro the pony), managed to connect with the other tooth to make it picture perfect. That was just too cute not to put in; hence there are two pictures. Mae skiing Mae – no teeth

Our illustrious chair-elect, DK Weerasinghe (pronounced We’re a singa) is now at Pepsi with Peg Havekotte, so that’s out of the way! Sixteen Division members attended a strategic planning session before the meeting. The result of that can be boiled down to three goals which can ultimately be consolidated into one word - communicate! Look for big improvements in our communication – email, website, etc. OK, now back to the title and what it means. Of course there has to be a story - - and there is! In our free afternoon, Gail Tunick decided that alligator wrestling would be excellent training for her new career as AGFD’s banquet bouncer. That’s right; nobody’s gonna sneak past Gail. So, we headed to the swamp to find a gator. Picture this - three Tunicks, Jane Leland, Alyson Mitchell, and yours truly on an airboat. There were several tense moments on this trip. The first came when Susan Tunick almost jumped overboard because there was an ant on the boat!! After that, we did actually bump into an 8 foot alligator, but Gail decided that wrestling such a small beast would not adequately prepare her to bounce banquet crashers, so she didn’t bother. She will just wing it in Philly. What do you do in New Orleans if you don’t want to go mud wrestling? EAT!! They have good food here, especially if you like oysters. In fact, I amazed myself by being in this town for three whole days before going to Felix’s for a dozen oysters. Yum! They were great. Marshall Phillips had probably been there 5 or 6 times by then. Of course he forgot to tell me that the rest of their food is awful. My seafood gumbo was reminiscent of the “riverside noodles” that I had in Cambodia, but that’s another story (if you’re interested, email me and I’ll send you the Cambodian Chronicle which details our trip to pick up Mae.) Not everyone thought that the food was wonderful. Newly nominated Division vice chair, Alyson Mitchell pronounced her catfish inedible (Mike Appell ate it), and she had absolutely no use for the soggy string beans (I would call them cooked), but that’s what makes the world go round. See you all in Philly, and look for Gail the Bouncer at the Division’s gala 100 th anniversary dinner.

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THE BIG CHEESESTEAK !
8 9 10

A prize to the first to fax
21 1 26 34 1 35 27 22

a correct sol ution to: Carl Frey at Pepsi -Cola R&D
31

914-749-3329
1 35 45 bbb 53 45 54 1 64 1 76 65 70 1 1 77 49 1 61 55 36 41 41 nn 56 1 kk 57

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Congratulations to the
1

winner of the coveted
71

Spring 2008 prize Bruce Baldi
81

of Valent Biosciences ACROSS 1 Hey, that hurts ! 3 check or bill 7 gasp for air 11 lubricant: -- 40 13 PA border state 14 wine list section 15 palindromic music group 16 city commuter option 17 vinylidene chloride 19 -- shucks ! 21 Steven King book/movie 23 lizard labeled beverages 25 proofs 27 pocket bread 28 chest muscles (abbrev.) 29 sole 31 boat or flower part 32 large Wyoming resident 33 Cain kin 34 -- Fields(Philly born comic) 36 play about author Capote 37 desire 39 # of $ in a grand 41 psychic power 42 46 48 49 50 51 52 55 58 60 61 62 63 64 66 68 70 72 73 75 77 78 79 Philly’s favorite son driver support group couple in the tabloids Homer Simpson remark Belushi/Ackroyd venue J. Depp film: -- Wood a bad place (with ‘the’) approves brothers & sisters cash register slot Stony Brook & Buffalo Univ. parent The Time Machine race transgression a refreshing beverage a B vitamin short for number sailing hazards neighbor of KY and NC stitch together cry in despair Yosemite attraction: -- Capitan photocell element wise about 80 dinner table mineral 81 mediocre, when repeated DOWN 1 medicates to excess 2 conniver 3 whiners 4 sharpen 5 exists 6 infusion 7 loud speaker 8 the easy part 9 hoops org. 10 boat covers 11 poets and novelists 12 imagine 18 Philly’s ‘Italian Stallion’ 20 Philadelphia City Hall topper 22 Philadelphia park: ----------- Square 24 shed tears 26 rare earth metal, at. no. 66 28 HS gym class 30 ad sign gas 33 34 35 38 40 43 44 45 46 47 53 54 56 57 59 60 61 63 65 67 69 71 74 76 ‘Tomorrow’ singer Asian cookware wintertime maladies RIT degree option performing Teleflora competitor at note to follow ‘do’ metric system base agrees azobenzene election winner’s position recipe vol. measurement stabs clothing retailer Syms many a Law&Order baddie its oxide is a white pigment hex or episode bad mood Olympic skater Heiden traveler’s rest stop possess film effect: --- mo face/face linker battery option

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AGFD DIVISION MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION
The Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the technical advancement of all aspects of agricultural and food chemistry. The Division encourages AGFD technical advancement by - organizing AGFD symposia at ACS National Meetings and other venues - providing workshops in AGFD topics - publishing proceedings of AGFD symposia - providing cash awards to leading grad students, post docs, and established AGFD scientists - publishing the Cornucopia newsletter - hosting social gatherings at national meetings Come join the over 2700 members of the AGFD division. At ACS National Meetings you can meet and discuss division activities at the AGFD hospitality table located near the AGFD technical session rooms. Use the membership application form (below) or join on-line at www.acs.org (click on Technical Divisions and then select Join a Division). APPLICATION FOR AGFD DIVISION MEMBERSHIP (7623P)

title name st 1 address line 2nd address line city state Zip code country e-mail address phone
check one
($2.50 is added for international addresses to cover Cornucopia extra mailing costs)

MEMBERSHIP FEE

[ ] [ ] [ ]

I am an ACS member and wish to join AGFD ($8.00 in US, $10:50 international) I am not an ACS member and wish to join AGFD ($10.00 US, $12.50 international) I am a full time student and wish to join AGFD ($5.00 US, $7.50 international) Return application, with payment, to AGFD Membership Chair: Dr. Lucy Yu University of Maryland Department of Nutrition & Food Science, 3303 Marie Mount Hall College Park MD 20742

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Commemorative History of the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division

(based on a J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 3-6 article written by Harold E. Pattee - with edits and updates by Carl Frey) FOUNDING AND HISTORIES The Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division has a proud history of fostering scientific research from its founding on December 30, 1908, as one of the five original divisions organized by the American Chemical Society, until the present time. The Division’s earliest published history, located to date, was written in 1959 by the 1950 Division Chair L. E. Clifcorn (1). This article contains pictures of most of the Division Chairs through 1960 (2). A list of all Division Chairs is given in Table 1. The next published history of the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division is found in Chapter 10 of the Century of Chemistry (3). Although an author of this chapter is not designated, the list of contributors indicates that Richard J. Magee was the author. The next division history is a 1983 75th Anniversary Commemorative article by John P. Zikakis: “Agricultural and Food Chemistry: Accomplishments and Perspectives” (4). Next, a divisional history was published in the 1988 Directory of Members and Divisional History, Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ACS, edited by Mir N. Islam. Most recently, Robert J. McGorrin, as part of a Division Membership Directory that was widely circulated but not officially published, wrote a divisional history in 1998. Each of these resources is acknowledged, especially the 1998 history, and has been used by author Pattee in compiling this commemorative history. DEVELOPMENT, BREADTH, AND PUBLICATION AWARDS The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry has a breadth of interests and disciplines that covers the wide spectrum of biotechnology, nutrition, fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, herbicides, fermentation, crops, flavor, and food technology. To cover this diversity of interests, the Division has actively engaged the sponsorship of symposia, international conferences, and a wide range of books. Many of the over 300 symposia programmed by the Division have been cosponsored by other divisions in the Society. Eleven International Flavor Conferences have been sponsored by the Division, starting in 1978 with a conference in Athens, Greece, under the leadership of George Charalambous. A 12th conference in the series is planned for 2009. These symposia and international conferences have resulted in over 135 published books. To recognize the major effort put forth by the editors of these books, the Division instituted two publication awards in 1994. The 700 Club Award recognizes those editors whose books have sold over 700 copies, whereas the Platinum Club Award recognizes editors whose books have sold more than 1000 copies. SUBDIVISIONS Over the years the breadth of the Division has resulted in the formation of many subdivisions. These subdivisions played an important part in our diversified activities. Our spirited paternal enthusiasm provided offspring subdivisions the freedom to grow and prosper so that upon maturity they could become independent divisions. One of the earliest was the Fermentation Subdivision formed in 1946 and chaired by C. S. Boruff. In 1961, it was given an independent status and became the Division of Microbial Chemistry and Technology. The Pesticide Subdivision was formed in 1950 with J.S. St. John as its first Chair. In 1968 this subdivision became the Division of Pesticide Chemistry, now called the Agrochemical Division. Thus, we can take great pride that the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry fostered the formation and development of two new great Divisions in the American Chemical Society. Even though there was some loss of Division membership with the separation of each subdivision, the loss was soon made up by the continued healthy growth of the parent Division. Today our membership is over 2600 and still growing. Subdivisions were formed and their focus has shifted in response to emerging research areas within agricultural and food chemistry. The Flavor Subdivision was founded in 1965 with Irwin Hornstein as Chair. Through the years this subdivision has held many flavor workshops and done much to support the Division financially. The Food and Nutritional Biochemistry Subdivision [which represented a merger of the Food Biochemistry Subdivision (formerly the Protein Subdivision created in 1970 with George Inglett, Chair) and the Nutritional Chemistry Subdivision (established in 1977 with Lawrence Rosner, Chair)] was founded in 1983 with John Milner, Chair. The Agricultural and Natural Products Chemistry Subdivision (formerly the Agrochemicals Subdivision) was founded in 1982 with Robert Ory, Chair. In 1987 the Food Safety Subdivision was established with William Moats, Chair. The latter three subdivisions were merged into the Functional Foods and Natural Products Subdivision in 2001. The Division has traditionally supported symposia related to food safety. In response to growing awareness of food safety from the public, industry, and academic community, a Food Safety Subdivision was formed at the New Orleans meeting in 1987. Forefront symposia such as “Food Safety: Chemistry and Public Policy” presented at the Washington, DC, meeting in 1992; “Natural Toxins” and “Fumonisins in Foods”, both presented at the 1995 meeting in Anaheim

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and “Chemistry and Biology of Food Allergens” at the 1998 meeting in Boston represented the goal of the subdivision to sponsor state-of the-art symposia on the chemical aspects of food safety. The Agricultural and Natural Products Chemistry Subdivision founded in 1982 and the Food and Nutritional Biochemistry Subdivision founded in 1983 presented symposia at the forefront of emerging issues. Over the years some sub-divisions have consolidated so that currently there are 2 subdivisions - the Flavor subdivision and the Functional Foods & Natural Products subdivision. AWARDS Each year the Division presents several awards. Premier among these awards is the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Divisional Award. This award was established in 1971 and has been continuously sponsored by International Flavors and Fragrances, Inc. It was established to recognize and encourage outstanding contributions to pure and/or applied agricultural and food chemistry. The first recipient was Dr. A. L. Elder, who accepted the award at the 166th meeting of the Society in Chicago, August 1973. For the first time in 1981, the award was given to a distinguished international scientist, Dr. Hisateru Mitsuda from Japan. The Division has always endeavored to support the education of those interested in agricultural and food chemistry. To encourage this in 1986 the Division established the Award for Excellence in Graduate Research. Six finalists are invited to attend the spring Society meeting and present a paper on their research. The winner is selected from these finalists. The first recipient was Charles Belunis. In 1989, the Division established the Donald A. Withycombe Fellowship. In 1998, a second fellowship was established, the George Charalambous Fellowship. The first Withycombe Fellowship was presented to Sharon X. Chen. The first Charalambous Fellowship was presented to Bradley J. Swenson. The Withycombe and Charalambous awards are currently combined into one award, sponsored by ACS Books. In 2001 a third fellowship, was established, the Roy Teranishi Fellowship. Roy passed away in December 2000. Each fellowship recognizes a beginning graduate student and is currently sponsored by AGFD. The Young Scientist Award, established in 1992 and originally sponsored by Kraft Foods, Inc., recognizes the contributions of young scientists to agricultural and food chemistry. The award recipient attends the ACS Fall National Meeting and presents a paper on his/her work to the Division. The first recipient was Dr. Shelly Schmidt. The 1987 meeting in New Orleans saw the first Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Fellow Award. This award is presented to members of the Division who have made outstanding scientific contributions to the field of agricultural and food chemistry. The award consists of an engraved plaque presented at the annual divisional award dinner. To date, over 37 individuals have received this award. To recognize distinguished service to the division, the Distinguished Service Award was established in 1984. This award recognizes substantial and sustained service to the Division over a period of at least 10 years. This award consists of an engraved plaque presented at the annual divisional award dinner. To date, over 33 individuals have received this award. THE JOURNAL OF AGRICULTICAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry has predominantly served our members and members of the Agrochemicals Division. At the beginning of our commemorative span, Philip K. Bates served as editor. In 1982, Irvin E. Liener became editor and served until 1999. In 1999 James N. Seiber became and continues as editor. The number of associate editors has increased to the current 8. Several members of our Division serve on the Editorial Advisory Board. The size of the Advisory Board has gradually increased to 43. Growth in the journal over the past 30 years is shown by the increase in pages published, from 1452 in 1977, to over 11,100 pages in 2007. In 2006 the Journal achieved an ISI Impact Factor of 2.322 and was the journal with the most multidisciplinary Agriculture and Food Science/Technology citations (37,636). PIONEERING HORIZONS With the many activities of the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division receiving public attention and interfacing with the new media, it was felt necessary to pioneer setting up a public relations group to improve the image of the Division. Harry Prebluda served as the first Chair of Public Relations from 1973 to 1980. It was at that time that our Division was first represented on CHEMTECH’s Advisory Panel, and representation from the division continued until the journal was discontinued in 2001. The interest in a published directory was an outgrowth of the dynamic membership activity to coordinate efforts to have the entire division participate and help out in the affairs of the society. John Zikakis succeeded Harry Prebluda and was responsible for publishing the first edition of the membership directory. The second edition, edited by Mir Islam, was published in 1988. In the early 1980s the American Chemical Society watched the arrival of Biotechnology as a multidisciplinary science. The “art” of biotechnology has its roots in early civilization with the manipulation of the growth and bioprocessing of microorganisms for the enhancement of food products, that is, cheese and beer. In the late1970s a new dimension was added to this manipulation process, the successful transfer of a DNA sequence from one organism into the genome of another organism by sophisticated genetic engineering techniques. This set the stage for a future

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genomic revolution. Our Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division leadership realized that new and evolutionary food and agriculture products would eventually result from biotechnology. To some this was simply biology at its finest, but the ACS leadership recognized that molecular biology was based on a core discipline of chemistry. ACS moved to capture part of this new scientific wave and to try to make sure that the focus of the Society was global enough to gain and retain members in this rapidly expanding arena. With the support of our Division, Marshall Phillips led the formation of the Biotechnology Secretariat serving as 1985-1988Chair of the Secretariat. In 1986 at Anaheim, under his programming, a four-day symposium brought together 15 ACS Divisions with the topic “The Impact of Chemistry on Biotechnology”. Since this beginning the Biotechnology Secretariat and the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry have cosponsored symposia at least once each year. AN OUTSTANDING DIVISION Our division has maintained the superior performance standards set up by our predecessors. The National ACS Subcommittee on Divisions acclaimed our division as best by far in enthusiasm, mission orientation, and imagination. The Division publishes a newsletter, The Cornucopia, twice yearly and distributes it to all members. In 1995, The Cornucopia was cited as an outstanding activity of our Division. In 1986, 1991, and 1995, the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division received Outstanding Division Awards from the ACS “in recognition of outstanding services to each member and for meritorious contributions to the chemical profession and public understanding of the fundamental importance of chemistry to mankind”. Table 1.
1909-1910 W.D. Bigelow 1911 C.D.Woods 1912 H.E.Barnard 1913 H.E.Barnard 1914 H.E.Barnard 1915 F.W. Robinson 1916 F.W. Robinson 1917 L.M. Tolman 1918 T.J. Bryan 1919 T.J. Bryan 1920 W.D. Richardson 1921 C.E.Coates 1922 C.E.Coates 1923 T.J. Bryan 1924 H.A. Noyes 1925 C.H. Bailey 1926 C.H. Bailey 1927 E.F. Kohman 1928 E.F. Kohman 1929 F.C. Blanck 1930 F.C. Blanck 1931 R.C. Roark 1932 J.S. McHargue 1933 H.A. Schuette 1934 H.A. Schuette

Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Chairs 1909 - 2009
1935 D.K. Tressler 1936 D.K. Tressler 1937 D.K. Tressler 1938 H.R. Kraybill 1939 H.R. Kraybill 1940 R.C. Newton 1941 C.N. Frey 1942 G.A. Fitzgerald 1943 E.H. Harvey 1944 E.H. Harvey 1945 N.B. Guerrant 1946 N.B. Guerrant 1947 N.B. Guerrant 1948 B.L. Oser 1949 P. Logue 1950 C.R.Fellers 1951 L. E. Clifcorn 1952 B.E. Proctor 1953 A.F. Langlykke 1954 A.N. Prater 1955 W.O. Lundberg 1956 A.L. Elder 1957 D.M. Doty 1958 H.L.J. Haller 1959 F.M. Strong 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 L.W. Hazelton L.S. Stoloff J.S. Sylvester H.E. Robinson J.W. Van Valkenburg J.F. Mahoney L. Lykken F.L. Kauffman D. MacDougall K. Morgareidge I. Hornstein E.L. Wick S.J. Kazeniac G.E. Inglett G.E. Inglett R.J. Magee R. Teranishi M.E. Mason R.E. Feeney G. Charalambous R.L. Ory I.E. Liener A. Pour-El S. Nagy J.R. Whitaker 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 I. Katz J.P. Cherry J.P. Zikakis J. Finley M. Phillips T. Acree C.J. Brine G. Fuller R.A. Scanlan R.J. McGorrin D.J. Armstrong C-T. Ho S.J. Risch H.E. Pattee R. Rouseff M.J. Morello M. Tunick F. Shahidi C.R. Frey W. Yokoyama K. Cadwallader J. Leland A. Rimando B. Patil D.K. Weerasinghe

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Author Pattee thanks the members of the 2002 Agricultural and Food Chemistry Executive Board, Michael Tunick, Michael Morello, Fereidoon Shahidi, Wallace Yokoyama, and Cynthia Mussinan, and many other members of the Division, for suggestions and other input during the preparation of the manuscript. LITERATURE CITED (1) Clifcorn, L. E. The ACS Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1959, 7, 544-546. (2) Anonymous. Ag and Food Division Chairmen. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1959, 7, 870-871. (3) Anonymous. ACS Divisions and Their Disciplines. In A Century of Chemistry: The Role of Chemists and the American Chemical Society; Skolnik,H., Reese, K.M., Eds.; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1976; Chap 10, p 236-242. (4) Zikakis, JP Agricultural & Food Chemistry: Accomplishments & Perspectives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1983, 31, 672-675.

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ELECTION OF DIVISION COUNCILORS
If you are a full member of AGFD, please vote by marking the ballot below, signing in the space provided, and printing your name legibly beneath the signature. Fold the page on the dotted lines so that the ballot is on the inside and the mailing address on the outside. Tape or a staple the open edges, affix postage and mail. Ballots must be received by November 1, 2008. After your membership is verified, the portion of the form with your signature and name will be removed prior to opening and counting the ballots. Thank you for exercising your democratic franchise.
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----------------------------------------- fold up -------------------------------------------Vote for 2 Councilors for the 2009 - 2011 term (or write in your own candidate) [ ] John Finley [ ] Mike Morello

write in_____________________________________ John Finley and Mike Morello are Councilors whose terms expire in 2008. Vote for 1 Alternate Councilor for the 2009 - 2011 term (or write in your own candidate) [ ] Keith Cadwallader

write in_____________________________________

----------------------------------------- fold down & tape -------------------------------------------member signature __________________ member printed name __________________ affix stamp

to Michael H. Tunick USDA-ERRC 600 E. Mermaid Lane Wyndmoor PA 19038

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2008 AWARD NEWS
Donald S. Mottram, Professor of Chemistry, University of Reading won the Award for the Advancement of Application of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, sponsored by International Flavors and Fragrances, Inc. This award recognizes outstanding contributions to pure and applied agricultural and food chemistry. A symposium on Sunday at the ACS Fall Meeting in Philadelphia will honor Don, who will receive his $3000 prize at the Tuesday Awards Banquet. Imelda Ryona, Cornell University, won the Roy Teranishi Graduate Fellowship in Food Chemistry. This honor goes to a beginning graduate student with an outstanding graduate GPA who shows promise of an excellent research career. Christina Kriegel, University of Massachusetts won the Withycombe–Charalambous Award and a $750 prize for Excellence in Graduate Research in Agricultural or Food Chemistry, sponsored by ACS Books. Amit Vikram, Texas A&M University, won second place. The award is for year-to-be-degreed graduate students at certified universities doing advanced research in food and agricultural chemistry. Christina and Amit were among six students chosen to present their research at the ACS Spring Meeting. They received their awards at the New Orleans reception. James Kennedy, Oregon State University, won the Young Scientist Award. This honor recognizes scientists early in their careers for their outstanding scientific contributions to agricultural and food chemistry. Fereidoon Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, won the Award for Distinguished Service to the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, for his service as Division Chair in 2002 and his organization of many symposia and editing of numerous symposia books. Fereidoon will receive a plaque at the Award Banquet. Harold McGee, an AGFD member and author of the best-selling books “On Food and Cooking” and “The Curious Cook,” and of a column in the New York Times won the James T. Grady-James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public, an ACS National Award. Harold will receive $3000 and a medallion at a symposium in his honor at the ACS Fall Meeting in Philadelphia on Tuesday morning and afternoon. Fergus M. Clydesdale, University of Massachusetts, won the Sterling B. Hendricks Memorial Lectureship Award, cosponsored by USDA Agricultural Research Service, AGFD, and AGRO. The award honors outstanding contributions to agricultural chemistry. Hear the Lecture at the ACS Meeting in Philadelphia at 11:30 a.m.Tuesday, in the same room as the Grady-Stack Award Symposium. The award includes a $2000 honorarium and a medallion. Thomas Hofmann, Technical University Munich, and Rui-Hai Liu, Cornell University, won the AGFD Fellow Award, which recognizes outstanding scientific contributions to the field of agricultural and food chemistry. Congratulations to all award winners!
The ususal suspects - clockwise from upper right: Mike Morello, Mike Qian, Cynthia Mussinan, Jane Leland, Agnes Rimando, Alyson Mitchell, Lauren Jackson, Mike Appell, Keith Cadwallader, Bhimu Patil, Mike Tunick, Bob McGorrin, John Finley, Deepthi Weerasinghe

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AGFD Program, 236th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia Aug. 17-21, 2008
AGFD Subdivisions - joint meeting Executive Committee meeting Future Programs meeting Business meeting Awards Banquet 12:00 - 1:00 pm Sunday 5:00 - 8:00 pm Sunday 12:15 - 1:15pm Monday 1:00 - 2:00 pm Tuesday 6:00 - 10:00 pm Tuesday

AGFD TECHNICAL SESSIONS TAKE PLACE IN THE CROWNE PLAZA CITY CENTER (1800 MARKET ST)
SUNDAY MORNING Section A 100th Anniversary Symposium Retrospective Cosponsored by HIST and PRES M. H. Tunick, Organizer C. Brine, Organizer, Presiding 9:30 — Introductory Remarks. 9:35 —1. One hundred years of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. C. Brine, M. H. Tunick 10:00 —2. Agricultural and food chemistry: Fifty years of synergy between AGFD and JAFC. J. N. Seiber 10:25 — Intermission. 10:40 —3. One hundred years of progress in food analysis. R. J. McGorrin 11:05 —4. History of food packaging. S. J. Risch 11:30 —5. Biotechnology: A history of promise, prejudice and opportunity. J. W. Finley Section B Chemistry, Texture and Flavor of Soy Composition and Chemistry Cosponsored by HEALTH K. Cadwallader and S. K. C. Chang, Organizers, Presiding 9:00 — Introductory Remarks. 9:10 —6. Carbon-centered free radicals in isolated soy proteins. W. L. Boatright, M. S. Jahan, B. M. Walters, A. F. Miller, D. Cui, E. J. Hustedt, Q. Lei 9:35 —7. Antioxidant capabilities of soy oil and flour and stabilities of soy isoflavones during dry heating. Z. Xu 10:00 —8. Trypsin inhibitor activity in soymilk as affected by soy materials and thermal processing m ethods. S.Yuan, S. K. C. Chang 10:25 — Intermission. 10:40 —9. Heating sequence and calcium lactate concentration effects on in vitro protein digestibility and oil release of emulsion stabilized by preheated soy protein and caseinate. N. N. Nakornpanom, P. Hongsprabhas 11:05 —10. Tofu property and disulfide bonds in the protein of soybean. M. Momma, T. Seki, M. Hajika 11:30 —11. Effects of heating temperature and cooling rate on denaturation of soymilk protein. M. Shimoyamada, K. Tsuzuki, H. Asao, R. Yamauchi 11:55 —12. Separating soybean glycinin and ß-conglycinin with rennase made from Mucor pusillus. S. Guo, Z. Liu Section C AGFD Division Award Symposium Honouring Professor Donald S. Mottram B. S. Patil and C. T. Ho, Organizers 9:00 — Introductory Remarks. 9:10 —13. The Maillard reaction: A continuing challenge to the flavor chemist. D. S. Mottram 9:50 —14. Effects of cationic species on visual color development during the Maillard reaction. G. Rizzi 10:15 —15. Monitoring the effects of reactants and process on intermediates in acrylamide formation. A. J. Taylor, F. Wulfert, G. A. Channell 10:40 —16. Applying kinetics to flavor formation in Maillard systems. B. Wedzicha, D. S. Mottram 11:05 —17. Flavor formation during thermal food processing: Why do thermally treated foods smell and taste different? P. Schieberle 11:30 —18. Good and bad of reactive carbonyl species from Maillard reaction. C. T. Ho, Y. Wang

SUNDAY AFTERNOON Section A 100th Anniversary Symposium Progress in Food and Beverage Chemistry Cosponsored by HIST and PRES C. Brine, Organizer M. H. Tunick, Organizer, Presiding 1:30 —19. Progress in US dairy foods over the past 100 years. M. H. Tunick 1:55 —20. Flavor of muscle food as affected by their lipid components and processing. F. Shahidi 2:20 —21. AGFD and 100 years of chemical research on grains and legumes. K. Cadwallader

2:45 — Intermission. 3:00 —22. Examining the history of the science and technology of confectionery. J. A. Vinson, K. A. Cooper 3:25 —23. Wine chemistry and flavor: Looking into the crystal glass. S. E. Ebeler 3:50 —24. Chemistry of tea and coffee: A century of progress. C -T. Ho 4:15 —25. Search for understanding citrus flavors in fresh squeezed and commercial juices: An historical perspective. R. L. Rouseff, P. R. Perez-Cachol, F. Jabalpurwala Section B Chemistry, Texture and Flavor of Soy Composition and Chemistry Cosponsored by HEALTH K. Cadwallader, Organizer S. K. C. Chang, Organizer, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:35 —26. Breeding trials for enhancing ? -tocopherol and lutein contents in seeds of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. K. Kitamura, S. Wang, K. Kanamaru, M. S. Dwiyanti, T. Yamada 2:00 —27. Characterization and genetic analysis of high lutein content of wild soybean (Glycine soja) strains. K. Kanamaru, S. Wang, J. Abe, T. Yamada, K. Kitamura 2:25 —28. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for breeding soybeans with high a-tocopherol concentration. M. S. Dwiyanti, T. Yamada, J. Abe, K. Kitamura 2:50 — Intermission. 3:05 —29. Estimation of the mutation site of a soyasapogenol A-deficient soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by LC-MS/MS profile analysis. H. Sasama, Y. Takada, M. Ishim oto, K. Kitamura, C. Tsukamoto 3:30 —30. Quality and chemical components of the tofu made from whole-soybeans. M -H. Lee, F -J. Kao 3:55 —31. Storage-induced biochemical changes of soybean as related to soymilk and tofu making. S. K. C. Chang Section C Specialty Lipids and Conjugated Fatty Acids Cosponsored by HEALTH L. L. Yu and F. Shahidi, Organizers, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 2:00 —32. CLA Supplementation in women at risk of sarcopenia. S. W. Rockway 2:30 —33. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and conjugated linoleic acid-containing phospholipids on nitric oxide production in bovine endothelial cells. J. Y. Vanderhoek 3:00 —34. Foods and beverages use of docosahexaenoic acid. J. Mai 3:30 — Intermission. 4:00 —35. Health beneficial effects of highly unsaturated conjugated fatty acids. K. Miyashita 4:30 —36. Neuroprotective effects of n-3 fatty acid EPA in neurodegeneration. C. Song, P. Taepavarapruk, Y. Zhang, Q. Meng, D. Luchtman 5:00 —37. Studies on the oxygen diffusion-concentration products of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in liposomes and phospholipid solutions. J -J. Yin Section D Flavor and Health Benefits of Small Fruits Flavor Cosponsored by HEALTH A. M. Rimando, Organizer M. C. Qian, Organizer, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:35 —38. Update: Flavor chemistry of small fruit. G. A. Reineccius 2:00 —39. The Pacific Northwest is a world leader in berry production: The challenges of developing new cultivars to keep it thriving. C. Finn, M. C. Qian 2:25 —40. On the road of developing thornless blackberries with "Marion" flavor. M. C. Qian 2:50 — Intermission. 3:05 —41. Metabolic engineering in Fragaria x ananassa for the production of epiafzelechin and phenylpropenoids. W. Schwab, T. Hoffmann, M. Griesser 3:30 —42. Flavor analysis of small fruits. R. J. McGorrin 3:55 —43. Aroma components of "Carlos" muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx) grape juice. G -Y. Liu, K. Cadwallader 4:20 —44. Analysis of odor-active volatiles, color and antioxidant activity in Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) fruit. C. Osorio, D. C. Sinuco, N. Hurtado, F. J. Heredia, A. L. Morales MONDAY MORNING Presidential Session Celebrating Division Centennials: AGFD, I&EC, ORGN, and PHYS Sponsored by PRES, Cosponsored by AGFD, IEC, ORGN, and PHYS AGFD Section A 100th Anniversary Symposium Progress in Food Components Cosponsored by HIST and PRES C. Brine, Organizer M. H. Tunick, Organizer, Presiding 8:30 —45. Proteins, protein science and AGFD: A retrospective. G. M. Smith, J. R. Whitaker 8:55 —46. One hundred years of commercial food carbohydrates in the US. J. N. BeMiller 9:20 —47. Essential vitamins, minerals, and nutrients: Chemical characterizations in the 20th century. M. Phillips 9:45 —48. Progress in food colorants. C. Culver

10:10 — Intermission. 10:25 —49. Sweet developments: Historical aspect of sweeteners. W. E. Riha 10:50 —50. Essential oils: A retrospective. J. Forbes 11:15 —51. Improvement in properties of vegetable oils through modifications and additives for lubricant applications. S. Z. Erhan, B. K. Sharma 11:40 —52. Maillard reaction: Thermal generation of flavors. D. K. Weerasinghe Section B Chemistry, Texture and Flavor of Soy Bioactive Components Cosponsored by HEALTH S. K. C. Chang, Organizer K. Cadwallader, Organizer, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:35 —53. Chemistry of soy bioactive peptides. E. Gonzalez de Mejia, V. P. Dia, W. Wang 9:00 —54. Functional properties of proteolytic hydrolysates of soybean proteins. K. Muramoto 9:25 —55. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soybean and s oy leaf isoflavones. Z -Y. Chen 9:50 — Intermission. 10:05 —56. Bioactive peptides isolated from soy hydrolysate in stimulating CCK induced satiety. H -L. Lai, F -N. Chien, S -C. Chuang, Y -H. Chen, C -C. Chen 10:30 —57. Soy protein ingredients as isoflavone sources for functional foods. M. I. Genovese 10:55 —58. Processing effects on the bioactive compounds of soybean. H -M. Lai, P -Y. Lin Section C Specialty Lipids and Conjugated Fatty Acids Cosponsored by HEALTH F. Shahidi and L. Yu, Organizers, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 9:00 —59. Cold-pressed edible seed oils rich in oleic and á-linolenic acids, and their phytochemical and antioxidant properties. H. Lutterodt 9:30 —60. Phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activities, and cancer antiproliferation effects of raw Turkish and roasted Oregon hazelnuts. J. W. Parry 10:00 —61. Preservation of n-3 PUFA. L. Yu 10:30 — Intermission. 11:00 —62. The suppression effects of conjugated linolenic acids on chemically induced colon carcinogenesis. Y. Yasui, M. Hos okawa, K. Miyashita, T. Tanaka 11:30 —63. Specialty and structured lipids and their stability characteristics. F. Shahidi 12:00 —64. Relative hypocholesterolemic activity of linoleic, linolenic, conjugated linoleic and conjugated linolenic acid. Z -Y. Chen, C. K. Lam, J. Chen, Y. Cao, L. Yang Section D Flavor and Health Benefits of Small Fruits Flavor Cosponsored by HEALTH A. M. Rimando, Organizer M. C. Qian, Organizer, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:35 —65. Fruit flavors and their health benefits. F. Chen, X. Wang 9:00 —66. Edible coatings for enhancing quality and health benefits of small fruits. Y. Zhao, M. Qian 9:25 —67. Effects of emerging process technologies on the sensory and antioxidant properties of selected berries. L. L. Dean, J. B. Leavens, M. Y. Dansby, L. C. Boyd 9:50 — Intermission. 10:05 —68. Introducing flavor and health benefits in fruits and vegetables through fermentation. H. P. Goorissen, J. E. T. van Hylckama Vlieg 10:30 —69. Preparative isolation of bioactive constituents from berries. P. Winterhalter, T. Esatbeyoglu, A. Wilkens, N. Koehler 10:55 —70. Analytical and preparative methods for determination of polyphenols in sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides) and related products. D. Gutzeit, M. Rychlik, P. Winterhalter, G. Jerz 11:20 —71. Metabolic fate of strawberry fruit flavor and phenolic constituents in humans. N. P. Seeram, Y. Zhang, S. M. Henning, D. Heber MONDAY AFTERNOON Section A 100th Anniversary Symposium Health, Safety and Legal Issues Cosponsored by HIST and PRES M. H. Tunick, Organizer C. Brine, Organizer, Presiding 1:30 —72. Healthy foods: Historical perspectives, opportunities, and challenges. B. S. Patil 1:55 —73. Chemical food safety issues: Past, present and future. L. S. Jackson 2:20 —74. Bioactive compounds for pest and weed control. R. J. Petroski, D. Stanley 2:45 — Intermission. 3:00 —75. Agricultural and food chemistry and food regulations. D. J. Armstrong 3:25 —76. Challenges in flavor regulations in the new millennium. J. M. Mane, E. Angelini 3:50 —77. A short history of patents on agricultural and food chemistry. J. M. Brown

Section B Chemistry, Texture and Flavor of Soy Textural and Functional Properties Cosponsored by HEALTH K. Cadwallader, Organizer S. K. C. Chang, Organizer, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:35 —78. Changes of tofu structure and physical properties in coagulant concentration. T. Ono, Y. Onodera, C. Yeming, K. Nakasato 2:00 —79. Influence of phytate on tofu texture. T. Ishiguro, T. Ono 2:25 —80. Instrumental and sensory evaluation of the textural properties of tofu. S. Yuan, S. K. C. Chang 2:50 — Intermission. 3:05 —81. Soybean components affecting physicochemical properties of soymilk, coagulation reactivity and tofu texture. K. Toda, K. Chiba, K. Yagasaki, K. Takahashi, T. Ono 3:30 —82. The interaction of oil body and protein in soymilk making. Y. Chen, T. Ono 3:55 —83. Functional properties and texture of soy protein-based food bars. M. J. Cho Section C Pre- & Post-Harvest and Processing Factors Affecting Bioactive Health Maintaining Properties Cosponsored by HEALTH B. S. Patil, K. N. Chidambara Murthy, and G. Jayaprakasha, Organizers K. M. Crosby and F. Shahidi, Organizer, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:40 —84. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, chemical and sensorial changes in two varieties of Colombian guava (Psidium guajava L.) during their ripening. D. C. Sinuco, M. E. Solarte, L. M. Melgarejo, C. Osorio Roa 2:10 —85. Polyacetylenes, glucosinolates and vitamin C in root vegetables. M. E. Olsson, K -E. Gustavsson 2:40 —86. Changes in chemopreventive D-glucaric acid levels of grapefruit due to variety and season by HPLC. J. L. Perez, G. K. Jayaprakasha, B. S. Patil 3:10 — Intermission. 3:30 —87. Assessment of phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity of nine cultivars of grapefruits. G. K. Jayaprakasha, J. L. Perez, B. S. Patil 4:00 —88. Improvement of consistency among the pyruvic acid analysis methods used in estimation of onion pungency. K. S. Yoo, E. J. Lee, B. S. Patil 4:30 —89. Optimization of extraction efficiency of pepper flavonoids and their relationship between phenolics, and antioxidant activity. H. Bae, G. Jayaprakasha, J. Jifon, B. S. Patil Section D Flavor and Health Benefits of Small Fruits Health Benefits Cosponsored by HEALTH M. C. Qian, Organizer A. M. Rimando, Organizer, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:35 —90. Pterostilbene, a blueberry constituent, improves cognitive and motor function in aged rats. J. A. Joseph, A. M. Rimando, C. Vivian, D. Bielinski, D. Fisher, B. Shukitt-Hale 2:00 —91. Antidiabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. P. S. Haddad 2:25 —92. Small fruit phenolics and relevance for diabetes and hypertension management. K. Shetty, S. Cheplick, Y -I. Kwon, P. Bhowmick 2:50 — Intermission. 3:05 —93. Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits and selected phytochemicals. R. H. Liu 3:30 —94. Anthocyanin enriched berry extracts produce endothelium dependent vasorelaxation in coronary arteries and protect vascular endothelium from oxygen radical mediated injury. D. R. Bell, K. Gochenaur, T. D. Burt 3:55 —95. Extraordinary antioxidant activity and nutritional content of a small palm fruit Euterpe oleracea (“Acai”) from the Amazon. A. Schauss 4:20 —96. Characterization of anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity in the skin and flesh of new red grape genotypes. G. R. Takeoka, L. T. Dao, D. W. Ramming MONDAY EVENING Sci-Mix 8:00 - 10:00pm M. Appell, Organizer posters 136-137, 139-143, 147, 152-153, 156, 159-160, 163, 166-168, 173, 177-178, 181, 185, 191. See subsequent listings. TUESDAY MORNING Section A James T. Grady-James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public: Symposium in Honor of Harold McGee S. C. Johnson and M. H. Tunick, Organizers S. J. Risch and J. W. Finley, Organizers, Presiding 8:30 —97. Introduction to the Grady-Stack award. S. J. Risch 8:45 —98. Award Address (James T. Grady-James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public, sponsored by the American Chemical Society). On food and cooking. H. J. McGee 9:30 —99. The trials and tribulations of publishing CookWise. S. O. Corriher 10:10 — Intermission. 10:25 —100. Research collaboration between the chef and the flavor chemist. D. S. Mottram, H. Blumenthal

Section A Sterling B. Hendricks Memorial Lectureship Cosponsored by AGRO M. H. Tunick, Organizer J. N. Seiber, Organizer, Presiding 11:30 — Introductory Remarks. 11:45 —101. A nutritional odyssey: From famine to feast, can science and policy solve the dilemma? F. M. Clydesdale 12:30 — Reception. Section B Chemistry, Texture and Flavor of Soy Flavor and Sensory Properties Cosponsored by HEALTH K. Cadwallader and S. K. C. Chang, Organizers, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:35 —102. Soy foods: Flavor characterization and market assessment. S -Y. Lee 9:00 —103. Flavor binding by soy proteins. P. R. Lozano, K. Cadwallader 9:25 —104. Change in odor-active components of commercial Korean soy milk during above ambient (55oC) storage. H. Kim, K. Cadwallader, Y -J. Cha, E -J. Jeong 9:50 — Intermission. 10:05 —105. Volatile and aroma components in fermented soybean curds. H. Y. Chung 10:30 —106. Effect of roasting temperature on key aroma components of roasted soybean. P. Rotsachakul, S. Chaiseri 10:55 —107. Identification of flavor-active volatiles in soy protein isolate via gas chromatography olfactometry. A. J. Irwin, J. D. Everard, R. J. Micketts 11:20 —108. Volatile flavor compounds and sensory flavor profiles of Thai soy sauce. S. Lertsiri, P. Wanakhachornkrai, A. Assawanig, S. Chaiseri, T. Suwonsichon Section C Pre- & Post-Harvest and Processing Factors Affecting Bioactive Health Maintaining Properties Cosponsored by HEALTH K. N. Chidambara Murthy, G. Jayaprakasha, and F. Shahidi, Organizers D. A. Kopsell and B. S. Patil, Organizer, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:40 —109. Deficit irrigation strategies to enhance phytochemicals and quality in vegetable species. D. I. Leskovar, K. M. Crosby, K. S. Yoo 9:10 —110. Pre- and postharvest application of salicylic acid improved strawberry fruits qualitty cv. camarosa during storage. M. Shafiee, T. Sadat Taghavi, M. Babalar, S. Kalantari 9:40 —111. Developmental variation of flavonoids in mandarin and grapefruit. R. M. Uckoo, G. Jayaprakasha, S. D. Nelson, B. Patil 10:10 — Intermission. 10:30 —112. Genetic improvement of vegetable beneficial phytochemical concentrations. K. M. Crosby, D. I. Leskovar, K.S.Yoo 11:00 —113. Improving fruit phytochemical contents through foliar potassium (K) nutrition. J. Jifon, G. E. Lester, D. Leskovar, B. Patil, K. M. Crosby 11:30 —114. Preharvest manipulation of growing conditions can influence carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops. D. A. Kopsell, M. G. Lefsrud, D. E. Kopsell Section D Flavor and Health Benefits of Small Fruits Health Benefits Cosponsored by HEALTH M. C. Qian, Organizer A. M. Rimando, Organizer, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:35 —115. Prevention of gastrointestinal tract cancers with berries and berry components. G. Stoner, L -S. Wang 9:00 —116. Factors affecting the metabolic fate of bilberry anthocyanins. E. Richling, M. Kraus, K. Kahle, B. Knaup, T. Erk, W. Scheppach, P. Schreier 9:25 —117. Opening a can of worms: Using C. elegans to identify prolongevity and antitumor effects of polyphenols in whole anim als. C. A. Wolkow, M. A. Wilson 9:50 — Intermission. 10:05 —118. Evaluating health benefits of various fruits. T. S. Kahlon 10:30 —119. Berry fruit extracts exhibit chemopreventative effects on human cancer cell lines. S. Y. Wang 10:55 —120. Effect of store-purchased and pure cranberry and grape juice drinks on the reduction of enteric viral infectivity in cell culture and in the mouse model. S. M. Lipson 11:20 —121. Cranberry phytochemicals as potential anticancer agents. P. J. Ferguson

TUESDAY AFTERNOON Section A James T. Grady-James H. Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public: Symposium in Honor of Harold McGee S. C. Johnson and M. H. Tunick, Organizers S. J. Risch and J. W. Finley, Organizers, Presiding 1:30 —122. Talking about flavor. T. E. Acree 2:10 —123. Basic flavor research: Lessons from cuisine. G. K. Beauchamp 2:50 — Intermission. 3:05 —124. Culinary chemistry: Entrée to the sciences at the Culinary Institute of America. C. R. Loss

3:45 —125. Science driven gastronomy: A restaurant fad or a useful tool? A. J. Taylor 4:25 —126. Culinary technology. D. Arnold Section B General Papers D. K. Weerasinghe, Organizer K. N. Chidambara Murthy and K. Mahattanatawee, Presiding 2:00 — Introductory Remarks. 2:20 —127. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of Loropetalum chinense, Cirsium japonicum DC var australe Kitamura., and Acanthopanax trifoliatus(L.)Merr. using ultraweak chemiluminescience analyzer. C -W. Ho, S -C. Duan, C -N. Chen, P -S. Chu 2:40 —128. Plasma and liver cholesterol and body weights of hamsters fed fast foods. W. H. Yokoyama, Y -J. Hong, S. Young, K. Anderson, D. Albers, M. Turowski 3:00 —129. Alimentary proteins as a novel source for bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. L. Lin, D. Varma, A. Perets, M. Li, D. L. Woerdeman, P. Lelkes 3:20 — Intermission. 3:40 —130. Antitumor limonoids and antioxidant lignans from African mahogany Khaya senegalensis. H. Zhang, D. VanDerveer, F. Chen, X. Wang, M. J. Wargovich Section C Pre- & Post-Harvest and Processing Factors Affecting Bioactive Health Maintaining Properties Cosponsored by HEALTH B.S. Patil, K.N. Chidambara Murthy, G. Jayaprakasha, and F. Shahidi, Organizers D.I. Leskovar and M.E. Olsson, Presiding 2:00 — Introductory Remarks. 2:10 —131. Post-harvest abiotic stresses as a non-GMO approach for enhancement of plant bioactives. L. Cisneros -Zevallos 2:40 —132. Behavior of flavonols and carotenoids during storage of minimally processed leafy vegetables under passive modified atmosphere packaging. D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya, C. N. Kobori, L. S. Huber, C. I. Sarantopoulos 3:10 — Intermission. 3:30 —133. Seasonal and postharvest temperature impact on novel orange-fleshed honey dew fruit antioxidants. G. E. Lester, D. M. Hodges 4:00 —134. Apple allergen Mal d 1: Effect of cultivar, cultivation method and storage conditions. A. Matthes, S. Scheurer, A -R. Lorenz, M. Schmitz-Eiberger 4:30 —135. Effect of cultivar, maturity and storage conditions on bioactive components in fruits of different apple varieties. M. Schmitz-Eiberger, A. Matthes Section D 2:00 - 4:00 General Posters K. Chidambara Murthy and K. Mahattanatawee, Presiding M. Appell, Organizer, Presiding 136. A citrus polymethoxylated flavone, 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone, exhibits activity in the Arthus reaction. J. A. Manthey 137. Anthocyanase side activities in pectinase preparations deglycosylate anthocyanins in elderberry juice leading to color loss. S. Pricelius, G. M. Gübitz 138. PPAR? activation and molecular docking of resveratrol methylether analogs and catechins. A. M. Rimando, C. S. Mizuno, S. I. Khan 139. 3-D molecular similarity applied to food chemistry. K. Martínez-Mayorga 140. Identification of the bioactive constitutents of Kinkéliba (Combretum micranthum), a west African medicinal plant. C. R. Welch, Q -L. Wu, M -H. Pan, C -T. Ho, M. Diatta, J. E. Simon 141. Investigation of anti-inflammatory compounds in Origanum spp. D. Shen, Q -L. Wu, C -H. Park, R. Juliani, M -H. Pan, C -T. Ho, J. E. Simon 142. Phenolics with potential pest-deterrent properties from leaves of Early Black cranberry cultivar (Vaccinium macrocarpon). C. A. Dao, M. Botelho, J. Vanden Heuvel, C. C. Neto 143. Phytochemical screening and bioactive properties of the medicinal plant eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis). Y. Xu, Q. Wu, M H. Pan, C -T. Ho, J. E. Simon 144. Tea polyphenols: New trapping agents of reactive dicarbonyl species. X. Shao, S. Sang, C -T. Ho, C. S. Yang 145. Biodiversity of glycoproteins purified from green tea (Camellia s inensis). S. Nie, Z. Fu, M. Xie 146. Comparison of the encapsulation amounts of isoflavones -containing red clover extracts in microemulsion system using different extraction techniques. C -C. Lin, M -H. Lee, M -W. Yu 147. Determination of flavonoids in Moringa oleifera by LC/UV/MSD. J. P. Coppin, Y. Xu, H. Chen, R. Juliani, Q -L. Wu, J. E. Simon 148. Extraction, purification and structure identification of flavonoids in cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) iljinskaja. C. Dong, M. Xie, S. Nie, Y. Wang, J. Xie, C. Li 149. Mycotoxin patulin induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent pathway in human leukemia cells . B -H. Liu, T -S. Wu, F -Y. Yu 150. Phenolic content of commercial pomegranate dietary supplements and their antioxidant capacity. Y. Zhang, D. Wang, R. Lee, S. M. Henning, N. P. Seeram, D. Heber 151. Substrate specificities of anthocyanases in pectinase preparations. E. Herrero Acero, G. M. Gübitz 152. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Hippophae rhamnoides fruits. M. Faudale, F. Cateni, S. Sosa, M. Zacchigna, R. Della Loggia, A. Tubaro 153. Ursolic acid and its p-hydroxycinnamoyl esters: Effects on tumor cell proliferation and content in cranberry fruit and

products. A. M. Liberty, M. Kondo, S. L. MacKinnon, P. E. Hart, C. C. Neto 154. Cytotoxic activities and antioxidant effect of aminoethyl chitooligosaccharides. D -N. Ngo, M -M. Kim, S -K. Kim 155. Studies on stability and antioxidation of anthocyanins isolated from purple radis h. Q -L. Feng, F. Lv, D -Q. Liu 156. Effect of sugar on a-galactosidase and ß-galactosidase activity from Lactobacillus reuteri. D. Song, S. A. Ibrahim 157. Measuring the nutraceutical properties of nutritional bars made with cactus (Opuntia ficus) and pomegranate (Punica granatum). D. Solis, L. R. Hernandez, A. B. Torres, B. Rodriguez, E. Salas 158. Postharvest treatment of lychee with HCl reduces the activity of browning enzymes. N. C. Furumo, S. Furutani, M. Wheeler 159. Physical and chemical properties of Thai Panga fish Pangasius bocourti bone as calcium source for mineral supplements. K. Rakariyatham, N. Rakariyatham, P. Kijjanapanich, R. L. Deming 160. Preparation of nanoassembled crystalline ZnO and its antibacterial effect. Z -X. Tang, D. Claveau, R. Corcuff, K. Belkacemi, J. Arul 161. Prebiotic potential of hydrolyzed konjac glucomannan by growth comparisons with two commercial prebiotics. W. S. Muller, S. Arcidiacono, A. Meehan, K. Racicot, J. Soares, P. Stenhouse 162. Comparison of flavor volatiles of raw and cooked Thai rices of different varieties. K. Dragastin, K. Adhikari, A. Soontrunnarudrungsri, D. Chambers 163. Differential catabolic processing of cholesterol using bacteria. J. Jamison, J. Cooper, J. Lack, E. Benjamin III, E. Benjamin 164. Effect of á-tocopherol level on the autoxidation of trioctadecadienoin. J. Zhang, L. Zhou, W. Erhardt, S. Zhou 165. Effects of calcium chloride and cold storage on health – related parameters in Lacctuca sativa. I. J. Perucka, K. J. Olszówka 166. Flow behavior of protein blends. C. I. Onwulata, A. E. Thomas, M. H. Tunick 167. Impact of annealing on the molecular structure and properties of wheat starches. R. Hoover, H. Lan, L. Jayakody, Q. Liu, E. Donner, M. Baga, A. Erick, H. Pierre, R. Chibbar 168. Impact of thermal and nonthermal processing technologies on quality of apple cider. Z. Azhuvalappil, X. Fan, H. Q. Zhang, D. J. Geveke, R. L. Rouseff 169. Silica sol-gel matrices for flavor encapsulation. S. Krishnan, G. A. Reineccius 170. Formation and properties of biopolymer nanoparticles created by heating beta-lactoglobulin-polysaccharide complexes. O. G. Jones, D. J. McClements 171. Concentration of pinolenic acid from pine nut by lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis. B -M. Lee, I -H. Kim, J -E. Oh, M -H. Chae 172. Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of olive oil with a fully hydrogenated canola oil using stepwise changes in temperature. I -H. Kim, S -M. Lee, B -M. Lee, J -E. Oh, H -K. Park, J -Y. Kim, J -W. Kim, K -I. Kwon, M -C. Kim, J -S. Lee 173. Improved preparation of bridged carboxylic ortho esters. R. J. Petroski 174. Investigations into the absolute structure of glycerol menthonides. A. Kiessling, K. M. Szuler 175. Production of trans -free fat by lipase-catalyzed interesterification in a batch reactor and a packed bed reactor. S. W. Kim, Y. W. Park, J. Lee, P. Chang 176. Modulation of the competitive adsorption kinetics between two different polysaccharides onto protein-coated lipid droplets. Y -H. Cho, D. J. McClements 177. Vital wheat gluten as a filler for rubber compounds: Effects of pH and homogenization on the reinforcem ent properties. S. C. Peterson 178. Levels of vitamin E decreases and retinol increases in oil extracts from aged Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) byproducts. T. H. Wu, P. J. Bechtel 179. Biocatalytic modification of hydroxy fatty acids from renewable plant lipids and coproducts. T. M. Kuo 180. Influence of the degradation of frying oil in the fatty acids composition and total fat content of precooked foodstuffs. J. M. Miranda López, B. Martínez Ruíz, B. Vázquez-Belda, C. Fente Sampayo, C. Franco-Abuín, A. Cepeda Saez 181. Rapid identification of histamine-producing bacteria in seafood products by MALDI-TOF and DNA analysis. K. Böhme, I. Fernández-No, J. M. Gallardo, C. Franco-Abuín, J. Barros-Velázquez, B. Cañas, P. Calo-Mata 182. Development and validation of an HPLC confirmatory method for residue analysis of cyproheptadine in food-producing animals. C. Fente Sampayo, P. Regal López, B. Vázquez-Belda, X. Feás Sánchez, C. Franco-Abuín, A. Cepeda Saez 183. The cytochrome b mitochondrial gene as a molecular marker for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of penaeid shrimp species of industrial interest. A. Pascoal, J. Barros -Velázquez, J. M. Gallardo, B. Vázquez-Belda, A. Cepeda Saez, P. Calo-Mata 184. Molecular identification of the Northern shrimp in food products by proteome and DNA analysis. I. Ortea, A. Pascoal, J. Barros -Velázquez, A. Cepeda Saez, J. M. Gallardo, B. Cañas, P. Calo-Mata 185. Triplex PCR method for the specific identification of Penaeus monodon, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus indicus in food products. A. Pascoal, J. Barros-Velázquez, I. Ortea, A. Cepeda Saez, J. M. Gallardo, P. Calo-Mata 186. Production of volatile compounds by a starter culture of Bacillus spp. during black bean and red kidney bean vegetarian kapi fermentation. S. Wittanalai, P. Kitsawatpaiboon, R. L. Deming, N. Rakariyatham 187. Rapid and sensitive screening method for the detection of organophosphosphates and carbamates in water and food samples. R. Slawecki, F. Rubio 188. Isotope dilution HPLC mass spectrometry method to sensitive determination of some progestagens, androgens and estrogens in bovine serum. P. Regal López, B. Vázquez-Belda, C. Franco-Abuín, A. Cepeda Saez, C. Fente Sampayo 189. Criogenic grinding pretreatment to avoid digestion procedures in steroid residues analysis in cow hair. P. Regal López, B. Vázquez-Belda, C. Franco-Abuín, A. Cepeda Saez, C. Fente Sampayo 190. Identification of seafood-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria by MALDI-TOF and genomic analysis. K. Böhme, P. CaloMata, J. M. Gallardo, C. Fente Sampayo, J. Barros-Velázquez, B. Cañas 191. Syntheses of molecularly imprinted polymers and their molecular recognition study for cyproheptadine using original print molecule and azatadine as dummy template. X. Feás Sánchez, B. Vázquez-Belda, C. Fente Sampayo, C. Franco-Abuín, A.

Cepeda Saez 192. Syntheses of molecularly imprinted polymers hydrogel and their molecular recognition study for flumequine. X. Feás, C. Fente Sampayo, B. Vázquez-Belda, L. Sánchez-García, C. Franco-Abuín, A. Cepeda Saez 193. Synthesis and evaluation of imprinted polymers for selective recognition of fusaric acid. M. Appell 194. Development of a sensitive ELISA and nanogold immunostrip for aflatoxin M1. F -Y. Yu, J -J. Wang 195. Determination of bistrifluron residues in vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. C. H. Kwon, M. I. Chang, M. H. Im, S. H. Lee, M. K. Hong 196. The effect of microwave heating on the acrylamide formation in the food. S. Tewani, N. Grewal 197. Preparation and properties of boiling-stable resistant starch. L. Zhigang, G. Qunyu, Y. Liansheng 198. Characterization of mung bean starch. Q. Gao, Z. Luo, L. Huang, L. Yang 199. Effects of osmotic pressure on the cross-linking reaction of corn starch. W. Ye, Q. Gao 200. The “green” extraction of oils from natural products using supercritical carbon dioxide. R. Schlake, A. Kaziunas WEDNESDAY MORNING Section A Chemical Senses and Health: 100th Anniversary of AGFD and 40th Anniversary of the Monell Center Oral and Nasal Chemosensation Cosponsored by HEALTH J. V. Leland, G. K. Beauchamp, and A. A. Bachmanov, Organizers, Presiding 8:30 —201. Taste damage contributes to obesity. L. M. Bartoshuk, D. J. Snyder 8:55 —202. Taste receptors and the modulation of glucose homeostasis. C. D. Dotson, N. I. Steinle, S. D. Munger 9:20 —203. Genetic and biochemical properties of bitter taste receptors determine sensory performance of subjects. C. Batram, N. Roudnitzky, A. Brockhoff, B. Bufe, C. Reichling, M. Behrens, W. Meyerhof 9:45 —204. The genetics of oral perception and its impact on nutrient evaluation. P. A. S. Breslin 10:10 — Intermission. 10:30 —205. Genetic influences on sensory perception and its implication to diet. C. T. Simons, A. Fushan, A. Manichaikul, D. Drayna, T. McCluskey, J. P. Slack 10:55 —206. Genetic association between sweet taste and alcohol consumption. A. A. Bachmanov 11:20 —207. Chemosensation of calcium. M. G. Tordoff 11:45 — Discussion. Section B Starch Utilization, Modification and New Technology Cosponsored by HEALTH C. Brine, Organizer M. Appell and C. Frey, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:50 —208. Altered a-amylase digestion by physical modification of dispers ed maize starch. D. B. Thompson 9:10 —209. Crosslinking of potato starch with sodium trimetaphosphate. P. Buwalda 9:30 —210. Enzymatic processing of starch and carbohydrates. R. Mikkelsen, S. Yu, K. M. Kragh 9:50 — Intermission. 10:10 —211. Enzymatic wet milling of corn: Process and economics. D. B. Johnston, E. C. Ramírez, A. J. McAloon, V. Singh 10:30 —212. Explorations of starch derivatization. J. N. BeMiller 10:50 —213. Molecular reaction patterns on intact starch polymers and amylopectin branch chains. K. C. Huber, J. S. Higley 11:10 —214. Mechanism of resistance to amylase digestibility of RS4-type resistant wheat starch. O. Maningat, K. Woo Section C Pre- & Post-Harvest and Processing Fa ctors Affecting Bioactive Health Maintaining Properties Cosponsored by HEALTH B.S. Patil, K.N. Chidambara Murthy, G. Jayaprakasha, and F. Shahidi, Organizers S.J. Schwartz and L.R. Howard, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:40 —215. Innovative decontamination agents and their impact on all quality aspects of fresh-cut vegetables. I. V. T. J. Vandekinderen, J. Van Camp, F. Devlieghere, P. Ragaert, Q. Denon, B. De Meulenaer 9:10 —216. Antioxidant potential of, so far, underutilized Latin-American fruits and the impact of processing on that property. F. Marx, A. Gordon, R. B. Rodrigues 9:40 —217. Bioactives in plant materials as affected by fermentation during vinegar production. F. Shahidi 10:10 — Intermission. 10:30 —218. Food processing and formulation affects bioavailability of carotenoids. S. J. Schwartz 11:00 —219. Processing and storage effects on blackberry ellagitannins and flavonols. L. R. Howard, T. J. Hager, R. L. Prior

WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON Section A Chemical Senses and Health: 100th Anniversary of AGFD and 40th Anniversary of the Monell Center Oral and Nasal Chemosensation Cosponsored by HEALTH J. V. Leland, G. K. Beauchamp, and A. A. Bachmanov, Organizers, Presiding 1:30 —220. Fat taste detection and lipid metabolism in humans. R. D. Mattes 1:55 —221. Metabolic health assessment by nutritional metabonomics. S. Kochhar 2:20 —222. Sensitivity to odors differs across individuals and may influence food and beverage choices. C. J. Wysocki, D.

Reed, Y. Hasin, D. Lancet 2:40 —223. Odor perception, eating habits, and body weight. A. Keller, I. Gomez, P. Hempstead, A. N. Gilbert, L. B. Vosshall 3:00 —224. Detection of biologically-derived odorants using DNA-functionalized carbon nanotubes. A. Johnson Jr., S. M. Khamis, A. Gelperin, J. Kwak, G. Preti 3:20 — Intermission. 3:40 —225. Volatile compounds characteristic of sinus -related bacteria and infected sinus mucus: Analysis by solid-phasemicroextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. G. Preti, A. Gelperin, E. Thaler, W. Hanson III, J. Eades, M. Troy 4:00 —226. Urinary volatile biomarkers in mouse models of lung cancer. K. Matsumura, M. Opiekun, H. Oka, S. M. Albelda, K. Yamazaki, G. K. Beauchamp 4:20 —227. Detecting skin cancer using volatile biomarkers. M. Gallagher, G. Preti, S. Fakharzadeh, C. J. Wysocki, J. Kwak, C. J. Miller, C. D. Schmults, A. I. Spielman, X. Sun 4:40 —228. There's something in the air: Chemosignals of health and hazard. P. H. Dalton 5:05 — Discussion. Section B Starch Utilization, Modification and New Technology Cosponsored by HEALTH C. Brine, Organizer M. Appell and C. Frey, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:55 —229. Structure of enzyme-resistant high-amylose maize starch. J -L. Jane, H. Jiang, L. Li, M. Campbell 2:20 —230. Amylose and cycloamylose shapes. A. French, G. P. Johnson 2:45 —231. New size-exclusion methodology for the complete characterization of starch molecules. R. G. Gilbert, P. Castignolles, J. Peate, M. Gaborieau, A. A. Gray-Weale 3:10 — Intermission. 3:35 —232. Surface modifying nanoparticles from starch. Y. Gizaw, V. Bajpai 4:00 —233. Useful chemical and structural modifications of starch for pigment use. H. M. A. Mikkonen, S. Peltonen, L. Kuutti, J. Saari, K. Katja, P. Qvintus-Leino 4:25 —234. Agricultural polymers for corrosion protection of metals. V. L. Finkenstadt, G. Cote, J. L. Willett 4:50 —235. Starches in confections. R. B. Friedman Section C Pre- & Post-Harvest and Processing Factors Affecting Bioactive Health Maintaining Properties Cosponsored by HEALTH B.S. Patil, K.N. Chidambara Murthy, F. Shahidi, Organizers G.E. Lester, Presiding G. Jayaprakasha, Organizer, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:35 —236. Pre and postharvest effects on limonoids and their biological activities. K. N. Chidambara Murthy, G. Jayaprakasha, B. S. Patil 2:05 —237. Modulation of bacterial cell-cell signaling by citrus flavonoids. A. Vikarm, B. S. Patil, G. Jayaprakasha, P. Jesudhasan, S. D. Pillai 2:35 —238. Curcumin, a known phytochemical from Curcuma longa attenuates the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 plant and animal pathogenicity models. R. Thimmaraju, J. Kramer, H. Bais 3:05 — Intermission. 3:25 —239. Role of purple carrot bioactive against metal induced oxidative stress. K. N. Chidambara Murthy, G. Jayaprakasha, B. S. Patil 3:55 —240. Specific cranberry proanthocyanidin oligomers may increase sensitivity of SKOV-3 cells to platinum drug treatment. A. P. Singh, R. K. Singh, S. Kalkunte, K. K. Kim, L. Brard, N. Vorsa 4:25 —241. Cytoprotective effects of Syzygium cumini anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced stress in Hep3B cells. J. M. Veigas, B. Neelwarne

THURSDAY MORNING Section A Chemical Senses and Health: 100th Anniversary of AGFD and 40th Anniversary of the Monell Center Chemosensation Beyond the Nose and Mouth Cosponsored by HEALTH J. V. Leland, G. K. Beauchamp, and A. A. Bachmanov, Organizers, Presiding 8:30 —242. Beyond taste: The roles of taste receptors and gustducin in gastrointestinal chemosensation. R. F. Margolskee 8:55 —243. What are the glutamate signaling systems in the gut? K. Torii 9:20 —244. Amino acid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. A. M. San Gabriel, E. Nakamura, K. Iwatsuki, H. Uneyama, K. Torii 9:45 —245. Neural detection of amino acids in the intestine and liver. C. Horn 10:10 — Intermission. 10:30 —246. Effect of dietary glutamate on gastric secretion. R. P. Kropycheva, V. A. Zolotarev 10:55 —247. Glutamate signaling modulates endocrine functions: The molecular mechanisms and physiology. Y. Moriyama 11:20 —248. Chemical s ensing by the calcium -sensing receptor in the gastrointestinal tract. E. M. Brown 11:45 — Discussion.

Section B General Papers D. K. Weerasinghe, Organizer K. Mahattanatawee and K. N. Chidambara Murthy, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:50 —249. Analysis of anthocyanin fractions by high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. F. J. Wyzgoski, A. Z. Tulio Jr., P. L. Rinaldi, J.C. Scheerens, R.N. Reese, M. M. Giusti, N. Pangestu, A.R. Miller, S.E. Whitson, C. Wesdemiotis, R. Fu 9:10 —250. Toward a new fluorescence based method for the real-time detection of central nervous system (CNS) tissues on bovine carcasses. R. Adhikary, H. Schönenbrücher, P. Mukherjee, T. A. Casey, M. A. Rasmussen, F. D. Maistrovich, M. E. Kehrli, J. A. Richt, J. W. Petrich 9:30 —251. Aroma compounds of Jutrzenka liqueur wine investigated using GC-MS, GCxGC-MS and GC-O. H. H. Jelen, M. Majcher, M. Dziadas, E. Wasowicz 9:50 — Intermission. 10:10 —252. Comparison of separation efficiency of polymethoxyflavones and hydroxylpolymethoxyflavones. S. Li, T. Lambros, P. Savory, Z. Wang, C -Y. Lo, C. T. Ho 10:30 —253. Identification of flavor modifying compounds in traditional African herbal teas via LC Taste®. K. V. Reichelt, R. Peter, M. Roloff, J. P. Ley, G. E. Krammer, K. M. Swanepoel, K -H. Engel 10:50 —254. Chemical model for the role of aluminum in the bluing of Hydrangea sepals. H. D. Schreiber, A.M. Swink, R.C. Life Section C Flavors in Noncarbonated Beverages Cosponsored by HEALTH J. Adedeji and N. C. Da Costa, Organizers, Presiding 8:30 — Introductory Remarks. 8:50 —255. Anti-inflammatory activity of black tea benzotropolone compounds. C. T. Ho, M -H. Pan, S. Li, Y. Wang 9:10 —256. A nonvolatile study of tea: From analytical to sensory, and to effective analytical support. Y. Yang, J. Kowalczyk, N. C. Da Costa, L. Trinnaman 9:30 —257. Aroma release from beverages: Interfacial effects. A. J. Taylor, M. Tsachaki, B. Wolf 9:50 — Intermission. 10:10 —258. The key odorants of coffee from various geographical locations. R. Cannon, L. Trinnaman, B. Grainger, A. Trail 10:30 —259. Flavor and polyphenolic stability of green, black and rooibos tea. D. Del Pozo, F. Nunez Rueda, D. Wampler 10:50 —260. The characteristic odorants of Sri Lanka black teas (Uva, Nuwara Eliya, Dimbula, Kandy, and Ruhuna). H. Kasuga, S. Okajima, Y. Yamazaki, A. baba

THURSDAY AFTERNOON Section A Chemical Senses and Health: 100th Anniversary of AGFD and 40th Anniversary of the Monell Center Implications for the Pharmaceutical and Food Industries Cospons ored by HEALTH J. V. Leland, G. K. Beauchamp, and A. A. Bachmanov, Organizers, Presiding 1:30 —261. Salty taste amplification: Effects of amino acids and guanidinium -containing compounds. J. Brand, W. E. Riha III, P. A. S. Breslin 1:55 —262. Science of dis taste: Optimizing oral medications for children. J. A. Mennella 2:20 —263. Experience induced changes in taste sensitivities for sweeteners and monosodium glutamate. L. M. Kennedy, K. M. Gonzalez 2:45 —264. The isolation, structural assignment, and biological properties of (–)-oleocanthal, a natural NSAID found in extra virgin olive oil. A. B. Smith III 3:10 — Intermission. 3:30 —265. Application of HTS for the identification of modulators of an ancient pain target, the menthol receptor TRPM8. M. Stucchi 3:55 —266. Using human taste receptors to identify sweet and s alty taste enhancers. M. Zoller 4:20 —267. Discovery of selective inhibitors of the transient receptor potential M5 (TRPM5) ion channel: Opportunities for bitterness mitigation in pharmaceutical and food applications. R. W. Bryant, S. P. Lee, M. T. Buber, I. Bakaj, C. J. Hendrix, S. Carlucci, H. Devantier, R. Cerne, R. Cortes, D. G. Sprous, R. K. Palmer, P. D. Stein 4:45 — Discussion. Section B General Papers D. K. Weerasinghe, Organizer K. Mahattanatawee and K. N. Chidambara Murthy, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:50 —268. 2-(1H-Pyrrolyl) carboxylic acids as pigment precursors in garlic greening. G. Zhao 2:10 —269. Effect of extrusion on the composition and structures of whey protein isolate. P. X. Qi, C. I. Onwulata, P. M. Tomasula 2:30 —270. Effects of thermal and nonthermal processing on furan formation in solutions and fruit juice. X. Fan, D. J. Geveke, K. J. B. Sokorai 2:50 — Intermission. 3:10 —271. Homo and Co oligomerization of maleic anhydride in nonpolar solvents, a kinetic study of deviations from nonlinear behavior. Y. M. Alroomi

3:30 —272. Production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid from biodiesel-waste glycerol by microalgal fermentation. Z. Wen 3:50 —273. Rheological properties of chitosan nanoparticle aqueous solutions . J. Li, Q. Huang Section C Flavors in Noncarbonated Beverages Cosponsored by HEALTH J. Adedeji and N. C. Da Costa, Organizers, Presiding 1:30 — Introductory Remarks. 1:50 —274. Comparison of the key aroma compounds in a handsqueezed pineapple juice and a processed juice from concentrate. P. Schieberle, A. Oelmann 2:10 —275. Identification of the key astringent molecules in red currant juice (Ribes rubrum) by means of a sensometabolomics approach. T. Hofmann 2:30 —276. Flavor changes associated with processing and storage of citrus juices. R. L. Rouseff, P. Ruiz Pérez-Cacho, K. Mahattanatawee 2:50 — Intermission. 3:10 —277. Enhanced stability of citral in juice beverage by applying cyclodextrin microemulsion technology. K. J. Strassburger, V. Levey, T. Wilson, J. Briggs, W. Startup, T. Mattingly, J. Harrison 3:30 —278. Key aroma compounds in apple juice: Identification, formation and changes during processing. M. Steinhaus, J. Bogen, P. Schieberle 3:50 —279. Vanilla in noncarbonated beverages. F. Buccellato

ABSTRACTS OF AGFD TECHNICAL PROGRAM 236th ACS National Meeting, Philadelphia, August 17-21, 2008
AGFD 1 One hundred years of the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Charles Brine, brinec@yahoo.com, Dr. Charles J. Brine & Associates, 28 Tee-Ar Place, Princeton, NJ 08450-3946, Fax: (609) 924-7060, and Michael H. Tunick, Michael.Tunick@ars.usda.gov, Dairy Processing & Products Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Ctr., Wyndmoor, PA 19038 AGFD is celebrating its centennial in 2008. This talk will cover the history of the Division, its accomplishments over the past 100 years, and possible directions in the future. AGFD 2 Agricultural and food chemistry: Fifty years of synergy between AGFD and JAFC James N. Seiber, Western Regional Research Ctr., USDA-ARS, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA The Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry and the ACS had the foresight to launch the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in 1953. JAFC, still closely connected with the Division, has grown to be the premier international journal in the field, providing an outlet for publishing original research articles, reviews, perspectives, and editorials, for agricultural and food chemists from many nations. JAFC has expanded coverage of current areas of intense interest, such as bioactive constituents of foods, bioTech., biobased products and biofuels, as well as continuing strong coverage of such mainstream categories as food chemistry/biochemistry, analytical methods, safety and toxicology, and agrochemistry. In 2008 alone, JAFC will publish over 2000 peer review manuscripts, several symposia (largely from AGFD symposia at national ACS meetings), and a number of reviews. The synergy between AGFD and JAFC offers many benefits and exciting opportunities for advancing the science of agricultural and food chemistry for the future. AGFD 3 One hundred years of progress in food analysis Robert J. McGorrin, Dept. of Food Sci. & Tech., Oregon State Univ., 100 Wiegand Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 Food and agricultural products are comprised of complex and diverse chemical mixtures that historically have presented challenges for assessing food safety, nutrient content, stability, and sensory qualities. The analysis of food composition has significantly evolved over the past 100 years, progressing from reliance on predominantly “wet” chemical laboratory methods from the earlyto mid-twentieth century, to their gradual replacement by modern instrumental techniques. Pioneering developments in pH, spectrophotometry, chromatography / separations, and spectrometry often had immediate applications to food analysis. Improvements in methodology over this period have led to significant enhancements in analytical accuracy, precision, and sample throughput, thereby expanding the practical range of food applications. The growth and complexity of the modern global food distribution system heavily relies on food analysis – beyond simple characterization – as a tool for new product development, quality control, regulatory enforcement, and problem-solving. AGFD 4 History of food packaging Sara J. Risch, Michigan State Univ., 6151 Bridgewater Cir, E. Lansing, MI 48823 Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed us to have access to many foods year-round which otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh cut produce which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed. Highlights of innovative packaging developed over the years will be presented.

AGFD 5 BioTech.: A history of promise, prejudice and opportunity John W. Finley, Dept. of Food Sci., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 BioTech. encompasses a very broad area of biological sciences including food production, food processing, analysis and a powerful tool to track in vivo effects of components in food. In reality agricultural bioTech. has been with us since the first crosses of plants and animals were made to improve characteristics. Recently, resistance to transgenic crops has resulted in the often derogatory term GMO. BioTech. is being used to produce many useful enzymes for food process improvements, it provides powerful analytical tools for species identity and the power to understand the in vivo impact of food components by monitoring gene expression. With all of the advantage bioTech. can provide the opportunity to produce healthier crops and crops with improved performance for less developed area are the greatest opportunities. Unfortunately these are the areas where the greatest resistance to application remains. AGFD 6 Carbon-centered free radicals in isolated soy proteins W. L. Boatright1, wlboat1@uky.edu, M. Shah Jahan2, mjahan@memphis.edu, B. M. Walters2, A. F. Miller3, afm@uky.edu, D. Cui3, E. J. Hustedt4, and Q. Lei1. (1) Dept. of Animal Sciences, Univ. of Kentucky, 412 W.P. Garrigus Building, Lexington, KY 40546-0215, (2) Dept. of Physics, The Univ. of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, (3) Dept. Chemistry, Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055, (4) Dept. of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, Vanderbilt Univ. Sch. of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 Solid-state electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of commercial samples of isolated soy proteins (ISP) revealed a symmetrical free-radical signal typical of carbon-centered radicals (g=2.005) ranging from 2.96 x 1014 to 6.42 x 1014 spins per gram. Nine soy protein powdered drink mixes contained similar types of free-radicals up to 4.10 x1015 spins per gram of drink mix. Levels of carbon-centered radicals in newly prepared laboratory ISP samples were all very low immediately after preparation and then gradually increased during storage in the dark at 22°C. After 10 to 25 weeks of storage free radical contents had increased to levels similar to those observed in commercial ISP samples. Storing the ISP samples under nitrogen greatly slowed the increase in free-radicals over time. ISP free-radicals formed during storage are released when the ISP is hydrated and may catalyze a wide array of reactions including those contributing to undesirable flavor and odor compounds. AGFD 7 Antioxidant capabilities of soy oil and flour and stabilities of soy isoflavones during dry heating Zhimin Xu, Dept. of Food Sci., Louisiana State Univ., 111 Food Sci. Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, Fax: 225-578-5300 Capabilities of crude soy oil, degummed oil, and defatted soy flour extract in preventing the oxidation of menhaden oil and its omega-3 fatty acids during heating were evaluated. The menhaden oil mixed with defatted soy flour extract demonstrated the greatest capability in retaining long chain omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in menhaden oil and producing the lowest lipid oxidation products after heating at 150°C for 30 min. A range of 62.8% to 71.5% of DHA and 67.7% to 75.9% of EPA remained in the fish oil with defatted soy flour extract, while only 29.9% of DHA and 37.2% of EPA were retained in the fish oil with no addition. Antioxidant capability from highest to lowest was defatted flour extract > degummed oil = crude oil. It positively correlated to the order of their free radical scavenging capabilities. Although the lowest level of tocopherols was found in the defatted flour extract, it contained the highest level of isoflavones, which was over 100 times higher than in the crude oil or degummed oil. The stabilities of the soy isoflavones, daidzin, glycitin, and genistin during dry heating were investigated as well. The order of their thermal stabilities, from highest to lowest, was daidzin, genistin, and glycitin. They produced acetyl daidzin and acetyl genistin, daidzein, glycitein, and genistein during heating at temperatures above 135°C. The rate of binding of an acetyl group to form acetyl daidzin and acetyl genistin from daidzin and genistin was higher than the rate of loss of a glucoside group to form daidzein and genistein. However, acetyl daidzin and acetyl genistin decreased sharply at temperatures above 200oC, while daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were relatively stable over 30 min. The stability of daidzein was higher than that of genistein or glycitein. AGFD 8 Trypsin inhibitor activity in soymilk as affected by soy materials and thermal processing methods Shaohong Yuan and Sam K. C. Chang, Cereal and Food Sci., North Dakota State Univ., IACC 370, Fargo, ND 58105, Fax: 701-231-6536 Soybeans contain significant health-promoting components but also contain undesirable beany flavor and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA). Thermal processing can inactivate TIA and lipoxygenases to improve the nutritive value of soymilk. Simultaneous elimination of TIA and soy odor compounds by UHT processing has not been fully studied. We determined TIA in several soybean materials, and in soymilk processed by traditional, steam injection, blanching and UHT methods and in commercial soymilk products. Residual TIA in soymilk processed by the traditional and steam injection methods for 20 min were approximately 13%. Blanching soybeans inactivated 25-50% of TI activities in the soymilk. Blanching at 80 C for 2 min produced soymilk containing no lipoxygenase activity and hexanal. TIA inactivation of blanched soymilk by continuous Microthermics UHT direct-steam injection followed first-order reaction kinetics with an Ea of 34 kJ/mole. Some commercial soymilk contained high TIA. The results are important to the soymilk industry and consumers. AGFD 9 Heating sequence and calcium lactate concentration effects on in vitro protein digestibility and oil release of emulsion stabilized by preheated soy protein and caseinate N. Na Nakornpanom and P. Hongsprabhas, Dept. of Food Sci. and Tech., Kasetsart Univ., Faculty of Agro-Industry, Bangkok 10900, Thailand Protein digestibility and oil release under in vitro peptic and tryptic digestion of pasteurised high caloric o/w emulsion were investigated. SDS-PAGE showed that the pre-heat treatment at 80 °C for 30 min of soy protein and sodium caseinate at the ratio of 0.3:0.7 induced polymerization of the proteins via disulfide bond formation. Addition of calcium lactate (25 and 100 mM) to the pre-heated protein stabilized o/w emulsion further induced sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange, even at pH 3.0 (P<0.05). The re-heating of the emulsion, a so-called “two-stage heating process”, altered the microstructure of the protein matrices observed under CLSM. This resulted in the long lag phase for oil to release and slow release rate of peptides during peptic and tryptic digestion, particularly when the calcium lactate was 100 mM (P<0.05). This study implicates the production of a controlled digestion and nutrient release by fabricating different protein matrix characteristics at the interface. AGFD 10 Tofu property and disulfide bonds in the protein of soybean Michiko Momma1, michiko@affrc.go.jp, Tomoko Seki1, and Makita Hajika2. (1) Food Resource Div., National Food Research Inst., 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan, Fax: 81-298838-7996, (2) Natl. Inst. of Crop Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8518 Soybean is one of the major protein resources in east-Asian countries, and its benefit to health is calling attention. Soybean is used widely to either fermented, or unfermented food, especially tofu, gelatinized curd, and its derivative products are typical usage. Among many researches conducted about formation of tofu gel from soybean, Toda et al. indicated that protein content of soymilk correlate to tofu strength at optimized coagulant concentration. Early studies on gelatinization of

purified soy proteins suggested that disulfide in glycinin might contribute to the gel strength of tofu. In this study, we estimated the distribution of disulfide bonds in soybean protein and investigated its relationship to soybean processing quality. Disulfides bonds in soybean proteins were estimated by labeling with a fluorescent reagent, monobromobimane (mBBr) and subsequent electrophoresis. Acidic and basic subunits of glycinin, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors were detected as major disulfide proteins in the soybean proteins. We observed positive relationship between labeled intensity of disulfide bonds of glycinin and rupture stress of tofu gel prepared of soybean varieties developed in Japan. The results indicated the importance of reactivity disulfides in glycinin components in the tofu processing. Bowman-Birk protease does not seem to contribute to the network structure of tofu gel in spite of the high content of disulfide bonds in the protein. Results in this study also suggested that disulfides in soybean protein were easily analyzed by the mBBr fluorescence labeling, and that this method is a useful tool to investigate the relationship between disulfide bonds in each protein component and quality of food. AGFD 11 Effects of heating temperature and cooling rate on denaturation of soymilk protein Makoto Shimoyamada1, shimoyam@myu.ac.jp, Kimiko Tsuzuki2, Hiroaki Asao2, and Ryo Yamauchi3, ho@aesop.rutgers.edu. (1) School of Food, Agricultural and Envir. Science, Miyagi Univ., 2-2-1 Hatatate, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0215, Japan, Fax: 22-245-1534, (2) Research Inst., Marusan ai Co., Ltd, Okazaki 444-2193, Japan, (3) Dept. of Bioprocessing, Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu Univ., Gifu 501-1193, Japan In order to evaluate effect of heating and cooling on soymilk protein, raw soymilk, which was squeezed before heating, was heated at 80, 100 or 115°C, and then cooled at room temperature or -5°C. Surface SH content of soymilk protein was decreased with the increase in heating temperature. Further, the SH content of the soymilk rapidly cooled at -5°C was higher than those slowly cooled at room temperature. Surface hydrophobicity of the soymilk protein was increased by heating, and the hydrophobicity was slightly higher in cooling at -5°C than at room temperature. Then, the raw soymilk was heated at two temperatures of 115°C (first heating) and successive 80°C (second heating). After cooling in an ice bath, both of SH content and hydrophobicity of the resulting soymilk was decreased during the second heating. This denaturation behavior was different from that of protein solution prepared from defatted soybean. AGFD 12 Separating soybean glycinin and ß-conglycinin with rennase made from Mucor pusillus Shuntang Guo and Zhao Liu, College of Food Sci. and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural Univ., 17 Qinghua Donglu, Haidian district, Beijing 100083, China, Fax: 8610-62737634 Soybean glycinin and ? -conglycinin play important roles in food due to their functional properties. In conventional methods, reductants are commonly used to separate them. In this study, Rennase made from Mucor pusillus was applied to separate the two protein fractions. The optimal conditions were as follows: adjusting pH 5.6, adding rennase 12 U/mL, incubating at 60°C for 40min. At this condition, the yields of the soybean glycinin and ? -conglycinin were 18.4 and 10.3% [dry basis (db)], respectively. The protein content of glycinin was 93.4% (db), and the purity was 92.3% of the protein content; the protein content of ? -conglycinin was 91.5% (db), and the purity was 88.4% of the protein content. All of the yields, content and purity of two protein fractions were very comparable to those of the conventional methods. The new method without using reductant was simple and can be used for industrial production. AGFD 13 The Maillard reaction: A continuing challenge to the flavor chemist. Donald. S. Mottram, Dept. of Food Biosciences, Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom The generation of flavor during cooking plays a very important role in providing desirable eating quality in many foods. Autoxidation of lipid can generate some of the compounds that provide flavor in cooked foods, but one of the main reactions to which the flavor chemist has turned to explain cooked flavor has been the Maillard reaction. Discovered almost 100 years ago, it was another fifty y ears before the reaction was studied in any detail, whilst in the last two decades the complexity of the reaction for flavor generation has become more widely understood. Although it is essentially the reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar, studies of simple model systems can only partly explain the thermal generation of flavor. In real foods the presence of many different amino acids, sugars and other food components provide a complex mixture of flavor precursors for the Maillard reaction, while differences in pH and time-temperature profile add to the complexity of the flavor compounds produced. This presentation will provide an overview of flavor formation in the Maillard reaction in foods, especially meat, cereals and potatoes, and will discuss how structural components such as lipids and proteins influence the reaction. It will also examine how the recent discovery of acrylamide, as a Maillard reaction product, in fried and baked foods, is presenting new challenges to the flavor chemist. AGFD 14 Effects of cationic species on visual color development during the Maillard reaction George Rizzi, Dept. of Chem., Miami Univ., Middletown Campus, Middletown, OH 45042 Food color is an important aspect of flavor which can be a crucial determinant of consumer acceptance. And, for many processed foods like bread, meat, chocolate and coffee the desired colors are often the result of ambient thermally-induced Maillard reactions. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent added cationic species can affect Maillard browning. Previous studies showed how certain polyatomic anions like phosphate, acetate and succinate can accelerate Maillard browning by assisting the dehydration and dealdolization of reducing sugars. More recently, t etraborate ion was observed to enhance browning presumably by a different mechanism involving increasing the concentration of reactive, open-chain (aldehydo) forms of reducing sugars. In this paper recent studies on the effects of various cations on browning will be presented. Catalytic quantities of alkaline earth metal ions were found to enhance the rate of browning (A420) in buffered aqueous model reactions containing glycine and aldopentoses at neutral pH. Also, the effects of added metal ions will be compared with those of cationic organic salts, guanidine hydrochloride and choline [(2hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium] chloride. The latter compounds were chosen as models to investigate the possible contribution of cationcatalysis in Maillard browning with arginine-containing proteins or lecithin-class phospholipids respectively. AGFD 15 Monitoring the effects of reactants and process on intermediates in acrylamide formation Andrew J. Taylor1, andy.taylor@nottingham.ac.uk, Florian Wulfert1, Andy.taylor@nottingham.ac.uk, and Guy A Channell2, guy.channell@nottingham.ac.uk. (1) Food Sci. Dept, Univ. of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, Loughborough Leics, United Kingdom, Fax: 1159 516154, (2) Division of Food Sci.s, Univ. of Nottingham Loughborough (Nr) LE12 5RD, United Kingdom The discovery of acrylamide in food in 2002 generated substantial interest in the origins of the chemical and Don Mottram was one of the first to propose a pathway based on reaction of asparagine through the Maillard reaction. The pathway is a good model in which to study the effects of sugars and sugar-derived products on the formation of intermediates and end products. There is a clearly defined end product (acrylamide) and the proposed

intermediates have been confirmed by other research groups. Using on-line monitoring and labelled reactants, we could assign ions to compounds and study how different carbonyl sources affected the relative amounts of intermediates and end products from the pathway. AGFD 16 Applying kinetics to flavor formation in Maillard systems Bronislaw Wedzicha, b.l.wedzicha@leeds.ac.uk, Dept. of Food Sci., Univ. of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS29JT, England, Fax: +441133432982, and Donald. S. Mottram, d.s.mottram@reading.ac.uk, Dept. of Food Biosciences, Univ. of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom Flavour formation during the cooking of foods is under kinetic control. Thus, the extent and quality of food flavour generated in cooked food is, in principle, capable of being predicted through kinetic modelling. The approach is powerful in that kinetic models for flavour formation can be combined with models, e.g., for the kinetics of texture change or the formation of toxicants such as acrylamide, to provide a multi-response approach to optimising (maximising or minimising, as appropriate) these characteristics. The kinetics of the formation of the simpler flavour volatiles in the Maillard reaction, e.g., Strecker aldehydes and pyrazines, are now established. The principle whereby some components act as flavour “potentiators” by driving the Maillard reaction, whereas others give rise to characteristic volatiles (e.g., heterocyclic compounds characteristic of meat products) is demonstrable. However, the flavour “complex” consists of numerous interacting stimuli, and the real challenge is to be able to interface sensory data with the differential equations which describe the kinetics of the underlying reactions. This talk will explain and illustrate how kinetic models work, and will describe the way that kinetic modelling and analytical studies of flavour systems provide opportunities for the control of food flavour development. The question as to whether flavour formation can be modelled using the “language” of chemical kinetics will be discussed critically. AGFD 17 Flavor formation during thermal food processing: Why do thermally treated foods smell and taste different? Peter Schieberle, Food Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr.4, Garching 85748, Germany, Fax: 0049 89 289 14183 During thermal processing of foods non-volatile precursors undergo various types of reactions leading to the unique flavors of well-accepted products, such as cocoa, coffee, cereals or nuts. It is without doubt that the reaction between free amino acids and carbohydrates or their degradation products, respectively, known as the Maillard reaction, is among the most important “flavor delivery” systems in such foods. However, studies using approaches of “molecular sensory science” have shown that the majority of Maillard-type reaction products do neither show a contribution to the aroma nor to the taste of processed foods. Furthermore, many of the key aroma compounds formed, such as 4-hydroxy -2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, the Strecker aldehydes or various pyrazines are often found to be identical in many foods after a thermal treatment. Using several foods as examples, the lecture is intended to show that, besides the transfer of flavor compounds from the raw materials or specific reactions with other food ingredients, in particular the quantitative balance of potent Maillard-type flavor compounds is a key factor explaining the overall differences in the aroma perception of different Maillard-type flavors. Finally, a new approach to selectively influence the yields of a desired aroma compound in reaction flavors will be presented. AGFD 18 Good and bad of reactive carbonyl species from Maillard reaction Chi Tang Ho, Yu Wang, Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., 65 Dudley Rd, New Brunswick, NJ Maillard reaction will generate several reactive carbonyl species, such as glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone, due to activation and fragmentation of reducing sugars. They are important precursors for many odor-active compounds such as 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy -3(2H)-furanone as well as heterocyclic compounds. On the other hand, in vivo Maillard reaction generated reactive carbonyl species may irreversibly modified proteins over time and yielded the advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which are closely associated with several pathophysiological conditions, such as cataracts, diabetes complications, and Alzheimer's disease. For example, higher levels of methylglyoxal (MG) were observed in diabetic patients' plasma than those in healthy peop le's plasma. Thus decreasing the levels of MG will be a useful approach to prevent the formation of AGEs. We will discuss the importance of methylglyoxal in flavor generation in processed foods, and also review recent work on the trapping of methylglyoxal by polyphenolic compound. AGFD 19 Progress in US dairy foods over the past 100 years Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing & Products Research Unit, USDAARS, Eastern Regional Research Ctr., 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, Fax: 215-233-6795 Infant mortality rates in the largest American cities exceeded 30% in the first decade of the 20th century, and much of the blame was directed toward adulteration and contamination of milk. Passage and enforcement of the Pure Food and Drug Act, and the introduction and eventual acceptance of certified and pasteurized milk, finally alleviated these problems. Homogenization and advances in packaging and transport of milk gradually took hold during the century, creating an improved milk supply. Other developments included the concentration of milk and whey by membrane Tech., lactose-reduced milk, and elucidation of milk protein structure. Consumers have benefited from advances in butter packaging, development of soft ice cream, cheese manufacture, and yogurt Tech., helping create the large demand for dairy products in the US. Current issues, including organic products and use of rBST, will shape the future of the dairy industry. AGFD 20 Flavor of muscle food as affected by their lipid components and processing F. Shahidi, Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF A1B 3X9, Canada, Muscle foods, including red meat, poultry and seafoods, have a variety of flavors and these are affected by species, processing and storage conditions. The lipids present in muscle foods play a major role in flavor/off-flavor development of muscle foods and these are known to be species dependent. Thus oxidation of lipids during processing and/or their prevention has a major effect on the quality of p roducts. In red meats and poultry, nitrite curing leads to products that are shelf-stable and have a fresh quality with minimum level of oxidation. However, seafoods may not generally be nitrite cured because of the possibility of Nnitrosamine formation. Thus protection of seafood lipids, including fish oils, may be achieved by the use of antioxidants and other protectants. The presentation provides an overview of the ways in which processing of muscle foods may be carried out in order to ensure quality preservation of products. AGFD 21 AGFD and 100 years of chemical research on grains and legumes Keith Cadwallader, Dept. of Food Sci. and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 205 ABL, 1302 W Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, Fax: 217-333-3585 Over the past century much has been learned about the chemistry and biochemistry of grains and legumes. AGFD has played a large role in promoting and disseminating research that has lead to improvements in production, processing and storage practices, as well as the overall quality (nutrition and eating quality), of grains and legumes. In more recent years, AGFD researchers have focused on the bioactive components of

various grains and legumes. This paper will highlight research efforts over the past 100 years that have most greatly contributed our understanding of the chemistry of grains and legumes. AGFD 22 Examining the history of the science and Tech. of confectionery Joe A. Vinson, vinson@scranton.edu, Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510, Fax: 570-941-7510, and Karen A. Cooper, karen.cooper@rdls.nestle.com, Nestle Research Group, Nestle, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland Confectionery is a term that covers a very wide range of foods that generally can be considered to be high (or perceived high) in sugar. Key factors for influencing variety include the remarkable diversity of sugar and the unique melting properties of cocoa butter. Most of the advanced technologies used today for confectionery evolved from inventions in the late 19th /early 20th Century. Chocolate chemistry and the processing of chocolate is quite complex but most of the Tech. was invented in the 19th century. New advances have been designed to improve the texture and taste with the trend toward production of dark chocolate which is considered to be more healthful due to its higher concentration of antioxidants. Generally, people have consumed confectionery for pleasure, though recent trends for enhanced snacking are driving the development of healthier options, e.g. with high cocoa, wholegrain or all natural ingredients. AGFD 23 Wine chemistry and flavor: Looking into the crystal glass Susan E. Ebeler, Dept. of Viticulture and Enology, Univ. of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, Fax: 530-752-0382 Over the past century, advances in analytical chemistry have played a significant role in understanding wine chemistry and flavor. While the focus in the 19th and early 20th centuries was on determining major components (ethanol, organic acids, sugars) and detecting fraud, more recently the emphasis has been on quantifying trace compounds including those that may be related to varietal flavors. In addition, over the past 15 years, applications of combined analytical and sensory techniques (e.g., GC-O) have improved our ability to relate chemical composition to sensory properties. Many challenges still remain, however. In this paper we will discuss some of the recent research aimed at understanding how viticultural practices and fermentation conditions influence grape and wine composition. In addition, the challenges in linking composition to sensory properties will also be reviewed. Finally, future advances in linking grape, yeast, and human genomics to wine chemistry and flavor will be discussed. AGFD 24 Chemistry of tea and coffee: A century of progress Chi-Tang Ho, Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ Tea and coffee are two of the most widely consumed beverages in the world after water. Considerable interest has been developed in the past decade to unravel the health beneficial effects of tea and coffee, particularly in their polyphenolic components and its antioxidant activity. Catechins, theaflavins and thearubigins are three important groups of polyphenols present in tea. In coffee, thermal decomposition of chlorogenic acid and its derivatives also produces complex mixture of compounds, many of them have interesting bioactivity. The formation mechanism of these compounds during tea and coffee processing as well as their respective biological activities is of great importance and of both scientific and commercial interest. The flavor and taste chemistry of tea and coffee will also be reviewed. AGFD 25 Search for understanding citrus flavors in fresh squeezed and commercial juices: An historical perspective Russell L. Rouseff1, rlr@crec.ifas.ufl.edu, Pilar Ruiz Perez-Cachol2, and Fatima Jabalpurwala1. (1) Univ. of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Rd., Lake Alfred, FL, (2) Centro Alameda del Obispo, IFAPA, 14080 Cordoba, Spain Citrus juices are the most widely consumed fruit juices in the world because of their pleasant taste and good nutrition. Orange juice aroma is due to a complex mixture of volatiles in specific proportions that are cultivar and maturity dependent. Commercial juices must reduce microbial and enzyme levels to produce a stable product, typically using short time – high temperature thermal processing. Reduced levels of specific aroma impact compounds (especially aldehydes) as well as the formation of specific off-flavors have been noted. Thermal concentration of citrus juices removes much of the water as well as most aroma volatiles. Analysis of juices reconstituted from concentrate has shown that some juice producers restore more of the original flavor volatiles than others. Compounds such as guaiacol, 2,6-dichlorophenol and 2,4-diketo butanone have been identified as indicators of specific microbial contaminations. Storage time and temperature can also alter juice aroma profiles due to Maillard, Strecker and acid catalyzed hydration reactions. A juice container's oxygen and light barrier properties will also allow or inhibit additional aroma altering reactions. AGFD 26 Breeding trials for enhancing ? -tocopherol and lutein contents in seeds of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Keisuke Kitamura, Shaodong Wang, Kyohei Kanamaru, Maria S. Dwiyanti, and Tetsuya Yamada, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido Univ., Kita 9, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589, Japan Soybean seeds contain low levels of ? -tocopherol (Toc). Lutein which has been shown to reduce risks for ocular diseases is found in low concentration in the seeds. We have identified soybean varieties with high ? Toc and wild soybean (Glycine soja) strains with high levels of lutein content. Genetic analysis of the high ? -Toc and the high lutein traits, respectively, revealed that the high ? -Toc and lutein contents are highly heritable. Two SSR markers, Sat_243 and Sat_167 were shown to be significantly associated with ? -Toc content. We obtained some lines with high levels of lutein and ? -Toc contents in the progenies derived from a cross between a high ? -Toc variety, Keszthelyi A.S. and a high lutein wild soybean strain, B09092. No physiological and agricultural problems were observed in the lines. Accumulation of high contents of ? -Toc and lutein is possible in soybean seeds. AGFD 27 Characterization and genetic analysis of high lutein content of wild soybean (Glycine soja) strains Kyohei Kanamaru, Shaodong Wang, Jun Abe, Tetsuya Yamada, and Keisuke Kitamura, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido Univ., Kita 9, Nishi 9, Kitaku, Sapporo, 060-8589, Japan, Fax: 011-706-4933 Soybean seeds contain low levels of lutein which is beneficial to human health. We have identified wild soybean strains with high lutein by HPLC. Genetic analysis revealed the high lutein characteristic was highly heritable. The high lutein strains were shown to contain not only lutein but also other xanthophylls that are neoxanthin, violaxanthin and antheraxanthin. The xanthophylls were also detected in the F3 and F4 seeds with high lutein contents from a cross between a low lutein cultivar, Toyomusume and a high lutein wild soybean strain, GD50344. Lutein and the xanthophylls were mainly derived from the cotyledon. There was no significant correlation between lutein content and seed weight. Accumulation of high content of lutein is possible in soybean seeds. AGFD 28 Development of simple sequence repeat markers for breeding soybeans with high a-tocopherol conc. Maria S. Dwiyanti, Tetsuya Yamada, Jun Abe, and Keisuke Kitamura, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido Univ., Kita 9, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589, Japan, Soybean seeds contain of 60-70% ?-tocopherol (Toc) and less than 10% a-Toc. Since a-Toc acts as vitamin E efficiently in human body, increasing a-Toc content in soybean seeds will improve nutritional value of soybean. We crossed Keszthelyi A.S.,

a variety with high a-Toc concentration, to Ichihime, a Japanese cultivar with ordinary a-Toc, and performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using its F2 population. A highly effective QTL related to a-Toc concentration was located near SSR markers Sat_167 and Sat_243 in the linkage group K. Based on soybean genome database constructed by DOE Joint Genome Institute (www.phytozome.net/soybean), we developed a new SSR marker K-SC138-10 in the QTL region. K-SC138-10 was found to be closely linked to a-Toc concentration in F5 population. This marker will be useful for marker-assisted selection of soybean lines with high a-Toc concentration. AGFD 29 Estimation of the mutation site of a soyasapogenol A-deficient soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by LC-MS/MS profile analysis Hiroko Sasama1, chigen@iwate-u.ac.jp, Yoshitake Takada2, yottake@affrc.go.jp, Masao Ishimoto3, masao_ishimoto@affrc.go.jp, Keisuke Kitamura4, kitakei@res.agr.hokudai.ac.jp, and Chigen Tsukamoto1, chigen@iwate-u.ac.jp. (1) Grad Schl of Agriculture, Iwate Univ., 3-18-8 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan, Fax: +81-19-621-6251, (2) Natl Agricultural Res. Ctr. for Tohoku Region, NARO, Daisen, Akita 019-2112, Japan, (3) Natl Agricultural Res. Ctr. for Hokkaido Region, NARO, Sapporo 062-8555, Japan, (4) Grad Schl of Agr., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589, Japan Worldwide attention toward the health benefits from soybean saponins has increased and they have also attracted attention in addressing taste characteristics. There are two soybean saponin aglycons: soyasapogenol A (SA), which causes bitter astringent taste; and DDMP-conjugated soyasapogenol B (SB), which has health benefits. SA-deficient mutant soybean (Tohoku No.152) that could have better taste was recently developed. However, the mutation site is unknown therefore undesirable components may accumulate and decrease its food value. Soyasapogenols are thought to be synthesized from 2,3-oxidosqualene through ßamyrin and hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 family enzymes. If the SA-deficiency were caused by enzyme elimination, intermediate components could accumulate in the mutant seeds. We used LC-MS/MS profile analysis to investigate acumulation of SA precursor components in Tohoku No.152, but none was detected. We deduced that the SA-deficient mutant eliminates the P450 monooxygenase, which hydroxylates the C-21 position of SA precursor component. SA-deficiency resulted increase of DDMP-saponin content. AGFD 30 Quality and chemical components of the tofu made from whole-soybeans Min-Hsiung Lee and Fuh-Juin Kao, Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan Univ., No. 1, Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan Soybeans are one of the most important and economic nutrients source for human beings. It contains about 30-35% protein, 15-20% fat, 10% crude fiber, 5-10% ash and 20% N-free carbohydrates. Tofu is one of the popular foods made from soybeans. However, during the making of tofu, okara associated with a lot of other nutrients such as dietary fiber, fat, protein, isoflavones and the like are lost during the manufacturing of hard tofu. Usually, the solid recovery of soybeans materials in tofu making is only about 55-60%. This is really a waste of natural food materials. Especially the health beneficial dietary fiber that is completely lost in the conventional tofu making. In this research, we tried to make the whole-soybean tofu by means of further reducing the ground particle size and using transglutaminase. This research revealed that whole-soybean tofu could be successfully made by reducing the ground soybean particle size to smaller than 425 µm (pass through 40 mesh sieve) and by the addition of 1.5 ppm of transglutaminase. When compared with the conventional making of hard tofu, the protein recovery, solid recovery and tofu yield were increased by 18%, 49% and 75.9% in that order. AGFD 31 Storage-induced biochemical changes of soybean as related to soymilk and tofu making Sam K. C. Chang, Dept. of Cereal and Food Sci.s, North Dakota State Univ., IACC 322, Fargo, ND 58105, Fax: 701-231-6536 Biochemical components, including lipids, sugars, protein structures, isoflavones, acidity, phytate and color of soybean change during shipping and storage. The changes affect the suitability of soybeans for soy food making. Soybean was stored under selected conditions of humidity and temperature in model systems and in ambient environment on the farm for up to 18 months. Results showed high humidity and temperature conditions, the color of soybean darkened. Titratable acidity increased, whereas phytate and protein solubility decreased. Conjugated malonyl isoflavones were converted to aglycones and glucosides. The optimal amount of coagulant required for tofu making decreased over time. The secondary structures of proteins changed. Protein was glycosylated. Disulfide linkages increased whereas surface hydrophobicity decreased over time. The soymilk protein yield decreased. Tofu yield and quality deteriorated significantly within months when the storage conditions became critically adverse. Soybeans stored under the ambient conditions in North Dakota retained good quality for tofu making. AGFD 32 CLA Supplementation in women at risk of sarcopenia Susie W Rockway, Dept. Clinical Nutrition, Rush Univ. Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612 The objective of this 8-week study was to investigate the effects of CLA supplementation on body composition and muscular strength in a group of women weight training and at risk for sarcopenia. Healthy women age 40 or over were randomized to one of two groups; all subjects participated in a resistance exercise training program three times per week and drank an amino acid beverage during exercise. Muscular strength and body composition were assessed at three time-points. There was a significant increase in muscular strength in all subjects (n=25) at the end of the study compared to baseline, but we could not detect any effects due to supplement use in either body composition or strength. No significant changes were seen in body fat or lean tissue between CLA or placebo. Thus, resistance training increased strength in this population, but any enhanced effects of CLA supplementation to impact strength or body composition could not be detected. Continuing this study with increased sample size and more sensitive measures may detect changes if they exist. AGFD 33 Effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and conjugated linoleic acid-containing phospholipids on nitric oxide production in bovine endothelial cells Jack Y. Vanderhoek, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The George Washington Univ., 2300 Eye Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037 We examined the effects of five CLA isomers, the nonconjugated linoleic acid (LA), three CLA-containing phospholipids and 2-linoleoyl-PC on ionophore A23187-stimulated formation of nitric oxide (NO), an important inflammatory modulator. Pretreatment of bovine endothelial cells with 0.005 mM CLAs (c9, c11-, c9, t11-, t9, t11-, t10, c12-, c11, c13CLA) decreased NO formation by 20-40% relative to controls with the t9, t11- and t10, c12-CLA isomers being the most effective. This inhibitory effect was not time dependent. c9, t11-CLA-PC and 2-linoleoyl-PC dose-dependently inhibited NO production over a 0.06-1 mM range whereas c9, c11-CLA-PC and c9, t11-CLA-PE were ineffective. Both c9, t11-CLA-PC and linoleoyl-PC exhibited a time-dependent decrease in NO production from 5 to 120 min. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of several phospholipids containing C18 PUFAs on NO production is influenced by the positional and geometric nature of the double bonds as well as the phospholipid head group.

AGFD 34 Foods and beverages use of docosahexaenoic acid Jimbin Mai, Martek Biosciences Corporation, Winchester, KY 40391, Fax: 859-744-8364 The general awareness about the omega-3 fatty acids and more specifically DHA in fetus brain and eye development as well as cardiovascular health is now common knowledge by most people. Furthermore, the relationship between DHA and Alzheimer's, symptoms of Parkinson's disease, bone health, diabetes, neonatal care and fatty livers are being investigated. After the initial use of DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) in infant formulas, the current trend is to expand the use of DHA in other products for babies and toddlers as well as mainstream products during the entire life cycle. These products are beverages, dairies, baked goods, cereals, pastas, nutritional bars, snacks and confectioneries. The oxidative instability of DHA requires the retention of the fresh quality of the oils and hence is most important for consumer packaged foods. Therefore, handling of DHA from harvesting of DHA-rich algae to oil processing, to formulation and processing to finished goods and packaging is of utmost importance. The presentation will provide information about the production, processing, handling, regulatory, nutritional and clinical studies of DHA oil from algal sources and its application in food and beverages in the hope that DHA-containing products can be made readily available to consumers and to help change the nutritional balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the human body for better health. AGFD 35 Health beneficial effects of highly unsaturated conjugated fatty acids Kazuo Miyashita, Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., 3-1-1, Minato, Hakodate 041-8611, Japan, The health benefits attributed to highly unsaturated conjugated fatty acids such as conjugated linolenic acid (CLN), conjugated EPA (CEPA), and conjugated DHA (CDHA) are reported. In a comparative study, CLN, CEPA, CDHA and not conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were found to be intensively cytotoxic to various cultured human tumor cells. The conjugated trienoic structure found in these highly unsaturated conjugated fatty acids would be more responsible for this increased cytotoxicity. The anti-tumor effect of CLN was also confirmed using animal models. When the effects of dietary intake of CEPA and CDHA on lipid metabolism were evaluated in animal trials, the white adipose tissue weight of rodents fed CEPA and CDHA was significantly lower than the control. Triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in groups fed CDHA relative to the control. AGFD 36 Neuroprotective effects of n-3 fatty acid EPA in neurodegeneration Cai Song, Pornnarin Taepavarapruk, Ye Zhang, Qingjia Meng, and Dirk Luchtman, Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Univ. of Prince Edward Island, 550 Univ. Ave, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3 In several studies we have demonstrated a number of neuroprotective mechanisms by which eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exerts its beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In rats, interleukin-1beta (IL-1) administration for 7 days significantly impaired animal learning and memory, which was associated with a decrease in acetylcholine release and an increase in the expression of amyloid precursor proteins (APP) in the hippocampus. mRNA expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and transforming growth factor-beta 1 were decreased. EPA treatment significantly attenuated these changes induced by IL-1 administration. In an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease induced by neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) on dopamine-like neurons, mRNA expressions of inflammation markers cyclooxygenase2 and phospholipase A2 were largely increased, which were associated with increased free radical release and oxidants. When co-culturing MPP+ and EPA together, MPP+ induction of these changes was blocked. EPA effects on inflammation and oxidative stress may contribute to EPA neuroprotection because EPA reversed the reduction of cell viability induced by MPP+. Thus, EPA may serve as a new treatment for some neurodegenerative diseases. AGFD 37 Studies on the oxygen diffusion-concentration products of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in liposomes and phospholipid solutions Jun-Jie Yin, Ctr for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US FDA, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy, College Park, MD Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of octadecadienoic acids (18:2), which are naturally present in food products and may have health beneficial effects. This study compares high purity c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA, and LA in the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine for their effects on oxygen diffusion-concentration products and depletion in liposome suspensions and ethanol solutions of soy, egg yolk, and rat brain and heart phospholipids using electron spin resonance spin-label oximetry method. Individual CLA isomers differed in their effects on oxygen diffusion-concentration products or lipid peroxidation in both aqueous liposome suspensions and ethanol solutions, and these effects are dependent on testing lipid system and the origin of phospholipids. This study examined and compared c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA, and linoleic acid (LA) for their reactions with the stable DPPH radicals in ethanol solutions and liposomes (PC containing individual CLA isomers). LA differs from CLA in its capacities to react with and quench DPPH radicals in both ethanol solution and in liposome, suggesting that the fatty acid composition and testing lipid system may alter the estimation of DPPH radical-fatty acid interactions. In addition, the effects of the two CLA isomers on phase transition temperature of liposomes were investigated and compared to that of LA. Incorporation of LA and CLA isomers into DMPC reduced the phase transition temperature from 23.6 to 23.1 and 23.3 °C, respectively. The results from this study provide information to explain the potential mechanisms involved in the beneficial actions of CLA isomers. AGFD 38 Update: Flavor chemistry of small fruit Gary A. Reineccius, Dept. of Food Sci. and Nutrition, Univ. of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Ave., St Paul, MN 55108, Fax: 612-625-5272 This presentation will be a review of recent findings on research aimed at understanding the flavor of small fruit. Over time, research has been directed at determining the compounds that characterize the flavor of these products, and studying how these compounds change during various processing steps and in storage. The field has is coming to understand that flavor perception is multimodal in nature and thus not only aroma must be considered: other stimuli must be considered. Traditional flavor research is being expanded to include measures of taste and texture. AGFD 39 The Pacific Northwest is a world leader in berry production: The challenges of developing new cultivars to keep it thriving. Chad Finn, finnc@hort.oregonstate.edu, USDA-ARS, HCRL, 3420 NW Orchard Ave., Corvallis, OR 97330, and Michael C. Qian, michael.qian@oregonstate.edu, Dept. of Food Sci. and Tech., Oregon State Univ., Corvalis, OR 97331 The Pacific Northwest berry industry is a world leader in the production of blueberries, blackberries, red and black raspberries, and strawberries. Unlike many regions of the world, this industry is primarily geared towards processing as opposed to the fresh market. The Northwest industry has historically placed a high value on characteristics critical for processing including berries with intense colors and flavors, high acid and sugar levels, ability to retain texture during freezing and thawing. The region is blessed with a climate that is conducive to development of optimal fruit quality. In addition, the Northwest breeding programs are geared towards developing cultivars that suited for processing. Selecting berries with good

fruit flavor in the field in the hopes that they will be good after processing is difficult; research is underway to better understand ideal flavor and how it might practically and objectively be selected for in the field by breeder. AGFD 40 On the road of developing thornless blackberries with "Marion" flavor Michael C. Qian, Dept. of Food Sci. and Tech., Oregon State Univ., 100 Wiegand Hall, Corvalis, OR ‘Marion' berry has developed its outstanding reputation for productiveness, disease resistant and attractive flavor, and nearly ideal fruit quality for processing. However, ‘Marion' plants are not reliably cold hardy and are thorny which can be a safety hazard, and lead to a poor product during mechanical harvesting. Consumer preference for ‘Marion' berry flavor and the concerns of thorny plant have stimulated research to breed thornless blackberry cultivars with flavor similar to or superior than ‘Marion' berry. To breed in the desirable flavor attributes to the new selections is a big challenge. The aroma compounds responsible for the desirable flavor attributes need to be fully understood. Extensive research on ‘Marion' berry aroma suggested that furaneol, beta-ionone, betadamascenone, linalool, and geraniol could be very important to ‘Marion' berry flavor. Sensory recombination study demonstrates that furaneol is one of the most important aroma compounds in ‘Marion' blackberry. Furaneol concentration was studied in thornless selections as well as some popular cultivars. Although environmental factors alter the flavor quality of fruit, the flavor profile quantitatively and qualitatively is largely determined by genetic factors. A 3 year blackberry fruit quality study has demonstrated that Waldo, Marion, thornless 1380-1, 1843-3 and 9351-4 have high concentration of furaneol, while Chester, Thornless Evergreen blackberries have low furaneol content. Instrumental analysis is in good agreement with a sensory PCA that grouped Marion, Waldo, 1380-1, 1843-3, 2198-1 and 9351-4 together. Further more, it has been noticed that ‘Marion' berry flavor resemblance improves when furaneol is added to a thornless blackberry juice. AGFD 41 Metabolic engineering in Fragaria x ananassa for the production of epiafzelechin and phenylpropenoids Wilfried Schwab1, schwab@wzw.tum.de, Thomas Hoffmann2, and Markus Griesser2. (1) Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Biomolecular Food Tech., Tech. Univ. Munich, Lise-Meitner-Str. 3, Freising D-85354, Germany, (2) Biomolecular Food Tech., Freising Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is one of the most popular fruit crops worldwide and is grown in all temperate regions of the world. Much of the popularity of this fruit is due to the attractive flavor and the deep red color. In addition to traditional nutrients such as carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, strawberries are also rich in phenolic compounds such as flavonoids e.g. epiafzelechin, which is the focus of intense study due to its proliferative effects on osteoblastic cells and selective inhibitory activities against cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) over COX-2. The majority of flavonoids in strawberries are anthocyanins, the compounds responsible for the blue, red and purple hues of berries, grapes and other fruits. To confirm the in vivo function of a recently cloned strawberry UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin glucosyltransferase (FaGT1) gene we downregulated its expression in strawberry fruit by injection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells harboring an intron-hairpin construct of a partial FaGT1 sequence. In about one third of the injected fruits this led to a significant downregulation of FaGT1 transcript levels that corresponded to reduced concentrations of anthocyanin pigments in ripe fruits. In contrast, significant levels of epiafzelechin - formed by anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) from pelargonidin - were identified in FaGT1 silenced fruits. Thus, the redirection of the metabolic flux towards the flavan-3-ol through downregulation of FaGT1 offers a new method to increase the levels of this bioactive metabolite in fruit crops. In addition a dormant biosynthetic pathway of strawberry volatiles was uncovered by using the transient RNA-inference system. Silencing of the flavonoid pathway by downregulation of the chalcone synthase gene (FaCHS) provided phenylpropenoids for the biosynthesis of anol, chavicol and eugenol in the fruits. These studies serve as foundation for metabolic engineering of strawberry flavor. AGFD 42 Flavor analysis of small fruits Robert J. McGorrin, Dept. of Food Sci. & Tech., Oregon State Univ., 100 Wiegand Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, Fax: 541-737-1877 Analytical techniques to measure sensory-significant flavor and aroma compounds in “small fruits” such as raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, and blueberries have evolved considerably over the past ten years. With increased consumption of small fruits being driven by consumer awareness of their health benefits and antioxidant properties, modern volatile analysis methods have been developed to measure and optimize flavor quality during varietal/genetic selection, fruit growth, post-harvest quality, ingredient development, and shelf-life. An overview of current flavor isolation techniques to be highlighted includes solid phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation, solid phase dynamic extraction, and other headspace techniques in combination with ancillary separation and identification methods. AGFD 43 Aroma components of "Carlos" muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia Michx) grape juice Gwo-Yuh Liu, cliu@cvm.msstate.edu, CVM Basic Science Dept., Mississippi State Univ., Mailstop 9825, Wise Center, Mississippi State, MS 39762, and Keith Cadwallader, cadwlldr@uiuc.edu, Dept of Food Sci. and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave, Urbana, IL 61801 The muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx) is native to the Southeastern United States. ‘Carlos' is a popular bronze variety of muscadine grape and is used in production of several commercial products including juice, wine, and jelly. Because of the typical and characteristic muscadine flavors they possess, the juice and jelly products are highly favored, while muscadine wines are considered inferior to those made from Vitis vinifera varieties. In the present study, characteristic aroma components of Carlos muscadine grape juice were identified and quantified by use of gas chromatography-olfactometry and GC-MS techniques. Forty-four odorants were detected by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of liquid-liquid solvent extracts and by GCO of decreasing headspace samples (GCO-H). Quantitative data and odoractivity values (OAVs) revealed five potent odorants, namely 4-hydroxy -2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (burnt sugar, strawberry), 2phenylethanol (rosy), ethyl 2-methybutanoate (fruity, apple), ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity, berry) and o-aminoacetophenone. In addition, beta-damascenone (applesauce) and 3-hydroxy -4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (curry, spicy) also were indicated as important odorants by AEDA; however, these compounds were below GC-MS detection limits and thus their OAVs were not determined. AGFD 44 Analysis of odor-active volatiles, color and antioxidant activity in Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth) fruit Coralia Osorio1, cosorior@unal.edu.co, Diana Cristina Sinuco1, Nelson Hurtado1, Francisco José Heredia2, and Alicia Lucía Morales1. (1) Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490, Bogotá, DC, Colombia, Fax: 57-1-3165220, (2) Dept. of Food Sci. & Nutrition, Univ. of Seville, Laboratory of Food Colour & Quality, Sevilla, Spain The genus Rubus comprises about 250 species that are distributed worldwide, among them, Andes berry (Rubus glaucus Benth., Rosaceae) is a native plant found from the north of the Andes in South America to southern Mexico. This berry which is highly consumed in Colombia consists of numerous small drupes on a receptacle about 1-2.5 cm long; when ripe, the berries are dark red or purple and have a unique, intense and pleasant aroma and sweet-sour taste. In a

preliminary study, acidified methanolic extracts of this fruit showed a high antioxidant activity value (108 µmol Trolox/g fruit), most likely due to their high anthocyanin content. So, as part of this study, the anthocyanin composition of Andes berry fruit was investigated by HPLCESI-MS and NMR. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to fruit volatile extract revealed ethyl butanoate, (E)-2-hexenal, (S)-2-heptanol, 1-terpinen-4-ol (85%R), and methyl benzoate having the highest flavor dilution factors. AGFD 45 Proteins, protein science and AGFD: A retrospective Gary M Smith and John R. Whitaker, Dept. of Food Sci. and Tech., Univ. of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 Proteins are linear polymers of 20 kinds of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The linear chains fold into three-dimensional structures primarily because of the hydrophobic effect, to expose polar and charged groups and sequester nonpolar groups from water, which is self cohesive and excludes nonpolar substances. Proteins having more than about 1/3 hydrophobic residues must sequester them from water by associating with other proteins or lipid structures. The folding occurs with minimum steric repulsion, and is further stabilized by hydrogen bonding, other dipole-dipole effects and weakly polar interactions, with occasional strong contributions from disulfide bonds and salt bridges. A given amino acid sequence assumes a unique and reproducible fold, but the structure is somewhat flexible, which allows allostery and related properties. The steric and other limitations permit proteins to fold in a limited number of ways, and their folds can be classified into only four main groups. This degree of understanding was established by wet chemistry, several varieties of spectroscopy and crystallography applied to purified protein samples. Nowadays, this knowledge is generalized to other proteins based on their amino acid sequence deduced from genetic information via bioinformatics. A timeline for the development of this knowledge of protein structure will be compared with work on proteins published in J. Agric. Food Chem. since 1953. AGFD 46 One hundred years of commercial food carbohydrates in the US James N. BeMiller, Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue Univ., Food Sci. Building, 745 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, Fax: 765-494-7953 Summarized are six aspects of the development of the food carbohydrate industry in the U.S. over the past century: (1) introduction of new products, with very important ones being modified food starches, products from starch (such as high-fructose syrups and maltodextrins), and water-soluble cellulose derivatives and other hydrocolloids; (2) process improvements; (3) development of understandings about the scientific basis of the functionalities of carbohydrate ingredients, especially, an understanding of the rheology of their sols and gels; (4) development of understandings of structure-function relationships; (5) a better understanding of the structure and behavior of starch molecules and granules; and (6) more recently, attention to the nutritional aspects of carbohydrates. AGFD 47 Essential vitamins, minerals, and nutrients: Chemical characterizations in the 20th century Marshall Phillips, Strategic Bioconnections, 6 Rebecca's Lane, Thornton, PA 19373, Fax: 610-358-9248 Starting in the 1920s and through the early 1950s human diseases linked to dietary deficiencies became a major focus of US Public Health. Identifying the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as USDA, FDA, and NIH. Medical schools, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into clinical trials to determine the role of vitamins, minerals, and nutrients for improving human health and well being. Public health programs were established describing the role of vitamins, minerals, and nutrients to counter nutritional deficiencies. Regulatory agencies' approval led to their consumer marketing. The successful validation of vitamins and nutrients by chemists in the early twentieth century required extremely diligent work and involved time consuming chemical procedures. Today some of us would refer to this as “dog work.” For example, consider the efforts to create diets with one missing amino acid. The role of chemists and chemistry in the early discovery of vitamins, minerals, and nutrients will be presented. AGFD 48 Progress in food colorants Cathy Culver, Pepsi-Cola Company, 100 Stevens Avenue, Valhalla, New York, NY 10595, Fax: (914) 742-4937 Food color is a key attribute that drives consumer perception of product identity and quality. Colorants have been used for centuries to make foods more appealing and to cover defects. For this reason, colorant usage is closely regulated. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding colorant structure and stability, the food industry still seeks ways to maintain product color during processing and distribution. This is particularly true for naturally derived pigments. AGFD 49 Sweet developments: Historical aspect of sweeteners William E Riha, Ingredient Science and Tech., Pepsi-Cola Company, 100 Stevens Avenue, Valhalla, NY 10595 Sweeteners of all kinds have played an important role in shaping not only the foods and beverages which we consume, but also the world in which we live. From the harvesting of wild honey to the widespread cultivation of sugar cane many thousands of years ago to the design, development and manufacturing of intensely sweet, non caloric, synthetic sweeteners, humans have sought out these sweet products. This presentation will describe some of the developments which have occurred in the sweetener market, especially over the last 100 years, and the impact that these changes have had on the food industry and consumer perception. AGFD 50 Essential oils: A retrospective John Forbes, R.C. Treatt and Co.Ltd, Northern Way, Bury St.Edmunds, England Essential oils are natural products which occur in a wide range of aromatic plants cultivated worldwide. These natural materials are principally extracted by steam distillation or by mechanical pressing and find use in the food and fragrance industries. Essential oils have complex compositions containing hundreds of chemical constituents. In addition to the non-terpenoid molecules present, the C10 and C15 monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes which form the underlying skeleton of many essential oils exhibit both structural and stereoisomerism which contribute significantly to this complexity. This complexity has challenged chemists in the field of essential oil research for the past 100 years. Here the approach to this challenge and how it has evolved is reviewed through selected publications of the ACS featuring well known essential oils. AGFD 51 Improvement in properties of vegetable oils through modifications and additives for lubricant applications Sevim Z. Erhan, Sevim.Erhan@ars.usda.gov, Food and Industrial Oil Research Unit, USDA-Ag. Research Serv., National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. Univ. Street, Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6340, and Brajendra K. Sharma, Brajendra.sharma@ars.usda.gov, Dept. of Chem. Engineering, Penn State Univ., Food & Industrial Oils Research Unit, USDA/ARS/NCAUR, Peoria, IL 61604 Vegetable oil based lubricants are recommended for use in environmentally sensitive areas such as forestry, water treatment, water management, railroads, agriculture hydraulic systems and military applications. Vegetable oil-based lubricants have excellent lubricity, biodegradability, better viscosity-temperature characteristics and low evaporation loss, but poor thermo-

oxidative stability and cold flow behavior. In this study, we present use of genetically modified oils, chemically modified oils, and their combination with additive Tech. to improve the oxidation and cold flow behavior of vegetable oils. Among the various possible approaches, the best one is the use of high-oleic vegetable oils in combination with chemical additives for formulation of high-performing lubricants. These high oleic vegetable oil-based lubricants outperform the existing bio-based industrial lubricants in terms of oxidative stability, low temperature and wear properties. These formulations exhibit properties that are at par or better than mineral oil-based industrial lubricants. AGFD 52 Maillard reaction: Thermal generation of flavors Deepthi K. Weerasinghe, Ingredient Science and Tech., Pepsi-Cola Company, 100 Stevens Ave., Valhalla, NY 10595 Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation and degradation, caramelization, thermal degradation of sugars, proteins and vitamins, and the interactions of degradation products are the chemical platform for generating many flavor compounds encountered in processed flavorings, flavors and foods. There have been at least ten ACS Symposium series books published on the advances of the subject; apart from these there also have been numerous other symposia that covered the subject. It is clear that there is a growing acceptance of these flavors in the world food supply, and process flavors have come to stay as an important as well as cost effective method of producing complex flavors. Progress in the understanding and utilization of process flavors was made due to new Tech., regulation that meets consumer safety concerns, and the industry demand for better, complex and authentic products. The flavor industry is by far the largest user of knowledge from process/and reaction flavor studies and has grown from $300-350 million ten years ago to over $10 billion today. AGFD 53 Chemistry of soy bioactive peptides Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia, Vermont P. Dia, and Wenyi Wang, Food Sci. and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 228, 1201 W Gregory Dr, Urbana, IL Soybean, an important source of food proteins, has received increasing interest from the public because of its reported health benefits. These health benefits are attributed to its components including isoflavones, saponins, proteins and peptides. Lunasin, Bowman-Birk inhibitor, lectin, and Beta-conglycinin are some of the biologically active peptides and proteins found in soybean. This presentation provides a comprehensive review on the recently used techniques in the analysis and characterization of soy bioactive peptides. The identity was established by Western blot, MALDI-TOF and LC/MS-MS. With very limited information available on the inhibitory activities of peptides derived from dietary proteins, the objectives of this study were also to employ co-immunoprecipitation to identify inhibitory peptides in soy protein hydrolysates in a single step and to investigate their molecular interactions with topoisomerase II. For this, soy protein isolates were subjected to simulated gastro-intestinal digestion with pepsin and pancreatin and the human topoisomerase II inhibitory peptides were co-immunoprecipitated and identified on a CapLC- Micromass Q-TOF Ultima API system. The inhibitory activity of these peptides from soy isolates toward topoisomerase II were confirmed using synthetic peptides. Bioactive peptides can be accurately identified and quantified using different techniques and conditions. AGFD 54 Functional properties of proteolytic hydrolysates of soybean proteins Koji Muramoto, Dept. of Biomolecular Sciences, Tohoku Univ., Graduate School of Life Sciences, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 981-8555, Japan, Fax: 81-22-7178807 The functional properties of the proteolytic hydrolysates of soybean proteins were investigated. The hydrolysates showed antioxidative activities against the peroxidation of linoleic acid and synergistic effects on the activities of phenolic antioxidants. The antioxidative activity was inherent to the characteristic amino acid sequences of peptides in the hydrolysates. The structure-activity relationship revealed that tripeptide containing His, Tyr or Pro residues were enough size to exert the activity. A combinatorial tripeptide library was constructed to explore the antioxidative properties of peptides. Tyr-His-Tyr was found to be the most potent antioxidative peptide having a strong synergistic effect with phenolic antioxidants. The proteolytic hydrolysate also showed the inhibitory activity toward the calcium carbonate crystallization. The hydrolysates of various degrees showed different inhibitory activities, suggesting the key role of peptide structures in the inhibition. The deamidation of protein hydrolysates increased not only the inhibitory activity but also the resistance of the hydrolysates against peptic digestion. AGFD 55 Cholesterol-lowering activity of soybean and soy leaf isoflavones Zhen-Yu Chen, Food & Nutritional Sciences Programme, Dept. of Biochemistry, The Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China, Fax: 852-2603-7246 Soybean isoflavones as a health supplement are becoming popular worldwide. We have previously compared flavonoid and isoflavone profile of soybean with those of soy leaf and found that soybean seed was most abundant in malonylgenistin, malonyldaidzin, genistin, daidzin, genistein and daidzein, whilst soy leaf contained only trace amounts of genistin and malonylgenistin but it was rich in kaempferol glycosides. Using hamsters as a hypercholesterolemic model, we carried out a series of experiments to explore effect of soy leaf powder (SLP) and soy leaf ethanol extract (SLEE) on serum lipoproteins namely total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The control hamsters were fed a semisynthetic diet containing 0.1% cholesterol, while the tested groups were maintained on the same diet but supplemented with 3% SLP or equivalent amount of SLEE derived from 3% SLP for 4 weeks. Both SLP and SLEE had no effect on serum TC but led favorably to a decrease in the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C. In contrast, soybean isoflavone extracts decreased not only serum TC and LDL-C but also the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C in intact female, male, castrated and ovariectomized hamsters. It was concluded that both soybean and soy leaf could modify favorably lipoprotein profile. AGFD 56 Bioactive peptides isolated from soy hydrolysate in stimulating CCK induced satiety Hsiang-Ling Lai, Fu-Ning Chien, Shiao-Cheng Chuang, Yi-Hong Chen, and Chu-Chin Chen, Food Industry R&D Inst, #331 Shi-Pin Rd, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan The pressed soy cake obtained from fermented and hydrolyzed soy meal was hydrolyzed again with commercial alkaline protease. The peptide mixture thus yielded showed ACE inhibitory activity with IC50-value of 0.3-0.4 mg/ml. When the peptide mixture was incubated with isolated SD rat mucosal cell, it showed a CCK (cholecystokinin) stimulating effect similar to a commercial satiety inducing peptide with similar response at the same usage level (1000 ppm). Serum CCK concentrations in SD rat tube-fed with same concentration of peptide mixture and commercial satiety peptide were found to have similar AUC (area under curve) but different peak time in 1 hr period. When the peptide mixture was given to volunteered human subjects in the form of savory soup (2.4 g in 80ml, equivalent to 0.04g/kg body weight) 30 min before lunch meal, the subjects showed significant decrease of hunger and increase of fullness 15 min. after the soup was consumed. Approximately 6080% of the subjects showed different degree of reduction in the amount of the meal that consumed 30 min following the soup. The average reduction of meal intake in those positively responded subjects was about 57.5 Kcal.

AGFD 57 Soy protein ingredients as isoflavone sources for functional foods Maria Inés Genovese, Dept. of Food & Nutrition, Univ. of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580. Bloco 14, Cidade Univ, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil The knowledge of the levels and profiles of the isoflavones present in soy protein ingredients, as well as the effect of industrial processing, is important for the development of functional foods rich in these compounds. Total isoflavone content is in the range of 60 to 340 mg/100 g for soy ingredients, such as defatted and whole soy flours, soy protein isolates and textured soy proteins. The highest isoflavone concentration is present in flours obtained from the hypocotyls, from 500 to 850 mg/100 g. While defatting causes the enrichment of isoflavones without altering conjugation, extrusion process may provoke destruction of isoflavones and a significant increase in the amount of acetylglycosides. The production of soy isolates leads to an increase in the percentage of free aglycones. Soy beverages, whose consumption has been increasing in the last few years, present an isoflavone content varying from 10 to 80 mg/L. Frozen dishes produced industrially have a concentration of around 1-2 mg of isoflavones per 100 g (DW). The level of soy ingredients added can be increased, without affecting sensory attributes, to obtain isoflavone enriched-products. AGFD 58 Processing effects on the bioactive compounds of soybean Hsi-Mei Lai and Pei-Yin Lin, Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan Univ., No. 1, Roosevelt Rd. Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan Soybean and its derivative products, as good sources of protein, lipid and dietary fiber, are regularly consumed by Asian people. Soybean isoflavones, the estrogen-like compounds with similar activities to estradiol, are attracted much attention by food industry. The high content of total isoflavones and relatively high amount of aglycons are critical when soybeans are considered to be the competitive source of phytonutrients for making healthy foods. The content of soybean isoflavones is generally affected by planting environmental and genetic factors, and the optimal soaking process and germination will burst the total isoflavones in soybeans. A short-term germination (1 day) is preferred for soybeans due to the increase in the total isoflavones and their aglycons. For black soybeans the leached seed-coat pigments during soaking and short-term germination reduces the antioxidative ability, while the contents of bioactive compounds (total phenolics and flavonoids) increase again and the ratio of aglycones to total isoflavones significantly increase after long-term germination (4 days). The thermal processes, including steaming and roasting, significantly decrease the amount of total isoflavones in matured and soaked soybeans with different extents, which is cultivar dependent. For germinated soybean (KS1) and black soybean (TN3), the long steaming processes (>20 min) increase the contents of total isoflavones. In general, the roasting process greatly decreases the amount of total isoflavones in matured and soaked soybeans while the short roasting time (10 min) significantly increases the amount of total isoflavones in black soybeans. Although the amounts of total isoflavones usually decrease, the aglycones generally increase after thermal processes. Selecting the right soybean cultivars combined with suitable processing processes can provide good sources of bioactive compounds from soybeans and their derivative products for neutraceutical applications. AGFD 59 Cold-pressed edible seed oils rich in oleic and á-linolenic acids, and their phytochemical and antioxidant properties Herman Lutterodt, Dept. of Nutrition and Food Sci., Univ. of Maryland, 0112 Skinner Bldg, College Park, MD 20742, Several cold-pressed edible fruit, vegetable, herb, and spice seed oils have been examined for special fatty acid content, as well as their tocopherol and carotenoid contents. Total phenolic content (TPC), other phytochemicals, and antioxidant properties of these oils were also measured. Among the tested seed oils, onion, parsley, and cashua nut seed oils were very high in oleic acid, containing 81 g, 82 g, and 86 g oleic acid per 100 g total fatty acid respectively. Seed oils rich in á-linolenic acids included black raspberry, cranberry, Salvia hispanica, and hemp. Most of the seed oils tested exhibited significant radical scavenging activities, measured primarily by their DPPH radical scavenging capacities and ORAC. Black caraway showed very strong ability to quench both DPPH and oxygen radicals. Cranberry, chardonnay grape, and parsley seed oil extracts also exhibited strong scavenging capacities. Generally, the herb and spice seed oils exhibited higher ORAC values than those of the fruit seed oils. Onion was also very high in total and á-tocopherol, with boysenberry seed oil rich in ä- and ã- tocopherol. Black cumin seed oil contained significant levels of thymoquinone, which has been associated with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects in humans. The major carotenoids found in the tested cold-pressed seed oils include â-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin, and the cold-pressed roasted pumpkin seed oil was high in all except zeaxanthin. These data suggest that these oils may have potential application in the development of nutraceutical and functional foods rich in special fatty acids and natural phytochemicals with high antioxidant capacities. AGFD 60 Phytochemical compositions, antioxidant activities, and cancer antiproliferation effects of raw Turkish and roasted Oregon hazelnuts John W Parry, Agr. Res. Station, Virginia State Univ., Box 9061, M.T. Carter Bldg, Virginia State Univ., Petersburg, VA 23806 Raw Turkish and roasted Oregon hazelnuts were examined for fat contents, fatty acid profiles, tocopherols, and carotenoids. Hazelnut flours were examined for total phenolic content (TPC), chelating capacity of iron(II), antioxidant activities against peroxyl (ORAC) and DPPH radicals, and also for antiproliferative effects against HT-29 colon cancer cells. The Turkish hazelnuts contained over 65% total fat while the Oregon roasted variety contained 43.8%. The primary fatty acid in both was oleic acid (18:1n-9) comprising 76.7 g/100 g fatty acids in the Oregon variety and 83.3 g/100 g fatty acids in the Turkish variety. The TPC of the samples were 6.41 and 2.18 mg gallic acid equivalents/g flour for the Turkish and Oregon flours, respectively. The Turkish hazelnut had a chelating capacity of 1.93 EDTA equivalent mg/g flour (EDTA eq mg/g) and the Oregon roasted demonstrated 1.80 EDTA eq mg/g. Turkish hazelnut flour had an ORAC value of 127.8 Trolox equivalents (TE) micromol/g flour (TE micromol/g), and the Oregon roasted had a value of 52.4 TE micromol/g. The ED 50 of the samples to reduce DPPH• were determined to be 1.29 and 5.09 mg flour equivalents/ mL for the Turkish and Oregon varieties, respectively. Turkish hazelnut extract at 5 mg/mL media significantly inhibited the growth of the HT-29 cells following 4 days of treatment while no effect was seen from the Oregon hazelnut flour extract. The Turkish hazelnut had significantly higher tocopherol contents and antioxidant activities compared to the Oregon roasted variety which may be explained by varietal differences or chemical changes during roasting. AGFD 61 Preservation of n-3 PUFA Liangli Yu, Dept. of Food Sci. and Nutrition, Univ. of Maryland, 0112 Skinner Bldg, College Park, MD 20742, Fax: 301-314-3313 Cold-pressed black cumin seed oil and the extracts of selected botanical materials were evaluated for their potential in protecting n-3 PUFA loss in menhaden fish oil under accelerated oxidative conditions. The cold-pressed black cumin seed oil was able to dose-dependently suppress overall lipid oxidation and loss of the n-3 fatty acids. Grape and black raspberry seed flour extracts were able to enhance the shelf-life of fish oil and its n-3 fatty acids. ESR analysis confirmed that the black cumin seed oil reduced total amount of free radicals in the fish oils, whereas the tested botanical materials were shown to have antioxidant properties. These results demonstrate the potential application of cold-pressed black cumin seed oil and the grape and black raspberry seed flour components in improving the quality and stability of food, food ingredient, and supplemental products rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

AGFD 62 The suppression effects of conjugated linolenic acids on chemically induced colon carcinogenesis. Yumiko Yasui1, yyasui@kanazawa-med.ac.jp, Masashi Hosokawa2, hoso@fish.hokudai.ac.jp, Kazuo Miyashita2, and Takuji Tanaka1. (1) Dept. of Oncologic Pathology, Kanazawa Medical Univ., 1-1 Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan, Fax: +81-76-286-6926, (2) Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido Univ., Hokkaido 041-8611, Japan Certain plant seed oils contain large amount (30~70 wt%) of conjugated linolenic acids (CLN). Recently CLN is reported to affect immune function and lipid metabolism. Thus, higher quantities CLN available from natural sources can be used for health promotion. Our recent works demonstrated that CLN exerts potent cancer chemopreventive effects against colon cancer development. For example, dietary bitter gourd seed oil (BGO) and catalpa seed oil containing 9c,11t,13t-CLN (60%) and 9t,11t,13c-CLN (40%) suppressed preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci) induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats. Also, dietary BGO and pomegranate seed oil (PGO), which contain 9c,11t,13c-CLN (70%) effectively inhibited AOM-induced colonic adenocarcinomas. More recently, we observed that PGO in diet inhibits colitis-related colon carcinogenesis using our own AOM/dextran sodium sulfate mouse model. In addition, dietary PGO significantly inhibited colonic inflammation. Our findings thus provide some novel insight into the chemopreventive effects of CLN against colorectal carcinogenesis. AGFD 63 Specialty and structured lipids and their stability characteristics F. Shahidi, Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF A1B 3X9, Canada, Fax: (709) 737-4000 Specialty lipids are regarded as lipids or lipid soluble material that in addition to their caloric value provide benefits in relation to health promotion and disease risk reduction. There has been a surge in the inclusion of omega-3 fatty acids into food products because of their importance in health and disease. Thus, marine oils, algal oils and flax oil have been used in different formulations. The oils may also be used as supplements in different forms such as triacylglycerols, simple alkyl esters and less frequently as free fatty acids. The stability of triacylglycerols is generally better than that of their constituent fatty acids or their simple alkyl esters. The stabililty of these and other oils depends not only on the degree of unsaturation of their fatty acid contituents, but also the level and composition of their minor constituents and as affected by processing. The presentation will provide information about important specialty oils and their stability cahracteristcs. AGFD 64 Relative hypocholesterolemic activity of linoleic, linolenic, conjugated linoleic and conjugated linolenic acid Zhen-Yu Chen1, zhenyuchen@cuhk.edu.hk, Cheuk Kai Lam1, zhenyuchen@cuhk.edu.hk, Jingnan Chen2, chenjingnan813@126.com, Ying Cao2, caoying1130@sina.com, and Lin Yang2, yanglin1819@163.com. (1) Food & Nutritional Sciences Programme, Dept. of Biochemistry, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China, Fax: 852-2603-7246, (2) College of Chemistry & Envir. Science., Henan Normal Univ., Henan, China The present study investigated the relative hypocholesterolemic activity of linoleic acid (LA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), alpha-linolenic acid (LN) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) in hamsters fed a 0.1% cholesterol diet. Five groups of hamsters (n=10 each) were fed either the control diet or one of the four fatty acids-supplemented diets for six weeks. Results demonstrated that the four octadecaenoic acids decreased plasma cholesterol differently, with CLA being the most effective. Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the four octadecaenoic acids had no effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), liver X receptor (LXR), 3-hydroxy -3-methylglutary-CoA reductase (HMGR), LDL receptor (LDLR), and cholesterol-7á-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). However, the four octadecaenoic acids increased the excretion of fecal neutral sterols with CLA being most effective followed by LN, LA and CLN, suggesting they all differentially affect cholesterol absorption. Dietary CLA was associated with the least intestinal acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity followed by LN, LA and CLN in a decreasing trend. Since esterification of cholesterol is catalyzed by intestinal ACAT, and is a rate-limiting step in cholesterol absorption, it was concluded that the varying effects of CLA, LN, LA and CLN on blood cholesterol were mediated, at least in part, by their inhibition on intestinal ACAT activity. AGFD 65 Fruit flavors and their health benefits Feng Chen, fchen@clemson.edu, Food Sci. and Human Nutrition, Clemson Univ. and Xi Wang, xiw@clemson.edu, Genetics and Biochem, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634 Many fruits including citrus, berries, mangosteen, pomegranate, etc., have attracted much attention of their health benefits due to the wide range of bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimicrobial activities, of the fruit inherent phytochemicals such as anthocyanins, flavonoids, polyphenolics, vitamins, etc. However, similar biological activities of one major chemical class (i.e., the essential oils) in fruit seeds, flesh and peels have not been paid enough attention compared with those of non-volatile chemicals. This presentation will review the chemical compositions and metabolisms of those fruit flavors, as well as their bioactivities and bioavailabilities in relation to their potential impact on human health and diseases. Research progress, challenges, and recommendations for future research directions, will also be discussed. AGFD 66 Edible coatings for enhancing quality and health benefits of small fruits Yanyun Zhao, yanyun.zhao@oregonstate.edu, Food Sci. & Tech., Oregon State Univ., 100 Wiegand Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331-6602, Fax: 541-737-1877, and Michael Qian, michael.qian@oregonstate.edu, Dept. of Food Sci. and Tech., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331 Edible coatings may be used on the surface of fresh small fruits to modify the internal atmosphere, decrease the transpiration loss, and delay the ripening during postharvest storage and handling. Meanwhile, certain coating materials, such as chitosan has strong antifungal ability against B. cinerea, and Rhizopus sp., the two main fungi causing the decay of berry fruits. Therefore, edible coating Tech., when designed and applied correctly, is an effective means to control decay and extend shelf-life of many small fruits. In addition, edible coatings may provide an excellent vehicle to further enhance health benefit of small fruits where the lack of some important nutraceuticals, such as vitamin E and calcium may be compensated by incorporating them into the coatings. This presentation will give a review of the research conducted in the author's laboratory in the development of edible coatings and their demonstrations on a broad range of small fruits. Chitosan-based coatings have shown its excellent film forming functions, control of fruit decay, and capability to incorporate additional antimicrobials and nutraceuticals to further enhance quality, storability, and health benefits of small fruits. SemperfreshTM coating on hardy kiwifruit promoted the development of positive aroma compounds and did not change the postharvest physiology of the fruit. In addition, chitosan coating has demonstrated its feasibility to improve quality of frozen small fruits by reducing drip loss and improving texture quality. AGFD 67 Effects of emerging process technologies on the sensory and antioxidant properties of selected berries Lisa L. Dean1, lloehrl@unity.ncsu.edu, Je'Velle B. Leavens2, Montreka Y. Dansby2, and Leon C. Boyd2. (1) Market Quality and Handling Research Unit, USDA, ARS, SAA, Dept. of Food Sci., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7624, , (2) Dept. of Food, Nutrition and

Bioprocessing Sciences, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC Fruits and berries are significant sources of antioxidants and other valuable nutrients. As such, they are recommended by health experts to be included as part of a healthy diet. The nutrient content and sensory properties are often altered during processing of raw berries into finished products resulting in a loss of valuable nutrients and a change in quality. This presentation will focus on the application of emerging processing and extraction techniques such as thermal processing, enzyme extraction, high pressure and accelerated solvent extraction on the sensory and antioxidant properties of blueberry, blackberry, and muscadine grape juices. It will also examine the antioxidant content of by-products of these berries that remain following juice extraction. AGFD 68 Introducing flavor and health benefits in fruits and vegetables through fermentation Heleen P. Goorissen and Johan E. T. van Hylckama Vlieg, Flavor Dept., NIZO food research, Kernhemseweg 2, PO Box 20, NL-6710 BA Ede, Netherlands, Fax: +31 (0) 318 65 04 00 Historically, most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in the food industry are isolated from a large variety of dairy products, such as cheese and yoghurt. Concomitantly, flavor formation by dairy LAB is extensively studied, providing detailed insights in the biochemical pathways involved in the production of key flavor compounds. However, many LAB originating from plants/fruits are more versatile compared to dairy isolates and the potential of these LAB to introduce additional benefits (i.e. positive flavors or phytochemicals) in nondairy products is poorly studied. Via predictive metabolic modeling combined with high-throughput screenings we showed vitamin production, excellent shelf life of probiotic strains, reduction of sugars, and low calorie sweetener production combined with pleasant flavors in LAB fermentations on non-dairy substrates. Enrichment of phytochemicals through fermentation will be illustrated with relevant examples and the prospects for developing a new generation of healthy, great tasting non-dairy products will be discussed. AGFD 69 Preparative isolation of bioactive constituents from berries Peter Winterhalter1, p.winterhalter@tu-bs.de, Tuba Esatbeyoglu2, Andrea Wilkens2, and Nils Koehler2. (1) Inst. of Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Schleinitzstrasse 20, Braunschweig 38106, Germany, Fax: +49-531-391-7230, (2) Food Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Braunschweig, Braunschweig 38106, Germany For studies concerning bioavailability and bioactivity pure substances in the gram-scale are required. The lecture will present different strategies for the purification and preparation of bioactives which inter alia include different types of the all-liquid chromatographic technique of countercurrent chromatography. Berries investigated are blackberry, black chokeberry, and grapes. The target compounds include anthocyanins, proanthocyanins, and stilbenes. AGFD 70 Analytical and preparative methods for determination of polyphenols in sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides) and related products Derek Gutzeit1, DerekGutzeit@gmx.de, Michael Rychlik2, michael.rychlik@ch.tum.de, Peter Winterhalter3, p.winterhalter@tu-bs.de, and Gerold Jerz3, g.jerz@tu-bs.de. (1) Central Inst. of the Bundeswehr Medical Service Munich, Bundeswehr, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 102, Garching-Hochbrück 85748, Germany, Fax: +49-89-3168-5125, (2) Chair of Food Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748, Germany, (3) Inst. of Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig 38106, Germany Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides) is a plant of the family Elaeagnaceae, naturally distributed over Asia and Europe. The berries of Hippophaë rhamnoides are rich in polyphenols and are traditionally used for ethnomedicinal remedies in Tibet, Mongolia, China and Central Asia. The high nutritive value of sea buckthorn berries and related products has attracted increasing interest also in Europe and North America. Phenolic compounds of sea buckthorn berries comprise three main structural classes: flavonols, flavan-3ols, and phenolic acids. Flavonols and their glycosides constitute the main group of flavonoids present in sea buckthorn berries. Many studies have focussed on the analytical identification of flavonol aglycones and some of their glycosides by means of HPLC-ESI-MS and DAD-UV, HPLC with chemiluminescence detection, and capillary zone electrophoresis. The preparative isolation and purification of the flavonoids were performed by conventional separation methods such as size-exclusion chromatography on the lipophilic organic resin Sephadex LH20. Recently, preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) - a support-free all liquid-liquid chromatography technique - has been successfully employed in the preparative separation of flavonol glycosides and protocatechuic acid of crude sea buckthorn extracts. As novelty in this study, a direct coupling to an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer unit (HSCCC/ESI-M S-MS) was implemented to deliver continuous mass-spectrometrical data for a ‘target'- guided fractionation/ isolation. AGFD 71 Metabolic fate of strawberry fruit flavor and phenolic constituents in humans Navindra P. Seeram1, nseeram@mail.uri.edu, Yanjun Zhang2, yzhang@mednet.ucla.edu, Susanne M. Henning2, and David Heber2. (1) Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Univ. of Rhode Island, 41 Lower College Road, Kingston, RI, (2) Ctr for Human Nutrition, David Geffen Sch. of Medicine, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 The health benefits of small soft-fleshed berry fruits have been related, in part, to their phenolic constituents. Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) are included among the top consumed berry fruits in the United States. Strawberry phenolics include anthocyanins, flavonols and ellagitannins. In addition, strawberries contain 2,5-dimethyl-4hydroxy -3[2H]furanone (DMHF), an important flavor component. Unfortunately, knowledge on the absorption and metabolism of the aforementioned strawberry constituents is scarce. In the current study, human volunteers (n=20) consumed strawberries (250 g) per day for 3 weeks. Metabolite analyses were conducted on blood and split 24h urine (2 x 12h) samples, collected before and after the 3-wk intervention period, using LC-MS/MS methods. Major urinary metabolites were pelargonidin-3-glucuronide, urolithin A-glucuronide, and DMHFglucuronide, from the strawberry anthocyanins, ellagitannins and DMHF, respectively. The levels of urinary metabolites formed from anthocyanins and DMHF decreased in the second 12h urine sample, but increased for the ellagitannins, corroborating previous reports that urolithins are formed from colonic microbial action on ellagitannins. Plasma metabolites, albeit in lower concentrations, were also detected after strawberry consumption. Future studies to evaluate circulatory levels and tissue disposition of berry metabolites are warranted since these molecules may contribute immensely towards the health benefits resulting from regular berry consumption. AGFD 72 Healthy foods: Historical perspectives, opportunities, and challenges Bhimanagouda S. Patil, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, College Station, TX 77845, Fax: 979-862-4522 Mom's conventional wisdom of eating fruits and vegetables to lead a healthy life has evolved into more scientific, fact-finding research during the last four decades due to advances in science. Epidemiological and prospective studies demonstrated the importance of fruits, vegetables, and nuts in reducing the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, several meta-analysis studies strongly suggest that adding one serving of fruits and vegetables to diet, the risk of cardiovascular diseases will be reduced by up to 7%. The multi-disciplinary and

partnership efforts of agriculture and medical scientists across the globe stimulated the establishment of certain interdisciplinary centers and institutes focusing on healthy foods. While we continue to consume various healthy foods, several challenges of toxicity, bioavailability of certain bioactive compounds, and food-drug interactions are yet to be understood. Recent research on elucidation of the molecular mechanisms to understand the ‘proof of the concept' will provide the perfect answer when consumers are ready for “table-to-farm” rather than current “farm-table” approach. The multidisciplinary research and educational efforts will address the role of healthy foods to improve eye, brain, and heart health while reduce the risk of cancer. AGFD 73 Chemical food safety issues: Past, present and future Lauren S. Jackson, US FDA, Natl Center for Food Safety and Tech., 6502 S. Archer Rd, Summit-Argo, IL Considerable advances have been made over the past century understanding the chemical hazards in food and ways for assessing and managing these risks. In the 1920's the increasing use of insecticides led to concerns of chronic ingestion of heavy metals such as lead and arsenic from residues remaining on crops. By the 1930's, a variety of agrochemicals were commonly used and food additives were becoming common in processed foods. During the 1940's and 1950's scientific advances were made in toxicology, and more systematic approaches were adopted for evaluating the safety of chemical contaminants in food. Modern gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, both invented in the 1950's and 1960's, were responsible for progress in detecting, quantifying, and assessing the risk of food contaminants and adulterants. In recent decades, chemical food safety issues that have been the center of media attention include the presence of agrochemicals, veterinary drug residues, natural toxins (e.g. mycotoxins and marine toxins), heat produced toxins (e.g. acrylamide, heterocyclic aromatic amines and furan), heavy metals (e.g. lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium), and industrial chemicals (e.g. benzene, perchlorate and melamine) in food and feed. Due to the global nature of the food supply and advances in analytical capabilities, chemical contaminants will continue to be an area of concern for regulatory agencies, the food industry and consumers in the future. AGFD 74 Bioactive compounds for pest and weed control Richard J. Petroski, Richard.Petroski@ars.usda.gov, Crop Bioprotection Research Unit, USDA, REE, Ag. Research Serv., National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. Univ. St, Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6686, and David Stanley, centerdirector@ars.usda.gov, Biological Control of Insects Research Laboratory, USDA/Ag. Research Serv., Columbia, MO 65203 The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advancements have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. AGFD 75 Agricultural and food chemistry and food regulations David J. Armstrong, Natl. Ctr for Food Safety and Tech., 6502 South Archer Rd, Summit, IL The Agricultural & Food Chem. Div. (AGFD) was founded in 1908 shortly after passage of the U.S. first food regulations in 1906. Modern food regulations started with the passage of the Food Drug & Cosemtic Act in 1938. This Act has been amended several times to keep pace with developments in food chemistry. In 1958 the Food Additives Amendment was added to control substances added to food. Since 1958 scientific techniques have been developed to evaluate the safety and carcinogenicity of substances in the food supply. In the 1970's and 1980's AGFD symposia and books addressed compounds of concern in foods. In the 1990's after the formation of the food safety subdivision, food safety and regulations were addressed directly. Recent developments such as the discovery of acrylamide in food and how this affects food regulation will be discussed. The vital role AGFD scientists will continue to play will be highlighted. AGFD 76 Challenges in flavor regulations in the new millennium Jean M. Mane and Eric Angelini, V. Mane Fils, 620, Route de Grasse, 06620 Le Bar-sur-Loup, France Today, the flavor industry is faced with the main challenge to elaborate a worldwide recognized open ended positive list of flavoring substances with a safe history of use. To achieve this goal, IOFI has been for many years the main vector for establishing sound science on flavoring substances while its regional members, FEMA in the US, EFFA in Europe and JFFMA in Japan, have been instrumental in facing local regulatory issues prompted by cultural differences in the approach of the use of flavorings in food and beverages. Consumer fears conveyed and amplified through modern IT add to the complexity of risk assessment by the scientific bodies which the flavor industry has to respond to. AGFD 77 A short history of patents on agricultural and food chemistry Jay M. Brown, The Law Office of Jay M. Brown, 6409 Fayetteville Rd., Suite 120-306, Durham, NC 27713, Fax: 919-267-5685 This session will present examples of patents going back to the advent of AGFD, illustrating the important role that patent rights have long played in the success of commercialized Tech. in the fields of agricultural and food chemistry. The selected examples will show the important contribution that patents can make to successful commercialization of breakthrough Tech., and that winning or losing an epic patent war doesn't always result in corresponding market success or failure. We'll wrap up with some observations on the Founding Fathers' enduring wisdom that patent rights foster innovation. AGFD 78 Changes of tofu structure and physical properties in coagulant concentration Tomotada Ono, Yuzuru Onodera, Chen Yeming, and Katuhiko Nakasato, Dept. of Biological Chemistry and Food Sci.s, Iwate Univ., Ueda 3-18-8, Morioka, Japan, Fax: +81-19621-6168 Tofus were made from the soybeans having different 11S/7S ratio by adding coagulants of various concentrations. The tofu having high 11S/7S ratio showed a hard texture at low coagulant concentration, and the tofu having low 11S/7S ratio needed more coagulant for the maximum hardness. Before the maximum hardness the structure of tofu had a large cell and thin wall of network, and after the maximum hardness the network structure of tofu showed a large cell, many holes and no flat wall. However, the tofu structure had a small cell and even cell size at maximum hardness. Therefore, the optimal tofu from soybeans having a different 11S/7S ratio should be made by a different coagulant concentration. AGFD 79 Influence of phytate on tofu texture Takahiro Ishiguro, garnac_gar_s@mail.goo.ne.jp, The united graduate school of agriculture, Iwate Univ., Ueda 3-18-8, Morioka 020-8550, Japan, Fax: +81-265-26-6870, and Tomotada Ono, tomon@iwate-u.ac.jp, Dept. of Biological Chemistry and Food Sci.s, Iwate Univ., Morioka, Japan In order to investigate influence of phytate content of soybean on tofu

texture, tofu was made from phytate-added soymilk by using Mg (magnesium chloride) or GDL (glucono-delta-lactone) as coagulant. Increase of phytate contents resulted in increase of coagulant requirement to make firm tofu at both of Mg-tofu and GDL-tofu. Optimal coagulant concentration (OCC) for making tofu was influenced by phytate contents. The increase of phytate in the Mg-tofu caused decrease of hardness at OCC and resulted in increase of brittleness and viscosity. Phytate decreased pH of the GDL-tofu at OCC, which caused decrease of pH that was precipitated protein in the soymilk. This shift of pH was caused by the chelate effect of phytate. We concluded that the phytate content is important as one of factors that contribute to tofu texture. AGFD 80 Instrumental and sensory evaluation of the textural properties of tofu Shaohong Yuan and Sam K. C. Chang, Cereal and Food Sci.s, North Dakota State Univ., IACC 370, Fargo, ND 58105, Fax: 701-231-6536 Textural properties such as firmness and elasticity are important factors in determining tofu quality. There are many instrumental methods published in the literature for determining textural properties. It is very important that an instrumental method developed or used for tofu analysis would correlate with sensory properties. We characterized the variations of the Instron textural profiles of several types of tofu as affected by physical parameters and correlated the data with that of a descriptive sensory method. Degree of plunger penetration and speed of plunger movement had a significant impact on textural profiles. Hardness values obtained using tofu specimens without skin correlated better with sensory data than that obtained with skin, which is typically resulted from a pressing step in traditional tofu-making process. Electron microscopic analysis of tofu texture showed pattern differences in different types of tofu. However, the microscopic characteristics did not correlate well with sensory properties. AGFD 81 Soybean components affecting physicochemical properties of soymilk, coagulation reactivity and tofu texture Kyoko Toda1, kyokot@affrc.go.jp, Kyoko Chiba2, Kazuhiro Yagasaki3, koji Takahashi1, and Tomotada Ono2, tomon@iwate-u.ac.jp. (1) Soybean Breeding Research Team, Natl. Inst. of Crop Science, Kannondai 2-1-18, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8518, Japan, (2) Dept. of Biological Chemistry and Food Sci.s, Iwate Univ., Iwate 020-8550, Japan, (3) Nagano Central Agricultural Experimental Station, Nagano 399-6461, Japan It has been proposed that when a coagulant is added to soymilk, oil globules combine with protein particles to form tofu curd. It has also been supported that physicochemical properties of soymilk, such as a number and a size of the protein particles, affect the texture of tofu. On the basis of studies reported so far, the effect of soybean components, such as protein and calcium, on the physicochemical properties of soymilk was studied. Soymilk was fractionated to particulate, soluble and floating fractions by centrifugation to study the amount of the protein particles and their interaction with lipid. The protein subunits such as glycinin and ß-conglycinin, calcium, and polysaccharides affected the physicochemical properties of soymilk and as a result, the breaking stress of tofu was changed. The distribution of lipid was changed accompanying the change of the amount of the protein particles, which may affect the first stage of tofu curd formation. AGFD 82 The interaction of oil body and protein in soymilk making Yeming Chen and Tomotada Ono, The united graduate school of agricultural sciences, Iwate Univ., Ueda 3-18-8, Morioka, Japan The change of interaction between oil body and protein was examined in soymilk making. Tozan 205 (glycinin deficiency) and Yumeminori (á, á' subunit deficiency) were used for this experiment. Oil body was purified by alkaline washing, and only contained oleosin (24K and 18K). Protein fraction of raw soymilk (not heated) and soymilk (>95oC, 5min) was separated by centrifugation. Protein from raw soymilk bound to oil body while protein from soymilk could not bind to oil body whether oil body was heated or not. The hydrophobicityof oil body was almost the same as those of oil body heated while that of protein was much less than that of protein heated. It was considered that protein without heating should not bind to oil body via hydrophobic interaction. AGFD 83 Functional properties and texture of soy protein-based food bars Myong Ja Cho, Solae, LLC, 4300 Duncan Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110 A Six Sigma Methodology was employed to investigate the relationship between the chemical and physical properties of isolated soy proteins (ISP) and the food bar texture based on mechanical hardness and sensory during storage. Selected bar model systems with high protein content at > 30% were used in the study. The mechanical bar hardness was found to be the driver for the hedonic score in sensory evaluation of the high protein bars. Five critical properties required for the bar functionality were identified: Protein solubility, degree and type of enzymatic protein modification, density, particle size and surface morphology and pH. The protein solubility and enzymatic modification are the primary properties affecting the bar hardness and sensory most. The effects of density and pH are the secondary properties appear after the primary properties are controlled. Particle size effect is revealed when the first and secondary properties are similar. The critical ISP properties are discussed in relation to their effects on bar formulation, process, and finished bar texture and sensory. AGFD 84 Evaluation of antioxidant activity, chemical and sensorial changes in two varieties of Colombian guava (Psidium guajava L.) during their ripening Diana Cristina Sinuco1, dcsinucol@unal.edu.co, Maria Elena Solarte2, Luz Marina Melgarejo2, and Coralia Osorio Roa1, cosorior@unal.edu.co. (1) Dept. de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 14490, Bogota, Colombia, Fax: 57-13165220, (2) Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota Guava (Psidium guajava L) is a tropical fruit, which exhibits rapid post-harvesting ripening. The sensorial, nutritional and functional properties of this fruit (such as, high vitamin C content, pectin and antioxidants)are recognized worldwide. In Colombia, this is a popular fruit crop in the north-eastern region, with an estimated production of 100.000 ton/year of pink and white varieties, which are consumed in fresh and for making jellies and candy bars. Among them, the pink-fleshed guava is more desirable for consumers; however, our preliminary studies have shown a similar sensorial (excepting colour) and nutritional properties. So, the compositional changes of two guava varieties at three different physiological maturity stages (green, yellowish-green, and mature) were comparatively studied. Progressively changes during ripening, such as, fruit tissue firmness decreased, development of yellow skin colour, the increase of antioxidant activity, were found in a similar manner, in both guava fruit types. Interesting, the white-fleshed guava showed higher antioxidant activity and ascorbic acid content than pink variety. Regarding aroma compounds, the volatile composition of two varieties was quite similar, and their production during ripening showed the same behaviour. With these results, it will be possible to assist guava producers to harvest fruits in the appropriate stage for avoiding the loss of antioxidant activity. AGFD 85 Polyacetylenes, glucosinolates and vitamin C in root vegetables Marie E. Olsson and Karl-Erik Gustavsson, Dept. of Horticulture, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 103, Alnarp SE-230 53, Sweden Root vegetables, traditionally used in the Northern European countries, have recently raised a new interest as a way of increasing the proportion of healthy vegetables in the diet. Botanically these ‘root vegetables' origin from different parts of the plant, such as swollen stems, roots, or tubers. Many root vegetables

contain bioactive components, such as phenolics, glucosinolates, polyacetylenes and flavonoids. Polyacetylenes, found in Apiaceae, may have health promoting properties such as ability to reduce tumour formation, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. Glucosinolates, found in Brassicaceae, have been suggested to have anticarcinogenic effects, and to modulate activities of Phase I and II enzymes. In this investigation, root vegetables were analysed for their content of some bioactive compounds. Cultivar differences, storage and processing effects on the content and composition will be presented. By new methods, there may be a potential in increasing the content of some bioactive compounds in these root vegetables. AGFD 86 Changes in chemopreventive D-glucaric acid levels of grapefruit due to variety and season by HPLC Jose L. Perez, Jose.Perez@ARS.USDA.GOV, VFIC, Texas A&M Univ., 1500 Research Parkway, Suite A120, College Station, TX 77845, Fax: 9798624952, G. K. Jayaprakasha, gkjp@yahoo.com, Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843, and Bhimanagouda S. Patil, b-patil@tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, College Station, TX 77845, Fax: 979-862-4522 Several medicinal properties of citrus are attributed to the various bioactive compounds present in different varieties of citrus fruits. In the present study, D-glucaric acid has been quantitatively measured in different grapefruit varieties by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chromatographic method consists of an isocratic mobile phase with detection at 210 nm. Sample preparation consisted of homogenization of grapefruit, centrifugation and filtration though a 0.45-micron membrane filter. The developed method has high sensitivity, reproducibility, repeatability, and accuracy for the routine analysis of samples. Seasonal variation of D-glucaric acid was measured from grapefruit harvested during early (November), mid (February) and late (May) season. The levels of D-glucaric acid varied from 25.5 mg/100ml to 126.8 mg/100ml depending on variety and time of harvest. Overall, D-glucaric acid levels increased from early to late season fruits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that seasonal changes in D-glucaric acid level have been measured in grapefruit. The present research report is based upon work supported by the Designing Foods for Health through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, USDA Grant No. TAES 06-118409. AGFD 87 Assessment of phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity of nine cultivars of grapefruits G. K. Jayaprakasha, gkjp@yahoo.com, Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., 2119, TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, Jose L Perez, Jose.Perez@ARS.USDA.GOV, VFIC, Texas A&M Univ., College Station 77845, and Bhimanagouda S. Patil, b-patil@tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77845 Antioxidants are vital in combating the free radicals, which damage human cells under oxidative stress conditions and an imbalance of free radicals may cause several disturbances in cell metabolism. Natural antioxidants present in the fruits and vegetables will increase the resistance toward oxidative damages and may have a substantial impact on human health. In the present study, nine cultivars of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macf.) such as Rio Red, Star Ruby, I-48, Henderson, Ray's Ruby, Thompson, Marsh White, and Duncan were used for the assessment of phenolic content and potential of radical scavenging activity in different in vitro methods. Freeze dried juice was extracted with methanol, dried under vacuum and used for the analysis. These extracts were screened for the antiradical activity using DPPH, ABTS and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Star Ruby showed maximum radical scavenging activity and I-48 had minimum activity. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and the composition of phenolics were assessed by HPLC using C-18 column. The results of the present study indicated that, radical scavenging activity of the each extract is in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that fruit extract. The results suggest that methanolic extracts of grapefruits exhibit a potential for the use as natural antioxidants. The present research report is based upon work supported by the Designing Foods for Health through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, USDA Grant No. TAES 06-118409. AGFD 88 Improvement of consistency among the pyruvic acid analysis methods used in estimation of onion pungency Kil Sun Yoo, KYoo@ag.tamu.edu, Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., 1500 Research Parkway, College Station, TX 77843, Eun Jin Lee, ejinlee@tamu.edu, VFIC, Dept. of Horticulture Sciences, Texas A a& M Univ., College Station, TX 77845-2119, and Bhimanagouda S. Patil, b-patil@tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77845 Several pre and-post harvest factors affect onion pungency. In order to maintain the consistent mildness and to keep the confidence of the consumer, it is pertinent to ensure the test results are consistent among laboratories. The onion pungency has been estimated by measuring the pyruvic acid in onion juices by reacting with dinitrophenylhydrazine. The original SW method was developed in 1961 and several modifications were developed by reducing the time of analysis. However, significant differences between the methods were reported. In this study, we have compared several modified SW methods and optimized the method to obtain consistency. The manual spectrophotometric method has underestimated 10 to 30% pyruvic acid than the automated and HPLC methods. The rapid decrease in absorbance of DNPHpyruvic acid adduct in juice samples resulted in lower estimation in the pyruvic acid. It was critical that reading absorbance promptly and consistently to obtain accurate and similar pyruvic acid concentrations. The present research report is based upon work supported by the Designing Foods for Health through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, USDA Grant No. TAES 06-118409. AGFD 89 Optimization of extraction efficiency of pepper flavonoids and their relationship between phenolics, and antioxidant activity HaeJin Bae, hjbae@neo.tamu.edu, VFIC, Dept. of Horticulture Sciences, Texas A a& M Univ., 1500 Resarch Parkway Suits 120A, Centeq Research Plaza, College Sattion, TX 77845-2119, Fax: 979-862-4522, GK Jayaprakasha, gkjp@neo.tamu.edu, VFIC, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843, John Jifon, jljifon@ag.tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M Univ. System, Weslaco, TX 78596, and Bhimanagouda S. Patil, b-patil@tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77845 Peppers (Capsicum spp.) contain various bioactive compounds with vital health-promoting properties. Flavonoids, a group of polyphenolic compounds, play an important role of radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. The most common methods for quantifying the levels of these compounds involve the extraction in specific solvents and HPLC quantification. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of various solvents such as methanol, N-N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, ethanol and combinations of these solvents on the extraction efficiency of different flavonoids. Moreover, total phenolics were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay at 760 nm and the results are expressed as catechin equivalents. Different solvent fractions were evaluated for the antioxidant activity by DPPH method. Of the various solvents used in the study, ethanol was found to be very good for the extraction of maximum phenolics. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis was carried out using C-

18 column for the quantification of flavonoids such as luteolin, quercetin and myricetin. Maximum extraction of quercetin and luteolin was observed using ethanol. Interestingly, dimethylformamide is able to extract three flavonoids such as quercetin, luteolin and myricetin. All the extracts showed very good radical scavenging activity. This study demonstrates the optimization of extraction efficiency before measuring the levels of flavonoids is critical. The present research report is based upon work supported by the Designing Foods for Health through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, USDA Grant No. TAES 06-118409. AGFD 90 Pterostilbene, a blueberry constituent, improves cognitive and motor function in aged rats James A. Joseph1, james.joseph@tufts.edu, Agnes M. Rimando2, Cheng Vivian3, Vivian.Cheng@ARS.USDA.GOV, D. Bielinski3, Derek Fisher3, Derek.Fisher@ARS.USDA.GOV, and Barbara Shukitt-Hale3, Barbara.ShukittHale@ARS.USDA.GOV. (1) USDA ARS, Human Nutrition Research Ctr. on Aging at Tufts Univ., 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, Fax: 617-556-3222, (2) Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, USDA-Ag. Research Serv., Univ., MS 38677, (3) USDA ARS, Human Nutrition Research Ctr. on Aging, Boston, MA 02111 Our studies suggested that dietary supplementation with antioxidant-rich fruit or vegetable extracts can decrease the enhanced vulnerability to oxidative stress that occurs in aging. These reductions are expressed in part as improvements in motor and cognitive behavior. In addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities multiple mechanisms are involved in the beneficial effects observed from these supplementations, which include enhancement of neuronal communication via alterations in neuronal signaling. Polyphenols, like those found in blueberries, may exert their beneficial effects by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant and neuronal signaling capabilities of the organism. One of these, involving increases in ERK and IGF-1, promotes increases in neurogenesis. Findings suggest that both strawberry and blueberry can increase neurogenesis and subsequent cognitive performance in the aged rodents. Recent research using BV-2 mouse microglial cells indicated that the antioxidant property of blueberry may account for their abilities to inhibit stress signals (e.g., NF? B , CREB, cytokines). It appears that blueberry can reduce stress signaling by decreasing the stress-induced activation of p38MAPK, CREB and PKC? in primary hippocampal cells that were exposed to oxidative stressors such as amyloid-beta 42. Importantly, fractionation of whole blueberry juice into component polyphenolic “families” showed that none of the various fractions (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins) were as effective as the whole blueberry against the various stressors (e.g., dopamine, amyloid-beta 42). However, subsequent findings indicated that: a) pterostilbene, known to occur in blueberry, showed protection against the stressors in muscarinic receptor-transfected COS-7 cells, and b) that aged rats given pterostilbene-supplemented diets (40 and 160 mg/kg diet) exhibited significantly greater cognitive and motor function than non-supplemented controls. These findings suggest that antioxidant-rich fruits such as berries may improve behavior by enhancing neuronal signaling and ultimately, neuronal communication. Clearly, the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of the various polyphenols may only represent a small aspect of their beneficial properties in aging. AGFD 91 Antidiabetic properties of the Canadian lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait Pierre S. Haddad, Dept. of Pharmacology, Univ. de Montréal, Room R-410, Roger-Gaudry Blg, 2900 Edouard-Montpetit Blvd, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada, Members of the genus Vaccinium are reputed to possess antidiabetic activity and have been used as traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetic symptoms. Extracts of various parts of the V. angustifolium plant were shown to increase glucose transport in muscle and adipose cells through an insulin-like action, to enhance adipocyte differentiation through glitazone-like properties, to increase pancreatic beta cell proliferation and to protect pre-neuronal cells against glucose toxicity. Fermentation of blueberry juice with the Serratia vaccinii bacterium confers antidiabetic activities to blueberry juice through an increase in the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Fermented blueberry juice also shows a promising hypoglycemic effect in diabetic STZ rats and in genetically obese and insulin-resistant KKAy mice. Although the active principles and their mechanisms of action remain to be identified, blueberry extracts and transformed blueberry juice may nevertheless represent a novel complementary therapy and a source of novel therapeutic agents against diabetes mellitus. AGFD 92 Small fruit phenolics and relevance for diabetes and hypertension management Kalidas Shetty1, kalidas@foodsci.umass.edu, Susan Cheplick2, ravensclaw5@aol.com, Young-In Kwon1, and Prasanta Bhowmick2, pbhowmik@pssci.umass.edu. (1) Dept. of Food Sci., Univ. of Massachusetts at Amherst, Chenoweth Laboratory, 100 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA 01003, Fax: 413-545-1262, (2) Dept. of Plant Science, Univ. of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 The healthrelevant functionality of fruit extracts from several raspberry cultivars was evaluated for potential diabetes and hypertension management. Inhibition of in vitro alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) activity was evaluated in conjunction with phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Black raspberries, Jewel and MacBlack cultivars had the highest overall phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Red raspberry cultivars, Nova, Heritage, and K-81-6, showed the overall highest alpha-amylase inhibition in water and ethanol extracts. Jewel, a black raspberry cultivar had the lowest alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of 40% or lower. Ethanol extracts of all twelve cultivars showed high inhibitory activity (above 85%) against alpha-glucosidase. The yellow raspberry, KCB-1, was the most effective at inhibiting alpha-glucosidase in both water and ethanol extracts. Fruit extracts of the yellow raspberries, KCB-1 and Kiwi Gold, showed the most potential for ACE-1 inhibition. Jewel and the red raspberry, Caroline, also had good activity against ACE-1. The raspberry study has now been extended to evaluate strawberry and blueberry cultivars. AGFD 93 Cellular antioxidant activity of common fruits and selected phytochemicals Rui Hai Liu, Dept. of Food Sci., Cornell Univ., 108 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, Fax: 607-254-4868 The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was recently introduced by our laboratory to determine the antioxidant activity of antioxidants, foods, and dietary supplements that takes into account some aspects of cell uptake and metabolism. It was developed in response to the need for a cell culture model to assess potential in vivo antioxidant capacities that would be more biologically relevant than the chemical antioxidant activity assays in common use. Many chemical antioxidant assays are currently in wide use including oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), TRAP, TOSC, PSC, FRAP, DPPH and TEAC, yet none of these takes into account the bioavailability/uptake and metabolism of the antioxidants. The CAA assay is a more biologically relevant method than the popular chemical antioxidant activity assays. This presentation will discuss our current development toward cell-based antioxidant activity assay, and focus on updated research on common fruits and selected phytochemicals, especially flavonoids, using CAA assay. AGFD 94 Anthocyanin enriched berry extracts produce endothelium dependent vasorelaxation in coronary arteries and protect vascular endothelium from oxygen radical mediated injury David R Bell, Kristen Gochenaur, and Tara D Burt, Dept. of Cellular and

Integrative Physiology, Indiana Univ. Sch. of Medicine, 2101 Coliseum Boulevard East, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, Fax: 260-481-6408 Coronary artery rings from 147 pigs were used in 9 in vitro isometric reactivity studies involving Chokeberry (Ck), Bilberry (B) or Elderberry (E) extracts. Ck and B but not E produced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Extract exposures at 0.05 mg Ta/L for 5', 30' or 24 hr did not affect relaxation to endothelial or exogenous NO. Extracts (0.05 mg Ta/L) protected arterial endothelium from external and internal oxidant injury. Extract anthocyanins cyanidin 3-arabinoside, -glucoside, and -galactoside and coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and chlorogenic acid relaxed coronary arteries (1nM- 3uM, with Ar and coumaric acid endothelium dependent). Our results indicate that vasorelaxation and protection by extracts are endothelium mediated unrelated to generic Ta but dependent on anthocyanin and phenolic composition. Components of the extracts must enter the arterial endothelium. Low dose vasoprotective effects of these extracts against oxygen radicals implicate a potentially important role for these compounds in protection against cardiovascular disease. AGFD 95 Extraordinary antioxidant activity and nutritional content of a small palm fruit Euterpe oleracea (“Acai”) from the Amazon Alex Schauss, AIBMR Life Sciences, Inc, 4117 South Meridian, Puyallup, WA 98373, Fax: 253-286-2451 A series of antioxidant assays of an Amazonian palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), known by its common name Acai, carried out over several years, led to the discovery that freeze-dried Acai had the highest ORAC/TEAC of any fruit or vegetable: 1,027 µmol TE/g, and 744 µmol TE/g, respectively. Tests over 4-years, and by USDA-ARS, confirmed this small fruit's exceptional antioxidant activity in vitro. The superoxide scavenging capacity of Acai is 1,1614 units/g, the highest reported for any food. Total phenolic content is 13.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The ratio between ORAC-hydro and total phenolics varies from <2 to >100 for foods; for fruits and vegetables the ratio is ~10. Yet, the ratio in Acai is 50, 5x greater than in any fruit. This surprising ratio raises questions as to whether Acai contains much stronger antioxidants than other fruits/berries on an equal weight basis. Recent analytical work has detected larger oligomeric series of phenolic compounds by HLPC/DAD and MALDI-TOF. This has resulted in the discovery that the Acai fruit contains very complex hetero polymer series. Acai's antioxidants are able to enter human cells in a fully functional form down to 0.1 picogram/mL resulting in a dose-dependent inhibition of H2O2-induced ROS in neutrophils, suggesting potent anti-inflammatory properties. In vitro assays found that Acai activates NK and inhibits H2O2-induced oxidation greater than gallic acid, resulting in nearly complete inhibition of oxidation in human cells. A randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, cross-over study of an Acai-based fruit juice widely sold in the USA, demonstrated that 4 oz., could significantly increase antioxidant capacity (p = 0.04) in healthy adults (19-52 yrs) while inhibiting serum lipid peroxidation (p = 0.03) within 2-4 hours of ingestion, based on TBARS. Further research is ongoing to study this small fruit's property in both animals and humans. AGFD 96 Characterization of anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity in the skin and flesh of new red grape genotypes Gary R. Takeoka1, grt@pw.usda.gov, Lan T. Dao1, ltd@pw.usda.gov, and David W. Ramming2, David.Ramming@ARS.USDA.GOV. (1) Western Regional Research Ctr., Ag. Research Serv., U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, Fax: 510-5595828, (2) USDA/ARS/CDPG, Parlier, CA 93648 Anthocyanins in the skin and flesh of seven grape genotypes with a range of skin and flesh color were separated and identified using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Total phenolics were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and total anthocyanins were determined using the pH-differential method. Antioxidant activity was assessed using the ABTS assay. Grape skins had higher antioxidant activity and contained higher concentrations of total phenolics, total anthocyanins and acylated anthocyanins than the flesh. Differences in the anthocyanin composition of the skin and flesh will be discussed. AGFD 97 Introduction to the Grady-Stack Award Sara J. Risch, Michigan State Univ., 6151 Bridgewater Cir, E. Lansing, MI 48823 The history of the Grady-Stack Award and Harold McGee's contributions in interpreting chemistry to the public will be presented. AGFD 98 On food and cooking Harold J. McGee, Curious Cook, 752 Gailen Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94303, Fax: 650-494-0529 Harold McGee, author of the award-winning "On Food and Cooking," will present his view of explaining the chemistry of food to a general audience. AGFD 99 The trials and tribulations of publishing CookWise Shirley O. Corriher, CookWise Author, 3152 Andrews Dr. NW, Atlanta, GA 30305-2013 Shirley Corriher¹s book, CookWise, uses chemistry to explain cooking. It won the James Beard Award for best reference and technique book of 1997 and has sold over 250,000 copies. Shirley will explain how she tracked down the chemistry behind cooking problems, and she will talk about getting a book published, dealing with agents and editors, and the whole process of the book edit--the struggle of keeping scientific accuracy with editors. She will conclude with tips for selling your book. AGFD 100 Research collaboration between the chef and the flavor chemist Donald S. Mottram, d.s.mottram@reading.ac.uk, School of Food Biosciences, The Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom, Fax: +44 118 931 0080, and Heston Blumenthal, Fat Duck Restaurant, Bray SL6 2AQ, United Kingdom Flavor is one of the main sensory attributes that the chef can use to create novel sensations in his cuisine. By using a combination of ingredients the chef is able to develop the taste and aroma characteristics that provide the distinctive flavor attributes in his cuisine. The sensory and chemical changes, which are brought about by these combinations, are of interest to the flavor chemist who can apply analytical techniques to evaluate changes in taste and aroma compounds. This presentation will provide examples of how chemical analysis has been used to obtain an understanding of the effect of combining different food ingredients, during cooking, on the flavor attributes of the product. AGFD 101 A nutritional odyssey: From famine to feast, can science and policy solve the dilemma? Fergus M. Clydesdale, Dept. of Food Sci., Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 Unquestionably, the tremendous increase in life expectancy in the developed world has resulted from a safer, more varied and healthier food supply. However, we have also experienced increases in age-related diseases and obesity. Lifestyle, including diet, may hold the key to reducing these seemingly intractable problems requiring both greater knowledge of food and its components at the molecular level along with appropriate legislation and knowledge to communicate benefits to the consumer. This will require the challenge of more cooperation between academic, industrial and government scientists and policy makers to meet the needs of society through both behavior change and changing the food supply.

AGFD 102 Soy foods: Flavor characterization and market assessment Soo-Yeun Lee, Dept. of Food Sci. and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 905 South Goodwin Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, Fax: 217-265-0925 Consumption of soy and soy -related food products have been related to many health benefits. However, the growth in the soy foods market does not reflect the level of consumer interest in their health benefits, presumably due to the off-flavors. Some aspects of soy flavor that have been reported are lack of desirable flavors, presence of unfamiliar flavor notes, presence of off-flavor developed from lipid oxidation, from various processing steps, and removal and/or masking of flavor. This presentation will focus on the most recent discoveries in understanding the sensory properties of various soy foods and the novel methods to assess their market potential. Examples of studies to be discussed are: 1) a soymilk lexicon study to aid in standardizing sensory vocabulary of soy foods, 2) a threshold study for major isoflavones to determine their contributions to bitterness and astringency, and 3) soy foods concept analysis study to assess their market potential. AGFD 103 Flavor binding by soy proteins Patricio R. Lozano, plozano@uiuc.edu, Univ. of Illinois, Dept. of Food Sci. and Human Nutr., 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave., Urbana, IL, Keith Cadwallader, Dept. of Food Sci. and Human Nutr., Univ. of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana Binding of volatile flavor compounds by soy proteins affects not only flavor perception, but may also result in unbalanced flavor profiles and may alter the action of masking or flavoring agents. Several studies have been conducted to try and explain the binding of volatile flavor compounds by soy proteins. Early studies concentrated on understanding the binding capacity of soy protein and the resistance to removal of single volatile compounds by various extraction methods. The effect of the hydrophobic regions of soy protein in flavor binding was later studied using static headspace and equilibrium dialysis techniques. However, the accessibility to hy drophobic regions in soy protein depends on the media surrounding the protein, which implies that the use of denatured soy protein in water might not be an accurate indicator of the interaction of volatile compounds with soy protein in its dry native state. The need to understand flavor - soy protein binding interactions in low-moisture systems prompted the use of nontraditional techniques like inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The application of the IGC principles in flavor binding by soy proteins has led to the determination of useful thermodynamic parameters that explain with high accuracy and precision, not only the binding forces of single volatile compounds with dehydrated soy protein, but also the effect of relative humidity on flavor binding. Currently, competitive binding of multiple volatile compounds with soy protein is being studied with techniques commonly used in flavor release measurements. These studies aim to understand the effect of multiple volatile compounds, interacting simultaneously with soy protein, which mimics the conditions found in real soy foods. AGFD 104 Change in odor-active components of commercial Korean soy milk during above ambient (55oC) storage Hun Kim1, hunkim@uiuc.edu, Keith Cadwallader1, cadwlldr@uiuc.edu, Yong-Jun Cha2, yjcha@changwon.ac.kr, and Eun-Jeong Jeong2, jeus@hanmail.net. (1) Deptartment of Food Sci. and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois, 1302 W. Pennsylvania Ave, Urbana, IL, (2) Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Changwon National Univ., 641-773, South Korea The consumption of soymilk in Korea has increased due to its many desirable functional properties related to health and nutritional benefits. In the market (especially in convenience stores and highway service areas), small packages of soymilk are occasionally kept in an incubator at elevated temperatures for consumers who prefer a warm product. However, this storage condition may alter the sensory properties of soymilk, especially its flavor. The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in the odor-active components of soymilk during storage at 55oC. For this purpose, soymilk (packaged in 200-mL carton pack) was kept at 55oC or 4oC (control) for 30 days, and analyzed every 10 days. Solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) were used to characterize the changes in the soymilk odorants. Among the characteristic soymilk odorants, the intensities of green/grassy (hexanal), fishy/rancid ((Z)-4-heptenal), mushroom-like (1-octen-3-one), popcorn-like (2-acetyl-1-pyrroline), cabbage-like (dimethyl trisulfide), potatolike/earthy (methional), stale/hay-like ((E)-2-nonenal), and rosy (phenylacetaldehyde) markedly increased during storage at 55oC. AGFD 105 Volatile and aroma components in fermented soybean curds Hau Yin Chung, Bio. Dept., Food & Nutr. Sci. Programme, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T, Fermented soybean curd, also known as sufu, is a popular condiment prepared from soy beans in the Orient. During its production, tofu is first prepared from soybeans, then inoculated with mold for a short fermentation, and subsequently aged in the presence of salt/brine and alcohol. Traditionally, it takes months for the sufu to be ready for consumption. During the period, protein is broken down to smaller peptides and free amino acids and the lipid is hydrolyzed. The finished product basically is composed mainly of hydrolyzed protein, water and fat. One feature which makes the sufu so popular is its subtle flavor. This presentation will review the volatile components which are found in the plain sufus and the odor components which contribute to the subtle flavor in the product. AGFD 106 Effect of roasting temperature on key aroma components of roasted soybean Premsiri Rotsachakul, tai_pr@hotmail.com, Dept. of Food Tech., Mahidol Univ. Kanchanaburi, 199 M.9 Lumsum, Saiyok district, Kanchanaburi 71150, Thailand, and Siree Chaiseri, siree.c@ku.ac.th, Dept. of Food Sci. and Tech., Kasetsart Univ., 50 Phahonyothin Rd., Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand, Fax: 66-2-5625001 In Thailand, dark roasted soybeans have been used to prepare a drink that has aroma similar to coffee. This research investigated the effect of roasting temperature (200, 235, or 250 °C for 20 min) on aroma-active components of roasted soybeans. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). Soybeans roasted at 200 °C had a mild roasted aroma. The most potent odorant of this sample was trimethylpyrazine. Soybeans roasted at 235 °C generated “coffee-like” aroma that was caused mainly by 2-furfurylthiol. Other aroma active compounds were 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, 2ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and acetic acid. Several pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds contributed to roasted, rubbery and sulfurous odors. High-temperature roasting at 250 °C produced an overall “burnt” note, with the most potent odorants being 2-furfurylthiol and pyridine. The burnt odor could be caused by dimethyl disulfide, 4-methylpyridine, 3-methylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethylphenol, 2-acetylthiazole, and few unknowns of low volatility. AGFD 107 Identification of flavor-active volatiles in soy protein isolate via gas chromatography olfactometry Anthony J. Irwin1, AIrwin@solae.com, John D. Everard2, John.D.Everard@USA.dupont.com, and Robert J. Micketts1. (1) Solae, LLC, 4300 Duncan Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, (2) Dupont Crop Genetics, Wilmington, DE 19880-0353 Dynamic Headspace (DHS) and Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) methods were combined with gas chromatography olfactometry (GCO) to identify the twenty eight most flavor-active volatiles in soy protein isolate. None had a characteristic soy protein odor. While the compounds recovered by the two techniques showed some

qualitative similarities, dilution experiments found that the most flavor-active volatiles isolated by SBSE were C8-C10 carbonyl compounds and those isolated by DHS were C2-C8 carbonyls. The majority of the carbonyls were derived from oxidation of linoleic acid. Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis was performed on the SBSE bars by changing the number of bars desorbed on to the GC column and by pneumatically splitting the desorbed volatiles. AEDA values of 512 were observed for eight volatiles in one soy protein isolate, including 1-octen-3-one, E2-nonenal, E,E-2,4-nonadienal, E,Z-2,4-decadienal, E,E-2,4-decadienal, 2-butyl-2-octenal and two unknowns. The hexane-defatted soy flake used as raw material for the soy isolate manufacturing process was found to contain very high levels of the same key odorants present in the purified soy protein. These results emphasize the need to separate soy protein from soy lipids as efficiently and as gently as possible in order to minimize formation of the typical off-flavors in soy protein isolate. AGFD 108 Volatile flavor compounds and sensory flavor profiles of Thai soy sauce Sittiwat Lertsiri1, scsls@mahidol.ac.th, Pitipong Wanakhachornkrai1, Apinya Assawanig1, Siree Chaiseri2, siree.c@ku.ac.th, and Thongchai Suwonsichon3. (1) Dept. of BioTech., Mahidol Univ., Faculty of Science, Rama VI Rd, Phayathai, Bangkok 10400, Thailand, (2) Dept. of Food Sci. and Tech., Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok 10900, Thailand, (3) Dept. of Product Development, Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok, Thailand Soy sauce is the fermented soybean condiment originally invented in China in ancient times. Since this product has been spread widely in Asia, each region has developed its own recipe and fermenting process, leading to varieties of product flavor profiles. In this work, the volatile flavor compounds and their relationship with sensory flavor profiles of Thai soy sauce were studied. As a result, 94 volatile flavor compounds (VFC) were found by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). The VFCs were further analyzed for their odor characteristics by GC-olfactometry. The odor characteristics could be classified as follows: 1) malty and brothy odors; 2) flowery and sweet odors; 3) caramel-like odor; 4) sour odor; 5) clove-like and woody odors; 6) burnt odor; and 7) cooked rice odor. Apart from chemical analytic work, modified quantitative descriptive analysis of 50 Thai soy sauces was conducted to understand flavor profiles. AGFD 109 Deficit irrigation strategies to enhance phytochemicals and quality in vegetable species Daniel I. Leskovar, Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, 1619 Garner Field Rd., Uvalde, TX 78801, Kevin M. Crosby, , Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Weslaco, TX 78596, and Kil Sun Yoo, KYoo@ag.tamu.edu, Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843 Vegetable species synthesize and accumulate phytochemicals that are involved in plant protection against stress and signaling events. The synthesis and degradation of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants is regulated by the genetic x environment interaction. Crop strategies such as irrigation management may significantly modify the phytochemical concentrations in vegetable crops. For example, precision deficit irrigation (75% crop evapotranspiration rates, ETc) enhanced lycopene content in seedless and seeded watermelon when evaluated in three Texas locations. In spinach, ascorbic acid, ? -carotene, lutein, and neoxanthin, consistently increased at 50% compared to 100% ETc rate under Center pivot and low pressure drip systems. Similarly, in artichoke heads, total phenolics, chlorogenic acid and cynarin increased with deficit irrigation (75% and 50% ETc) but at the potential cost of lowering yields. Overall, regulated deficit irrigation, used either as a single or combined strategy, has been proved to save water significantly while improving health-promoting compounds and quality. AGFD 110 Pre- and postharvest application of salicylic acid improved strawberry fruits qualitty cv. camarosa during storage Maaedeh Shafiee, Toktam Sadat Taghavi, Mesbah Babalar, and Siamak Kalantari, Dept. of Horticultural Science, Univ. of Tehran, Daneshkadeh street, Karaj, Iran, Fax: 0098-261-2248721 Application of salicylic acid (SA), has been studied as an alternative to chemicals to maintain quality and reduce decay of fruits. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of application of SA on maintaining quality of strawberry fruit cv. Camarosa during cold storage. SA was applied constantly in nutrient solution (at concentration of 4 ppm) during growing season, meanwhile the control plants did not received SA. The harvested fruits of both treated and control plants were dipped either in solution with SA (at concentration of 2 mM) or in water for 15 minutes. The fruits were dried and kept at 2°C refrigerator. Quality of fruits was evaluated after 0, 7 and 14 day from treatment. None of the treatments has affected weight loss, total soluble solid, titratable acidity, vitamin C and L* (lightness). Fruits that received SA in nutrient solution showed significantly lower decay than control after 7 and 14 days and lower a* after 14 days after treatment. Postharvest dipping of fruits of both SA- treated and control plants have showed delayed color development (evaluated by a*, chroma and hue angle) and delayed softening compared to their controls. Although SA dipping was more effective than SA addition to nutrient solution, application of treatments together has increased the effects of this compound. AGFD 111 Developmental variation of flavonoids in mandarin and grapefruit Ram Mohan Uckoo, Dept. of horticulture Sciences, Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Ctr, 1500 Research Pkwy, Suite 120A, Centeq Research Plaza, College Station, TX GK Jayaprakasha, gkjp@neo.tamu.edu, VFIC, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843, Shad D Nelson, shad.nelson@tamuk.edu, Dept. of Agronomy and Resource Sciences, Texas A&M Univ.-Kingsville Citrus Center, Kingsville, TX 78363, and Bhimanagouda Patil, b-patil@tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M Univ. System, College Station, TX 77843 Citrus fruits are mainly consumed as whole fruit or processed as juice. Citrus consumption is correlated with health benefits due to presence of certain bioactive flavonoids unique to citrus species. For optimum intake of these compounds it is essential to determine the variation of flavonoids during fruit developmental process. In this study, three mandarin (Citrus reticulata) cultivars (Nova, Ponkan, Fairchild) and two grapefruit (Citrus p aradisi Macf.) cultivars (Henderson and Star Ruby) were harvested at different stages of development. Juice was lyophilized and analyzed for flavonoid composition. Six flavonoids such as narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, poncirin, and didymin were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Hesperidin and naringin were prominent in mandarin and grapefruit, respectively. Fruits harvested at the early developmental stage had higher flavonoid content, which gradually decreased with maturation. Nova tangerine had the highest hesperidin content (89.6mg/100g) followed by Ponkan and Fairchild (74.75 and 26.43mg/100g) harvested in the early season, whereas Star ruby grapefruit had higher concentration of naringin (75.16 mg/100g) in comparison to Henderson grapefruit (64.99 mg/100g). This suggests early season fruit are ideal for consuming higher levels of flavonoids. The present research report is based upon work supported by the Designing Foods for Health through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, Grant No. TAES 06-118409 and Rio Grande Basin Initiative USDA/CSREES Agreement No. 2005-34461-15661.

AGFD 112 Genetic improvement of vegetable beneficial phytochemical concentrations Kevin M. Crosby Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Horticultural Sci, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, 2415 E. Hwy 83, Weslaco, TX Daniel I. Leskovar, Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Ctr, Horticultural Scs, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Uvalde, TX, and Kil Sun Yoo, Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Ctr, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX Research at the Vegetable Improvement Center focuses on developing new genetic lines with enhanced levels of beneficial phytochemicals. These include peppers, melons, tomatoes, onions and carrots. ‘TAM Mild Habanero,' ‘TAM Ben Villalon' green/red chile, ‘TAM Valley Hot' cayenne, ‘TAM Dulcito' sweet jalapeno, ‘TAM Tropic Bell,' ‘TAM Peproncini,' and ‘TAM Mild Jalapeño 2,' are new pepper cultivars with improved quality, yield, flavor and antioxidant concentrations. Experimental pepper lines have been developed with greatly enhanced (500-600%) levels of flavonoids and ascorbic acid, compared to commercial cultivars. New melon cultivars include ‘Pacal' orange casaba and ‘Chujuc' muskmelon, both with high levels of beta-carotene and sugars, along with excellent flavor. A genome map of melon, focusing on important quality traits such as beta-carotene and sugars has also been developed. PCR-based DNA markers linked to quantitative trait loci and major genes impacting these important compounds have been identified. AGFD 113 Improving fruit phytochemical contents through foliar potassium (K) nutrition John Jifon1, jljifon@ag.tamu.edu, G. E. Lester2, gene.lester@ars.usda.gov, Daniel Leskovar1, d-leskovar@tamu.edu, Bhimanagouda Patil1, b-patil@tamu.edu, and Kevin M. Crosby3, k-crosby@tamu.edu. (1) Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas AgriLife Research, Texas A&M Univ. System, 2415 East Hwy 83, Weslaco, TX 78596, (2) USDA-ARS-CQFIR, Weslaco, TX 78596, (3) Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Weslaco, TX 78596 Adequate plant potassium (K) nutrition is essential for numerous physiological and biochemical functions including the synthesis and accumulation of health-promoting phytochemical compounds. However, soil-derived K alone is seldom adequate to satisfy plant K demand especially during the critical fruit growth and maturation stages. Supplemental foliar K application has been shown to mitigate this apparent deficiency however, the suitability of potential K salts as foliar nutrition sources is uncertain. We investigated the effects of different foliar K sources (KCl, KNO3, KH2PO4, K2SO4, K2S2O3, and an amino acid-complexed K) on muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruit quality parameters. Fruit ascorbic acid, â-carotene and sugar concentrations all increased in response to supplemental foliar K supply. Even though there were differences among K sources, trends were inconsistent. KNO3 consistently resulted in poor fruit quality perhaps due to nitrogen-induced stimulation of vegetative development and hence greater competition for photoassimilates between reproductive (fruits) and vegetative carbon sinks. AGFD 114 Preharvest manipulation of growing conditions can infl uence carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops Dean A. Kopsell, dkopsell@utk.edu, Plant Sciences Dept., The Univ. of Tennessee, 252 Plant Sciences Building, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN, Mark G. Lefsrud, Dept. of Bioresource Engineering, McGill Univ., Ste-Anne Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada, and David E. Kopsell, kopselld@uwplatt.edu, School of Agriculture, The Univ. of Wisconsin - Platteville, Platteville, WI 53818 Changing environmental factors during plant growth can impose stress on plants, which can negatively affect performance. Plant secondary metabolites, such as carotenoids, serve functional roles to overcome the negative consequences to plant growth and development caused by a stressful environment. Carotenoids function to help harvest light energy during photosynthesis (PS) and dissipate excess energy before damage results. Because of the physiological roles of carotenoid in PS, environmental stress factors affecting PS rates will impact plant carotenoid concentrations. It is possible to manipulate phytochemical concentrations by changing plant growing conditions. Research by our group has demonstrated the ability to change carotenoid concentrations by changing environmental growing conditions. Specifically, nitrogen rate and form, growing air temperature, irradiance level, irradiance photoperiod, and irradiance wavelength can all influence carotenoid accumulations in vegetable crops. Specialized growing techniques may be developed to enhance functional carotenoid levels in fruit and vegetable crops. AGFD 115 Prevention of gastrointestinal tract cancers with berries and berry components Gary Stoner and Li-Shu Wang, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Ohio State Univ., 2001 Polaris Parkway, Columbus, OH 43235, Fax: 614-293-5952 Our laboratory has reported the ability of lyophilized black raspberries to inhibit cancer in the rodent esophagus and colon. At 5% and 10% of the diet, berries inhibited chemically-induced tumors in the rat esophagus by 40-60% and in the rat colon by up -to 80%. Mechanistic studies indicate that the berries inhibited genes associated with cell proliferation, inflammation and angiogenesis and stimulated pro-apoptotic genes. Based on these data, we initiated prevention trials in humans. In a Phase I trial, orally administered berries were well tolerated with minimal side effects, and berry compounds were absorbed into blood. Data from Phase IIa trials indicate that the oral administration of berries causes inhibitory effects on the development of colon tumors and, along with a rectal suppository made from berries, regresses rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Studies are underway to determine the mechanism(s) of these inhibitory effects in humans. AGFD 116 Factors affecting the metabolic fate of bilberry anthocyanins Elke Richling1, Richling@chemie.uni-kl.de, Michael Kraus2, Kraus@pzlc.uni-wuerzburg.de, Kathrin Kahle2, k.kahle@pzlc.uni-wuerzburg.de, Bastian Knaup2, Knaup@pzlc.uni-wuerzburg.de, Thomas Erk1, erk@rhrk.uni-kl.de, Wolfgang Scheppach3, Scheppach_w@medizin.uni-wuerzburg.de, and Peter Schreier2, schreier@pzlc.uniwuerzburg.de. (1) Food Chemistry & Toxicology, Univ. of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Str. 52, Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany, Fax: +49 631 205 4398, (2) Food Chemistry, Univ. of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg 97074, Germany, (3) Dept. of Medicine II, Univ. of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg 97070, Germany It is well known that secondary plant components such as polyphenols show in vitro and in vivo chemopreventive effects. The group of anthocyanins seem to be of particular importance. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), a wild lowbush blueberry species, has a different composition of phenolic compounds compared to other berries. Moreover the anthocyanin composition of bilberry is more diverse than that of most other berries, as a total number of 14 different anthocyanins have been identified, including glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin. The most common anthocyanins in bilberry are the glycosides of delphinidin and cyanidin whereas in other berries delphinidin glycosides are very low. In the past years the awareness of metabolic influences on the bioavailability of food derived polyphenols has gained increased attention. In our study we set our aim to clarify how the structural diversities of the bilberry anthocyanins will affect their biological behaviours. For our study healthy ileostomists consumed bilberries containing 14 anthocyanins. The ileal effluent was taken at different time points and analyzed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS. The quantification of the anthocyanins was accomplished with authentic standards isolated from bilberry. The results support the fact that the metabolism of anthocyanins was influenced by the B ring structure of the aglycon and the attached sugar moiety influencing the degradation or absorption and therefore their colonic availability. Methoxylated anthocyanins showed a far greater stability than hydroxylated B ring

structures. Mostly glucosides were degraded or absorbed whereas arabinosides were the most stable anthocyanin glycosides. Our results have demonstrated, that anthocyanins will function differently depending on the types of anthocyanins we ingest from our diet. Bilberry derived anthocyanins reach the colon under physiological circumstances aiding the prevention of diseases of the colon. AGFD 117 Opening a can of worms: Using C. elegans to identify prolongevity and antitumor effects of polyphenols in whole animals Catherine A Wolkow and Mark A Wilson, Laboratory of Neurosciences, NIA Intramural Research Program, NIH, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, Fax: 410-558-8323 Polyphenols are compounds produced by plants in response to stress. These compounds, which can be found in dietary fruits and vegetables, are believed to have health effects in humans. However, these ideas have been mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies, with a lack of direct evidence for benefits in whole animals. The invertebrate nematode, Caenorhabiditis elegans, provides a flexible model for economically assessing whole-animal effects of these compounds. In particular, the short C. elegans generation time and genetic amenibility allow mechanistic analysis as well as chemical screening on a medium-throughput scale. We have identified a variety of effects in C. elegans adults treated with different polyphenols throughout the adult lifespan. While some polyphenols conferred prolongevity and -thermotolerance benefits, others slowed tumor growth and shorted adult lifespan in vivo. These studies hint at an enormous diversity in the biological targets of small fruit polyphenols. AGFD 118 Evaluating health benefits of various fruits Talwinder S. Kahlon, Processed Foods Research Unit, Western Regional Research Ctr., USADA-ARS, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710-1105, Fax: 510-559-5777 Cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions can be evaluated by determining their bile acid binding capacity. Reducing bile acids recirculation lowers cholesterol by reducing fat absorption and utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid. Secondary bile acids increase the risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential is related to lowering the risk of heart disease as well as cancer prevention. Relative to cholestyramine, (a bile acid binding, cholesterol lowering drug) bile acid binding on dry matter basis was bananas 9%; blueberries 7%, peaches, plums and pineapple 6%, cherries, grapes, pears, prunes and strawberries 5%, cranberries 4%, apricots 3%, nectarines 2% and apple 1%. These results point to the relative health promoting potential of bananas > blueberries > peaches = plums = pineapple > cherries = grapes = pears = prunes = strawberries > cranberries > nectarine > apples as indicated by their bile acid binding on DM basis. AGFD 119 Berry fruit extracts exhibit chemopreventative effects on human cancer cell lines Shiow Y. Wang, Genetic Improvement of Fruits and Vegetables Laboratory, Beltsville Agriculture Research Ctr., ARS, USDA, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Bldg. 010A, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, Fax: 301-504-5062 Berry fruits are considered excellent functional foods because they contain high levels of natural antioxidants. Berry fruits such as blackberries, blueberries, deerberries, raspberries, lingonberries and strawberries have high antioxidant capacities (against peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen and superoxide radicals) and antioxidant enzyme activities. We have found that berry fruit extracts (BFEs) exhibit chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. They significantly inhibited activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor-KappaB (NF-kB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling induced by UV or 12O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Furthermore, BFEs inhibited TPA-induced neoplastic transformation in JB6 cells. In vivo studies indicated that BFEs decreased the number of nonmalignant and malignant skin tumors per mouse induced by TPA in 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-initiated mouse skin. In HL-60 cells, BFEs specifically induced apoptosis, but had no effect on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. BFEs inhibited proliferation of A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Animal studies indicated that BFEs reduced the size of A549 tumor xenograft growth and significantly inhibited metastasis of A549 tumor xenograft in athymic nude mice. Further mechanistic studies suggested that BFEs inhibited migration and invasion of A549 cells. All these data suggest that BFEs may function as potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents with little cytotoxicity to normal tissue. These results also suggest that the chemopreventative effects of berry fruits may be through their antioxidant properties by blocking reactive oxygen species-mediated AP-1, NF-kB, and MAPK activation. These results also suggest that consuming berry fruits may be beneficial to human health. AGFD 120 Effect of store-purchased and pure cranberry and grape juice drinks on the reduction of enteric viral infectivity in cell culture and in the mouse model Steven M. Lipson, Dept. of Biology, St. Francis College, 180 Remsen Street, Brooklyn Heights, NY 11201, Fax: 718-522-1274 The health benefits of potable fruit juices have been the focus of numerous studies. Few investigators however, have addressed the effects of fruit juices as antiviral agents. The simian rotavirus SA-11 and the bovine reovirus type 3, both agents associated with gastroenteritis in mammals, were used as model enteric viral agents. Pretreatment of African green monkey kidney (MA-104) cell cultures with store-purchased or pure cranberry and grape juice drinks reduced virus titers by greater than 90%. Vitamin C alone, had no adverse effect on viral titers. A synergistic effect between cranberry and grape juices was not observed. Pretreatment of monolayers with grape or cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) or a PAC-enriched cranberry concentrate (PACran-TM) reduced reovirus infectivity titers by ca. 95% at concentrations <1%. Reovirus dsRNA was absent in monolayers pretreated with either juice or in virus-juice suspensions, indicating either a juice-associated blockage of host-cell receptor sites or a direct inactivation of the virus. Viability/cytotoxicity testing was performed by trypan blue exclusion, cell passage, and quantitation of adenylate kinase release from pretreated cells. Electron microscopy failed to reveal rotavirus particles within cranberry juice pretreated cell cultures. Treatment of RBCs with cranberry juice-rotavirus suspensions resulted in an inhibition of cellular aggregation (viz., hemagglutination). Clinical disease was absent in mice 4 days after oral administration of cranberry juice or grape juice-reovirus suspensions whereas nontreated control mice presented with severe infection followed by death. Histology of colon specimens revealed shrunken mucosa, mucin-depleted goblet cells, large inflammatory foci, and debris in the lumen of grape juice-virus inoculated mice. Mice treated with cranberry juice-reovirus suspensions displayed normal colon histology. Cranberry juice, and to a lesser extent grape juice, displayed inhibitory viral activity in the mouse model. AGFD 121 Cranberry phytochemicals as potential anticancer agents Peter J Ferguson, Cancer Research Laboratories, London Regional Cancer Program - London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Road East, London, ON N6A 4L6, Canada, Fax: 519-6858616 Edible foodstuffs have been investigated as a source of compounds to both prevent cancer and treat established tumors. Many flavonoids and other phytochemicals interact with cellular molecules to influence biological functions ranging from proliferation and survival, to angiogenesis, to drug metabolism. Each function is a potential target for tumor treatment. Due to their very high flavonoid content, edible berries have become the focus of widespread investigation of anticancer activity. We have investigated cranberries as a source

of components with potential as chemotherapeutic agents. Flavonoid-containing cranberry extracts demonstrated antiproliferative activity against eight different human cancer cell lines in vitro, resulting from both cell cycle inhibition/arrest and induction of apoptosis. These extracts inhibit growth of human tumor cell line explants in vivo when administered by intraperitoneal injection to tumor-bearing mice. Components of cranberry with in vitro anticancer activity, identified by other groups, include: the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin, mostly in the form of glycosidic, benzoic and cinnamic conjugates; polymers of the flavan-3-ol epicatechin; and the non-flavonoid triterpene hydroxycinnamates. Ursolic acid (a triterpenoid pentacyclic compound) and quercetin also inhibit tumor cell growth in vivo. Direct in vivo antitumor activity for any other cranberry phytochemical has not been reported. In view of the demonstrated in vivo anticancer activity of the crude cranberry extract, we propose that one or more purified components of cranberry will be useful contributors to anticancer therapy. AGFD 122 Talking about flavor Terry E. Acree, Dept. of Food Sci. & Tech., Cornell Univ., NYSAES, Geneva, NY 14456 The “green” smell of peppers can easily be recalled from a puff of air containing the slightest amount of 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine but add the “passion fruit” smell of 3-mercaptohexanol at the same potency and the results are unpredictable. Quale, like “green” above, is the briefest instance of unitary perception that can be remembered for a few seconds or minutes. With training a quale can be associated with a word or other memories but this requires associative learning causing the lexicon of odor to be idiosyncratic. In order to understand how the chemistry of mixtures causes flavor perception we need to predict what qualia are produced by what combinations of odorants while at the same time measuring perception with an idiosyncratic lexicon. This paper will discuss mixture perception and what the experimental evidence can and cannot tell us. AGFD 123 Basic flavor research: Lessons from cuisine Gary K Beauchamp, Monell Chemical Senses, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 215 898 2084 Flavor, defined here as the combination of the taste, smell and irritating (e.g. capsaicin) properties of a food or beverage, is a fundamental determinant of pleasure and hence intake. As brilliantly illustrated in many of Harold McGee's writings and presentations, food flavor is a consequence of complex chemical interactions with techniques to enhance these flavors having accrued over the long history of human food preparation. Underlying the wisdom of the food preparer are basic psychological and biological processes and principles that my colleagues and I at the Monell Chem. Senses Ctr. are seeking to understand. In this presentation, I describe examples derived from the phenomenology of cuisine that have pointed the way to important mechanistic insights into the mechanisms and functions of flavor perception and the regulation of food intake. AGFD 124 Culinary chemistry: Entrée to the sciences at the Culinary Inst. of America Christopher R. Loss, Ventura Foods Chair for Menu R&D, The Culinary Inst. of America at Greystone, 2555 Main St., St. Helena, CA 94574, Fax: 707-967-2410 As culinary education evolves into a more academically rigorous discipline, the arts, humanities, sciences, and traditional culinary training are merging. Chefs are recognizing the value and utility of the scientific method and evidence based study of foods. It is becoming increasingly important from a career standpoint for the modern culinary professional to understand the underlying chemical mechanisms in food that impact flavor, nutrition, safety, and stability. At The Culinary Inst. of America we have begun to incorporate the discipline of science into the educational process by supporting science-based research by chef faculty, and incorporating culinary chemistry into course materials and other experiential educational opportunities. By involving students in sensory testing, storage stability studies, and explorations into the physiochemical properties of their foods, they are gaining an increased understanding of their craft and are broadening their creative palate. In this talk I will describe programs at The Culinary Inst. of America that combine the culinary arts and sciences, and the challenges and opportunities that this pedagogical approach presents. AGFD 125 Science driven gastronomy: A restaurant fad or a useful tool? Andrew J. Taylor, Food Sci. Dept, Univ. of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, LE12 5RD, Loughborough Leics, UK , There is considerable interest in the application of science to cook foods, as evidenced by various books on the topic (e.g. McGee, This and Barham) as well as the numerous TV programs and specialist restaurants around the world serving novel dishes based on scientific principles. It is surprising that science driven gastronomy has been so wellreceived, as cooking has long been considered an art, while science has negative connotations for many consumers. The topic receives most attention for the unusual dishes it produces (e.g. instant ice cream made with liquid nitrogen) but it does have uses outside this narrow range. It makes an excellent tool to enthuse young and old people about science and has been used to communicate fundamental scientific principles in an easy to understand way, using familiar materials. The observation that “complexity” in some of the foods developed satisfies consumers and leads (anecdotally) to controlled-, rather than over-, consumption has prompted others to consider whether the use of these principles in “mainstream” foods may enhance satiety and fulfilment and decrease food intake. Examples of all these aspects will be presented. AGFD 126 Culinary Tech. David Arnold, French Culinary Institute, 462 Broadway #2, New York, NY 10013 The emerging field of culinary Tech. will be discussed. AGFD 127 Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of Loropetalum chinense, Cirsium japonicum DC var australe Kitamura., and Acanthopanax trifoliatus(L.)Merr. using ultraweak chemiluminescience analyzer Chin-Wen Ho1, cwho@ttu.edu.tw, Szu-Chen Duan2, duan@ttu.edu.tw, Chien-Nan Chen1, and Pei-Sheng Chu1. (1) The Bioengineering Dept., Tatung Univ., 40, Chungshan North Road, sec. 3, Taipei 104, Taiwan, Fax: 886-2-25854735, (2) Dept. of Biology and Biochemistry, Univ. of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77004 The reactive oxygen species (ROS) include superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH•). There are increasing suggestions by considerable evidence that the ROS induce oxidative damage to biomoleculars. The study presented the antioxidants activities from leaf extract of twenty nine native plants were collected from the northern part of Taiwan. Three of these plants, Loropetalum chinense, Cirsium japonicum DC. var australe Kitamura, and Acanthopanax trifoliatus( L.) Merr., expressed high antioxidative activities. The aqueous extracts of the studied plants were proved to assess the O2- and OH• scavenging activity. A stable O2generating system consisted of methylglyoxal and arginine in the presence of oxygen was used. The chemiluminescence (LBCL) was generated when oxidized lucigenin in the presence of O2- was reduced. The LBCL could be monitored by the ultraweak chemiluminescence analyzer (uwCL). The O2- scavenging activity was observed by counting the decrease of LBCL when the extract of the plants was added to the O2- generating system. IC50 (50 p ercent inhibition of LBCL) can be estimated by constructing the percentages of inhibition of LBCL

versus the concentration of the extract of test plant. IC50 of the extract from dry matter of the test plant was 3.04 µg, 4.92 µg, and 7.16 µg, respectively, for Acanthopanax trifoliatus( L.) Merr, Cirsium japonicum DC. var australe Kitamura, and Loropetalum chinense. The LBCL generated by OH• and -glucuronide (IBG) was monitored by uwCL. The hydroxyl radical OH• wasβindoxyl- generated by Fenton reagent in this study. The OH• scavenging activity was observed by counting the decrease of LBCL when extract of the plants was added to the Fenton reagent. IC50 of the extract from dry matter of the test plant was 1.81 µg, 2.13 µg, and 3.72 µg, respectively, for Loropetalum chinense, Acanthopanax trifoliatus( L.) Merr., and Cirsium japonicum DC. var australe Kitamura. AGFD 128 Plasma and liver cholesterol and body weights of hamsters fed fast foods Wallace H. Yokoyama1, wally@pw.usda.gov, Yun-Jeong Hong2, yhong@pw.usda.gov, Scott Young3, SAYoung@Dow.com, Kerr Anderson4, whanderson@dow.com, Dave Albers3, dave.albers@dow.com, and Maciej Turowski5, mturowski@dow.com. (1) Western Regional Research Ctr., USDA ARS, 800 Buchanan St., Albany, CA 94710, Fax: 510-559-5777, (2) Processed Food Research, USDA, ARS, Western Regional Research Ctr., Albany, CA 94710, (3) Analytical Sciences Building 1897, Dow Chemical Co, Midland, MI 48667, (4) Larkin Laboratories, Dow Chemical Co, Midland, MI 48674, (5) METHOCEL Food Group, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48674 The male Syrian hamster is widely used as an animal model for lipid metabolism and gall stone formation. The male hamster is similar to humans in the following ways: rate of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, similar primary and secondary bile acids, the presence of a gall bladder and plasma cholesterol ester transfer protein. Hamsters were fed diets collected from fast food restaurants supplemented with vitamins, minerals, protein and fiber for 4 weeks. The diets were either hamburgers and French fries, cheese pizza, or pound cakes. Plasma cholesterol ranged from 120-160 mg/dL. Plasma cholesterol was lowered in the same diets supplemented with 4% Fortefiber, a soluble dietary fiber, to 90-140 mg/dL. Body weights were also lower in the group fed hamburger/French fries and fortefiber and pound cake and fortefiber compared to the same diets without fortefiber. Similar plasma cholesterol lowering by 4% fortefiber were observed when hamsters were fed prepared meat, cheese and fried potato chips. AGFD 129 Alimentary proteins as a novel source for bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine Leko Lin, Devika Varma, Anat Perets, Mengyan Li, Dara L Woerdeman, and Peter Lelkes, Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel Univ., 3141 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 Alimentary proteins, such as those derived from wheat, corn, and soy, are being used as renewable alternatives to synthetic materials for industrial purposes. Recently, we and others have begun to explore plantderived proteins as potential bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here we present the optimization of electrospinning parameters for generating nanofibrous scaffolds from soy protein and corn zein and demonstrate biocompatibility of these scaffolds in vitro using human dermal fibroblasts. The tensile properties of these scaffolds, such as Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength, are similar to those of human skin. Electrospun scaffolds derived from alimentary proteins hold promise for wound healing and skin regeneration applications, either used alone as a graft or as a platform for culturing full-thickness skin substitutes. Major advantages would be low cost and abundance of the raw material compared to other, more conventional sources for tissue-engineering scaffolds, such as collagen or synthetic biopolymers. AGFD 130 Antitumor limonoids and antioxidant lignans from African mahogany Khaya senegalensis Huaping Zhang1, Don VanDerveer2, Feng Chen1, Xi Wang3, and Michael J. Wargovich4. (1) Food Sci. & Human Nutrition, Clemson Univ., 224 P&A BLDG, Clemson, SC, (2) Chemistry Dept., Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634, (3) Dept. of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634, (4) Cell and Molecular Pharmacology, Hollings Cancer Center, Charleston, SC 29425 Seven limonoids (2 khivorins, 1 mexicanolide, and 5 khayanolides), and three lignans were isolated from the methanolic extract of Khaya Senegalensis (Meliaceae). Their structures were determined as known 1? \, 3? \, 7? \-trideacetylkhivorin (1), 3? \, 7? \-dideacetylkhivorin (2), khayanone (3), khayanolide B (4), 1-O-deacetylkhayanolide B (5), khayanolide E (6), 1-deacetylkhayanolide E (7), novel 6-dehydroxylkhayanolide E (8), (-)-lyoniresinol (9), lyoniresin-4-yl-ƒ"-D-glucopyranoside (10), lyoniresin-9'-yl-ƒ"-D-xylopyranoside (11) on the basis of spectral methods, including accurate MS, extensive 1D and 2D NMR (DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC), and X-ray diffraction experiments. 1 and 2 showed significant growth inhibitory activities against MCF-7, SiHa, and Caco-2 tumor cells with IC50 values in the range of 35-69 ppm; 9, 10, 11 exhibited strong antioxidant activities comparable to that of BHT. The structures of 4 khayanolides reported in the previous literatures were revised on the basis of NMR and X-ray diffraction results. The biogenetic pathway of khayaniolides were discussed. AGFD 131 Post-harvest abiotic stresses as a non-GMO approach for enhancement of plant bioactives Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, Dept. of Horticulture Sciences, Texas A a& M Univ., VFIC, 1500, Research Parkway, Suite 120A, Centeq Research Plaza, College Station, TX 77843, Fax: 979-845-0627 Post-harvest abiotic stresses can enhance the genetic potential of fruits and vegetables yielding products with higher concentrations of health promoting bioactive compounds. Current work in our lab has shown that reactive oxygen species mediate in the stress response as signaling molecules. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the level of phytonutrients in plant tissues is related to their redox status. Severe stress can exert irreversible damage on the tissues and deplete the phytonutrients. However, mild recoverable oxidative stress stimulates compensatory mechanisms enhancing the level of protective phytonutrients. Thus, modulating the redox status will allow the potential tailoring of compounds with health promoting properties. One practical concept to modulate the redox status is by using simple post-harvest abiotic stresses alone or in combinations including wounding stress, UV radiation and chemical elicitors. AGFD 132 Behavior of flavonols and carotenoids during storage of minimally processed leafy vegetables under passive modified atmosphere packaging Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya1, delia@fea.unicamp.br, Cintia N. Kobori1, cintia@fea.unicamp.br, Lisia S. Huber1, and Claire IGL. Sarantopoulos2, claire@ital.gov.br. (1) Dept. of Food Sci., Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P.6121, Campinas 13083-862, Brazil, , (2) Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem, Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Campinas 13070-178, Brazil Minimally processed leafy vegetables in passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were stored at different refrigeration temperatures, with or without light exposure. Headspace gas composition, sensory attributes, carotenoid and flavonol contents were determined while the products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. Quercetin and kaempferol did not have appreciable losses in the leaves and conditions studied; increases occurred at some points, especially in the presence of light. Carotenoids showed greater and variable changes. Neoxanthin remained constant in roquette (whole leaves) and kale (strips), but increased in New Zealand spinach (whole leaves). Violaxanthin was stable in roquette, but decreased in kale under light, forming zeaxanthin, and increased in New Zealand spinach. Beta-carotene decreased in the three leaves, especially in kale. Lutein decreased in roquette and kale, but was stable in New Zealand spinach. Because thermal processing is not

involved, biosynthetic enzymes may remain active in minimally processed leaves. On the other hand, trimming/cutting may release degradative enzymes. The flavonol and carotenoid concentrations would therefore reflect which effect is predominating. MAP under refrigerated storage can preserve flavonols with small losses of carotenoids in minimally processed leafy vegetables. AGFD 133 Seasonal and postharvest temperature impact on novel orange -fleshed honey dew fruit antioxidants G. E. Lester, gene.lester@ars.usda.gov, USDA-ARS-CQFIR, 2413 E. Hwy 83, Bldg. 200, Weslaco, TX 78596, Fax: 956-447-6345, and D. Mark Hodges, HodgesM@agr.gc.ca, Atlantic Food and Horticulture Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Kentville, NS B4N 1J5, Canada This study compared some commercially available novel, non-netted, orange-fleshed honey dew melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L. Inodorus group) and a breeding line fruit for levels of antioxidants associated with both storage quality and human health. Fruit were produced in both autumn and spring production cycles in a glasshouse, harvested at abscission (mature) and stored for up to 24 d at either 5 °C or 10 °C. Spring versus autumn production generally yielded higher overall levels of folic acid, lipophilic and antioxidant (ascrobate peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) capacities. Our results indicate that there are significant differences in human-health- and storage qualityrelated phytochemical profiles between orange-fleshed honey dew melon cultivars, and that high antioxidant levels are associated with reduced lipid peroxidation during melon fruit storage. AGFD 134 Apple allergen Mal d 1: Effect of cultivar, cultivation method and storage conditions Anne Matthes1, amatthes@unibonn.de, Stephan Scheurer2, Anne-Regine Lorenz2, and Michaela Schmitz-Eiberger1, schmitz.micha@uni-bonn.de. (1) Inst. of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, Horticultural Science, Univ. of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 6, 53121 Bonn, Germany, Fax: +49228735764, (2) Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, 63225 Langen, Germany The prevalence of apple allergy is most frequently associated with birch pollen pollinosis in Central Europe and North America. 40-90% of birch pollen allergic patients are sensitized to apples. The parallel appearance of birch and apple allergy can be explained by cross-reactive IgE. Both major allergens Bet v 1 (birch) and Mal d 1 (apple) belong to the pathogenesis-related proteins, a family of proteins that are induced by certain environmental stresses. The allergenic composition of most apple cultivars has not yet been fully characterized. The aim of the study was to quantify Mal d 1 content in different apple cultivars in dependence on cultivation method and storage conditions by Sandwich-ELISA. Apple cultivars differed considerably in their Mal d 1 content. In most cases organic and integrated cultivation did not influence Mal d 1 content of apple fruit. At harvest the detected concentration of Mal d 1 was relatively low, but during storage the Mal d 1 content increased significantly. AGFD 135 Effect of cultivar, maturity and storage conditions on bioactive components in fruits of different apple varieties Michaela Schmitz-Eiberger and Anne Matthes, Inst. of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, Horticultural Science, Univ. of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 6, 53121 Bonn, Germany, Fax: 0049-228-735764 The participation of fruit and vegetables in human nutrition is significant, because of its high content of valuable components, such as vitamins and antioxidants. The antioxidants in apple fruits differed between varieties. Cold storage between 0 and 1°C for 12 weeks increased antioxidative capacity (TEAC value) and phenolic content in most of the cultivars, whereas ascorbic acid content was stable. An additional storage under shelf life conditions resulted in a decrease of antioxidant content. Unripe and overripe harvested fruit showed a minor stability of antioxidant capacity after storage and shelf life, and had the strongest decrease of the antioxidative capacity in the lipophilic extract. Correlation studies revealed that the total phenolic compounds contributed strongest to the TEAC antioxidant value of apple fruits while the contribution of ascorbic acid seemed to be low. AGFD 136 A citrus polymethoxylated flavone, 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone, exhibits activity in the Arthus reaction John A. Manthey, USDA,ARS,SAA, U.S. Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory, 600 Avenue S, NW, Winter Haven, FL 33881, Fax: 863-2998678 The polymethoxylated flavones are an important class of flavonoids recovered from orange peel. These compounds, especially 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties. HMF, when given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, was previously observed to be active against the carrageenan/rat paw edema inflammation assay and the bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in mice. In contrast, HMF administered orally (p.o.) exhibited no inhibitory effect. In the current study, HMF administered by either i.p. or p.o., produced inhibition of guinea pig ankle swelling in the Arthus reaction, a model for rheumatoid arthritis. HMF administered p.o. at 160 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of ankle swelling, although less than HMF administered i.p. at 200 mg/kg. The observation of activity for HMF following oral administration differentiates these findings from the previous two inflammation studies; yet all three assays point to the future use of HMF, as well as the other PMFs, as a means of possibly inhibiting inflammation in humans. AGFD 137 Anthocyanase side activities in pectinase preparations deglycosylate anthocyanins in elderberry juice leading to color loss Sina Pricelius and Georg M. Gübitz, Envir. BioTech., Technical Univ. Graz/ Austria, Petersgasse 12/1, Graz 8010, Austria Attractive color is one of the most important sensory characteristics of fruit and berry products and elderberry juice as widely used as natural colorant. In the production of elderberry juice using pectinase preparations for clarification a decrease of anthocyanins and thus a color loss was observed. Here we demonstrate that this is due to side activities contained in commercial pectinase preparations. Various side activities such as esterase, protease hemicellulase, cellulase and particular glycosidase activites were measured in commercial pectinase preparations from Aspergillus sp. Using LC-MS sequential deglycosylation of cyanidin-3-sambubioside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cy-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside and cy-3,5-diglucoside was found catalysed by anthocyanases contained in the pectinase preparations. A novel method has been developed to detect anthocyanase activity in enzyme preparations. According to LC-MS peptide mass mapping of tryptically digested anthocyanase active bands homology to ß-glucosidase from Aspergillus kawachii was found. However, pure ß-glucosidases of Agrobacterium sp., A. niger and the ß-glucosidase N188 from A. niger did not show any conversion of anthocyanins indicating the presence of specific anthocyanases. AGFD 138 PPAR? activation and molecular docking of resveratrol methylether analogs and catechins Agnes M. Rimando1, agnes.rimando@ars.usda.gov, Cassia S Mizuno1, cmizuno@olemiss.edu, and Shabana I. Khan2, skhan@olemiss.edu. (1) USDA-ARS, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, P.O. Box 8048, Univ., MS 38677, Fax: 662-915-1035, (2) National Center for Natural Products Research, The Univ. of Mississippi, Univ., MS 38677 We previously demonstrated that pterostilbene, a dimethylether analog of resveratrol, activates endogenous PPAR? in H4IIEC3 cells. PPAR? is a nuclear receptor predominantly involved in fatty acid and lipid catabolism and

import. In further studies, we investigated whether other methylether analogs of resveratrol (pinostilbene, desoxyrhapontigenin, 3-hydroxy 4',5-dimethoxystilbene and resveratrol trimethylether) would activate PPAR?. Cathechin and epicatechin were also included in this study. These catechins, which are found in many fruits, are known to have hypolipidemic properties. Docking of the methylether analogs into PPAR? revealed that these stilbenes docked in similar manner, showing hydrogen bond interaction with amino acids considered essential for PPAR? activation such as Tyr464, Ser280 and Tyr314. These analogs fitted very well into the hydrophobic pocket. However, results showed only weak to moderate induction of PPAR? in H4IIEC3 cells. The catechins were mostly docked in the hydrophobic pocket formed by helices 2', 3 and ? sheet and did not interact with essential amino acids located on the left most part of the active pocket. Consistent with docking studies, catechin and epicatechin showed very weak activation of PPAR?. Thus, among resveratrol methylether analogs, pterostilbene has shown the greatest PPAR? activation. The catechins do not appear to be PPAR? agonists. AGFD 139 3-D molecular similarity applied to food chemistry Karina Martínez-Mayorga, Computer-aided Drug Design, Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 5775 Old Dixie Highway, Fort Pierce, FL 34946, Fax: 772-462-0886 Similarity methods have been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and academic laboratories around the world. Recent development of algorithms that permit the fast generation of chemical structures and the corresponding conformational landscape have allowed drug development and discovery by means of 3D similarity analysis. In a comparable way, structure–property relationships of food molecules can be accessed applying molecular modeling and similarity methods. There are many examples of biologically active food proteins and peptides beyond the nutritional requirements, examples of 3D similarity studies of biologically active peptides obtained from food sources are presented in this work. AGFD 140 Identification of the bioactive constitutents of Kinkéliba (Combretum micranthum), a west African medicinal plant Cara R Welch1, crwelch@eden.rutgers.edu, Qing-Li Wu2, qlwu@aesop.rutgers.edu, Min-Hsiung Pan3, mhpan@mail.nkmu.edu.tw, C-T. Ho4, ho@aesop.rutgers.edu, Malainy Diatta5, djinkadiatta@yahoo.fr, and James E. Simon2, jesimon@aesop.rutgers.edu. (1) Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry, Rutgers Univ., 160 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Fax: 732-932-9411, (2) New Use Agriculture and Natural Plant Products Program, Dept. of Plant Biology and Pathology, Sch. of Envir.and Biological Sciences, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, (3) Dept. of SeaFood Sci., National Kaohsiung Marine Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, (4) Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520, (5) ASNAPP-Senegal, Dakar, Senegal Traditional African medicine is a rich source of new molecular entities which could provide promising directions for therapeutic applications. One example is kinkéliba tea (Combretum micranthum) from the African Savannah regions which is used for weight loss, digestion, diuretic, antibiotic, malarial fevers, and other medical conditions. Dried leaves were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and anti-inflammatory activity. An ethanol extraction of leaves was fractionated based upon polarity and subsequently assayed for antioxidant capacity. The most active fraction, ethyl acetate, was then tested for anti-inflammatory activity and exhibited an inhibition of NO by 93.5% at only 60 µg/mL and 100% at higher concentrations. A large-scale extraction of kinkéliba leaves was fractionated as before and separated by chromatographic techniques; the resultant fractions are being screened for anti-inflammatory activity. A bioactivity-guided isolation approach is being used to identify the active compounds and validate traditional uses of this African medicinal plant. AGFD 141 Investigation of anti-inflammatory compounds in Origanum spp. Diandian Shen1, dshen@eden.rutgers.edu, Qing-Li Wu2, qlwu@aesop.rutgers.edu, Chung-Heon Park3, park0ch@yahoo.co.kr, Rodolfo Juliani2, hjuliani@rci.rutgers.edu, Min-Hsiung Pan4, mhpan@mail.nkmu.edu.tw, Chi-Tang Ho5, and James E. Simon2, jesimon@aesop.rutgers.edu. (1) Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry, Rutgers Univ., 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, Fax: 732-932-9377, (2) New Use Agriculture and Natural Plant Products Program, Dept. of Plant Biology and Pathology, Sch. of Envir.and Biological Sciences, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, (3) Dept. of Plant Biology, Rutgers.Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, (4) Dept. of SeaFood Sci., National Kaohsiung Marine Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, (5) Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., North Brunswick, NJ 08901 Prior studies reported that oregano (Origanum spp.), a well-known flavoring, spice and essential oil exhibited .anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, but the responsible constituents were not identified. We identified the anti-inflammatory constituents in oregano as rosmarinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid using bioactivity-guided isolation, LC/MS and NMR. These organic acids from oregano were tested on the LPS-induced nitrite production assay and the Western Blotting of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein levels in murine cells. Each showed stronger or comparable anti-inflammatory activities compared to the indomethacin control. We developed and validated an LC/MS (SIM-mode) method that enabled us to successfully coquantitate these three organic acids using a tandem column system. We next conducted a quantitative survey of these constituents in different oreganos (O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, O. vulgare and O. syriacum) and found that oregano is a rich source of these acids and that significant differences were found between oregano sources. AGFD 142 Phenolics with potential pest-deterrent properties from leaves of Early Black cranberry cultivar (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Christine A. Dao, u_cdao@umassd.edu, Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02747, Fax: 508-999-9167, Michelle Botelho, UMass Cranberry Experiment Station, East Wareham, MA 02538, Justine Vanden Heuvel, jev32@cornell.edu, Dept. of Horticulture, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY, and Catherine C. Neto, cneto@umassd.edu, Dept. of Chem. and Biochemistry, Univ. of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 Gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar L.) and red-headed flea beetle adults (Systena frontalis F.) have demonstrated a strong feeding preference to Howes variety cranberry leaves over Early Black, suggesting that Early Black cranberry foliage may contain compounds with pest-deterrent properties. A comparison of the composition of phenolic compounds in Early Black and Howes foliage was conducted to investigate the identity of p ossible feeding deterrents. Leaves were harvested at time points coinciding with pest infestation from State Bog in Wareham, MA. Extraction and HPLC analysis showed several phenolic compounds were present in higher quantities in Early Black. Quercetin glycosides were identified in the leaf extracts by comparison to known compounds from cranberry fruit. The identity of phenolic acids was further investigated by fractionation of crude leaf extracts on C18 SPE cartridges with an elution gradient of increasing methanol in water to separate phenolic acids, tannins and flavonol glycosides. HPLC-DAD analysis traced the phenolic acids to fractions eluting in 15% methanol. Based on diode array and MS data, the phenolic acids in the leaves appear to be derivatives of p-coumaric acid. Structures of the tannins are under investigation.

AGFD 143 Phytochemical screening and bioactive properties of the medicinal plant eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis) Yanping Xu1, ypxu@eden.rutgers.edu, Qingli Wu2, QLWU@AESOP.Rutgers.edu, Min-Hsiung Pan3, mhpan@mail.nkmu.edu.tw, Chi-Tang Ho4, ho@aesop.rutgers.edu, and James E. Simon2, jesimon@aesop.rutgers.edu. (1) Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry, Rutgers Univ., 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, (2) New Use Agriculture and Natural Plant Products Program, Dept. of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901, (3) Dept. of SeaFood Sci., National Kaohsiung Marine Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, (4) Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08854 Eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis) has a long history of herbal use for the treatment of conjunctivitis, blepharitis and inflammation of the upper respiratory passages, hay fever, and colds. In this investigation, we successfully fractionated the bioactive iridoid glycosides, phenolic acids and flavonoids from crude eyebright extract using polyamide chromatography. Each of these fractions was assessed for their ROS activity using two antioxidant assays (TEAC and ORAC). Highest antioxidant (ROS) activity was observed from the fraction of phenolic acids, followed by flavonoids, the eyebright crude extracts and lowest activity from the iridoid glycosides. These fractions were then tested for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophage cell line (Raw 264.7 cells). The total flavonoid fraction exhibited the highest antiinflammatory activity. Further phytochemical investigations are underway using bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation to identify the compounds responsible for the activity of this medical plant. AGFD 144 Tea polyphenols: New trapping agents of reactive dicarbonyl species Xi Shao, sang@rci.rutgers.edu, Dept. of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers Univ., 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8020, Shengmin Sang, sangggll@yahoo.com, Human Nutrition Research Program, Julius L. Chambers Biomedical/BioTech. Research Inst., North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC 27707, Chi-Tang Ho, Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., North Brunswick, NJ 08901, and Chung S. Yang, csyang@rci.rutgers.edu, Laboratory for Cancer Research, Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8020 Previous studies have demonstrated that reactive dicarbonyl compounds [e.g., methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO)] irreversibly and progressively modified proteins over time and yielded advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are thought to contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Thus decreasing the levels of MGO and GO will be an effective approach to reduce the formation of AGEs and the development of diabetic complications. In our studies to find non-toxic trapping agents of reactive dicarbonyl species from dietary sources, we found that tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major bioactive green tea polyphenol, could efficiently trap reactive dicarbonyl compounds (MGO or GO) to form mono- and di- MGO or GO adducts under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37 °C). The products formation from EGCG and MGO (or GO) at different ratios were analyzed using LC/MS. The two major mono-MGO adducts of EGCG were purified using column chromatography, and their structures were identified as stereoisomers of mono-MGO adducts of EGCG based on their 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Our LC/MS and NMR data showed that positions 6 and 8 of the EGCG A-ring were the major active sites for trapping reactive dicarbonyl compounds. We also found that EGCG lost its trapping efficacy under acid condition (pH = 4), suggesting a base-catalyzed trapping reaction. AGFD 145 Biodiversity of glycoproteins purified from green tea (Camellia sinensis) Shaoping Nie, Zhihong Fu, M ingyong Xie, State Key Lab. of Food Sci. and Tech., Nanchang Univ., 235 Nanjing East Rd, Nanchang 330047, China, Fax: 86-791-3969069 The biodiversity of glycoproteins purified from green tea (Camellia sinensis) sampled from three different producing areas was studied by determining their chemical compositions, structure of sugar chain, conformation and bioactivity. It was found by GC-MS analysis that the monosaccharide and uronic acid composition, and their molar ratios in three different tea glycoproteins (TGPs) are all different. The main chains all consist of Rha, Glc, Gal and uronic acid, and their linkage form are all 1? 4 linkage in three different TGPs. Thus it can be seen that the primary structures of sugar chain of three different TGPs possess some comparability but there are many differences between them, too. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that there are only slight differences between the conformations in solution of three different TGPs and their solid states. The inhibition effects of three different TGPs to ? -amylase are very similar. It showed that the inhibition effects of TGPs to ? amylase may not be influenced by their primary structure but maybe have relationship with their conformations. The antioxidative abilities of three different TGPs are distinctive different. It was found that they were affected by the content of uronic acid. The higher the content of uronic acid of TGP is, the stronger the antioxidative ability of TGP is. It is obvious that different TGPs have significant diversity at the composition, the structure of sugar chain, conformation and bioactivity. These results will support the further studies on the relationship between the structure and the bioactivity, which have already been underway in our lab. Supported financially by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No: 20462005) and Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in Univ. (No: IRT0540) AGFD 146 Comparison of the encapsulation amounts of isoflavones-containing red clover extracts in microemulsion system using different extraction techniques Chuan-Chuan Lin1, cclin@cc.chit.edu.tw, Mei-Hwa Lee2, mhlee@isu.edu.tw, and Ming-Wen Yu1, lucy5425@yahoo.com.tw. (1) Dept. of Food Sci., China Inst. of Tech., 245, Yen-Chiu Yuan (Academia) Rd., Sec.3, Nankang, 115 Taipei, Taiwan, Fax: 886-2-2786-4291, (2) Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou Univ., 840 Kaohsiung, Taiwan Most of the commercially available raw herbal extracts, if not further purified, have the limits on innovation and patent protection in the development of related products. In addition, no matter what route it takes, either through oral or transdermal application, the bioavailability of raw herbal extracts is poor and not available bioactive ingredient can't reach the target tissues. In our report, the isoflavones- enriched red clover crude extract was selected for study. First, in order to enhance the contents of the estrogenic isoflavones in extracts, solid-, liquid-phase extraction or combination of both were conducted and compared. The estrogenic and antioxidant activities were also tested using recombinant yeast system and DPPH assay, respectively. On the other hand, by utilizing biocompatible materials, including ethyl oleate as oil phase, lecithin and tween 80 as surfactants, the red clover extracts (RCE) can be readily encapsulated in a stable microemulsion system. The optimization process with regard to the stability and effectiveness of the RCE micelles was demonstrated in this report. AGFD 147 Determination of flavonoids in Moringa oleifera by LC/UV/MSD Julia P. Coppin1, Yanping Xu1, ypxu@eden.rutgers.edu, Hong Chen2, Rodolfo Juliani2, hjuliani@rci.rutgers.edu, Qing-Li Wu2, qlwu@aesop.rutgers.edu, and James E. Simon2, jesimon@aesop.rutgers.edu. (1) Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry, Rutgers Univ., 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, (2) New Use Agriculture and Natural Plant Products Program, Dept. of Plant Biology and Pathology, Sch. of Envir.and Biological Sciences, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 Moringa oleifera is an important multi-purpose tropical tree under-recognized for its nutritional and

medicinal properties. Leaves of M. oleifera collected from the sub-Saharan African countries of Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal and Zambia were analyzed by LC/UV/MS. We identified 12 flavonoids in moringa leaves including quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, malonylglycosides, acetylglycosides and succinoylglycosides, among which the quercetin and kaempferol glucosides and glucoside malonates are the major constituents. Using HPLC combined with UV and MS detectors, two flavonoid aglycones, quercetin and kaempferol in acidic hydrolyzed extracts were successfully separated within 10 mins and quantified individually. Total of 26 samples were assayed, and contents of total flavonoids varied, reaching as high as 1.925% (g/drywt), and down to 0.325% (g/drywt). Results varied by environment/country of collection and genetics of moringa. The thermal stability of the flavonoid malonyl derivatives and the recovery of the two analytes were tested. AGFD 148 Extraction, purification and structure identification of flavonoids in cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) iljinskaja Caijun Dong, Mingyong Xie, Shaoping Nie, Yuanxing Wang, Jianhua Xie, and Chang Li, State Key Laboratory of Food Sci. and Tech., Nanchang Univ., No.235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047, China, Fax: 86-791-3969069 Optimal conditions for the solvent extraction of flavonoids in Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja were obtained by using L9(34)orthogonal experiment. The purification of the flavonoids was performed by using the AB-8 macroreticular resin absorption combined with the preparation high performance liquid chromatography technique. Three final products were identified by UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The result showed that the best extraction conditions for the solvent extraction of flavonoids in Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja were the alcohol concentration of 60%, the ratio of material to solvent of 1:20, extracting time of 2 hours at 90°C. The total yield of flavonoids can reach 22.04 mg/g under the optimal conditions. Three flavonoid compounds obtained from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja were identified as quercetin-3-O-? -Dglucuronate, kaempferol-3-O-? -D-glucuronate and kaempferol-7-O-? -L- rhamnose. Supported financially by Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in Univ. (No: IRT0540). AGFD 149 Mycotoxin patulin induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial -dependent pathway in human leukemia cells Biing-Hui Liu, Ting-Shuan Wu, and Feng-Yih Yu, Departemnt of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical Univ., No.110, Sec 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan, Fax: 886-4-24757412 Patulin (PAT) is a fungal secondary metabolite exhibiting potential cellular and animal toxicities. In human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells, PAT decreased the levels of Bcl-2 proteins, but induced the levels of cytosolic cytochrome c, processed caspase-3, -6, -7, and -9 in a dose-dependent manner. PAT exposure led to the cleavage of DFF45/ICAD and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in HL-60; DNA laddering on gel electrophoresis and the hypodiploid DNA region in flow cytometry were also observed. No p53 protein was detected in HL-60 either in the presence of PAT or not, although PAT triggered the apoptotic process in the cells. On the other hand, suppression of p53 protein expression by RNA interference in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells showed no significant effect on PAT-activated caspase 3 activity. These findings indicate that PAT is able to induce mitochondrial- dependent apoptosis in human cells, and the process is not directly associated with p53 protein. AGFD 150 Phenolic content of commercial pomegranate dietary supplements and their antioxidant capacity Yanjun Zhang1, yzhang@mednet.ucla.edu, David Wang1, dcwang@mednet.ucla.edu, Rupo Lee1, Susanne M. Henning1, Navindra P. Seeram2, nseeram@mail.uri.edu, and David Heber1. (1) Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen Sch. of Medicine, Univ. of California, 900 Veteran Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, (2) Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 The health benefits associated with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits have resulted in the wide inclusion of pomegranate extracts in botanical dietary supplements, which are widely consumed as adjuvants for complementary and alternative medicines. The major pomegranate polyphenols which contribute significantly towards its antioxidant effects are hydrolysable ellagitannins (ETs), including punicalagin and punicalin isomers. By definition, ETs release ellagic acid (EA) on hydrolysis and unfortunately, many commercial pomegranate dietary supplements are chemically standardized to EA levels but no natural pomegranate ETs are present. In addition, label claims of pomegranate ETs and/or EA may not correlate with their actual phytochemical content. In the current study, 30 commercially available pomegranate dietary supplements, in capsule, tablet, softgel and liquid forms, were evaluated for total phenolic content (using ellagic acid equivalents, EAEs; and gallic acid equivalent, GAEs), and punicalagin, punicalin, and EA levels (using HPLC-UV methods). In addition, the supplements were evaluated for anti-oxidative activity [using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay]. Wide variations were found between label claims and actual phytochemical contents, and antioxidant capacities correlated well with total phenolic contents. Reliable labeling information and standardized manufacturing practices, based on both chemical and biological assays, are recommended for the quality control of dietary supplements. AGFD 151 Substrate specificities of anthocyanases in pectinase preparations Enrique Herrero Acero and Georg M. Gübitz, Environmental BioTech., Technical Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 12/1, Graz 8010, Austria The potential of pectolytic enzyme preparations used in juice and pulp treatment to degrade anthocyanins was assessed using various pure anthocyanins and elderberry juice as a substrates. Only 2 preparations from A. niger showed significant activity and were used for further tests. Comparing various substrates it was found that the type of glycosidic bonds linked to the aglycone had a big influence on the enzymatic deglycosylation rate. Interestingly, there was no big difference in the deglycosylation rate between monoglucosidic or diglucosidic anthocyanins. Both pectinase preparations hydrolysed the ßglycosidic bond to form the aglycone. We observed a decrease in degradation rate when rutinose was attached to cyanidin but the structure of the aglycone itself had almost no influence. Investigation of the degradation mechanism from cyanin showed that after hydrolysis of the protective glycosidic linkages a rapid destruction of the corresponding aglycone into colourless derivatives occurred. The formed phenolic acids and aldehydes were identified with HPLC/MS. AGFD 152 Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Hippophae rhamnoides fruits Mariangela Faudale1, mariangela.faudale@econ.units.it, Francesca Cateni2, Silvio Sosa1, Marina Zacchigna2, Roberto Della Loggia1, and Aurelia Tubaro1, tubaro@units.it. (1) Dept. of Materials and Natural Resources, Univ. of Trieste, Via A. Valerio 6, 34127 Trieste, Italy, Fax: ++39-0405583215, (2) Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae) is a shrub traditionally used against radiation damage, burns, stomatitis and gastric ulcers. Its fruits contain large amounts of vitamins C, A, E and K, carotenes, polyphenols, triterpenoids, amino acids and triglycerides. To study their topical anti-inflammatory properties, lyophilized drupes were sequentially extracted with n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (ME) and the relevant extracts were evaluated for their

ability to inhibit the Croton oil-induced mouse ear dermatitis. Only HE and EA extracts were active: 300 µg/cm2 provoked 43 and 68 % oedema reduction, respectively. As reference, the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (100 µg/cm2) induced 60 % inhibition. A bioassay-oriented fractionation led to isolation of a complex triglycerides mixture and D-malic acid from HE and EA extracts, respectively. After triglycerides hydrolysis, fatty acid methyl esters (mainly palmitic and palmitoleic methyl esters) were analyzed by gas chromatography in comparison with standards. Triglycerides and malic acid structures were determined by EI-MS and NMR analysis. AGFD 153 Ursolic acid and its p-hydroxycinnamoyl esters: Effects on tumor cell proliferation and content in cranberry fruit and products Anne M. Liberty1, g_aliberty@umassd.edu, Miwako Kondo1, miwako_kondo@hotmail.com, Shawna L. MacKinnon2, shawna.mackinnon@nrc.ca, Peter E. Hart3, and Catherine C. Neto1, cneto@umassd.edu. (1) Dept. of Chem. and Biochemistry, Univ. of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Rd., North Dartmouth, MA 02747, Fax: 508-999-9167, (2) National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS B3H3Z1, Canada, (3) Dept. of Biology, Univ. of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 Bioassay-guided fractionation of whole cranberry fruit shows that ursolic acid and its cis and trans-3-O-phydroxycinnamoyl esters are present and inhibit tumor cell proliferation. The content of these triterpenoids in whole cranberry fruit and products was therefore determined by LC-MS. Whole fruit contained 0.46–1.0 mg ursolic acid and 0.042–0.16 mg of each ester per gram depending on cultivar. Content varied among commercial products tested and was highest in products prepared from whole fruit. NCI cytotoxicity screening of the esters found the growth of most tumor cell lines was inhibited at micromolar concentrations. Further studies in two models of colon cancer (HCT-116 and HT-29) and one of breast cancer (MCF-7) showed reduced cell proliferation and inhibition of tumor colony development. TUNEL bioassays suggest that the cytotoxic activity is due in part to induction of apoptosis; mediation of apoptosis by caspases through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway is under investigation. AGFD 154 Cytotoxic activities and antioxidant effect of aminoethyl chitooligosaccharides Dai-Nghiep Ngo, Dept. of Chem., Pukyong National Univ., Busan 608-737, South Korea, Fax: 0080-51-629-7099, Moon-Moo Kim, mmkim@deu.ac.kr, Dept. of Chem., Dong-Eui Univ., Busan 614-714, South Korea, and Se-Kwon Kim, sknkim@pknu.ac.kr, Marine Bioprocess Research Ctr., Pukyong National Univ., Busan 608-737, South Korea The object of this research is to improve antioxidant effect of chitooligosaccharides (COS) by grafting 2aminoethyl hydrochloride onto amino groups of chitooligosaccharides. Aminoethyl chitooligosaccharides (AE-COS) and COS did not show any cytotoxicity against some different cell lines at concentration of 100 µg/mL and below. The antioxidant effect of both AE-COS and COS were determined in live cells using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) intensity. The inhibitory effects of these compounds on protein and DNA oxidation were evaluated in U 937 cells. AE-COS had exhibited higher antioxidant effect than COS at the same concentration. These results suggest that AE-COS have higher and stronger antioxidant effect than orginal COS and can be applied for cosmetics and foods in the future. AGFD 155 Studies on stability and antioxidation of anthocyanins isolated from purple radish Qi-Li Feng1, fengqili@yahoo.com.cn, Feng Lv1, fengqili@yahoo.com.cn, and Da-Qun Liu2. (1) The Key Laboratory of Food Sci. of MOE, Nanchang Univ., Nanchang 330047, China, (2) Vegetable Research Inst., Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hanzhou, China Purple Radish is a new breed of radishes, which was recently developed. To maximally retain the potency of Anthocyanins in Purple Radish during the process of extraction, purification and drying, an improved method has been applied. The conditions of extraction include use of 70% acetone aqueous solution with assistance of microwave at -40 °C. Subsequent purification is carried out through a C18 column with multiple eluents. The isolated Anthocyanins is stored at -40 °C. The pH of the medium shows significant impact on the stability of Anthocyanins, and Anthocyanins are not stable at >70 °C, or under room lights over an extended period (6 days), or in the presence of oxidant (hydrogen peroxide), or Cu(II), Mn(II), Al(III), Fe(III). But sucrose, glucose, sodium chloride, preservative (sodium benzoate), K(I), Ca(II) and Mg(II) have little effect on the stability of Anthocyanins. The solutions of Anthocyanins eliminate the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picry-hydrazyl radical, and the capacity of the elimination increases at higher concentrations of Anthocyanins. When the concentrations reach 0.025 mg/mL, the capacity is getting saturated and stabilized. The detail results will be presented. AGFD 156 Effect of sugar on a-galactosidase and ß-galactosidase activity from Lactobacillus reuteri D. Song, danfeng.song@gmail.com, NC A&T SU, Greensboro, NC 27411, and S. A. Ibrahim, ibrah001@ncat.edu, Food Sci. and Nutrition, North Carolina A&T State Univ., Greensboro, NC 27411-1064 a-Galactosidase and ß-galactosidase have received a lot of attention recently. aGalactosidase digests raffinose to relieve flatulence, while ß-galactosidase hydrolyzes lactose to free from lactose intolerance. The objective was to investigate effects of different sugars in media on production of both enzymes. Six strains of Lactobacillus reuteri were cultured on media with different sugar (dextrose, raffinose, galactose, lactose, sucrose, and melibiose). Activity of a- and ß-galactosidase activity were tested on ?-nitrophenyl-a-D-galactopyranoside and ?-nitrophenyl ß-D-galactopyranoside, respectively. Results showed raffinose was the best to produce a-galactosidase. Lactose and galactose enhanced ß-galactosidase production. The higher level of a-galactosidase was produced on raffinose by MF14C, SD2112, and CF2-7F (15-13 GalU/mL). The higher level of ß-galactosidase was produced on lactose by CF2-7F (82 GalU/mL). Results suggest that MF14C, CF2-7F, and SD2112 might be used in fermented soy products to eliminate flatulence. CF2-7F could be used as natural additives in milk for lactose intolerant individuals. AGFD 157 Measuring the nutraceutical properties of nutritional bars made with cactus (Opuntia ficus) and pomegranate (Punica granatum). Daniela Solis, Leon R. Hernandez, Ana B. Torres, Bertha Rodriguez, and Erika Salas, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Ciudad universitaria s/n Campus 1, Chihuahua 31170, Mexico, Fax: 52-614-4131187 Global trends in food are focused on the functional food consumption. Cactus is an important component of the Mexican diet. Functional properties of cactus are related to its fiber and antioxidant content, it is considered hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic, controls overweight and prevents atherosclerosis. Pomegranate has an increased antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Each plant was selected by its unique composition. In this work, nutritional bars based on dehydrated cactus and pomegranate jam filling (no sugar added) were developed, this study is aimed at evaluating the nutraceutical properties of the bars supplemented to healthy humans by evaluating blood glucose, oxidative stress levels, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in plasma. The bars were analyzed for its nutritional and phenolic composition and their organoleptic characteristics were also evaluated. The formulation of the bars was based on the hypothesis of an enhanced health effect of both ingredients.

AGFD 158 Postharvest treatment of lychee with HCl reduces the activity of browning enzymes Norbert C. Furumo, nfurumo@hawaii.edu, Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Hawaii - Hilo, 200 W. Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720, Fax: 8089747693, Sheldon Furutani, College of Agricutlure, Forestry and Natural Resources Management, Hilo, HI 96720, and Momi Wheeler, College of Agricutlure, Forestry and Natural Resources Management, Hilo 96720 Kaimana lychee (Litchi chinenesis Sonn.), the major variety grown in Hawaii, rapidly browns if not packaged and stored properly. Dilute acid treatment has been shown to retain the red color of lychee; however, there has been no biochemical basis proposed for the effectiveness of this treatment. In this study we treated fresh lychees with solutions of 2, 4, or 6% HCl at 4 °C, which lowered the pH of the peels, followed by storage at 4 °C for three weeks. Fruit treated with 4 and 6% HCl demonstrated the best shelf life over the storage period determined by the degree of color retention. Time-course studies reveal that acid treatment initially reduces the specific activity of the browning enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase. At time zero, the 4 and 6% -treated fruit showed dramatically reduced enzyme specific activities which partly recovered during the 21 day post-treatment storage period. AGFD 159 Physical and chemical properties of Thai Panga fish Pangasius bocourti bone as calcium source for mineral supplements Kanyasiri Rakariyatham1, Nuansri Rakariyatham1, Pairoje Kijjanapanich1, and Richard L. Deming2, rdeming@fullerton.edu. (1) Dept. of Chem., Chiang Mai Univ., Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand, (2) Dept. of Chem. and Biochemistry, California State Univ. Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92834-6866 Physical and chemical properties of the bones of Thai Panga fish, Pangasius bocourti from food waste were determined to evaluate them as a potential source of calcium for nutritional supplements. Weight loss on drying was 8.92%; total calcium by AA was 12.77%w/w and 20.20% after alkaline extraction to produce bone extract powder (BEP). Calcium acetate (CaAc) and calcium citrate (CaCi) powders were prepared from BEP using acetic and citric acid solutions. The CaAc and CaCi powder recoveries were 23.20% and 20.95% (w/w), respectively, based on BEP. Lead and cadmium contents in all samples were less than 2.5 and 6.3 ppb, respectively, lower than the regulated acceptable levels of the Thai Ministry of Public Health and FAO/WHO. Thai Panga fish bones have the potential for use in calcium preparations, nutritional supplements, and health foods for human consumption. AGFD 160 Preparation of nanoassembled crystalline ZnO and its antibacterial effect Zhen-Xing Tang, David Claveau, Ronan Corcuff, Khaled Belkacemi, and Joseph Arul, Dept. of Food Sci. and Nutrition, Laval Univ., Pavillon Paul-Comtois, Quebec, QC G1V OA6, Canada, Fax: 418-656-3353 Inorganic agents are being increasingly used for control of microorganisms in various areas, especially in dentistry. Basic metal oxides have been shown to exhibit antibacterial activity, where particle size of the oxides may have an impact. The objective of this paper was to prepare nanocrystalline ZnO and evaluate its antibacterial activity. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of ZnCO3 formed by reacting Zn(NO3)2 and Na2CO3 in aqueous ethylene glycol medium. The intermediate zinc salt thus formed was calcinated at temperatures ranging from 210 °C to 300 °C, for 1.0 to 3.0 h with different heating rates (1.0-10 °C/min). ZnO particles were characterized for purity (TGA), crystallinity and crystal size (XRD), particle size and morphology (TEM). ZnO particles of 8 nm could be obtained by calcinating at 210 °C for 1.5 h. The lethal effects of nano-crystalline and conventional ZnO was evaluated on L. plantarum, and L. mesenteroides. Nano-crystalline ZnO was more effective than conventional ZnO in killing both bacteria after 24 h exposure at 100 ppm. L. Mesenteroides was completely killed after 24 h exposure at 1000 ppm of nano-ZnO compared to 2.3 log reduction for conventional ZnO. The results suggest particle size has an impact on the antibacterial effect of ZnO and that nanoparticular ZnO may have potential as an effective antibacterial agent in food and other applications. AGFD 161 Prebiotic potential of hydrolyzed konjac glucomannan by growth comparisons with two commercial prebiotics Wayne S. Muller, Steve Arcidiacono, Alexa Meehan, Ken Racicot, Jason Soares, and Peter Stenhouse, US Army Research Development and Engineering Command, Kansas Street, Natick, MA 01760-5020, Fax: 508-233-4469 To investigate the prebiotic potential of glucomannan oligosaccharides (GMO), probiotic bacteria were grown on a substrate of hydrolyzed konjac. The substrate was compared to growth on two commercial prebiotic substrates, NutraFlora consisting of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and VitaSugar consisting of isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO). Konjac flour was enzymatically hydrolyzed using cellulase producing mainly low molecular weight oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization = 2-10) as determined by gel permeation chromatography. For growth comparisons, Bifidobacteria species were grown in 2% carbohydrate supplemented growth medium for 48hrs. Growth behavior was measured by optical density, short chain fatty acid production and pH. Three species of B. bifidum grown on GMO recorded a pH = 5, compared to initial medium pH of 6.48, with dense growth. The same species had less growth on FOS and IMO as indicated by two B. bifidum species with a pH = 5.9. B. longum exhibited good growth on all three substrates. AGFD 162 Comparison of flavor volatiles of raw and cooked Thai rices of different varieties Kaycee Dragastin, Koushik Adhikari, Aussama Soontrunnarudrungsri, and Delores Chambers, Human Nutrition, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506-1407 Seven Thai rices: Chainart, Gor Kor, Kao Dak Mali (new and one-year old), Phisanulok, Prathumtani and Suphanburi, were compared for flavor volatiles in raw and cooked samples. Flavor volatiles were extracted from the rice matrices by headspace-solid phase microextraction using 50/30 carboxen/DVB/PDMS fiber, separated on a gas-chromatograph, and finally identified using a mass-spectrometer. Twelve flavor volatiles in the rices (hexanal, 2-heptanone, heptanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, benzaldehyde, 1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2-pentylfuran, octanal, limonene, nonanal and indole) were quantified using 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine as an internal standard. All the compounds were significantly higher (P „T 0.05) in raw rice samples. Limonene showed the least reduction from raw to cooked samples. The year-old Kao Dak Mali (raw) had ~5 times more hexanal content than the new rice. Principal components analysis on the raw and cooked samples clearly differentiated jasmine and non-jasmine types, although Phitsanulok, a non-jasmine variety grouped with jasmine types after cooking. AGFD 163 Differential catabolic processing of cholesterol using bacteria Janet Jamison, John Cooper, Jessica Lack, Earl Benjamin III, and Ellis Benjamin, Dept. of Chem. and Physics, Arkansas State Univ., PO Box 419, State Univ., AR 72467, Fax: 870-972-3089 Present in most food products, cholesterol has been cited as a causative agent for athrosclorosis and heart disease. Although studies have determined the metabolic processing of cholesterol in animals, few studies have analyzed cholesterol metabolism in bacteria. Analyses for the catalytic breakdown of cholesterol were conducted using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens S, and Micrococcus roseus to determine breakdown products and kinetic rate. Although bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Micrococcus roseus were able to catabolize cholesterol, Pseudomonas aeruginosa appeared to have the highest

catalytic rate. An analysis of the metabolic products even showed differences between Pseudomonas fluorescens S and Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggesting differing catabolic processes. This investigation has far reaching implications for cholesterol and sterol metabolism. AGFD 164 Effect of á-tocopherol level on the autoxidation of trioctadecadienoin Jamie Zhang1, Linglu Zhou1, Walt Erhardt1, walt.erhardt@bcmsc.k12.mi.us, and Shengying Zhou2, shane.zhou@kellogg.com. (1) Battle Creek Area Math & Science Center, 765 Upton Avenue, Battle Creek, MI 49037, (2) Kellogg Company, 235 Porter Street, Battle Creek, MI 49016, Fax: 269-9612641 The effect of átocopherol concentration on the autoxidation of trioctadecadienoin was investigated by the addition of á-tocopherol ranging from 50 ppm to 6400 ppm and by storing the samples at 40°C and 60°C respectively. The autoxidation of trioctadecadienoin was monitored by measuring the formation of hydroperoxide and by monitoring the headspace secondary oxidation products, e.g., pentane and hexanal. During the storage at 60 °C, the presence of tocopherol at the high end of concentration range led to significant increase in hydroperoxide formation, while this increase was minimal when stored at 40°C. On the other hand, higher concentration of á-tocopherol significantly delayed the sudden onset of trioctadecadienoin polymerization and hydroperoxide formation. The association of higher concentration of á-tocopherol with the increase in hydroperoxide formation was confirmed by LC-MS. Within the concentration range of this study, á-tocopherol mainly acted as an antioxidant at 40°C, but showed a prooxidant effect at the high end of concentration range at 60°C. AGFD 165 Effects of calcium chloride and cold storage on health – related parameters in Lacctuca sativa Irena J. Perucka and Katarzyna J. Olszówka, Dept. of Chem., Phytochemistry Research Group, Agricultural Univ., ul. Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublion, Poland, Fax: 081-533-35-40 The synthesis of several phenylpropanoid compounds is induced in the plants by biotic and abiotic stress and the factors such as wounding, low temperature and attack of pathogens. Phenolic compounds are known to constitute one of the most important groups of natural antioxidants, owning to their diversity and extensive distribution. Wounding induces increased PAL activity in many plant tissues and browning can be delayed by storage at low temperature. The aim of this work was to study the effect of CaCl2 treatment of plants and storage in the low temperature on health- related parameters in lettuce. Samples were taken at 0, 7 and 14 days of storage to determine the total phenolic compounds, total dihydroksycinnamic acids and antioxidant capacity. The fraction contained phenolic compounds was eluted with 60% methanol , filtered through a 0,45 ƒÝm GHP filter (Waters). Each extract was analysed using HPLC system on an Eurosil Bioselect column (RP -18, 30 x 0,4 cm, 5ƒÝm particle size). The mobil phase was water with 5% formic acid (v/v) (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B). Chromatograms were recorded at 335 nm. During the cold storage of the green salad Lacctuca Sativa we noticed that the levels of tartaric acid decreased compared with control but the phenolic total didn't change. It was found that CaCl2 treatment on plants increased the content of the total phenolic compounds, chlorogenic and tartaric acids in comparison to control. AGFD 166 Flow behavior of protein blends Charles I. Onwulata, Audrey E. Thomas, Michael H. Tunick, Dairy Processing & Products Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Ctr., 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, Fax: 215-233-6795 Blending proteins can increase textural strength or enhance taste or mouth feel, such as blending soy with whey to improve taste. In this study, we measured the viscosity of various combinations of six proteins (whey protein isolates, calcium caseinate, soy protein isolates, wheat gluten, egg albumin, and fish protein) blended with wheat flour, glycerol and water. The blends were continuously mixed for 15 min at 60°C, and the flow behavior fitted to the power law model. Flow indices indicate varying strengths for different protein combinations, such as egg albumin, flow index (n=0.67) and maximum viscosity 88.9 cP or wheat gluten flow index (n=1.38) and maximum viscosity 15.8 cP. Combining egg albumin and wheat gluten reduced flow index (n=0.48) and maximum viscosity 30.0 cP. The addition of wheat gluten to egg albumin disrupted the gel structure. Understanding interactions of proteins from different sources enables engineering of foods with desired textures. AGFD 167 Impact of annealing on the molecular structure and properties of wheat starches Ratnajothi Hoover1, rhoover@mun.ca, Haiyan Lan1, lanhaiyan@hotmail.com, Luckshman Jayakody1, jayakody5@yahoo.com, Qiang Liu2, liuq@agr.gc.ca, Elizabeth Donner2, liuq@agr.gc.ca, Monica Baga3, ravi.chibbar@usask.ca, Asare Erick3, ravi.chibbar@usask.ca, Hucl Pierre3, ravi.chibbar@usask.ca, and Ravindra Chibbar3, ravi.chibbar@usask.ca. (1) Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth Avenue, St. John's, NF A1B 3X9, Canada, Fax: 709-737-4000, (2) Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph, ON N1G 5C9, Canada, (3) Dept. of Plant Sciences & Crop Development Centre, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada Starch from normal (CDC teal), high amylose (line 11132) and waxy (99WAX27) bread wheat cultivars was isolated and its morphology, composition, structure and properties were studied before and after annealing. Total amylose, crystallinity, gelatinization temperature range, swelling factor (at 90ºC), and amylose leaching (at 90ºC), in the above starches ranged from 26.9-32.3%, 28.6-42.8%, 12.7-14.3ºC, 27.6-72.1 and 22.2-26.2%, respectively. Peak viscosity, thermal stability, set-back and susceptibility towards acid hydrolysis followed the order: 99WAX27>CDC teal>11132, 11132>CDC teal>99WAX27, CDC teal >99WAX27>11132, and 99WAX27>11132>CDC teal, respectively. The extent of retrogradation followed the order: 11132>CDC teal>99WAX27 and 99WAX27>CDC teal>11132, respectively. In all starches, concentration of amylose, lipid complexed amylose chains, gelatinization temperature range, swelling factor, amylose leaching, peak viscosity, final viscosity, set-back, light transmission, susceptibility towards alpha-amylase and acid hydrolysis decreased on annealing. However, thermal stability and crystallinity increased on annealing, whereas gelatinization enthalpies and retrogradation remained unchanged in all starches. AGFD 168 Impact of thermal and nonthermal processing technologies on quality of apple cider Zareena Azhuvalappil1, zareena.azhuvalappil@ars.usda.gov, Xuetong Fan2, xuetong.fan@ars.usda.gov, Howard Q. Zhang3, howard.zhang@errc.ars.usda.gov, David J. Geveke2, david.geveke@ars.usda.gov, and Russell L. Rouseff4, rlr@crec.ifas.ufl.edu. (1) Food Sci. and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Florida, 359 FSHN Building, Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 3261, (2) USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Ctr., Wyndmoor, PA 19038, (3) Food Safety Intervention Technologies, USDA ARS Eastern Regional Research Ctr., Wyndmoor, PA 19426, (4) Univ. of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL 33850 The effects of non-thermal pasteurization techniques such as pulse electric field (PEF) and ultraviolet irradiation (UV) on volatile composition, color and microbial quality of apple cider were compared to thermal pasteurization during a 4-week storage study at 4 °C. PEF samples showed a 20% increase in total volatiles especially in aldehydes such as hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal whereas a loss of 30% and 70% of total volatiles were noted in thermal and UV samples, respectively. Twenty three, 21 and 16 aroma active volatiles were perceived using GC-O in PEF, thermal and UV samples, respectively. Triangle sensory analysis indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in aroma of PEF and thermal samples. PEF cider aroma was preferred by 91% of panelists over thermal cider. Thermal and UV pasteurized

ciders faded significantly (p<0.05) during storage (CIE L* (lightness) and b* (yellow) values increased). PEF and thermal processing maintained acceptable microbial quality for 4-weeks but UV samples only lasted 2-weeks. AGFD 169 Silica sol -gel matrices for flavor encapsulation Savitha Krishnan and Gary A Reineccius, Dept. of Food Sci. and Nutrition, Univ. of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108 Previous studies on flavor encapsulation in sol-gel based silica matrices have shown limited value because the silica remains porous to the flavorants. To address this problem, we have blended sol-gel based silica matrices with an emulsifying starch. In this work, we examine the efficacy of the silica-starch matrices by conducting a comprehensive evaluation of losses during drying along with the stability of encapsulated flavor compounds on storage. A model flavor mixture consisting of diacetyl, methyl propanal, methyl pyrrole, and damascenone was incorporated into medium chain triglycerides (MCT's), limonene and no medium before being added into the carrier matrix. Experimental results reveal that drying loses were the highest in samples incorporated with limonene followed by the MCT's irrespective of the type of carrier material. Overall, methyl pyrrole had the highest drying loss and diacetyl had the maximum encapsulation efficiency (~100%). We will discuss our findings highlighting the performance of these blends by examining the rate of loss of flavor compounds over a period of twelve weeks. AGFD 170 Formation and properties of biopolymer nanoparticles created by heating beta-lactoglobulin-polysaccharide complexes Owen Griffith Jones, ojones@foodsci.umass.edu, Dept. of Food Sci., Food Biopolymers and Colloids Division, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, 430 Chenoweth Laboratory, 100 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA 01003, and D. Julian McClements, Dept. of Food Sci., Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 Biopolymer nanoparticles were formed by heating soluble complexes of ß-lactoglobulin [B-Lg] and anionic polysaccharides (carrageenan; xanthan; low-methoxyl pectin [LMP]; high-methoxyl pectin [HMP]) at 85 °C for 15 minutes. Conditions for pH-induced complexation were analyzed using turbidity measurements. Nanopart icle creation (100 < d < 900, monomodal) was characterized by turbidity, dynamic light scattering, and ?-potential measurements. The pH and salt stability of the nanoparticles were then tested. Carrageenan, LMP, and HMP formed complexes with B-Lg at pH < 6 and protein:polysaccharide ratios (r) > 0.2. Heating these complexes (r = 0.5, pH 4.75) led to nanoparticles that were stable to subsequent pH changes (3-7 for HMP; 4-7 for LMP; 3-5 for carrageenan). Salt addition tended to increase particle size, but improved overall stability. Xanthan formed insoluble sediments with B-Lg for all tested conditions. Stable B-Lg-polysaccharide nanoparticles may be useful as delivery systems or fat replacers. AGFD 171 Concentration of pinolenic acid from pine nut by lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis Bo-Mi Lee, In-Hwan Kim, Ji-Eun Oh, M iHwa Chae, Dept. of Food & Nutr., Korea Univ., 3, Chungneung-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-703, South Korea, Fax: 822-941-7825 Pine nut oil contains an unusual series of polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the first double bond is in the delta-5 position. The predominant fatty acids present in the original pine nut oil were palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and pinolenic acid (PLA). The PLA was essentially located in the sn-3 position of triacylglycerol of pine nut oil. PLA was successfully concentrated by lipase-catalyzed alcholysis reaction from pine nut oil using a commercial immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) from Candida antarctica as a biocatalyst. Novozym 435 in the present of ethanol showed a high regioselectivity for the sn-3 positions of triacylglycerol of pine nut oil. For all trials in this study, the enzyme loading and the reaction temperature were held constant at 5% of the total weight of substrate and 25 oC, respectively. The highest concentration of PLA as an ethyl ester (EE) form was achieved by lipase-catalyzed alcholysis at 10:1 molar ratio of ethanol/pine nut oil for 1 h. Reaction times longer than 1 h led to higher yield of PLA EE, but there was a concomitant steady decrease in PLA EE concentration in mixture of fatty acid ethyl ester. AGFD 172 Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of olive oil with a fully hydrogenated canola oil using stepwise changes in temperature In-Hwan Kim1, k610in@korea.ac.kr, Sun-Mi Lee1, Bo-Mi Lee1, bom1117@nate.com, Ji-Eun Oh1, ark81@korea.ac.kr, Hye-Kyung Park2, phkfda@kfda.go.kr, Jee-Young Kim2, kimjeey0108@paran.com, Jong-Wook Kim2, Kwang-Il Kwon2, kanjang@korea.kr, Myung-Chul Kim2, and Jee-Sun Lee2. (1) Dept. of Food & Nutrition, Korea Univ., 3, Chungneung-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-703, South Korea, Fax: 822-941-7825, (2) Nutritional Evaluation Team, Korea Food & Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704, South Korea Interesterification of a 60:40 (wt/wt) mixture of olive oil and fully hydrogenated canola oil (FHCO) was carried out in a batch reactor using a commercial immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginose as a biocatalyst. The effects of a stepwise change of temperature on the degree of conversion, the solid fat content (SFC) of the products, and the residual activity of the enzyme were investigated. The interesterification trial used as a reference condition was conducted at a constant temperature of 70 oC for 48 h. For trials in which a temperature of 70 oC was used for the first 4 h of reaction and a temperature of 60 oC was employed for the following 44 h, there were no significant differences in the overall degree of conversion relative to the reference condition. Melting points of oils interesterified for only 1 or 2 h at 70 oC were higher than 60 oC, whereas the melting point of oil produced by interesterification at 70 oC for only 4 h was 58 oC. There was little difference between the SFC profiles of the interesterification products prepared by two different temperature protocols (70 oC for 24 h; 70 oC for 4 h followed by 60 oC for 20 h). Use of the protocol involving a step decrease in temperature significantly decreased catalyst deactivation effects thereby increasing the residual activity of the immobilized lipase. AGFD 173 Improved preparation of bridged carboxylic ortho esters Richard J. Petroski, Crop Bioprotection Research Unit, USDA, REE, Ag. Research Serv., National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. Univ. St, Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6686 Protection of a carboxylic acid function as a bridged ortho ester derivative enables the use of strongly basic conditions in the synthetic strategy. For example, a protected 3-halopropionic acid can behave like an alkyl halide because the protons, alpha to the halide function, are less acidic. Esterification of 3-methyl-3-hydroxyoxetane with 3-bromopropionyl chloride and pyridine in dry tetrahydrofuran, followed by rearrangement with boron trifluoroetherate, afforded 1-(2-bromoethyl)-4-methyl-2,6,7-triazabicyclo[2,2,2]-octane. The 1-(2-iodoethyl)-4methyl-2,6,7-triazabicyclo[2,2,2]-octane analogue could not be prepared directly by halogen exchange of 1-(2-bromoethyl)-4-methyl-2,6,7triazabicyclo[2,2,2]-octane but could be prepared by halogen exchange of the 3-bromopropionate ester of 3-methyl-3-hydroxyoxetane with a mixture of sodium iodide and anhydrous sodium sulfate in acetone, followed by rearrangement with boron trifluoroetherate. AGFD 174 Investigations into the absolute structure of glycerol menthonides Anthony Kiessling and Kayla M Szuler, Dept. of Chem. and Physics, Mansfield Univ., Mansfield, PA 16933 Glycerol menthonide was originally produced as an additive to chewing gum by treating menthone and glycerol with p-toluenesulfonic acid in refluxing toluene. This reaction actually produces a mixture of up to 6 isomers

however; the reaction mixture has not been explored. We wish to report the absolute structure of two of the isomers of glycerol menthonide as determined by x-ray diffraction analysis of the 3,5-dinitrobenzoate derivatives. AGFD 175 Production of trans-free fat by lipase-catalyzed interesterification in a batch reactor and a packed bed reactor Sang Woo Kim, Young Woo Park, JH Lee, and PS Chang, Dept. of Food Sci. and Tech., Seoul National Univ. of Tech., 172-Gongneung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743, South Korea, Fax: 82-2-976-6460 Epidemiological studies showed that high trans-fat consumption is closely associated with getting the risks of cardiovascular disease. It is an urgent need for food industry to develop trans-free fat as substitutes for margarine or shortening. The objectives of this study were to determine analysis conditions of triacylglycerols(TAGs) in lipid, to optimize condition of enzymatic interesterification for a batch reactor, and to apply this enzymatic systems to a packed bed reactor (PBR). TAGs in lipid were analyzed using HPLC-evaporative light scattering detector(ELSD) and GC-FID. Optimum conditions of enzymatic interesterification for a batch reactor were determined such as reaction temperature and time, ratio of substrates, and amount of added enzymes. Melting properties of reaction products were examined by solid fat content(SFC) using NMR. TAGs in lipid were successfully separated using a Develosil column by HPLC-ELSD and DB-17ht capillary column by GC-FID. Peak of tristearin(SSS) was selected as a marker to determine the degree of interesterification. Substrates were chosen as fully hydrogenated canola oil (FHCO) and soybean oil (SO). Five different immobilized enzymes were tested and Lipozyme TL-IM was chosen. The optimized conditions for a batch reactor were as follows; 4.5:5.5(w/w) ratio of FHCO:SO, 10% (w/w) enzyme concentration, 60 hr reaction temperature, and 6 hr reaction time. SFC of interesterified fat clearly showed low melting point compared to those of non-interesterified fat. For continuous type reaction, a packed bed reactor (PBR) was selected. The flow rate of substrate to column was 0.4 mL/min. The enzyme used in PBR was active until 16 days at 60 hr. SFC of fat from PBR was similar to those from a batch reactor. In this study, analysis conditions for TAGs were successfully determined and trans-fat free lipid was successfully generated using a batch reactor and a packed bed reactor. AGFD 176 Modulation of the competitive adsorption kinetics between two different polysaccharides onto protein-coated lipid droplets Young-Hee Cho and D. Julian McClements, Dept. of Food Sci., Univ. of Massachusetts, 228 Chenoweth Lab, 100 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA The adsorption of anionic polysaccharides (pectin and carrageenan) onto beta-lactoglobuliln-coated droplets was examined under different physicochemical conditions (pH, ionic strength). Electro-acoustics and dynamic light scattering were used to monitor polysaccharide adsorption and particle aggregation,respectively. Carrageenan (which has a higher linear charge density) adsorbed to protein-coated droplets more readily than pectin, and gave a higher net negative charge on the particles formed. On the other hand, pectincoated droplets were stable over a wider range of pH than carrageenan-coated droplets. Carrageenan was able to displace pectin from pectincoated droplets,but not vice versa. The mixing ratio of the two polysaccharides prior to adsorption strongly influenced the properties of the resulting particles due to competitive adsorption and displacement. These studies facilitate the design of mixed polysaccharide-coated lipid droplets with specific properties (e.g., composition, charge, thickness) by selecting appropriate polysaccharide combinations and concentrations prior to adsorption. AGFD 177 Vital wheat gluten as a filler for rubber compounds: Effects of pH and homogenization on the reinforcement properties Steven C. Peterson, Cereal Products and Food Sci., USDA, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Ag. Research Serv., 1815 North Univ., Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6685 Vital wheat gluten was evaluated as a reinforcement filler in rubber composites. Previous studies of wheat flours that contained different concentrations of wheat gluten suggested that rubber composite reinforcement was directly proportional to wheat gluten concentration, although this effect may have been convoluted with the presence of wheat starch and other components present in the wheat flours. Vital wheat gluten controls are very rigid (G' > 100 MPa); a prerequisite for a good reinforcement filler material. In this study, an aqueous suspension of vital wheat gluten was added to a styrene-butadiene latex and homogenized with a high-shear mixing head. The resulting rubber composite was then freeze-dried and compression molded into bars whose rheological properties were tested. Reinforcement properties were recorded as a function of pH and homogenization time. AGFD 178 Levels of vitamin E decreases and retinol increases in oil extracts from aged Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) by-products Ted H. Wu, Peter J. Bechtel, Subarctic Ag. Research Unit, USDA, 245 O'Neill Bdg, UAF, Fairbanks, AK 99775, Fax: 907474-1813 The Alaska pollock constitute one of the largest commercial fish catch and generation of by-products in the world. Crude oil is one of the products generated from the by-products; however, quality loss is expected if time delay or temperature abuse is encountered before oil extraction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the extracted crude oil from raw Alaska Pollock by-products (heads and viscera) after being stored for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 days at 15 oC and 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 at 6 oC. Extracted oil samples were evaluated for free fatty acids (FFA), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), peroxide values (PV) and the content of vitamins E and retinol. As expected, FFA, TBARS and PV values initially increased with increasing storage time and temperature. Retinol levels increased with increased storage time to approximately four times the initial levels. During the same 10 day period vitamin E levels decreased with storage time. The results indicate a loss of vitamin E in the crude oil and an increase in retinol from precursors with storage time of the raw material. AGFD 179 Biocatalytic modification of hydroxy fatty acids from renewable plant lipids and coproducts Tsung Min Kuo, Microbial Genomics & Bioprocessing Research Unit, USDA-ARS-NCAUR, 1815 N. Univ. Street, Peoria, IL 61604 We investigated new biocatalytic systems for their ability to modify and enhance the functionality of hydroxy fatty acids that occur naturally or are derived from the fatty acids of plant lipids. Among 25 environmental isolates belonging to Sphingobacterium multivorum and closely related species of Pedobacter, Spirosoma, Chryseobacterium and Flavobacterium, only strains of S. multivorum were able to modify ricinoleic acid, lesquerolic acid and 10-hydroxystearic acid to produce their corresponding oxo-acid derivatives having improved functionality and stability. A new culture medium at pH 7.0 was defined to include glycerol, Fe2+ and Mn2+ mineral ions, and EDTA•2Na for improving the production of these oxoacid derivatives. Several strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to modify ricinoleic acid to produce a novel anti-rice blast fungal agent, 7,10,12-trihydroxy -8(E)-octadecenoic acid, and they also modified oleic acid to produce a surface active agent, 7,10-dihydroxy -8(E)octadecenoic acid (DHOD). Lipase-mediated production of the primary amide (DAM) and the secondary amide (D2AM) of DHOD was achieved in 95% yields with ammonium carbamate and N-methylethanolamine, respectively, in organic solvent. DAM exhibited an elevated melting point potentially useful in novel lubricant formations, whereas D2AM displayed potent antimicrobial activity.

AGFD 180 Influence of the degradation of frying oil in the fatty acids composition and total fat content of precooked foodstuffs José Manuel Miranda López, Beatriz Martínez Ruíz, Beatriz Vázquez-Belda, Cristina Fente Sampayo, Carlos Franco-Abuín, Alberto Cepeda Saez, Dept. of Analyt. Chem., Nutr. and Bromatology , Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982254592 Influence of the degradation of frying oil in the fatty acids composition and in the total fat content of the fried foods was investigated. For this purpose, different samples of foods with similar composition were fried consecutively in the same oil. After this, the total polar compounds of oil, as well as the fatty acids composition and total fat of foods were determined. Total polar compounds rate was determined by column chromatography. Total fat content of foods was determined by an extraction with petroleum ether. The fatty acids composition of the lipid extract from foods were determined by gas chromatography. The results indicate that foods that have been fried in oils with higher levels of polar compounds show significative higher levels of total fat and monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and w-3 PUFAs than foods that have been fried in oils with lower levels of polar compounds. AGFD 181 Rapid identification of histamine-producing bacteria in seafood products by MALDI-TOF and DNA analysis Karola Böhme1, karolaboehme@gmx.de, Inmaculada Fernández-No1, José Manuel Gallardo2, Carlos Franco-Abuín1, cmfranco@lugo.usc.es, Jorge Barros-Velázquez1, jbarros@lugo.usc.es, Benito Cañas2, and Pilar Calo-Mata1, mppcalo@lugo.usc.es. (1) Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Veterinary Faculty, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982254592, (2) Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), 36028-Vigo, Spain The formation of histamine (from the decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine) is attributed to a wide variety of microorganisms. A collection of seafood-borne histamine-producing bacteria including Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella planticola, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Hafnia alvei, Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas gessardii, Bacillus pumilus and other relevant bacteria was compiled. For the specific identification of the different histamine producing species a database with sequences of an approximately 800 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was generated using the universal bacterial primer pair p8FPL/p806R. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to obtain highly specific mass spectral fingerprints of the main histamine-producing bacteria in seafood products. The combined approach considered in this study allowed the identification of specific DNA and protein markers for the rapid identification of histamine-producing bacteria. AGFD 182 Development and validation of an HPLC confirmatory method for residue analysis of cyproheptadine in food-producing animals Cristina Fente Sampayo, Patricia Regal López, Beatriz Vázquez-Belda, Xesús Feás Sánchez, Carlos Franco-Abuín, and Alberto Cepeda Saez, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology , Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592 The possible illegal use of Cyproheptadine (CYP) as an appetite stimulant for food-producing animals leads to the need to rely on methods capable of discovering the residues from this drug. We developed a method to determine residues in bovine urine according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Two MRM transitions for each analyte were monitored 288.1/96.1 and 288.1/191.2 for CYP and 282.1/167.2 and 282.1/116.3 for diphenylpyraline hydrochloride (DPP) as internal standard. The chromatographic separation is achieved in a column Synergi Fusion-RP filled with a hybrid polymer. SPE technique without liquid-liquid step allows good results with very low spiked urine samples. Validation for specificity, linearity (0.5 to 5 ng mL-1), recovery (96.7%), precision (RSD 9.4 and 20.4%, for intra and inter day). Decision limit (CCa) and detection capability (CCß) were 0.48 and 0.82 ng mL-1, respectively. AGFD 183 The cytochrome b mitochondrial gene as a molecular marker for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of penaeid shrimp species of industrial interest Ananias Pascoal1, apascoal@lugo.usc.es, Jorge Barros-Velázquez1, jbarros@lugo.usc.es, José Manuel Gallardo2, Beatriz Vázquez-Belda1, bvbelda@lugo.usc.es, Alberto Cepeda Saez1, cepeda@lugo.usc.es, and Pilar Calo-Mata1, mppcalo@lugo.usc.es. (1) Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Veterinary Faculty, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592, (2) Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), 36028-Vigo, Spain A novel PCR-RFLP method has been developed for the identification of six commercially relevant penaeid shrimp species in raw and processed food products. PCR amplification with the crustF/crustR primers, targeted to the amplification of a ca. 181 bp region of the cytochrome b (cytb) mitochondrial gene in penaeid shrimps, was coupled to restriction analysis with CviJI, DdeI and NlaIV. The method was also applied successfully to the identification of shrimp species in complex processed foods, including this type of shellfish as an added-value food ingredient. The small size of this molecular target facilitates amplification from fresh, frozen or pre-cooked samples, where DNA fragmentation may be relevant and fragment size critical. This work provides the first cytb mitochondrial sequences described to date for the species Farfantepenaeus notialis, Parapenaeus longirostris and Pleoticus muelleri, and these nearly triplicate current knowledge of reference nucleotide sequences in this mitochondrial region for this group of species. AGFD 184 Molecular identification of the Northern shrimp in food products by proteome and DNA analysis Ignacio Ortea1, jbarros@lugo.usc.es, Ananias Pascoal2, apascoal@lugo.usc.es, Jorge Barros-Velázquez2, jbarros@lugo.usc.es, Alberto Cepeda Saez2, cepeda@lugo.usc.es, José Manuel Gallardo1, Benito Cañas1, and Pilar Calo-Mata2, mppcalo@lugo.usc.es. (1) Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM -CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36028-Vigo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592, (2) Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Veterinary Faculty, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592 The Northern shrimp Pandalus borealis is one of the most important crustaceans in the food markets worldwide. We identified this species by PCR amplification and sequencing using novel 16ScruC4/16Scruc3 primers, targeted to a 16S rRNA/tRNAVal mitochondrial region. The PCR method was coupled to RFLP analysis that allowed the differentiation of this species with respect to other 20 commercial shrimp species. A complementary proteomic approach was also considered. One of the major sarcoplasmic polypeptides analyzed by 2-DE and with a mass of ~40 kDa was selected, trypsin-digested, and subjected to MALDI-ToF PMF (Mass Spectrometry Peptide Mass Fingerprinting) analysis. The ~40 kDa protein was displaced to a more acidic isoelectric point (ca. 4.8) as compared to homologous proteins from other penaeid shrimp species. Species-specific peaks of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 1141.5, 1158.5, 1690.8 and 1766.8 were observed and proved to be useful molecular markers for the specific identification of this important commercial species. AGFD 185 Triplex PCR method for the specific identification of Penaeus monodon, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus indicus in food products Ananias Pascoal1, apascoal@lugo.usc.es, Jorge Barros-Velázquez1, jbarros@lugo.usc.es, Ignacio Ortea2, jbarros@lugo.usc.es,

Alberto Cepeda Saez1, cepeda@lugo.usc.es, José Manuel Gallardo2, and Pilar Calo-Mata1, mppcalo@lugo.usc.es. (1) Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Veterinary Faculty, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34982-254592, (2) Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), 36028-Vigo, Spain L. vannamei and P. monodon represent about 80% of the farmed shrimp production worldwide. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to achieve the specific identification of L. vannamei, P. monodon and Fen. indicus. The latter species may be confused with Fen. merguiensis during commercialization. Preliminary sequencing of a mitochondrial sequence of ca. 530 bp in the 16S rRNA/tRNAVal mitochondrial region was performed. Careful analysis of such sequences allowed building species-specific primers, namely MPNF/MPNR, PNVF/PNVR and PNIF/PNIR, for the identification of P. monodon, L. vannamei and Fen. indicus, respectively. A triplex PCR assay was constructed, with a view to detect simultaneously any of such three species in a food sample in a single assay. The low size of the PCR products described in this study –ranging from 151 bp to 362 bp – makes these targets useful for processed food products. AGFD 186 Production of volatile compounds by a starter culture of Bacillus spp. during black bean and red kidney bean vegetarian kapi fermentation Suttida Wittanalai1, Pisan Kitsawatpaiboon2, Richard L. Deming3, rdeming@fullerton.edu, and Nuansri Rakariyatham2, nuansri1@yahoo.com. (1) Division of BioTech., Chiang Mai Univ., Graduate School, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand, (2) Dept. of Chem., Chiang Mai Univ., Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand, (3) Dept. of Chem. and Biochemistry, California State Univ. Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92834-6866 Bacillus spp. isolated from Thai shrimp paste (kapi) can ferment black bean and red kidney bean to produce a vegetarian kapi with enhanced flavor and improved nutrition for Thai food preparation. Over forty volatile compounds were produced by two isolates (IS4 and IS10) as determined by solid-phase microextraction followed by GC-MS. The two strains had different morphologies and produced difference volatile profiles on black bean and red kidney bean. The common dominant compounds produced by both strains on both substrates were nitrogen-containing molecules such as acetamide, 2,5-dimethyl pyrazine and trimethyl pyrazine, along with acetic acid and the aromatic compound 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenol. Other volatile compounds that were identified in from both strains included 2-methyl-propanoic acid using black bean and 3-methyl-butanoic using red kidney bean. The kapi produced by IS4 had a stronger kapi odor. IS10 released a variety of hydrocarbon compounds that might be responsible for differences in the overall flavor. AGFD 187 Rapid and sensitive screening method for the detection of organophosphosphates and carbamates in water and food samples Richard Slawecki and Fernando Rubio, Abraxis LLC, 54 Steamwhistle Drive, Warminster, PA 18974 Organophosphate and Carbamate pesticides are used world wide to control agriculture pests on p lants and in soil. Run off occurs from the treated fields depositing the pesticides into ponds, streams, lakes and rivers. In addition, pesticide residues may persist in fruits and vegetables treated with these families of pesticides. organophosphate compounds can also be used as chemical warfare agents and they are of concern in this age of terrorist activity. This poster describes a screening kit to detect the pesticides in water samples and food samples. The kit can be used in the lab or in field. It is quick (<45 minutes) with color coded components for easy of use. The Drosophila melanogaster acetlycholinesterase used is known for great sensitivity and is genetically engineered for greater stability. The screening kit has been evaluated by the EPA in the Environmental Tech. Verification (ETV) program at the Advanced Monitoring System (AMS) Center by Battelle in cooperation with the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory. Data obtained by Battelle/EPA during the verification program will be presented. AGFD 188 Isotope dilution HPLC mass spectrometry: sensitive determination of some progestagens, androgens and estrogens in bovine serum Patricia Regal López, Beatriz Vázquez-Belda, Carlos Franco-Abuín, Alberto Cepeda Saez, and Cristina Fente Sampayo, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Veterinary Faculty, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592 We have developed a high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of several steroid hormones in bovine serum (pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), 17hydroxyP5, 17hydroxyP4, testosterone, DHEA, androstenedione, Estrone (E1), 2 and 4 hydroxyE1, 2 and 4 methoxyE1). Deuterated analogues were used as internal standards. Steroids were extracted from serum (500 µL) by using a SPE procedure and treated with hydroxylamine to form their oxime derivatives. Two MRM transitions were used in order to identify each of the compounds. The limit of detection, in the picogram level injected on column for all compounds, and the performance characteristics permit the use of this methodology for steroids determination in animal and human serum samples. AGFD 189 Criogenic grinding pretreatment to avoid digestion procedures in steroid residues analysis in cow hair Patricia Regal López, Beatriz Vázquez-Belda, Carlos Franco-Abuín, Alberto Cepeda Saez, and Cristina Fente Sampayo, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutr. and Bromatology , Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592 According to European Community (EC) Directive 96/22/EC, it is forbidden to use steroid hormones as growth promoting agents. Hair is often chosen as a target matrix because the intact steroid ester compound used for illegal growth can be found. Prior to the extraction, the liberation of steroids from the keratine matrix is necesary in all cases. Digestion methods are drastric procedures that can completely hydrolyze steroid esters and limits their determination. We developed a method to determinate residues of estradiol benzoate residues in cattle hair according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Hair samples were pulverized with a cryogenic mill followed by a simple liquid-liquid extraction. Two MRM transitions were monitored 377/105 and 377/135. The chromatographic separation is achieved in a column Synergi Fusion-RP. Validation for specificity, linearity, accuracy/ precision, decision limit (CCa) and detection capability (CCß) were achieved. AGFD 190 Identification of seafood-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria by MALDI-TOF and genomic analysis Karola Böhme1, karolaboehme@gmx.de, Pilar Calo-Mata1, mppcalo@lugo.usc.es, José Manuel Gallardo2, Cristina Fente Sampayo1, cfente@lugo.usc.es, Jorge Barros-Velázquez1, jbarros@lugo.usc.es, and Benito Cañas2. (1) Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology , Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592, (2) Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), 36028-Vigo, Spain This work is aimed at developing robust and sensitive molecular methods to identify pathogenic and spoilage bacteria present in seafood. A database with sequences of an approximately 800 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was generated using the universal bacterial primer pair p8FPL/p806R. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was also considered to obtain highly specific mass spectral fingerprints. Genus-specific as well as species-specific biomarkers were identified to allow the rapid identification of bacterial species. The phylogenetic classifications of the different strains and sp ecies based on the genomic and

proteomic approach were compared these leading to similar conclusions. However, in the case of some genera such as Bacillus, the proteomic approach allowed the identification at species level, being more difficult by means of genomics. This work opens the way to the use of proteomic tools for the rapid identification of seafood-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. AGFD 191 Syntheses of molecularly imprinted polymers and their molecular recognition study for cyproheptadine using original print molecule and azatadine as dummy template Xesús Feás Sánchez, Beatriz Vázquez-Belda, Cristina Fente Sampayo, Carlos FrancoAbuín, and Alberto Cepeda Saez, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Veterinary Faculty, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592 In this study, cyproheptadine (CYP) and azatadine (AZA) were used as template in the development of a molecularly imprinted polimer (MIP) and dummie molecular imprinting polymer (DMIP) using acrylic acid or methacrylic acid as monomers. DMIP's show equal recognition in general terms to CYP avoiding the problem about the leakage of original template during the desorption phase when MIP's are used as sorbent in solid phase extraction. Examination of the surface structure by scanning electron microscopy of the two polymer products shows appreciable differences in morphology in function of the monomer (acrylic or methacrylic acid) employed. These results are well supplemented by data for swelling ratio and solvent uptake. AGFD 192 Syntheses of molecularly imprinted polymers hydrogel and their molecular recognition study for flumequine Xesús Feás, Cristina Fente Sampayo, Beatriz Vázquez-Belda, Luciano Sánchez-García, Carlos Franco-Abuín, and Alberto Cepeda Saez, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Veterinary Faculty, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, Campus of Lugo, 27002-Lugo, Spain, Fax: 34-982-254592 A hydrogel molecular imprinting polymer (HMIP) that recognized flumequine has been developed. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAA·HCl) was used as the functional monomer to prepare the HMIP by the noncovalent imprinting method, in aqueous media with a chlorinated epoxy compound as crosslinker. Two HMIP were obtained, namely HMIP-25% and HMIP-50% and the counterpart blanck hydrogel not-imprinting polymer (HNIP): HNIP-25% and HNIP-50%, corresponding to a PAA·HCl solution containing 25 % or 50 % (w/v) respectively, as follow. The flumequine-binding capacity of the polymers gels was measured directly at two concentrations (0.5ppm and 1 ppm) in spiked river samples and was calculated from measurement of the decrease in flumequine concentration using laser-induced fluorescence detection coupled liquid chromatography (LC-LIF). Morphology by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and swelling capability of prepared hydrogel polymers were examined. AGFD 193 Synthesis and evaluation of imprinted polymers for selective recognition of fusaric acid Michael Appell, Mycotoxin Research, USDA-ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. Univ. St., Peoria, IL 61604, Fusaric acid is produced by many Fusarium fungal species, and exhibits a range of biological activities, including anti-hypertensive effects. Although considered a weak mycotoxin, fusaric acid contamination of agricultural commodities is of concern for the possible toxic synergistic effects with cooccurring Fusarium mycotoxins. Methods to detect fusaric acid contamination can improve through the design of novel materials capable of selective recognition, such as molecularly imprinted polymers. Imprinted polymers were synthesized using the toxin analog approach for template selection. Polymer monoliths were prepared by free radical polymerization, and then ground, sieved, and washed prior to evaluation. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction analysis (MISPE) identified picolinic acid as a suitable template for fusaric acid recognition. Polymers imprinted with picolinic acid achieved improved selectivity and capacity for fusaric acid compared to non-imprinted polymers. AGFD 194 Development of a sensitive ELISA and nanogold immunostrip for aflatoxin M1 Feng-Yih Yu and Jing-Jhih Wang, Departemnt of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical Univ., No.110, Sec 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan, Fax: 886-424757412 Polyclonal antibodies (pAb) against aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, the major metabolites of AFB1) were generated from the rabbits which have been immunized with AFM1-bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the immunogen . A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) and a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cdELISA) were used for the characterization of pAb and for analysis of AFM1 in milk and milk products. The concentration causing 50% inhibition (IC50) of binding AFM1-horseradish peroxidase to the pAb was found to be 0.11 ng/mL in the cdELISA. In addition, a rapid and sensitive pAb-based nanogold immunostrip for on-site detection of AFM1 was also developed. Analysis of AFM1 in milk samples revealed that the data obtained from immunostrip were in a good agreement with those obtained from cdELISA. The immunostrip with a detection limit of 1~5 ng/mL for AFM1 could be applied to on-site detection of AFM1 in milk and milk products within 10 minutes without further sample cleanup.. AGFD 195 Determination of bistrifluron residues in vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry Chan Hyeok Kwon, Moon Ik Chang, Moo Hyeog Im, Soon Ho Lee, and Moo Ki Hong, Food Evaluation Dept., Korea Food and Drug Administration, #194 Tongil-ro, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 712-714, South Korea, Fax: 82-2-355-6037 An analytical method was developed to determine bistrifluron residues in Chinese cabbage, cucumber and tomato using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mass spectrometry. Bistrifluron was extracted with acetone from the samples. The extract was diluted with saline water, and nhexane partition was followed to recover the bistrifluron from the aqueous phase. Florisil column chromatography was employed to further remove interfering co-extractives prior to HPLC analysis. Reverse-phase HPLC with ultraviolet absorption detection was successfully applied to determine bistrifluron in sample extracts with the UV detection. Recoveries of bistrifluron from fortified samples ranged 85.6105.6% with less than 10% of relative standard deviations. Quantification limit of the method was 0.02 mg/kg for all samples. A LC/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring was also provided to confirm the suspected residue. The proposed method was reproducible and sensitive enough to determine the terminal residue of bistrifluron in vegetables AGFD 196 The effect of microwave heating on the acrylamide formation in the food Suresh Tewani and Neha Grewal, Dept. of Chem., New York City College of Tech. - CUNY, 300 Jay St # P-618, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Acrylamide, a neurotoxic and possibly carcinogenic substance in humans, has been recently detected in many fast foods. Key issue is the factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foods. Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids, at high temperatures, results in formation of acrylamide in foods. Experiments with six carbohydrates with asparagine in food model were conducted to investigate effect of microwave heating on the acrylamide formation. Samples were heated using microwave at 170 °C (10 minutes) and 115 °C (20 minutes). HPLC/UV (230 nm) was used for quantification. Experimental results confirm that (a) acrylamide was formed when reducing sugars were used (b) if the food is

heated at a lower power for a longer duration the amount of the acrylamide formed was smaller. As a result, it is conclude that heating food using the microwave at lower power is healthier. Further experiments involve use of Glutathione to trap acrylamide. AGFD 197 Preparation and properties of boiling-stable resistant starch Luo Zhigang1, zhgluo@scut.edu.cn, Gao Qunyu1, QYGao6@sohu.com, and YANG Liansheng2, LSYang12@163.com. (1) Carbohydrate Lab, Light Industry & Food College, South China Univ. of Tech, Wushan, Guangdong Prov, Guangzhou 510640, China, (2) Inst. of Light Industry and Chem. Engineering, South China Univ. of Tech., Guangzhou 510640, China The boiling-stable resistant starch was prepared by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) alone or enzyme hydrolysis before heat-moisture treatment. RS that survives boiling during analysis was determined by the AOAC method of determining total dietary fiber. The results showed HMT after hydrolysis tended to produce more boiling-stable resistant starch than HMT alone. A polarization cross at the center of RS granules isolated from native and treated starches was observed under the optical microscope. The surface was porous, and a concavity could be clearly observed at the center of isolated resistant starch granules. A clearer cross at the center was observed and the amount of isolated RS granules increased with the content of resistant starch (RS) increasing. Isolated resistant starch gave A-type X-ray pattern. X-ray intensities, the gelatinization transition temperatures, gelatinization enthalpy and the gelatinization temperature range of isolated RS increased following the combination of enzyme and HMT or HMT alone. AGFD 198 Characterization of mung bean starch Qunyu Gao1, qygao6@126.com, Zhigang Luo2, Lixin Huang2, and Liansheng Yang2. (1) Carbohydrate Lab, Light Industry & Food College, South China Univ. of Tech, Wushan,Guangzhou city,Guangdong Prov,China, Guangzhou 510640, China, (2) China Starch from Mung bean (Phaseolus aureu Roxb) was isolated and its properties were compared with those of maize and potato starches.The shape of granules was round or elliptical, with granules 5-35 ìm in diameter. The X-ray diffraction pattern was of the A type. The amylose content was 32.7%. Mung bean starch showed a single-stage swelling pattern,and its solubility was less than that of potato starch, but more than that of maize starch.The dispersive degree of Mung bean starch was less than potato or maize starch. The effects of concentration and pH on pasting properies were obvious.Important food ingredients (sucrose,alum,borax) had the clear influence on the Brabender viscosity curves.However,NaCl had no effect on the curves. AGFD 199 Effects of osmotic pressure on the cross-linking reaction of corn starch Weibiao Ye, lovewbye@yahoo.cn, College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, South China Univ. of Tech., Wushan Road 381#, Guangzhou 510641, China, and Qunyu Gao, qygao6@126.com, Carbohydrate Lab, Light Industry & Food College, South China Univ. of Tech, Guangzhou 510640, China The experiment was designed to find out the relations between osmotic pressure and degree of substitution, viscosities of the starch samples. The degree of substitution after used sodium chloride and sodium sulfate as an osmotic pressure enhancer of the cross-linking reaction are both increase linearly with the increase in osmotic pressure with good correlation (R^2=0.9851 and R^2=0.9894, respectively).When sodium chloride as an osmotic pressure enhancer is used in cross- linking reaction, both peak viscosity and final viscosity measured in the Bradender Viscoamylograph are decrease linearly with the increase in osmotic pressure with good correlation (R^2=0.9452 and R^2=0.9468, respectively). The Breakdown is decreased to zero (no breakdown) after applying the osmotic pressure of 164.39 atm and remains zero after the osmotic pressure increase to 217.81atm. Added different amounts sodium sulfate to the cross- linking reaction system changed the pasting properties of the product starch.With the increase in osmotic pressure, peak viscosity and final viscosity are increased firstly, then followed by a decrease of the viscosities. Breakdown is decreased linearly with the increase of the osmotic pressure with good correlation (R^2=0.9295).The increase in beginning pasting temperature with increasing osmotic pressure for both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate (R^2=0.9689 and R^2=0.8238, respectively) demonstrates the increase of the gelatinization temperature of the starch granules. Compared to cross-linking starch, the granule's shape of the osmotic pressure treatments cross-linking starches have changed little in polarizing light microscope. The enhancement of the osmotic pressure can promote the activity of the cross-linking agent. AGFD 200 The “green” extraction of oils from natural products using supercritical carbon dioxide Rolf Schlake and Al Kaziunas, Applied Separations, 930 Hamilton St, Allentown, PA 18101, Fax: 610-740-5520 Natural products such as rose hip oil are typically extracted from oil seeds with hexane, an organic solvent. The rose hip oil dissolves in hexane and is removed from the non-soluble seed components. The hexane is then evaporated and recycled. Unfortunately, the use of hexane in the production of oil seed extracts for human consumption is a problem because it is a toxic and hazardous solvent. Therefore, the hexane must be completely removed from the oil to ensure its safety. This study investigates the extraction of rose hip oil from rose hip seeds using carbon dioxide as an alternative solvent to hexane. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a benign, non-toxic substance and does not contaminate the oil extract or environment with toxic residues. AGFD 201 Taste damage contributes to obesity Linda M. Bartoshuk, lbartoshuk@dental.ufl.edu, UF Center for Smell and Taste, Univ. of Florida, 1329 SW 16th St., Room 5183, Gainesville, FL 32608, and Derek J. Snyder, dsnyder@dental.ufl.edu, Neuroscience, Yale Univ., Gainesville, FL 32607 A history of moderate/severe middle ear infections (usually in childhood) associates with greater BMI; those with this history are almost twice as likely to be obese as are those without it. Ear infections damage the chorda tympani taste nerve (it passes through the middle ear). Damage to the chorda tympani intensifies non-taste oral sensations (CNS release-of-inhibition). Thus sensations produced by fats and thickeners in foods are intensified in those with a history of ear infections. Assessment of 26 foods using the hedonic gLMS (a scale that assesses food liking in the context of all hedonic experience) in subjects 30 and older showed that those with a history of ear infections (N=245) liked food more than did those without this history (N=1055); as energy density (kcal/100 gms) rose, this difference increased. We suggest that sensory changes due to taste damage intensified the liking for energy dense foods leading to weight gain. AGFD 202 Taste receptors and the modulation of glucose homeostasis Cedrick D. Dotson1, cdots003@umaryland.edu, Nanette I. Steinle2, Nsteinle@medicine.umaryland.edu, and Steven D. Munger1, smung001@umaryland.edu. (1) Dept. of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Univ. of Maryland Sch. of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, (2) Dept. of Medicine, Univ. of Maryland Sch. of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 TAS1R- and TAS2R-type taste receptors are expressed in both the gustatory and digestive systems, where they play important roles in the detection of sweet- and bitter-tasting stimuli and in the postprandial response to nutrients. To investigate the role of taste receptors in glucose homeostasis, we conducted an association analysis of haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to all TAS1R and TAS2R genes with glucose and insulin metrics in the Amish Family Diabetes Study. These studies indicate that a variant of the TAS2R9

bitter receptor is associated with glucose dysregulation and increased type 2 diabetes risk. We will discuss these studies and their implications for alimentary chemosensation and metabolic disease. Support: NIDCD, NIDCR, NHLBI, NIDDK. AGFD 203 Genetic and biochemical properties of bitter taste receptors determine sensory performance of subjects Claudia Batram, Natacha Roudnitzky, Anne Brockhoff, Bernd Bufe, Claudia Reichling, Maik Behrens, and Wolfgang Meyerhof, Dept. of Molecular Genetics, German Inst. of Human Nutrition (DIfE) Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, Nuthetal 14558, Germany Bitter taste in humans initiates through the interaction of chemicals with specialized chemosensory cells of the oral epithelium that express subsets of the ~25 member comprising family of taste 2 receptors. Gylcosylation at a strictly conserved site in their extracellular domain II and interplay with auxiliary proteins is crucial for cell surface expression of taste 2 receptors. They are broadly tuned to detect numerous bitter substances explaining how humans are able to perceive thousands of bitter chemicals with only ~25 receptors. Taste 2 receptors are activated through specific interactions of side chains of amino acids present in various transmembrane regions and extracellular loops with chemical groups of their cognate ligands. Taste 2 receptor genes contain numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms some of which generate functionally distinct receptor variants. These, in turn, account for perceptual differences in the population and possibly affect food preferences, diet and health. AGFD 204 The genetics of oral perception and its impact on nutrient evaluation Paul A. S. Breslin, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 267-519-4780 Our individualized perception of food varies as a function of several genetic factors such as the form of our taste receptors and the activity of our saliva, among others. The form a taste receptor takes (based on the alleles we possess for this receptor) impacts its responses to specific sets of ligands. Thus, we made a direct link among the compounds that stimulate a specific receptor type, the foods that contain these taste compounds, and the variation in the perception of these foods among those who possess these receptors. Specifically, we examined the glucosinolate thyroid toxins in cruciferous vegetables and the bitterness perception of them among people who vary in their TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor genotype. Recently a genetic basis to oral perception of viscosity from starches has been implicated because salivary amylase can be highly active. People with higher levels of salivary amylase experience a more rapid degradation of starch in the oral cavity during the brief periods that it is chewed or manipulated in the mouth. Whether these differences in oral starch processing impact food preferences and ingestion is yet to be determined. There is, however, some evidence of perception affecting ingestion where bitterness is concerned. Preschoolers who possess lower bitter sensitivity (particularly to propylthiouracil) eat more vegetables, in an experimental setting, than do the subset of children who possess higher bitter sensitivity to PROP. Oral perception may be a potent driver of ingestion in children because they attend more to rudimentary sensory input than adults due to their incomplete knowledge of culture, gastronomy, and social demands. Whether adults will similarly follow basic sensory reflexes in the face of conflicting social influences will be determined by future studies. Supported by NIH DC02995. AGFD 205 Genetic influences on sensory perception and its implication to diet Christopher T. Simons1, Christopher.Simons@givaudan.com, A. Fushan2, A. Manichaikul2, D. Drayna2, TS. McCluskey1, and Jay P. Slack1. (1) Givaudan Flavors Corp, 1199 Edison Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45216, Fax: 513/948/3582, (2) NIDCD, Rockville, MD Genetic diversity within DNA sequences encoding taste receptors and downstream elements associated with taste transduction are known to be linked to differences in people's sensitivity to tastants. This phenotypic variation is subsequently hypothesized to have an impact on hedonic elements and behaviors associated with eating and food selection. Herein we report our integrated studies in which genetic, phenotypic and behavioral endpoints were measured and quantified. Results to date indicate that differences in genes encoding components of sweet taste pathways lead to alterations in taste sensitivity, and these variations may be linked to differences in eating behavior. AGFD 206 Genetic association between sweet taste and alcohol consumption Alexander A. Bachmanov, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 215-898-2084 When alcoholic beverages are consumed, they first activate chemosensory receptors in the oral and nasal cavities, and then exert postingestive effects. Individual differences in chemosensory perception of alcohol flavor may influence its consumption. An association between sweet taste and alcohol consumption has been found in humans and rodents. Animal studies suggest that this link has a genetic basis. In our experiments, we used inbred, hybrid, congenic, selectively bred and knockout mice to analyze relationships between consumption of ethanol and sweeteners. Using linkage analysis (chromosomal mapping), we have identified several genetic loci that affect consumption of both ethanol and sweetener solutions. Results of our behavioral and physiological experiments suggest that these genetic loci may be involved in both peripheral sweet taste sensitivity and in central hedonic responses to ethanol and sweeteners. One of the peripheral taste mechanisms responsible for association between sweet taste and ethanol intake in mice involves genetic variants of the Tas1r3 gene encoding the T1R3 taste receptor protein. Similar mechanisms underlying association between sweet taste responses and alcohol intake are likely to exist in humans. Supported by NIH grants R01 DC00882 and R01 AA11028. AGFD 207 Chemosensation of calcium Michael G. Tordoff, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market St, Philadelphia, PA Calcium is essential for survival and good health. Low calcium intakes of humans have been implicated in several chronic diseases including osteoporosis, obesity and hypertension. Many animals have a specific calcium appetite, which implies they can detect the mineral and consume sufficient of it to meet their needs. To determine how they do this, we have exploited inbred strains of mice that differ in their avidity for calcium. A genome scan and studies with congenic and knockout mice revealed that calcium consumption is under the control of two receptors, the so-called “sweet taste” receptor, T1R3, and the calcium-sensing receptor, CaSR. Our results reveal a mechanism by which calcium is detected in the oral cavity. The existence of an oral calcium detector raises the possibility that calcium should be considered a specific taste. AGFD 208 Altered a-amylase digestion by physical modification of dispersed maize starch Donald B. Thompson, Food Sci., Penn State Univ., 202 Food Sci. Building, Univ. Park, PA 16802, Fax: 814-863-6132 The rate and extent of digestion of starch by the human are both of potential nutritional importance. The digested starch might be degraded more or less rapidly, perhaps influencing the blood glucose levels following the meal. The incompletely digested starch has been termed resistant starch (RS), and it is fermented in the colon, with generally accepted beneficial effects. Four general types of RS have been described. High-amylose maize starch (HAMS) is the material of preference for making ingredients with either type 2 (granular) or type 3 (non-granular) RS. Some native granules are used as sources of type

2 RS. Other ingredients containing type 2 RS with enhanced RS have been made from HAMS subjected to hydrothermal treatments, before or after a limited acid or enzyme depolymerization. To make ingredients containing type 3 RS, extensive granule disruption of HAMS due to heating in the presence of moisture, perhaps with limited depolymerization before or after the heat treatment, is followed by retrogradation. As an alternative to a heating/retrogradation cycle for making ingredients containing type 3 RS, the native HAMS may be first completely destructured by dispersing in DMSO, and then precipitated by either ammonium sulfate or ethanol. The choice of precipitant influences both the rate and extent of starch digestion of the precipitated starch material. Moreover, selection of rehydration conditions has been shown to strongly influence the level of the materials produced. Some of these materials have been shown to be stable to a boiling treatment. Differences in the nature of the RS-containing materials generated from dispersed non-granular starch are understood to be due to differences in double helical and crystalline structure of the materials. AGFD 209 Crosslinking of potato starch with sodium trimetaphosphate PL. Buwalda, R&D Food, AVEBE ua, Transportweg 11, Veendam, Netherlands The crosslinking of potato starch with sodium trimetaphospate (STMP) has been studied using known relationships developed by Flory. The yield of the crosslinking was determined using a combination of titrimetric techniques. By assuming a bimodal molecular weight distribution for amylopectin and amylose respectively using the yields a strong preference for the crosslinking for amylopectin was predicted and subsequently observed. This leads to the conclusion that potato starch behaves as a normal amorphous polymer in the crosslinking reaction with STMP. AGFD 210 Enzymatic processing of starch and carbohydrates René Mikkelsen, Shukun Yu, and Karsten M. Kragh, Enzyme Devel., Genencor - A Danisco Division, Edwin Rahrs Vej 38, Brabrand, Denmark Starch is the most abundant storage reserve carbohydrate in plants and represents one of the most accessible energy sources on the planet. Furthermore, starch is the primary intake of calories in a normal human diet, which makes starch a compound of great importance. Besides forming an important constituent of the human diet starch is used as a renewable raw material for many industrial applications. Starch has also become an important compound in the area of white bioTech. which is a fast growing area and involves the use of bioTech. in the production of fine chemicals, biofuels etc. The enzymatic conversion of plant-based products to make industrial feedstocks, such as ethanol is growing in many countries and has recently been driving up the cost of starch sources very significantly. For many years the major focus of the biotechnological industry has been on development of hydrolases as starch processing enzymes. Danisco has introduced a novel type of starch processing enzyme Tech., namely the á-1,4-glucan lyase which produces the unique sugar 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (AF). This sugar has a range of interesting properties and can be used as starting point for enzymatic or chemical synthesis of numerous industrially important compounds e.g. ascopyrone M/P and microthecin. AGFD 211 Enzymatic wet milling of corn: Process and economics David B. Johnston, Crop Conversion Science & Engineering Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Ctr., 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, Edna C. Ramírez, Crop Conversion Science and Engineering Research Unit, USDA-ARS-ERRC, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, Andrew J. McAloon, Crop Coversion Science and Engineering Research Unit, USDA-ARS, ERRC, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, and Vijay Singh, vsingh@uiuc.edu, Ag. & Bio. Engineering, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 Enzymatic Corn Wet Milling (E-Milling) is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and coproducts using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. This process has been successfully tested at the laboratory, pilot and small commercial scale. In order to effectively determine the commercial viability of E-M illing, process engineering and cost models for the E-Milling and the conventional corn wet milling process have been developed using SuperPro Designer®. Based on the information from the models, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling coproducts. The work presented here describes the E-Milling process and compares the process, the operation and the costs with the conventional process. AGFD 212 Explorations of starch derivatization James N. BeMiller, Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research, Purdue Univ., Food Sci. Building, 745 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 This paper is a brief review of the results of research in the presenter's laboratory on the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors on starch modifications. Specific attention is given to the presence of channels in granules, differences in reactivity of reagents, the effects of pH and granule swelling, and the effect of the presence of protein on reaction efficiencies and patterns of derivatization. AGFD 213 Molecular reaction patterns on intact starch polymers and amylopectin branch chains Kerry C. Huber, huberk@uidaho.edu, Dept. of Food Sci. and Toxicology, Univ. of Idaho, Agricultural Sciences Building Room 118, Rayburn Street and 6th Street, Moscow, ID 83844-2312, Fax: 208-885-2567, and Jeremy S. Higley, jhigley@ticgums.com, R&D, TIC Gums, Belcamp, MD 21017 A model reaction system, utilizing a fluorescent probe as a starch chemical modifying agent for granular starch, was developed to assess the relative substitution patterns on amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP) polymers, as well as on AP branch chains. Molecular reaction patterns were determined for both non-debranched and isoamylase-debranched starch derivatives via gel permeation chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. Overall, AM was more heavily derivatized than AP. For debranched starch derivatives, the medium-length (B1 and A) AP branch chains were the least densely reacted of all starch chain fractions evaluated, most likely due to their extensive involvement in the granule crystalline structure. Reaction densities of long (B2-B4) and very short AP branch chains were more than 3-fold higher than those of medium-length AP branch chains, and were equivalent to or greater than those of AM. This experimental approach has great potential to further enhance understanding of starch granule reactivity at the molecular level. AGFD 214 Mechanism of resistance to amylase digestibility of RS4-type resistant wheat starch Ody Maningat and K Woo, Applications Tech. and Technical Services, MGP Ingredients, Inc, Cray Business Plaza, 100 Commercial Street, Atchison, KS 66002, Fax: 913-360-5619 Resistant wheat starch (RWS) commercially produced by reaction with sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate has become a major source of dietary fiber in a number of consumer food products. RWS belongs to RS4-type resistant starch and is chemically classified as phosphat ed distarch phosphate. Analyzing as 85% total dietary fiber (dry basis, minimum), RWS exhibits serum HDL cholesterol improvement and cecal short chain fatty acid production in hamsters. In addition, it lowers glycemic and insulin responses in humans. These results provoke some questions on its mechanism of resistance to amylase digestion. Changes in granule

morphology of RWS after enzyme digestion were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the results compared with RS4-type starches from other botanical sources. Enzymes used in AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber as well as pepsin and pancreatin-bile were employed in understanding enzyme susceptibility. Due to high degree of cross-linking, RS4-type resistant starches have limited granular swelling after heat treatment and, therefore, surface alterations as a result of amylase action can easily be viewed. Results show that amylase acts by surface erosion rather than by etching or boring holes on the granules. The presentation will discuss the results in relation to granule structure, crystallinity, and botanical source. AGFD 215 Innovative decontamination agents and their impact on all quality aspects of fresh-cut vegetables Isabelle V. T. J. Vandekinderen, John Van Camp, Frank Devlieghere, Peter Ragaert, Quenten Denon, and Bruno De Meulenaer, Dept. of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent Univ., Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium, Fax: 329-225-5510 The last decade consumers have demanded fresh, healthier convenience-type of foods like fresh-cut vegetables. A decontamination step is frequently applied in the production process of fresh-cut vegetables to enhance the safety and to prolong the shelf life. Besides the traditionally used sodium hypochlorite, new decontamination agents such as chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid and electrolyzed oxidizing water were introduced into the food industry. On the other hand the intake of vegetables is essential for a healthy diet since they are important sources of vitamins, pro-vitamins and secondary plant metabolites. These bioactive compounds have an antioxidant function in the human body and their intake can be related with the prevention of several diseases. Therefore the influence of the previously mentioned decontamination agents was studied on the microbial quality, the physiology, the nutritional value (vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, total phenols, antioxidant capacity) and the sensory properties of different fresh-cut vegetables. AGFD 216 Antioxidant potential of, so far, underutilized Latin-American fruits and the impact of processing on that property Friedhelm Marx, André Gordon, and Roberta B. Rodrigues, Dept. of Nutrition and Food Sci.s, Univ. of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11-13, 53115 Bonn, Germany, Fax: +49-228-733757 “Producing added value from underutilized tropical fruit crops with high commercial potential” is the target of an international research cooperation project in which our work group is engaged with studies on the antioxidant capacity against three physiologically relevant ROS. The focus is on blackberries, tree tomato, red pitahaya, berrycactus, açaí, cashew apple, naranjilla, palm peach, and camu-camu.Results show that among the target fruits açaí, camu-camu and blackberries possess the most significant (however varying) efficacies. Activity-guided HPLC fractionation and LC-MSn techniques were applied for the identification of the most effective fruit compounds. The impact of processing and extracting conditions on the antioxidant capacity of the different fruits was studied. A juice mixture made out of the three most promising fruits açaí, camu-camu and blackberries was prepared and its extraordinary oxidant inhibitory features were proven. That juice was administered to human volunteers for bio efficacy studies. First results are presented. AGFD 217 Bioactives in plant materials as affected by fermentation during vinegar production F. Shahidi, Dept. of Biochemistry, Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF A1B 3X9, Canada, Fax: (709) 737-4000 Plant-based food bioactives may retain their structural integrity or may undergo chemical changes during a variety of processing operations, including fermentation. Many of the bioactives present render health benefits via a number of mechanisms, including antioxidant activity. Fermentation is a means for vinegar production from different starting materials. While vinegar has traditionally been used for food preservation and as a seasoning, more recently vinegars from different sources have been introduced to the market as specialty products. In additon to acetic acid these vinegars contain a number of other organic acids as well as phenolics, some of which may have been produced via process-induced changes that lead to the generation of new antioxidative products during fermentation. AGFD 218 Food processing and formulation affects bioavailability of carotenoids Steven J. Schwartz, Dept.s of Food Sci. and Nutrition, The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210 Carotenoids are uniquely functional, highly conjugated pigments ubiquitous in nature. The list of known, naturally occurring carotenes (hydrocarbon cartenoids) and xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids) has grown to approximately 700. Carotenoids are epidemiologically linked with the prevention of several chronic, degenerative human diseases and thus the identification and quantification of the various carotenoids present in foods and biological tissues has been the object of a great deal of research and continues to be vigorously pursued. Research investigations on the absorption, deposition and bioavailability of carotenoids have identified influences by several dietary factors, structural configuration of the carotenoid and characteristics of the food matrix. Lycopene, the carotenoid present at high concentrations in tomatoes and tomato products, has attracted considerable attention as epidemiological evidence continues to suggest this compound may provide protection against cancer and other degenerative diseases. Although this antioxidant serves as a useful blood and tissue biomarker uniquely indicative of tomato product consumption, the array of other phytochemicals in tomato products must also be the focus of additional research. At Ohio State Univ., we have conducted several pilot clinical studies to further our understanding of lycopene absorption, distribution and clearance. The plasma response data suggest that the bioavailability of lycopene differs between commercial tomato products available to consumers. Both lycopene concentration and isomer patterns were observed to change rapidly with variation in dietary intake. Although dietary lipids are hypothesized to be an important factor for carotenoid bioavailability, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. Post-prandial experiments, monitoring newly absorbed carotenoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein) present on the lipoprotein chylomicron fraction, provide another means to evaluate carotenoid absorption and bioavailability from specific food products or formulated meals. This approach was used to show the importance of co-consumed lipid to efficiently absorb fat soluble carotenoids. AGFD 219 Processing and storage effects on blackberry ellagitannins and flavonols Luke R. Howard1, lukeh@uark.edu, Tiffany J. Hager1, hagertiffanyj@uams.edu, and Ronald L. Prior2, PriorRonaldL@uams.edu. (1) Dept. of Food Sci., Univ. of Arkansas, 2650 N. Young Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72704, Fax: 479-575-6936, (2) Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, USDA, ARS, Little Rock, AR 72202 Blackberries are a rich source of polyphenolics, including ellagitannins and flavonols that are thought to play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. However, the fruit are only seasonally available, and are commonly consumed as frozen or in thermally processed forms after long-term storage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing and 6 months of storage on the ellagitannin and flavonol content of blackberries that were individually quick frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed and juiced (clarified and non-clarified). Ellagitannins and flavonols were measured by HPLC 1 day post-processing and after 1, 3, and 6 months

of storage. Freezing, canning, and pureeing had a minimal effect on total ellagitannins and flavonols, but juice processing resulted in extensive losses due to 42% of flavonols and 67% of ellagitannins being retained in the presscake. Total flavonols and ellagitannins were well retained in all processed products during 6 months storage, but 19% to 39% of flavonols and 5% to 19% of ellagitannins in canned products diffused out of the berries into the liquid canning media. Despite minimal changes in total ellagitannins during storage in thermally processed products, increased levels of low molecular weight ellagitannins were observed throughout storage, suggesting the compounds were susceptible to depolymerization. Our results demonstrate that IQF, canned and pureed blackberries have comparable levels of total flavonols and ellagitannins as fresh berries, but juices contained only about 50% of the levels found in fresh fruit. Methods are needed to recover flavonols and ellagitannins from juice by-products. AGFD 220 Fat taste detection and lipid metabolism in humans Richard D. Mattes, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue Univ., 212 Stone Hall, 700 W State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, Fax: 765-494-0674 Fatty acids are increasingly recognized as signaling molecules for physiological processes associated with outcomes ranging from atherosclerosis to satiety. Their signaling role in the oral cavity is a topic of current interest as it relates to the concept of taste primaries as well as clinical issues associated with lipid metabolism. We have sought to address both topics through two experimental approaches. Human oral sensitivity questions have been addressed through psychophysical studies using masking to isolate the taste properties of free fatty acids (FFA). Detection thresholds have been obtained for FFA of common chain length, but varying in saturation: linoleic acid (C18:2) – polyunsaturated, oleic acid (C18:1) – monounsaturated and stearic acid (C18:0) saturated. More recently, we have measured thresholds for fatty acids varying in chain length, but of common saturation: caproic (C6:0), lauric (C12:0), stearic (C18:0). Thus, there is broad sensitivity to fatty acids, an observation consistent with the variety of putative fatty acid transduction mechanisms. Oral fatty acid detection effects on lipid metabolism are documented through modified sham feeding trials. Oral exposures to full-fat foods (while controlling for texture and olfaction) lead to a rapid, larger and more sustained elevation of plasma triglycerides than oral exposures to fat -free foods. This work has been based on repeated exposures over a 2 hour period, a protocol that does not mimic customary dietary practice. Most recently the same effects have been documented after a single 10 second oral exposure in over 70% of participants. Further, stable isotope studies document that the initial triglyceride peak is comprised largely of fat consumed from the previous meal. Thus, the gut appears to be a storage organ for lipid that is mobilized, most effectively, by oral fat detection. Thus, fatty acid signaling appears to be initiated in the oral cavity in humans. AGFD 221 Metabolic health assessment by nutritional metabonomics Sunil Kochhar, PO Box 44, Nestlé Research Ctr., Vers-chez-lesBlanc, CH-1000, Lausanne-26, Switzerland, Fax: (+4121) 785-8549 Metabonomics is minimally invasive and ensures a simultaneous analysis of a wide range of metabolites that are the endpoints of molecular regulatory processes, diet and gut microflora metabolism and environmental factors. Defining the metabolic phenotype or “metabotype” of human populations will offer a great opportunity to evaluate the metabolic response. The degree of this response to specific dietary modulations at the individual level is a basis for pre-dietary intervention metabolite profiling, which could be used to model and predict the responses of individual subjects to special foods. As an example the presentation will report results from a recent study where we determined the occurrence of a metabolic imprinting or memory in relation to regular consumption of chocolate. In a study of 22 human subjects based on their preference for chocolate and pattern of daily consumption, we generated metabolic profiles of plasma and urine samples and analyzed those employing multivariate statistics. A clear discrimination of subjects according to their chocolate liking was observed. The class separation using plasma metabolic profiles was present even from samples collected before the chocolate intake, suggesting the occurrence of a metabolic imprint or memory independent of the chocolate intake. Results indicate that subjects who do not like chocolate harbor statistically different lipoprotein profile in their postprandial phase suggesting differences in dynamics of the lipoprotein clearance in relation to regular consumption of chocolate. The class separation was also achieved on urine metabolic profiles due to metabolites most likely from gut microbiome metabolic activity. This could indicate differences in gut microflora functionality and metabolism in relation to regular intake of chocolate. In summary, nutritional metabonomics can then be foreseen as a powerful non invasive approach to address and optimize personalized nutrition. AGFD 222 Sensitivity to odors differs across individuals and may influence food and beverage choices. Charles J. Wysocki, wysocki@pobox.upenn.edu, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr. and Univ. of Pennsylvania, 3500 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19104-3308, Fax: 215898-2084, Danielle Reed, dreed@monell.org, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., Philadelphia, PA 19104, Yudith Hasin, yehudit.hasin@weizmann.ac.il, Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100, Israel, and Doron Lancet, Doron.Lancet@weizmann.ac.il, Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel Humans differ in their ability to perceive many odorants. Some of this variation may result from the genes that are expressed in the olfactory epithelium. Many human olfactory receptor genes (ORG) are non-functional, which suggests that these genes do not encode proteins that p articipate in olfactory transduction processes (this perhaps results in specific anosmia [SA]). However, some ORG are fully functional in some groups of people while at the same time they are pseudogenes in other people. We have been focusing on a subset of ORG that are known to be variable across people; these genes are called segregating pseudogenes (SPG). To evaluate the extent that these SPG contribute to variation in ofactory sensitivity we have tested people for sensitivity to ~ a dozen odorants and have analyzed the SPG from the DNA of the participants. For the most part: SAs are independent of each other; they do not appear to be gender-specific; they may be related to ethnic/racial group. We will discuss the relationships between genotype and phenotype. AGFD 223 Odor perception, eating habits, and body weight Andreas Keller1, kellera@rockefeller.edu, Iran Gomez1, Peggy Hempstead1, Avery N Gilbert2, kellera@rockefeller.edu, and Leslie B Vosshall1. (1) Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Behavior, The Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (2) Synesthetics Inc, Montclair, NJ 30062 The differences in eating habits that result in changes in body weight in humans may be caused in part by differences in sensory experience of food. To test if there is a correlation between olfactory perception, eating habits, and body mass index, we quantitatively measured olfactory performance of ~400 ethnically diverse subjects in multiple psychophysical tests. The olfactory tests included olfactory detection thresholds for several odors and subjective assessments of the intensity and pleasantness of more than 100 different odorous stimuli, all of which are approved food additives. Each subject was tested at least twice, allowing us to quantify the relative importance of inter-trial and inter-individual variability. We present a systematic study of the

complex interactions of factors that contribute to general olfactory acuity and on the perception of the intensity and pleasantness of specific odors, including eating habits, self-assessment of body weight, body mass index, perfume use, smoking habits, gender, race, and age. AGFD 224 Detection of biologically-derived odorants using DNA-functionalized carbon nanotubes ATCharlie Johnson Jr.1, cjohnson@physics.upenn.edu, Samuel M. Khamis1, smk@physics.upenn.edu, Alan Gelperin2, agelperin@monell.org, Jae Kwak2, jkwak@monell.org, and George Preti2, preti@monell.org. (1) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 215-898-2010, (2) Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., Philadelphia, PA 19104 DNA-functionalized carbon nanotubes can detect biologically-derived odorants. Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) is the chemical recognition site and single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (swCN-FETs) are the read-out component. Nonanal, hexanoic and octanoic acids were selected as initial target odorants since they emanate from several mammals, including humans. Compounds were dissolved in mineral oil and introduced to the nanotubes. The ss-DNA, SwCN-FETs selectively detect one of the odorants, hexanoic acid. This may be due to the odorants' water solubility or the DNA base sequences. A change of the DNA base sequence may alter the response to hexanoic acid. Our results suggest that the chemical nature of odorants and DNA base sequences affect the selectivity of odorant detection. These sensors are promising for electronic olfaction systems consisting of coupled sensor arrays and an odor recognition algorithm required for “electronic-nose” applications in medicine and homeland security. Supported,in part, by DHS and the MITRE Corporation. AGFD 225 Volatile compounds characteristic of sinus-related bacteria and infected sinus mucus: Analysis by solid-phasemicroextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry George Preti1, preti@monell.org, Alan Gelperin1, agelperin@monell.org, Erica Thaler2, thaler@uphs.upenn.edu, William Hanson III3, hansonb@uphs.upenn.edu, Jason Eades1, jeades@monell.org, and Michelle Troy2. (1) Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 215-898-2084, (2) Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (3) Dept. of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 Humans emit a variety of volatile chemicals from their breath that are a potential source of information for disease diagnosis. Exhaled breath may include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating in the nasal sinuses. If these areas are infected, disease-specific volatiles may enter the exhaled air. We examined VOCs characteristic of bacteria that commonly infect the sinuses using solid-phase microextraction to collect the volatiles and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to separate and analyze the resulting mixtures. Infected sinus mucus samples were also collected and examined using the same techniques. Similar volatiles are seen from pure cultures and mucus samples; however, the relative amounts differ and, in some instances new compounds, not seen in the pure cultures were seen suggesting an important role for growth substrate and environment. Characterization of VOCs emitted by bacteria commonly associated with sinusitis will permit development of electronic nose-based sensors with significant sensitivity for these bacteria-specific VOCs. AGFD 226 Urinary volatile biomarkers in mouse models of lung cancer Koichi Matsumura1, kmatsumura@monell.org, Maryanne Opiekun1, Hiroaki Oka2, Steven M. Albelda3, Kunio Yamazaki1, and Gary K. Beauchamp1. (1) Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (2) Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd, (3) Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center To identify volatile biomarkers of lung cancer, we employed two mouse models, one with tumors induced by the Kras cell line and one with tumors induced by the Lewis lung cell line. Trained sensor mice discriminated between volatile signals arising from mice with and without tumors at several tumor stages. Surprisingly, they generalized this response from one to the other model without further training. These results suggest that volatile biomarkers are shared by the two models. To identify the chemical basis for this discrimination, urinary volatile organic compounds were analyzed with solid-phase-microextraction, followed by GC/MS. The amounts of several compounds were dramatically different between tumor-bearing and control mice. Furthermore, principal component analysis and support vector machine generated a high score for discriminating between tumor and control groups. Thus, it was possible to identify mice with lung cancer tumors based on volatile biomarkers. This work was sponsored by Panasonic. AGFD 227 Detecting skin cancer using volatile biomarkers Michelle Gallagher1, George Preti1, Steve Fakharzadeh2, Charles J. Wysocki3, wysocki@pobox.upenn.edu, Jae Kwak1, jkwak@monell.org, Christopher J. Miller2, Chris.Miller2@uphs.upenn.edu, Chrysalyne D. Schmults4, cschmults@partners.org, Andrew I Spielman5, andrew.spielman@nyu.edu, and Xuming Sun6, xs5@nyu.edu. (1) Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 215-898-2084, (2) Dermatology, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 190104, (3) Monell Chem. Senses Ctr. and Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-3308, (4) Mohs Micrographic Surgery Center, Dana Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130, (5) Dept. of Basic Science, New York Univ. College of Dentistry, New York, NY 10010, (6) Dept. of Basic Sciences and Craniofacial Biology, New York Univ. College of Dentistry, New York, NY 10010 Dogs can detect the presence of skin cancer via olfaction, supporting the hypothesis that skin tumors produce a different profile of volatile metabolites than normal skin. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate the profile of volatiles from individuals with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumor sites, as well as similar sites from the control subjects. Inspection of GC/MS data demonstrated no obvious qualitative changes between BCC sites and control sites. Several compounds chosen because of their structure, origin and/or biogenesis were monitored in a quantitative fashion in all patients and controls. Statistical analyses of the quantitative data suggest that rather than “new” volatile organic compounds (VOCs) related to the carcinoma, we see a quantitative alteration of the normal VOC profile at the BCC site: some of the monitored compounds decrease, and others increase in relative concentration. Supported by NIH (Training grant #: T 32 DC00014-26) and Ms. Bonnie Hunt. AGFD 228 There's something in the air: Chemosignals of health and hazard Pamela H. Dalton, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 2158982084 The chemicals we eat, drink and breathe are capable of promoting both health and disease. While it may seem obvious that the direction and magnitude of the effect would depend upon the specific chemical and its concentration (or dose), there is also considerable evidence that an individual's belief system or expectations are determinants of a chemical's impact on human health and well-being. In fact, the chemical world to most laypeople is dichotomized according to whether a chemical is derived from a natural source or synthesized in a laboratory. Although this dimension is largely irrelevant to the effect a chemical can have on an organism, chemosensory detection of and reactivity to a chemical can be significantly modulated by these ‘top -down' effects. For example, simply labeling a chemical odor as natural or synthetic prior to a full-body exposure has been shown to elicit significantly different

sensory and health reports: individuals who believe they have been exposed to a synthetic chemical or solvent report heightened odor intensity and significantly more health symptoms following exposure than do a group who believe they have been exposed to a natural extract. A major goal of our research is to evaluate whether positive (i.e., relaxation, comfort) or negative (i.e., stress, annoyance, symptoms) responses to chemosensory stimulation accrue from direct physiological pathways or whether experience, prior associations or other cognitive and emotional factors are the dominant factor in mediating the human response. This distinction may be of particular significance when considering when and how to ameliorate the responses of sensitive subpopulations and how to enhance the positive impact of fragrances and flavors on our daily lives. AGFD 229 Structure of enzyme -resistant high-amylose maize starch Jay -lin Jane1, jjane@iastate.edu, Hingxin Jiang1, Li Li1, and Mark Campbell2. (1) Dept. of Food Sci. and Human Nutrition, Iowa State Univ., 2312 Food Sci.s Bldg, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011, Fax: 515-294-8181, (2) Devision of Science, Truman State Univ., Kirksville, MO 63501 High-amylose maize starch varieties have different resistant starch (RS) contents. Starch with a large RS content is desirable for health food ingredients. To understand the structure and mechanism of RS formation in starch granules, we studied starches from three GEMS-0067 lines (RS 39.4-43.2%, determined using AOAC 991.43 method) and from four inbred lines (RS 11.5-19.1%). The GEMS-0067 starches had 83.1-85.6% apparent amylose and 22.6-32% rod/filamentous granules, which were larger than the inbred line starches (61.7-67.7% and 5.2-7.7%, respectively). The RS contents of the starches were positively correlated with the amylose contents (correlation coefficient, 0.99). The onset gelatinization temperatures of the seven starches were similar (64.5-65.8°C), but the conclusion temperatures of the GEMS-0067 starches (122.0-130.0°C) were higher than that of the inbred starches (100.5-105.3°C), indicating that the crystalline structures of the GEMS-0067 starches were retained after heating at 100°C. SEM micrographs showed that rod/filamentous granules, consisting of mainly amylose and intermediate components, were resistant to the heating and thermal-stable enzyme hydrolysis. AGFD 230 Amylose and cycloamylose shapes Alfred French and Glenn P Johnson, Cotton Structure and Quality Research Unit, USDA, ARS, SRRC, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124, Fax: (504)286-4217 We have taken advantage of the large number of crystal structures of small molecules such as maltose to predict the likely shapes of amylose molecules, based on a technique published by Shimanouchi and Mizushima in 1955. These extrapolations of observed details such as atomic coordinates of a glucose residue, a glycosidic bond angle and the glycosidic torsion angles, give the helix parameters n, the number of residues per turn, and h, the advance per residue along the helix axis. The results from each different crystal structure can be combined to give an overall picture of the range of likely helical shapes for amylose. Mainly left-handed helices are predicted. A special case happens when h = 0, because the predicted structure corresponds to a classic, symmetrical, donut shaped cyclodextrin. In the case of deviations from that classic shape, individual linkages in the cyclodextrins and cycloamyloses can also be characterized in terms of whether the resulting helices would be left- or right-handed. The individual deviations must have a net result of 0 or else the molecule would not be cyclic. If the cyclodextrins and amyloses incorporate two “flipping” linkages, they can join two left-handed helical segments, thus permitting all other linkages to have low-energy geometries. AGFD 231 New size-exclusion methodology for the complete characterization of starch molecules Robert G Gilbert1, b.gilbert@uq.edu.au, Patrice Castignolles1, p.castignolles@uq.edu.au, Jonathon Peate1, j.peate@uq.edu.au, Marianne Gaborieau1, m.gaborieau@uq.edu.au, and Angus A Gray-Weale2, gusgw@chem.usyd.edu.au. (1) Centre for Nutrition and Food Sci.s, LCAFS, Univ. of Queensland, Hartley Teakle Bldg S434, Brisbane Qld 4072, Australia, (2) School of Chemistry, Univ. of Sydney, Univ. of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia Starch is a deceptively simple polymer of glucose, that contains at least six levels of structural organization, none of which are yet described fully. Improved starches for public health and industry require structure-property relations at a far more advanced level than currently available. New experimental techniques and theoretical frameworks will be given which permit quantitative structural characterization at nano- and meso-scales qualitatively better than hitherto possible. These techniques are based on multiple-detector sizeexclusion chromatography, using a DMSO-based solvent system and dissolution techniques which completely dissolve the polymer while avoiding degradation by shear and/or heat. The data reduction method from SEC includes a methodology for reducing complex distribution functions to a small number of physically meaningful parameters. These are used to develop relations between structural levels and physical properties, with emphasis on factors controlling enzyme digestibility. AGFD 232 Surface modifying nanoparticles from starch Yonas Gizaw and Vardhan Bajpai, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH 45253, Fax: 513-277-6146 Nanoparticles range in dimension from few nanometers to tens of nanometers. Nanostructures from biopolymeric material, such as starch, have not been extensively studied. Nanoparticles exhibit unique properties such as higher surface area per unit volume, much higher surface energies and have been used in electronic and photonic conductive elements, molecular motors, biosensors, control drug delivery and surface modification. In this work we will describe surface modifying nanoparticles from starch. Further, the impact of starch chemical structure, composition, content, electrolytes and the presence of fatty acid on the formation of nanoparticles will be described. AGFD 233 Useful chemical and structural modifications of starch for pigment use Hannu M. A. Mikkonen1, hannu.mikkonen@vtt.fi, Soili Peltonen1, Lauri Kuutti1, Juha Saari2, juha.saari@vtt.fi, Kirsi Katja2, kirsi.kataja@vtt.fi, and Pia Qvintus-Leino2, pia.qvintusleino@vtt.fi. (1) Polymers, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Laboratory, Valta-Akseli, Rajamäki FI-05201, Finland, (2) VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland In the printing paper industry, brightness and opacity of paper are designed by the addition of inorganic fillers and pigments of optimal particle size and morphology that affect the light scattering of fiber network. A drawback of filler addition is the declining internal strength of fiber network with increasing filler content. The aim of this work was to develop a bio-based substitute for mineral pigments using thermoplastic, hydrophobic ester derivatives of starch. In addition to partial acetyl substitution of starch OH groups, transglycosylation of the starch polymer backbone was used to adjust the molecular weight of starch on different levels between 50,000 to 250,000 g/mol. Starch acetate with an appropriate number of acetyl and free hydroxyls could be dissolved in most common technical solvents i.e. aqueous acetone/ethanol mixtures. Almost perfectly spherical particles of a diameter below the half of the wavelength of visible light were obtained spontaneously when organic solutions of modified starch were diluted rapidly with water. The

use of starch pigment as an additive of coating pastes resulted in boosting the calendaring process, increased smoothness and gloss of paper surface, and picking resistance, and good offset printability with reduced consumption of ink. AGFD 234 Agricultural polymers for corrosion protection of metals Victoria L. Finkenstadt1, victoria.finkenstadt@ars.usda.gov, Gregory Cote2, greg.cote@ars.usda.gov, and J. L. Willett1, jl.willett@ars.usda.gov. (1) Plant Polymer Research, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA, 1815 N. Univ. St., Peoria, IL 61604, Fax: 309-681-6691, (2) Bioproducts and Biocatalysis Research Unit, NCAUR-ARS-USDA, Peoria, IL 61604 Corrosion is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. When metals come in contact with different environments such as air, water, chemical products and pollutants, they begin to degrade as the metal interacts with its environment. This research investigates the inhibition of corrosive behavior by agricultural-derived polymers such as starch and bacterial exopolysaccharides. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy has been used to evaluate the corrosion inhibition of different polysaccharide thin films cast from an aqueous solution onto steel coupons. There were two different behaviors when films were cast onto the steel. Some polysaccharide films interacted immediately with the metal coupon to form an iron (III) oxide layer (“rust”) during the drying process while others did not. The samples which did not form an initial oxide layer had the most corrosion inhibition and formed an iron (II) passivation layer during testing that persisted after the cells were disassembled. AGFD 235 Starches in confections Robert B. Friedman, Friedman Associates, 6654 North Mozart Street, Chicago, IL 60645 Starches and starch derivatives are used in the preparation of confections. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some insight into the application of these ingredients in confectionery systems. There are three main sections in the presentation. Initially, there is a brief overview of starch structure and function, in particular relating to confectionery applications. Then, the presentation provides a review of some selected starch applications in representative confectionery systems. It concludes with some examples of new technical developments that may have significant impact on the confectionery field. AGFD 236 Pre and postharvest effects on limonoids and their biological activities Kotamballi N Chidambara Murthy, kncmurthy@neo.tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ.-College Station, College Station, TX 77845-2119, Fax: 979-862-4522, GK Jayaprakasha, gkjp@neo.tamu.edu, VFIC, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843, and Bhimanagouda S. Patil, b-patil@tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, College Station, TX 77845, Fax: 979-862-4522 Considering the potential use of citrus bioactive componds to human health, studies were conducted to optimize these bioactive compounds using several pre-harvest and post harvest storage conditions. Although vitamin C levels were decreased significantly by storage of fruits for 60 days, limonoids, flavonoids and carotenoids are either stable or increased at mariginal levels. To understand the biological activities, three limonoid aglycones were isolated and identified from sour orange and screened for their ability to prevent pancreatic carcinoma using cultured Panc-28 cells. Inhibition of cell growth up to 71, 80 and 86 % were observed for limonin, nomilin and limonexic acid, respectively at 40 ƒÝM concentration at 48 h. Qualitative analysis of DNA indicated possible involvement of apoptosis as evident from 200 bp fragmentation. These compounds have shown enhanced levels of caspase-3, a key player of apoptosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells was also altered by these compounds effectively at 40 ƒÝM. The process of apoptosis was further confirmed by the elevated expression of Bax and caspase-3 proteins along with depletion of Bcl2 as measured by western blotting. The present research report is based upon work supported by the Designing Foods for Health through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, USDA Grant No. TAES 06-118409. AGFD 237 Modulation of bacterial cell-cell signaling by citrus flavonoids Amit Vikarm1, Bhimanagouda S. Patil2, GK Jayaprakasha1, gkjp@neo.tamu.edu, Palmy Jesudhasan3, avikram@ag.tamu.edu, and Suresh D Pillai3. (1) VFIC, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., 2119, TAMU, College Station, TX 77843, Fax: 979-862-4522, (2) Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77845, (3) Dept of Poultry Science, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77845 Flavonoids have been demonstrated for their benefits as anticarcinogenic, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Approximately 90 flavonoids have been reported from various Citrus spp. and their profile varies due to different pre- and post-harvest factors. However, antibacterial activities of citrus flavonoids against Gram-negative bacteria are not well documented. This observation prompted us to investigate the quorum quenching properties of the citrus flavonoids. Vibrio harveyi based bioluminescence reporter assay was used to determine the inhibition of autoinducer-1 (AI-1), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and Cqs mediated cell-to-cell signaling. Potential of flavonoids to inhibit biofilm formation in Vibrio harveyi and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied. All the flavonoids were found to inhibit the cell-tocell signaling and biofilm formation in concentration dependent manner. Moreover, structure-activity study revealed that presence or absence of double bond and/or hydroxyl groups at certain positions may be important for the antagonistic activity of citrus flavonoids in this model. Furthermore, certain flavonoids were found to exert their effect by modulating the LuxR protein. The present research report is based upon work supported by the Designing Foods for Health through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, USDA Grant No. TAES 06-118409. AGFD 238 Curcumin, a known phytochemical from Curcuma longa attenuates the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 plant and animal pathogenicity models Rudrappa Thimmaraju, Jordyn Kramer, and Harsh Bais, Dept. of Plant and Soil Sciences, Univ. of Delaware, 15 Innovation Way, Newark, DE 19711, Fax: 970-831-3447 Effect of curcumin on the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) was investigated using plant and animal pathogenicity models. The effect of curcumin on PAO1 virulence was studied by employing the in vitro assays for virulence factor production, Arabidopsis thaliana/Caenorhabditis elegans pathogenicity models, whole genome microarray, and PAO1 mutant analysis. We show that the curcumin inhibits PAO1 virulence factors such as biofilm formation, pyocyanin biosynthesis, elastase/protease activity and acyl homoserine lactone (HSL) production. Further, curcumin treatment resulted in the reduced pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa-C. elegans and P. aeruginosa-A. thaliana infection models. In addition, transcriptome analysis of curcumin treated PAO1 revealed down regulation of 31 quorum sensing (QS) genes, of which many have already been reported for virulence. The supplementation of HSLs along with the curcumin treatment resulted in increased pathogenicity and recovery of higher bacterial titers in a plant pathogenicity model. These results showed the involvement of curcumin in QS interruption to reduce pathogenicity. Further the data was validated using TN5 mutants for PAO1 surface attachment genes. This feature of curcumin acting on multiple targets makes it a potential supplemental molecule for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

AGFD 239 Role of purple carrot bioactive against metal induced oxidative stress Kotamballi N Chidambara Murthy , Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ.-College Station, College Station, TX 77845-2119, GK Jayaprakasha, gkjp@neo.tamu.edu, VFIC, Dept. of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77843, and Bhimanagouda S. Patil, b-patil@tamu.edu, Vegetable and Fruit Improvement Center, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX 77845 Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of cellular damage due to free radicals. Metal ions, such as iron, copper, lead and cadmium are known as pro-oxidants that causes oxidative damage. Purple carrots were developed at the Vegetable and Fruits Center. These carrots were extracted with four different solvents and freeze-dried. In current study, African green monkey kidney cells (COS-7) were challenged with cadmium at 25 µM concentration to induce oxidative stress. Purple carrot extracts namely, hexane, acetone, methanol and water were subjected for protection effect, by treating before and after induction of stress in these cells (designated pre and post). The methanol extract exhibited 37.2% protection of cells upon pretreatment of 100 µg mL-1. However, 65.1 and 55.6% protection were observed in post treatment of hexane and water extracts respectively. Protection of cells was proportional to cell membrane integrity as observed in terms of LDH content. Furthermore, treatment of extracts showed elevated levels of catalse and peroxidase, which may be one of the major mechanisms of protection. Cells treated with hexane, methanol and water extracts have also shown decreased lipid peroxidation. The ability of protection is attributed to carotenoids, anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds of purple carrots. The present research report is based upon work supported by the FY07-Federal Initiative Designing Foods for Health through the Vegetable & Fruit Improvement Center, Grant No. TAES 06-118409. AGFD 240 Specific cranberry proanthocyanidin oligomers may increase sensitivity of SKOV-3 cells to platinum drug treatment Ajay P. Singh1, singh@aesop.rutgers.edu, Rakesh K. Singh2, RSingh@WIHRI.org, Satyan Kalkunte3, skalkunte@wihri.org, Kyu K Kim2, kkim@wihri.org, Laurent Brard4, LBrard@WIHRI.org, and Nicholi Vorsa5, vorsa@aesop.rutgers.edu. (1) Plant Biology, Rutgers Univ., 59 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, (2) Program in Women’s Oncology, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecolgy,Kilguss Research Centre, Women and Infants Hospital, Brown Univ., Providence, RI 02905, (3) Dept. of Pediatrics, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown Univ., Providence, RI 02905, (4) Kilguss Research Inst., Women and Infants Hospital, Brown Univ., Providence, RI, Providence, RI 02905, (5) Dept. of Plant Biology and Philip E. Marucci Center for Blueberry & Cranberry Research & Extension, Rutgers Univ., Chatsworth, NJ 08019 Phyto-pharmaceuticals derived from secondary metabolites of plant species continue to contribute to promising chemistries beneficial to human health. Numerous studies promulgate the beneficial effect of cranberry fruit in ameliorating and/or prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, urinary tract infection, and oral diseases. Though a number of flavonoid classes could contribute to the biological activities, our attention is particularly focused on the A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs), a relatively unique polymeric class of compounds found in cranberry fruit. However, the polymeric nature of these compounds makes the isolation of individual oligomers problematic. Reliable and accurate methods are necessary to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of cranberry proanthocyanidin oligomers in various bioassays for bioactivity assessment. HPLC and MALDI-TOF are the method of choice for qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex proanthocyanidins. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins were extracted from frozen cranberry fruits, subsequently fractionated by a Sephadex LH20 column and identified using MALDI-TOF-MS, LC-MS and HPLC attached to diol stationary phase columns operating in normal phase mode with a binary gradient of acidified acetonitrile-10mM ammonium acetate buffer and acidified methanol. HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS spectra revealed predominately A-type oligomers consisting of mainly epicatechin units (DP-2 to DP-14). These characterized PACs (DP-2 to DP-14), including some specific lower DP oligomeric compounds, were evaluated for their anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity in various cancer cell lines. HPLC and MALDI-TOF techniques revealed that specific oligomers, e.g. DP-8, were preferentially recovered when SKOV-3 cells were exposed to PAC extracts consisting of an array of oligomers. In contrast when SKOV-3 cells are exposed to both PACs and sub-cytotoxic concentrations of paraplatin, PAC oligomers of DP-11 are preferentially recovered, suggesting their involvement in enhancing sensitivity of platinum drug resistant cancer cells to platinum drugs when exposed to DP-11 A-type PAC oligomers. AGFD 241 Cytoprotective effects of Syzygium cumini anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced stress in Hep3B cells Jyothi M Veigas, Plant Cell BioTech. Dept., Central Food Tech Research Inst., Mysore, Karnataka, India 570020, Cheluvamba Mansion, Central Food Tech Research Inst, Mysore, Karnataka, India 570020, India, Fax: +91-821-251-7233, and Bhagyalakshmi Neelwarne, blakshmi_1999@yahoo.com, Plant Cell BioTech. Dept., Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore, Karnataka, India 570020, India Anthocyanins of Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) fruits revealed strong antioxidative potential in chemical in vitro models. To ascertain the mechanisms through which the anthocyanins ameliorate oxidative stress, Hep3B (Human hepatocarcinoma) cell culture challenged with tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) - a free radical generator- was used. Cellular changes were followed using biochemical indices like lactate dehydrogenase leakage, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content, activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and DNA damage. The extract was non-toxic to Hep3B cells at 5-500 ppm. In TBH-treated cells viability was restored to near normal level at concentrations above 100 ppm. Activities of CAT and GPx were significantly reduced in the presence of TBH while that of SOD was increased two-fold compared to control. The extract significantly reversed activities of CAT and SOD, whereas GPx remained unaffected. These observations suggest that the anthocyanins of S. cumini fruit peel exert a protective effect against TBHinduced oxidative stress in mammalian cells, not just by scavenging the free radicals generated, but also by modulating the antioxidant enzyme activities. Further, the effects of extract on the expression of mRNAs of the antioxidant enzymes are discussed. AGFD 242 Beyond taste: The roles of taste receptors and gustducin in gastrointestinal chemosensation Robert F. Margolskee, Dept. of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai Sch. of Medicine, 1425 Madison Avenue, Box 1065, New York, NY 10029, Fax: 212 849 2599 Many taste signalling elements are expressed in enteroendocrine cells where they underlie chemosensory functions of the gut. We have found that duodenal L cells express taste receptors, gustducin, and other taste transduction elements. Knockout mice lacking gustducin or T1R3 have deficiencies in secretion of GLP-1 and GIP, and in the regulation of plasma levels of insulin and glucose. GLP-1 release from NCI-H716 cells, an L cell line that expresses gustducin and taste receptors, was promoted by sugars and sweeteners, and blocked by the sweet antagonist lactisole or siRNA for gustducin. Dietary sugar and sweeteners act on taste receptors on enteroendocrine cells to increase enterocyte expression of sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1), the rate-limiting step for dietary carbohydrate absorption. T1R3 and gustducin null mice fail to upregulate SGLT1. Modulating hormone secretion from gut ‘taste cells' may provide novel treatments for obesity, diabetes and malabsorption. Supported by NIH grants DC03055 and DC03155.

AGFD 243 What are the glutamate signaling systems in the gut? K Torii, Inst. of Life Sciences, Ajinomoto Co., Inc, 1-1 Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Japan, Fax: 81-44-210-5893 Animals, including humans, must ingest sufficient dietary protein during meals to maintain homeostasis because several essential amino acids, such as lysine, threonine and tryptophan etc., cannot be synthesized in the body. Dietary proteins are composed of 20 kinds of amino acids with glutamate (Glu) being a major constituent. Even though Glu is thus consumed in excess in protein found in most diets, there is no increase of Glu in blood as well as brain during the digestive and absorptive processes following consumption of dietary protein. Thus plasma glutamate concentration is highly controlled throughout the day. Specialized glutamate receptors in taste buds and in the gut lumen have recently been identified. In related recent studies, it has been shown that glutamate activates the vagal nerve whereas all other amino acids, sugars and NaCl do not. This observation suggests that glutamate signals from the stomach are transmitted to the brain and that these signals reflect food, or more specifically protein, intake. Following this signal is a brain-induced cascade of the digestive processes that occur in the stomach. Saliva, gastric secretions, and pancreatic juices contain free glutamate at concentrations that are 5 times higher than that in plasma, enhancing mucin release from the brush and mucosal cells. Exocrine cells, such as the chief cells and the brush cells in the gastric ducts express a glutamate receptor (an mGluR1 variant) at the apical side which functions either to continue the exocytosis of digestive enzymes or to protect against auto-digestion by proteolytic enzymes such as pepsin. In summary, glutamate signaling in the gut is likely essential for normal digestion and subsequent metabolism, helps maintain homeostasis of each amino acid in blood and brain, and thus enhances human health and the quality of life. AGFD 244 Amino acid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract A M San Gabriel, E Nakamura, K Iwatsuki, H Uneyama, and K Torii, Inst. of Life Sciences, Ajinomoto Co., Inc, 1-1 Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Japan, Fax: 81-44-210-5893 The quantity and quality of food chemicals are detected in the tongue through specialized taste receptors cells (TRCs). The processes by which we decide whether to ingest or reject a particular food depend on taste, texture, appearance, familiarity, odor, temperature and post ingestive effects. Gustatory and gastrointestinal (GI) information converges in the brain denoting food palatability. Umami taste is a basic taste that regulates different metabolic and digestive functions. Its prototype molecule, L-glutamate (Glu), binds in the tongue to the heterodimer T1R1 and T1R3 and the metabotropic glutamate receptors type 1 (mGluR1) and type 4 (mGluR4) that are expressed also in the stomach. Amino acid sensors are widely found in the GI and especially Glu seems to modulate food digestion since it directly activates gastric branch afferents of the vagus nerve. We will discuss our newest understanding of amino acid receptors in the GI tract and their regulation of gastric function. AGFD 245 Neural detection of amino acids in the intestine and liver Charles Horn, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 267-519-4865 The alimentary canal includes the mouth, stomach, and intestines, and is connected to the brain by 1000's of chemosensory neurons. In contrast to the understanding of the lingual taste system the chemosensory functions of other regions of the alimentary canal are mostly obscure. The flow of nutritional signaling to the brain was assessed by recording the electrical responses of gut chemosensory nerve fibers in the rat. Because chemosensory signaling represents complex coding the response profile of many individually recorded fibers was analyzed simultaneously, an approach that is distinctly different from traditional nerve recording methodology. Nerve fibers innervating the region of the upper intestine and liver are responsive to amino acids and produce unique patterns of chemosensory fiber activation. Overall, this research might provide insight into the role that ingested amino acids, acting on gut-brain signaling pathways, play in the control of nutrition, gut function, and feeding behavior. AGFD 246 Effect of dietary glutamate on gastric secretion R. P. Kropycheva and Vasily A. Zolotarev, I. Pavlov Inst. of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Makarova nab., 6, 199034 Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Fax: +7 (812)328-0501 Glutamate is abundant in many foodstuffs. Recent studies have demonstrated that compared with the other amino acids, glutamate is the most effective stimulator of the gastric branch afferents from the vagus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on gastric secretion of acid, bicarbonates, pepsinogen and fluid in the innervated or vagally decentralized stomachs. Experiments were performed with 6 male mongrel dogs with small gastric pouches surgically prepared according to Pavlov (innervated) or Heidenhain (vagally decentralized). Secretion in the small gastric pouch was induced by infusion into the main stomach of a liquid amino acid-rich diet containing 17 amino acids but lacking glutamate (Elental diet, Ajinomoto Co.). Gastric secretion induced by luminal application of the diet was substant ially enhanced by supplementation of the diet with MSG at doses not exceeding those used as a food additive. The effect of glutamate on gastric secretion of acid and fluid was achieved predominantly via potentiation of vago-vagal reflexes. Glutamate-induced potentiation of pepsinogen output was probably mediated by non-nervous mechanisms. Application of glutamate into the stomach also enhances pentagastrin-induced secretion of gastric glands by non-nervous pathways. Supported by Ajinomoto Co., Inc. AGFD 247 Glutamate signaling modulates endocrine functions: The molecular mechanisms and physiology Yoshinori Moriyama, Dept. of Membrane Biochemistry, Okayama Univ. Graduate Sch. of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsushima-naka 1-1-1, Okayama 700-8530, Japan, Fax: +81-86-251-7935 L-Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), and plays an essential role in many neuronal processes such as memory fixation and plasticity. To use L-glutamate as a transmitter, the CNS employs a glutamatergic system comprising the output (vesicular storage and exocytosis), input (receptors) and termination. Increasing evidence indicates that L-glutamate signaling operates in various endocrine functions. In the islet of Langerhans, L-glutamate is stored in glucagon-containing secretory granules in A cells, and co-secreted with glucagon upon increasing blood glucose. The released glutamate acts as an autocrine or paracrine signaling molecule and binds to the receptors in neighboring cells, suppressing exocytosis of glucagon by way of three independent signaling pathways. Here I summarize the recent progress on the molecular mechanism and physiological implications of the L-glutamate signaling in endocrine organs, as a modulator of endocrine functions. AGFD 248 Chemical sensing by the calcium-sensing receptor in the gastrointestinal tract Edward M. Brown, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Dept. of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, EBRC223A, 221 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02186, Fax: 617-582-6193 The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays a key, well-established role in maintaining near constancy of the extracellular ionized calcium concentration (Ca2+o) by sensing small changes in Ca2+o and regulating the translocation of calcium ions into or out of the extracellular fluids (ECF). In addition to sensing Ca2+o, the CaSR also senses several other factors, including magnesium, amino acids, ionic strength, pH, and polyamines. It is likely that the CaSR not only regulates Ca2+o in the

blood and associated ECF, but also serves additional, less well-characterized roles in other compartments within the body. One such compartment is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The CaSR is present along essentially the entire GI tract, being situated in an apical and/or basolateral distribution in epithelial cells of the stomach, small and large intestines, the enteric nervous system and enterochromaffin cells, such as the gastrin-secreting G cells. In addition to mediating the stimulation of gastrin and gastric acid secretion by Ca2+ and amino acids in the stomach, the receptor may also mediate the stimulation of cholecystokinin and pancreatic secretion by these same two substances in the duodenum and pancreas, respectively, potentially with additional modulation of the CaSR by ionic strength, pH and/or polyamines. The sequential regulation of gastric and small intestinal function by the CaSR, as well as its modulation of related factors, such as appetite (e.g., by CCK) and gastrointestinal motility, may help to coordinate digestion and assimilation of food in the upper GI tract. Therefore, the CaSR's capacity to sense a variety of constituents present in food and digestive fluids may enable it to serve a more generalized role as a nutrient/chemical sensor in addition to its better-established role in maintaining stability of Ca2+o. AGFD 249 Analysis of anthocyanin fractions by high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Faith J. Wyzgoski1, wyzgoski.1@osu.edu, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr.2, Peter L. Rinaldi3, peterrinaldi@chemistry.uakron.edu, Joseph C. Scheerens4, R. Neil Reese5, M. Monica Giusti6, giusti.6@osu.edu, Nuryati Pangestu6, A. Raymond Miller4, Sara E. Whitson3, Chrys Wesdemiotis3, wesdemiotis@uakron.edu, and Ruiling Fu3. (1) Dept. of Chem., The Ohio State Univ., 1680 Univ. Drive, Mansfield, OH 44906, Fax: 419755-4327, (2) Food Sci. and Human Nutrition Dept., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0720, (3) Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3601, (4) Dept. of Horticulture & Crop Science, Ohio State Univ., Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center, Wooster, OH 44691, (5) Biology & Microbiology, South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD 57007, (6) Food Sci. and Tech., The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used in conjunction with HPLC techniques to verify analytical protocols and to confirm anthocyanin structure. We developed NMR protocols at 750 MHz including cryoprobe Tech. to effectively characterize black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.)anthocyanins from 0.5 mL fractions of HPLC column eluate. Distinctive regions in the 1H NMR spectra were used to verify the purity of the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside. Specific fractions were then subjected to antioxidant testing (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS) and compared to the activities of the non-anthocyanin fractions. Multidimensional NMR experiments were also conducted to delineate the structure of cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside versus other structures that have been proposed for this compound. Our techniques can be used effectively alone or in combination with HPLC-MS procedures to rapidly verify putative structures of secondary products from an array of fruit and vegetable sources. For instance, we have used similar NMR methods including 1D-TOCSY experiments for structural analysis of a new anthocyanin from Sambucus peruviana isolated by HPLC. AGFD 250 Toward a new fluorescence based method for the real -time detection of central nervous system (CNS) tissues on bovine carcasses Ramkrishna Adhikary1, ramchem@iastate.edu, Holger Schönenbrücher2, Prasun Mukherjee1, prasun@iastate.edu, Thomas A. Casey3, Mark A. Rasmussen4, Frank D. Maistrovich1, Marcus E. Kehrli2, Jürgen A. Richt2, and Jacob W. Petrich1, jwp@iastate.edu. (1) Dept. of Chem., Iowa State Univ., 1605 Gilman Hall, Ames, IA 50011, (2) Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Ctr, Ag. Research Serv., USDA, Ames, IA, (3) Pre-Harvest Food Safety and Enteric Disease Research Unit, Natl Animal Disease Ctr, Ag. Research Serv., USDA, Ames, IA, (4) SarTec Corp, Anoka, MN The removal of Central Nervous System (CNS) tissues as part of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) risk material is one of the highest priority tasks to avoid contamination of the human food chain with BSE. No currently available method enables the real-time detection of possible CNS tissue contamination on carcasses during slaughter. The fluorescent pigment lipofuscin is a heterogeneous, high-molecular weight material that has been shown to be enriched in high concentrations in neuronal tissues. In this study, lipofuscin fluorescence was investigated as a marker for real-time detection of CNS contamination. Front-faced fluorescence spectra of brain and spinal cord samples from 11 cattle gave identical, reproducible fluorescence signal patterns with high intensities. The specificity of these spectra was assessed investigating 13 different non-CNS tissues enabling the differentiation of brain and spinal cord by signal intensity and structure of the spectra, respectively. Small quantities of bovine spinal cord were reliably detected in the presence of raw bovine skeletal muscle, fat, and vertebrae. The presented data are the fundamental basis for the development of a prototype device allowing real-time monitoring of CNS tissue contamination on bovine carcasses and meat cuts. AGFD 251 Aroma compounds of Jutrzenka liqueur wine investigated using GC-MS, GCxGC-MS and GC-O Henryk H. Jelen, Malgorzata Majcher, Mariusz Dziadas, Erwin Wasowicz, Dept. of Food Sci. and Nutr, Agricultural Univ. of Poznan, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznan, Poland, Fax: 004861-8487314 Jutrzenka liqueur wine is produced in South-Eastern Poland from grape variety of the same name, able to withstand harsh weather conditions. This wine containing 17% of alcohol has appealing and distinct fruity flavor. Aroma compounds of Jutrzenka wine and grapes were characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC-O) methods. Volatile compounds were isolated using dichloromethane extraction and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Carboxene/DVB/PDMS fiber was evaluated as the most efficient in the extraction of main groups of volatile compounds: esters, alcohols, terpenes, heterocycles and aldehydes. For the analysis of minor aroma compounds comprehensive gas chromatography – time of flight mass spectrometry was used (GCxGC-TOF-MS). Grapes derived aroma compounds – mainly free and bound terpenes were investigated and monitored in wine, after SPE fractionation and hydrolysis, the most abundant being linalool, beta-citronellol, geraniol. DCM extracts were used for the assessment of impact of main odorants using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O AEDA). AGFD 252 Comparison of separation efficiency of polymethoxyflavones and hydroxylpolymethoxyflavones Shiming Li, shiming3702@yahoo.com, WellGen, Inc, 675 Highway One, North Brunswick, NJ 08902, Fax: 732-565-3896, Ted Lambros, Discovery Chemistry, Roche Research Ctr., Hoffmann-La Roche Inc, Nutley, NJ 07110, Peter Savory, Peter.Savory@dynamicextractions.com, Dynamic Extractions Ltd, Slough SL1 4LP, England, Zhenyu Wang, zhenyu.wang@spcorp.com, Pharmaceutical Science, Schering Plough Corp, Summit, NJ 07901, Chih-Yu Lo, chihyu27@hotmail.com, Taiwan Univ., NJ, Taiwan, and Chi Tang Ho, ho@aesop.rutgers.edu, Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520 Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) and hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones (OHPMFs), major components from the peels of citrus genus, possess variety of biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and anti-atherogenic activities, which have been reported in many presentations, publications and patents. However, questions remain: are the bioactivities synergistic effects from various PMFs and OH-PMFs, or is any individual PMF or OH-PMF responsible for the

attracting biological properties? In searching for an answer of the above question, the purification of PMFs and OH-PMFs has become crucial and urgent. In this presentation, we will introduce and compare the different methods in the separation of PMFs and OH-PMFs from sweet orange peel extracts, including normal and reverse phase chromatography, chiral chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography and high performance counter current chromatography. AGFD 253 Identification of flavor modifying compounds in traditional African herbal teas via LC Taste® Katharina V. Reichelt1, katharina.reichelt@mytum.de, Regina Peter2, Michael Roloff2, Jakob P. Ley2, jakob.ley@symrise.com, Gerhard E. Krammer2, Karen M. Swanepoel3, and Karl-Heinz Engel1. (1) Chair of General Food Tech., Technical Univ. Munich, Am Forum 2, Freising-Weihenstephan 85350, Germany, (2) Research & Innovation, Flavor & Nutrition, Symrise GmbH & Co. KG, Holzminden 37601, Germany, (3) Univ. of Zululand, Kwadlangezwa, South Africa Flavor modification (masking of bitter compounds, enhancing of sweet taste, etc.) is currently an important topic for the food and beverage industry. Due to nutrition related diseases, such as hypertension or diabetes, the contents of salt and of nutritive sweet carbohydrates have to be reduced in many foods. In addition, compounds which can be added to foods to provide health benefits such as polyphenols often show bitter taste. In most cases, such side effects are not tolerated by the consumer. Detection and identification of such flavor modifiers in natural sources are often complicated by the complexity of plant extracts which makes the work laborious as well as time and cost intensive. To simplify the identification of novel taste modifying compounds from plant extracts, an extension of the known LC Taste® methodology was developed. This novel approach allows real-time analysis and in vivo detection of relevant taste modifying compounds by a specially trained sensory panel. Three different traditional African teas, rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis), honeybush tea (Cyclopia intermedia) and bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides), also called Zulu-Tea, which are known for their high content of polyphenols and their interesting taste, were chosen for the investigation of flavor modifying compounds. The dried plant materials were extracted and the extracts were analyzed via LC Taste® by means of high temperature HPLC using ethanol/water gradients. In the first step, several peaks separated with this method were sensorially evaluated by an online expert panel, to determine the peaks responsible for the typical taste of the named teas. Subsequently, the fractions of the relevant peaks were diluted with testing solutions containing sucrose and caffeine, respectively, and evaluated by another trained panel to determine possible flavor modulating properties of the fractions. Fractions rated as interesting by the panels were analyzed by LC-MS. AGFD 254 Chemical model for the role of aluminum in the bluing of Hydrangea sepals Henry D. Schreiber, Amy M. Swink, and Randall C. Life, Dept. of Chem., Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA 24450, Fax: 540-464-7261 When grown in neutral to basic soils, hydrangea have sepals colored red by the anthocyanin, delphinidin-3-glucoside. However, these sepals can become blue when the shrubs are grown in acidic soils, due to a complex of aluminum with the anthocyanin. Analyses of red and blue sepals confirm the primary role of aluminum in the color change for hydrangea sepals; that is, for bluing to occur, sepals usually have a large molar excess of aluminum over anthocyanin. A chemical system was developed to model this role of aluminum in the bluing mechanism. Delphinidin in acidic ethanol is red, as delphinidin occurs as its red flavylium cation. Upon addition of aluminum as Al(III), the delphinidin converts to its blue quinoidal base to form a 1:1 molar complex with the Al(III). Simultaneous to this conversion-complexation, another flavylium cation associates with the quinoidal base complex. The stacking of the normally red flavylium cation onto the complex results in a blue flavylium cation, enhancing the resulting blue coloration. The bluing in this model system only occurs with Al(III) in sufficient excess. Thus, the bluing of hydrangea sepals results from the delphinidin core molecule not only forming its quinoidal base that complexes with the Al(III), but also stacking its flavylium cation onto this complex. AGFD 255 Anti-inflammatory activity of black tea benzotropolone compounds Chi Tang Ho1, ho@aesop.rutgers.edu, Min-Hsiung Pan2, mhpan@mail.nkmu.edu.tw, Shiming Li3, shiming3702@yahoo.com, and Yu Wang1. (1) Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520, Fax: 732-932-6776, (2) Dept. of SeaFood Sci., National Kaohsiung Marine Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, (3) WellGen, Inc, North Brunswick, NJ 08902 Tea, the second largest consumed beverage in the world after water, is made from the dried and processed leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Its popularity can be attributed to the sensory qualities, namely the taste and aroma. More recently, the health beneficial effects of tea have also attracted consumers towards this traditional beverage. The biological activity of tea, particularly green tea has been studied extensively over the past several years. Tea has been shown to possess several health benefits such as inhibition of mutagenesis, antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and hypocholestrolemic properties. The antiinflammatory activity and mechanism of black tea constituents have not been completely understood. Here, we report the evaluation the antiinflammatory activity of benzotropolone molecules, namely theaflavin, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate in black tea along with a simplest nature form of benzotropolone, purpurogallin in LPS-activated macrophage. AGFD 256 A nonvolatile study of tea: From analytical to sensory, and to effective analytical support. Ying Yang1, ying.yang@iff.com, Jerry Kowalczyk1, Neil C. Da Costa2, and Laurence Trinnaman3, laurence.trinnaman@iff.com. (1) R&D, International Flavors & Fragrances Inc, 1515 Highway 36, Union Beach, NJ 07735, Fax: 732-335-2726, (2) R&D, International Flavors and Fragrances Inc, Union Beach, NJ 07735, (3) R&D, International Flavors and Fragrances, Inc, Union Beach, NJ 07735 The differentiation of a variety of teas has been carried out based on the contents of their taste-active components. Fifty one taste-active components include the following five groups: amino acids (20 naturally-occurring amino acids, theanine and ornithine), organic acids, sugars, phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids were determined by liquid chromatography in tea infusions. To further bridge the gap between pure analytical chemistry and human taste perception, the dose-over-threshold (DOT) factors were calculated on the basis of a dose/threshold relationship for these taste-active components, and thus sensory spider charts were constructed. Analyses of these sensory spider charts for different tea infusions suggested that it not only provides an easy and unbiased comparison and classification for multiple tea samples in taste, but also is able to narrow the number of key taste compounds to 13 as chemometric descriptors for classification purposes of different tea varieties. Thus, an analytical method which was developed to quantify these 13 markers by NMR spectroscopy, and in conjunction with the sensory spider charts, will lead to a more rapid and unbiased assessment for the taste of a variety of teas. AGFD 257 Aroma release from beverages: Interfacial effects Andrew John Taylor, Maroussa Tsachaki, Bettina Wolf, Div. of Food Sci., Univ. of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK Aroma release from the liquid to the gas phase is a

key mechanism that determines the aroma profile above a drink before consumption and the aroma release during consumption. The profiles are sensed by the orthonasal and retronasal routes and then integrated with other flavour signals to create the overall perception of a drink. Partition has been used as the major determinant of aroma release but more recent studies in ethanolic solutions have indicated that interfacial properties can modify release and give unexpected results. The effect of ethanol concentration on aroma release in model systems and aroma release in wines will be demonstrated. The relationship between release and physical measurements like surface tension will be explored. AGFD 258 The key odorants of coffee from various geographical locations. Robert Cannon, Laurence Trinnaman, Brian Grainger, and Amy Trail, R&D, International Flavors and Fragrances, Inc, 1515 Highway 36, Union Beach, NJ 07735, Fax: 732-335-2668 The unique and complex taste of coffee has drawn great attention in the flavor research industry over the past few decades (1,2). The various geographical coffee beans give fairly different tastes when they are brewed, as does the roasting temperature of the bean. Five types of Arabica beans, as well as a Robusta bean and an Instant brand, were selected to understand the differences between the flavor profiles of the medium roast (445°F) beans. Both sensory and analytical techniques were used to study the brewed coffees, with the ultimate goal being to link the two methods. Using SPME (dynamic headspace) and TwisterTM (stirbar sorptive extraction), profiles were made for each individually brewed coffee. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed over 600 volatile and semi-volatile components. At the same time, an expert panel of flavorists evaluated and characterized the varieties of coffees, using comparison charts to understand the sensory profiles. From these two in-depth programs, work was done to link both analytical and sensory, and important conclusions can be drawn to help understand what chemical drivers create the taste differences AGFD 259 Flavor and polyphenolic stability of green, black and rooibos tea David Del Pozo, Flor Nunez Rueda, and Dan Wampler, Research & Development, Sensus Flavors, 7255 Hamilton Enterprise Park Drive, Hamilton, OH 45011, Fax: 513-892-7111 In recent years, the ready-to-drink tea market has grown considerably due to an increasing awareness of the potential health benefits of tea's bioactive and antioxidant compounds: the polyphenolics. In addition to their potential health-promoting benefits, these compounds significantly affect the organoleptic properties of the finished product, especially astringency. However, their stability and the stability of tea's aroma-active compounds in real beverage systems is still widely unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated the flavor and polyphenolic stability of black, green and Rooibos tea commercial model beverages (pH=3.5 , 8°Brix, 0.05% potassium sorbate, 0.05% sodium benzoate) as affected by ascorbic acid addition (50 mg/L) and storage time (25 and 37°C, six months). Flavor changes were monitored by instrumental (GC-MS/GCO) and descriptive sensory evaluation techniques, while individual and total polyphenolics were monitored by HPLC-PDA and colorimetric methods, respectively. Independently of tea source, ascorbic acid addition significantly increased the retention of aroma-active compounds and polyphenolics after pasteurization (75°C, 15 sec) and storage (up to 4-fold). Green tea catechins decreased significantly over storage time especially for EGCG (55%) and ECG (35%), while black tea polyphenolics and theaflavins decreased at a lower rate (~25%). Rooibos polyphenolics were significantly more stable than green and black tea counterparts as evidenced by their reduced degradation rates (4 to 10fold). Similarly, overall flavor profile of Rooibos tea (aroma compounds and overall organoleptic attributes) was significantly more stable than green and black teas. Results of this study demonstrated the flavor and polyphenolic changes that occur in commercial tea beverages, important parameters that need to be considered when marketing these beverages. AGFD 260 The characteristic odorants of Sri Lanka black teas (Uva, Nuwara Eliya, Dimbula, Kandy, and Ruhuna) Hisae Kasuga1, hisae_kasuga@takasago.com, Sachiko Okajima1, Yuichiro Yamazaki2, Aki baba1. (1) Corp R&D Div Analytical Tech. Research, Takasago International Corporation, 4-11, 1-Chome Nishi-yawata, Hiratsuka city, Kanagawa 254-0073, Japan, Fax: +81-463-25-2090, (2) Corporate Research & Development Division Flavor Research, Takasago International Corporation, Hiratsuka city, Kanagawa 254-0073, Japan "Sri Lanka black tea"("Ceylon black tea") is well known generally. Although, these are the five major black teas of Sri Lanka which have their own distinction flavor. We studied the characteristics and the profiles of the flavor of Uva, Nuwara Eliya, Dimbula, Kandy and Ruhuna. The each black tea aroma extracted by Brewed Extract method, was analyzed utilizing GC/FID, GC/MS, GC/O, MDGC/MS and comprehensive GCxGC. The compounds with high contribution to the black tea flavor were analyzed on chiral GC. The characteristic component of Uva was methyl salicylate, Dimbula contained ? -damascenone more than the other black teas. Ruhuna had a less floral and smokier note because of the less amount of geraniol and phenylacetic acid. 4-Hydroxy -2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)- furanone(furaneol) had high FD factor in all the teas. 4,5-Epoxy -2-decenal, that had relatively high FD factor, was confirmed in common. Linalool in all teas was found as racemate. AGFD 261 Salty taste amplification: Effects of amino acids and guanidinium-containing compounds Joseph Brand, William E. Riha III, and Paul A. S. Breslin, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 267-519-4870 In spite of decades of intense research, there is yet no acceptable substitute for the taste of NaCl. Far from reflecting on the cleverness of the researchers, this observation is, rather, indicative of the extreme specificity of salty taste transduction. Alternatively, it may be better to amplify the taste of NaCl, thereby maintaining the specificity of the receptor and ensuring a reduced, but nutritionally important level of NaCl. While the ability to amplify the salty taste of sodium chloride (NaCl) has important health and economic implications, structure/activity relationships of compounds that can enhance salty taste will also provide insights into the mechanisms of salty taste transduction. Both the patent and research literature find that the neutralized, non-salty tasting, basic amino acids appear to be particularly effective. Magnitude estimation procedures demonstrated that both L-arginine HCl (L-Arg) and D-arginine HCl acted as amplifiers of the salty taste of NaCl and sodium acetate but not of the salty character of KCl. Lysine, histidine and asparagine were without effect. In a two alternative forced-choice comparison study, where the saltiness of all combinations of NaCl (25mM and 50mM) with either L-arginine HCl (L-Arg), L-lysine HCl (LLys) or L-asparagine (L-Asn) at 25mM and 50mM, revealed the rank order of saltiness of the mixtures of amino acid and NaCl to be: LArg/NaCl >L-Lys/NaCl >L-Asn/NaCl = NaCl. More detailed structure /activity studies found that several positively charged non-salty tasting guanidine-containing compounds were effective salty taste amplifiers. These studies provide lead compounds for development of salty taste enhancers and also define a pharmacology for validation of the discovery of the human salty taste receptor. AGFD 262 Science of distaste: Optimizing oral medications for children Julie A. Mennella, Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 267-519-4880 The unpalatable flavor of many medicines can thwart the benefits of even the most powerful of drugs. Encapsulating medicine in pill or tablet form to avoid flavor issues is problematic for children since many cannot or will

not swallow either. While there are no easy solutions to this dilemma, children's acceptance of many medicines can be improved by applying the knowledge gleaned from basic research in the chemical senses. In this talk, I will discuss how children have well-developed sensory systems for detecting flavors, and their rejection of unpalatable medications (and bitter-tasting foods) is a reflection of their basic biology. But children are not miniature adults since their likes and dislikes are the complex product of maturing sensory systems, genetic variation, experiences and culture. A better understanding of the sensory world of the child and the scientific basis for distaste and how to ameliorate it is a public health priority. Supported in part by NIH Grant HD37119. AGFD 263 Experience induced changes in taste sensitivities for sweeteners and monosodium glutamate Linda M. Kennedy and Kristina M. Gonzalez, Neuroscience Laboratory, Lasry Center for Bioscience, Clark Univ., 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA 01610, Fax: 508-793-7174 To examine the effects of experience on human taste sensitivities for sweeteners and MSG, we first compared the slopes of psychophysical functions for the sweetness of sugar solutions in isomeric equilibrium. The results suggest separate mechanisms for furanose and pyranose isomers. We then tested the effects of brief exposures once each day for 10 days with sweeteners or MSG on glucose and MSG taste sensitivities. Fructose, glucose and Na-cyclamate, but neither acesulfame-K, MSG nor water, increased glucose sensitivity, while MSG, but neither acesulfame-K, Na-cyclamate, glucose nor water increased MSG sensitivity. A single session of 5 brief glucose tastings affected glucose sensitivity tested 11 days later, and without continued treatment, the increased glucose or MSG sensitivity reversed within 11 – 33 days. Further tests are ongoing. The results could aid development of methods for prevention and management of obesity and nutrition related diseases, as well as for acceptable, healthy foods and medications. AGFD 264 The isolation, structural assignment, and biological properties of (–)-oleocanthal, a natural NSAID found in extra virgin olive oil Amos B. Smith III, Dept. of Chem., Univ. of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, Fax: 215-898-5129 Phenolic compounds extracted from extra virgin olive oil have attracted wide attention since their discovery in the 1990's by Montedoro and co-workers. More recently (2003), Busch and co-workers at Unilever identified (–)-oleocanthal as the principle ingredient in high quality olive oils responsible for back of the throat irritation. We, in collaboration with the Monell Chem. Senses Ctr., reported the first- and second generation syntheses of both enantiomers of the oleocanthals, as well as the closely related (–)-decarbomethoxy -oleuropein aglycone and a series of related analogues for biological screening and structure activity studies. Natural oleocanthal was found to inhibit both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, with potencies similar to the NSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) ibuprofen. Given that ibuprofen also possesses inhibitory effects on Aß aggregation, (–)-oleocanthal was screened for and found to inhibit both Aß aggregation and tau fibrillization, and as such holds promise as a potential lead for the treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. AGFD 265 Application of HTS for the identification of modulators of an ancient pain target, the menthol receptor TRPM8 Michela Stucchi, Screening Technologies, Axxam, Via Olgettina 58, Milano 20132, Italy, Fax: 011-39-022105602 Menthol is a plant-derived cyclic monoterpene alcohol that gives plants of the Mentha genus their characteristic minty smell and flavour. When menthol is applied to the skin or mouth at low concentrations, menthol elicits a pleasant cool sensation. Menthol is used in a wide range of products, such as confections, candy, toothpastes, gels and aroma therapy inhalations. Since Hippocrates and Galen, sporadic reports have described the use of cooling to produce analgesia. Clinical trials show beneficial effects of cooling on chronic back pain, dental pain, postoperative pain, and muscle injuries. Preparations containing menthol are used topically to relieve neuralgia in traditional Chinese and European medicine. Mint oil has been reported to alleviate thermally elicited pain and post-hepetic neuralgia. In 2002, with the cloning of TRPM8, also called CMR1 (Cold and menthol receptor), a receptor was identified which confers menthol-sensitivity in a temperature dependent manner in a heterologous expression system. In addition to menthol, a number of cooling agents, including icilin, eucalyptol, and WS-3, activate TRPM8 in vitro. Due to the complex regulation of the TRPM8 activity, several aspects have to be considered in developing an assay suitable for the identification of potent TRPM8 agonists in High-throughput screening (HTS) applications. An HTS campaign using a calcium sensitive fluorescence dye approach was conducted on a high diversity library, composed of 100,000 synthetic compounds. Identified hits were evaluated for their specificity using several other TRP assays. Emphasis will be placed on assay development, screening design and hit confirmation strategies, which are essential for the identification of meaningful TRPM8 agonists. AGFD 266 Using human taste receptors to identify sweet and salty taste enhancers Mark Zoller, Senomyx, 4767 Nexus Centre Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 We are using human taste receptors to discover compounds that modulate taste. The receptors for sweet, umami, and bitter tastes are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. Sour has been reported to be mediated by an ion channel, PDK2L1. Recently, we identified a protein that we believe is a primary mediator of salty taste. Compounds that modulate taste may have a variety of applications. For example, sweet and salty enhancers have the potential to improve the nutritional profile of foods and beverages by significantly reducing levels of carbohydrate sweeteners and sodium, respectively. Using the human sweet taste receptor, we have discovered a number of sweet enhancers. Screening for salty taste enhancers has been initiated. My talk will focus on our recent progress toward the discovery and development of these novel ingredients. AGFD 267 Discovery of selective inhibitors of the transient receptor potential M5 (TRPM5) ion channel: Opportunities for bitterness mitigation in pharmaceutical and food applications Robert W. Bryant, S. Paul Lee, M. Tulu Buber, Ivona Bakaj, Cynthia J. Hendrix, Stacy Carlucci, Heather Devantier, Rok Cerne, Rosa Cortes, Dennis G. Sprous, R. Kyle Palmer, and Philip D. Stein, Discovery Research, Redpoint Bio Corp, 7 Graphics Drive, Ewing, NJ 08628, Fax: 609-637-0126 The calcium-activated TRPM5 ion channel is crucial to bitter, sweet, and umami taste signaling. For instance, TRPM5 knockout mice are insensitive to the aversive taste properties of a variety of bitter substances. Molecules that block TRPM5 could be useful to minimize the bitterness of pharmaceuticals and bitter notes in foods. To identify inhibitors, we developed a high throughput fluorescence imaging plate reader (FLIPR) assay using recombinant TRPM5-expressing HEK cells (TRPM5/HEK) and a membrane potential (MP)-sensitive fluorescent dye. ATP-activation of endogenous P2Y receptors elicited calcium signals in both TRPM5/HEK and parental HEK cells but MP responses only in TRPM5/HEK cells. Screening a random library of >100,000 compounds led to discovery of selective and potent inhibitors (IC50s = 300-1000 nM) active on human and murine TRPM5. They had no effect on TRPA1, TRPV1 or TRPM4b nor on the P2Y-mediated calcium trigger for TRPM5. Such inhibitors will enable studies assessing opportunities for bitter mitigation.

AGFD 268 2-(1H-Pyrrolyl) carboxylic acids as pigment precursors in garlic greening Guanghua Zhao, College of Food Sci. & Nutr. Engineering, China Ag.l Univ., 17, Qinghuadong Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China, Fax: 0086-10-62737434-11 A series of model compounds having a 2-(1H-pyrrolyl)-carboxylic acid moiety and a hydrophobic R group were synthesized to study their effects on garlic greening1, the structures of which are similar to that of 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrolyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid (PP-Val) (a possible pigment precursor for garlic greening)2. The puree of freshly harvested garlic bulbs turned green after being soaked in solutions of all these compounds, and with increasing both their concentrations and incubation time the green color of the puree became deeper. In contrast, either pyrrole alone or pyrrole combined with free amino acids did not have the ability to discolor the puree. The compounds exhibited a good relationship between structure and activity of garlic greening, namely, the smaller the size of R group, the larger the contribution. Also it was found that the unidentified yellow species can be produced by reacting the model compounds with pyruvic acid at room temperature (23-25 „aC). Moreover, blue species were formed by incubation of the model compounds with di(2-propenyl) thiosulfinate at room temperature. Based on these observations, a pathway for garlic greening was proposed. AGFD 269 Effect of extrusion on the composition and structures of whey protein isolate Phoebe X. Qi, Charles I. Onwulata, and Peggy M. Tomasula, Dairy Processing & Products Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Eastern Regional Research Ctr., 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, It has been demonstrated previously that food containing extruded whey protein isolate (WPI) possesses beneficial nutritional properties and desirable texture. The effect of extrusion on the molecular composition and structures of WPI, however, remains poorly understood. In this work, we study the effect of extrusion conditions including moisture and temperature on the protein compositional profile by SDS-PAGE and urea-PAGE electrophoresis. The molecular structural and conformational changes were investigated using circular dichroism (CD), FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that the extrusion moisture bears a clear positive effect on the water solubility of the proteins, but only negligible impact on the protein secondary structural content. Increasing extrusion temperature, on the other hand, not only significantly reduces the water solubility but also considerably alters the protein composition and structures through the combination of shear and thermally- induced aggregation and denaturation. Quantitative analysis from gel electrophoresis suggested that among the two major protein components in WPI, ß-lactoglobulin appears to undergo a greater conformational loss as a function of extrusion temperature compared to a-lactalbumin, presumably due to the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds. AGFD 270 Effects of thermal and nonthermal processing on furan formation in solutions and fruit juice Xuetong Fan, David J. Geveke, and Kimberly J. B. Sokorai, USDA, ARS, Eastern Regional Research Ctr., 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, Fax: (215)2336445 Furan, a possible carcinogen, is commonly found in foods that have been treated with traditional heating techniques, such as canning. It is unclear whether furan is induced by non-thermal processing technologies such as UV and ionizing radiation. Therefore, studies were conducted to investigate furan formation in solutions of common food ingredients and in fruit juice as a result of thermal, ionizing irradiation and UV processing. Results showed that all three treatments induced furan formation in solutions of simple sugars. Furan in ascorbic acid solution was induced by thermal treatment and ionizing radiation, but not by UV treatment. The amount of furan formation from those solutions depended on pH. Thermal treatment induced a significant amount of furan if apple and orange juices were treated for a prolonged period of time at temperatures above 100 °C. UV and ionizing radiation only induced low ng/mL levels of furan in fruit juices likely due to simultaneous destruction of furan by the two treatments. AGFD 271 Homo and Co oligomerization of maleic anhydride in nonpolar solvents, a kinetic study of deviations from nonlinear behavior Yousef M. Alroomi, Dept of Chem. Engineering, Kuwait Univ., Kaldyia, Kuwait 13083, Kuwait, Fax: 965-481-1772 Deviation from non linear first order polymerization kinetic models is usually observed for cases where steric effects are dominant. A kinetic model was developed for the homo-oligomerization of bulky maleic anhydride units was developed explaining the relevant deviations. Factors affecting the kinetics of homo-oligomerization and copolymerization of maleic anhydride with n-octylacrylamide (acrylamide-n-octyl, AAO) have also been studied using two different initiators azo-isobutyronitrile (AIBN) and benzoyl-peroxide (BPO) at varying concentrations in solvents o-xylene. Maleic anhydride homo-polymers having a number average molecular weight by SEC, of between 300 and 900, and a polydispersity of between 1.0 and 2.0 were observed where as the copolymer having a molecular weight between 950 and 1900 and a polydispersity of between 1.0 and 4.0 is reported, and data's were justified by model. The molecular weight of the polymers increased with the conversion, and steric effects dominated at higher molecular weight as observed from the decrease in magnitude in the corresponding termination rate constants. The model values of conversion were compared with experimental data and cross verification of the model was done using molecular weight calculations. The present model represents the data with an average error of less than 5% over the entire experimental range. Characterization of oligomers and co-polymers on the basis of 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR is also reported. AGFD 272 Production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid from biodiesel-waste glycerol by microalgal fermentation Zhiyou Wen, Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA 24061, Fax: 540-231-3199 Glycerol is the major byproduct in the biodiesel industry. Because it is prohibitively expensive to purify the crude glycerol for use in industry, biodiesel producers must find alternate methods for disposal. The objective of this work is to develop an algal culture process using biodiesel derived crude glycerol as a carbon source for producing high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with medically established therapeutic capabilities against several diseases. The microalga Schizochytrium limacinum was used as the DHA producer. The glycerol samples contained methanol, soaps, and various elements including calcium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, and zinc. The results show that crude glycerol was a suitable carbon source for algal fermentation. The crude glycerol-derived algal biomass had a high level of DHA and a nutritional profile similar to commercial algal biomass, suggesting a great potential for using crudeglycerol derived algae in omega-3 fortified food or feed. AGFD 273 Rheological properties of chitosan nanoparticle aqueous solutions Ji Li and Qingrong Huang, Dept. of Food Sci., Rutgers Univ., 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, Fax: 732-932-6776 Chitosan has been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for drug delivery application because of its biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and high positive charge. Modified chitosan has demonstrated excellent potential as a drug delivery vehicle. Nano-particles of modified chitosan can greatly prolong the release profile and improve the absorption of drugs and nutraceuticals. The rheological properties of chitosan and its modified nano-particles are of vital importance in the

formulation of novel delivery systems. Currently, physical properties of chitosan aqueous solutions are relatively well understood. However, the rheological properties of hydrophobically modified chitosan and chitosan nano-particles are less clear. In this talk, the rheological properties of chitosan nano-particle aqueous solutions of different particle sizes have been studied by rheometer, and the results have been compared with chitosan solutions of the same concentration and molecular weight. AGFD 274 Comparison of the key aroma compounds in a handsqueezed pineapple juice and a processed juice from concentrate Peter Schieberle, Peter.Schieberle@lrz.tum.de, Food Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr.4, Garching 85748, Germany, Fax: 0049 89 289 14183, and Astrid Oelmann, German Research Ctr. for Food Chemistry, Garching 85748 About five million tons of the yearly pineapple crop are commercially processed e.g., into canned fruits, jams or juices. To reduce the volume, juices commonly undergo a thermal concentration process resulting in different juice fractions. However, the overall aroma of pineapple juice reconstituted from such fractions often lacks in the attractive odor quality of fresh pineapple fruits. The aim of the study was, therefore, to characterize the key aroma compounds in a freshly prepared, handsqueezed juice by application of the molecular sensory science concept, and to compare these to the odorants of a pineapple juice from concentrate. In the fresh material, in particular the fruity smelling esters methyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and ethyl methylpropanoate followed by 4-hydroxy -2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 1-(E,Z)-1,5undecatriene and acetaldehyde were found with the highest odor activity values (OAVs) among the forty-two odor-active compounds identified. Based on quantitative data obtained by applying stable isotope dilution assays, the overall juice aroma could be re-engineered by using 26 reference compounds in their natural concentrations. A comparison with data obtained for the juice from concentrate suggested that the differences in the overall aromas are caused by e.g., the much lower OAVs of all esters and the higher OAVs of, e.g., methional and 3ethyl-4-methyl-2,5-furandion in the commercial juice. The latter compound was reported for the first time as pineapple juice constituents. The influence of the juice Tech. on changes in key odorants will be discussed. AGFD 275 Identification of the key astringent molecules in red currant juice (Ribes rubrum) by means of a sensometabolomics approach Thomas Hofmann, Lehrstuhl für Lebensmittelchemie und Molekulare Sensorik, Technische Universität München, Lise-MeitnerStrasse 34, Freising D-85350, Germany Red currant fruits (Ribes rubrum) are appreciated for their delicate flavor as key ingredient in various food products such as fruit juices, fruit soups, purees, jams, and summer puddings. Besides their attractive aroma, the typical sour and astringent taste, in particular, is one of the key parameters determining the sensory quality of red currants and their products. Although multiple attempts have been made to find a correlation between the results obtained from sensory panelists and the chemical species imparting the typical astringent sensation of fruits, the data reported in the literature on the key taste components are rather contradictory. The objective of the present investigation was, therefore, to define the astringent oral sensation induced by red currants on a molecular level. Application of a sensometabolomics approach by combining sequential solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and RP-HPLC with analytical sensory tools, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D-NMR experiments led to the discovery and structure determination of 25 strongly astringent secondary plant metabolites in red currant juice. Besides several flavonol glycosides, in particular, 3-carboxymethylindole-1-N-ß-D-glucopyranoside and 3-methylcarboxy -methyl-indole-1-N-ß-D-glucopyranoside, and a family of previously not identified nitriles have been identified for the first time. To further bridge the gap between pure structural chemistry and human taste perception, these metabolites were quantified, ranked on the basis of dose/threshold relationships, and then blended in “natural” concentrations to perform taste re-engineering and omission experiments. These data clearly demonstrated for the first time, that not the polyphenols but the N-glucosides as the key astringent metabolites in red currant products. AGFD 276 Flavor changes associated with processing and storage of citrus juices Russell L. Rouseff, rrouseff@ufl.edu, Citrus Research and Education Center, Univ. of Florida, IFAS, 700 Experiment Station Rd., Lake Alfred, FL 33850, Fax: 863 956-4631, Pilar Ruiz Pérez-Cacho, pilar@crec.ifas.ufl.edu, IFAPA, CIFA Alameda del Obispo, Univ. of Florida, IFAS, Cordoba, Spain, and Kanjana Mahattanatawee, kanjana@siam.edu, Dept. of Food Tech., Siam Univ., Bangkok 10163, Thailand The flavor of fresh squeezed citrus juice is unstable. Thermal treatment to reduce microbial and enzyme activities accelerates the rates of Strecker, Maillard and acid catalyzed hydration reactions. Stabilized juices have a longer shelf life but altered aroma profile. Juices which have been reconstituted from concentrate, RFC, typically have a profoundly altered aroma profile because they have been heated twice. Examination of the best quality RFC orange juices found higher levels of: hexanal, heptanal, octanal, (Z)-2-nonenal and geranial. Poor quality RFC juices contained higher levels of: methional, 4-vinyl guaiacol and vanillin. Room temperature storage can profoundly alter the flavor profile of orange juice producing a major loss of original flavor impact compounds and the generation of sulfur based aroma compounds such as 1-p-menth-1-ene-8thiol, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, and dimethyltrisulfide. A detailed comparison between the odor profiles of fresh or lightly heated juices and those with heavy thermal treatments will be presented and discussed. AGFD 277 Enhanced stability of citral in juice beverage by applying cyclodextrin microemulsion technology. Kenneth J Strassburger1, ken_strassburger@cargill.com, Victor Levey2, victor_levey@cargill.com, Terry Wilson1, terry_wilson@cargill.com, Judy Briggs2, judy_briggs@cargill.com, William Startup1, bill_startup@cargill.com, Tracy Mattingly2, tracy_mattingly@cargill.com, and Joy Harrison3, joy_harrison@cargill.com. (1) Research, Cargill Flavor Systems, 10311 Chester Road, Cincinnati, OH 45215, Fax: 513-771-8748, (2) Flavor Development, Cargill Flavor Systems, Cincinnati, OH 45215, (3) Dept. of Chem. co-op, Univ. of Cincinnati College of Applied Science, Cincinnati 45215 Lemon oils and flavors are very unstable in the acidic media typical in most juice and juice based beverages. Not only is there a dramatic change in profile with the loss of fresh lemon character, the development of off notes is more troublesome and problematic. Significant other changes occur due to photo stability (sun-struck) and packaging interaction, which further degrade the final consumer quality. The application of b-cyclodextrin flavor complexes in designing beverage systems can eliminate off note development, maintain true lemon profile, minimize packaging interaction in glass or PET and offer a high degree of photo-stability without employing additional anti-oxidants or expensive package engineering. The depiction below compares the survivability of the total flavor (light bars) to offnote development (dark bars) in a lemon beverage stored in PET packaging at 88°F. AGFD 278 Key aroma compounds in apple juice: Identification, formation and changes during processing Martin Steinhaus, Johanna Bogen, and Peter Schieberle, German Research Ctr. for Food Chemistry, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, 85748 Garching, Germany, Fax: +49-

89-28914183 The key aroma compounds of juice made from Golden Delicious apples by means of an industrial procedure were evaluated using established methods of molecular sensory science, in particular aroma extract dilution analysis, calculation of odor activity values and reconstitution experiments based on authentic quantitative data. Results revealed (E)-2-hexenal, acetaldehyde, (E)-ß-damascenone, hexanal, diacetyl, dimethyl sulfide, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, methional and 1-octen-3-one as important aroma contributors. A juice prepared by hand from fresh apples showed the same set of odor-active compounds, but the concentrations of some compounds were clearly different. Screening the concentrations of important apple juice odorants during the industrial manufacturing process elucidated mashing and pasteurization as the crucial processing steps in aroma alterations. Model experiments confirmed these findings and gave a closer insight into formation pathways of important apple juice odorants. AGFD 279 Vanilla in noncarbonated beverages Felix Buccellato, Custom Essence Incorporated, 53 Veronica Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 History & Review of wide use of Vanilla in various products including threshold of Vanillin along with characterizations of components of vanilla including solubility problems in various media with a review of use in non carbonated beverages

AGFD TECHNICAL PROGRAM AUTHOR/PAPER INDEX
Abe J. 27 Abe J. 28 Acree T. E. 122 Adhikari K. 162 Adhikary R. 250 Albelda S. M. 226 Albers D. 128 Alroomi Y. M. 271 Anderson K. 128 Angelini E. 76 Appell M. 193 Arcidiacono S. 161 Armstrong D. J. 75 Arnold D. 126 Arul J. 160 Asao H. 11 Assawanig A. 108 Azhuvalappil Z. 168 baba A. 260 Babalar M. 110 Bachmanov A. A. 206 Bae H. 89 Baga M. 167 Bais H. 238 Bajpai V. 232 Bakaj I. 267 Barros-Velazquez J. 181 Barros-Velazquez J. 183 Barros-Velazquez J. 184 Barros-Velazquez J. 185 Barros-Velazquez J. 190 Bartoshuk L. M. 201 Batram C. 203 Beauchamp G. K. 123 Beauchamp G. K. 226 Bechtel P. J. 178 Behrens M. 203 Belkacemi K. 160 Bell D. R. 94 BeMiller J. N. 46 BeMiller J. N. 212 Benjamin E. 163 Benjamin E. 163 Bhowmick P. 92 Bielinski D. 90 Blumenthal H. 100 Boatright W. L. 6 Bogen J. 278 Bohme K. 181 Bohme K. 190 Botelho M. 142 Boyd L. C. 67 Brand J. 261 Brard L. 240 Breslin P. A. S. 204 Breslin P. A. S. 261 Briggs J. 277 Brine C. 1 Brockhoff A. 203 Brown E. M. 248 Brown J. M. 77 Bryant R. W. 267 Buber M. T. 267 Buccellato F. 279 Bufe B. 203 Burt T. D. 94 Buwalda P. 209 Cadwallader K. 21 Cadwallader K. 43 Cadwallader K. 103 Cadwallader K. 104 Calo-Mata P. 181 Calo-Mata P. 183 Calo-Mata P. 184 Calo-Mata P. 185 Calo-Mata P. 190 Campbell M. 229 Canas B. 181 Canas B. 184 Canas B. 190 Cannon R. 258 Cao Y. 64 Carlucci S. 267 Casey T. A. 250 Castignolles P. 231 Cateni F. 152 Cepeda Saez A. 180 Cepeda Saez A. 182 Cepeda Saez A. 183 Cepeda Saez A. 184 Cepeda Saez A. 185 Cepeda Saez A. 188 Cepeda Saez A. 189 Cepeda Saez A. 191 Cepeda Saez A. 192 Cerne R. 267 Cha Y -J. 104 Chae M -H. 171 Chaiseri S. 106 Chaiseri S. 108 Chambers D. 162 Chang M. I. 195 Chang P. 175 Chang S. K. C. 8 Chang S. K. C. 31 Chang S. K. C. 80 Channell G. A. 15 Chen C -C. 56 Chen C -N. 127 Chen F. 65 Chen F. 130 Chen H. 147 Chen J. 64 Chen Y -H. 56 Chen Y. 82 Chen Z -Y. 55 Chen Z -Y. 64 Cheplick S. 92 Chiba K. 81 Chibbar R. 167 Chidambara Murthy KN. 236 Chidambara Murthy KN 239 Chien F -N. 56 Cho M. J. 83 Cho Y -H. 176 Chu P -S. 127 Chuang S -C. 56 Chung H. Y. 105 Cisneros-Zevallos L. 131 Claveau D. 160 Clydesdale F. M. 101 Cooper J. 163 Cooper K. A. 22 Coppin J. P. 147 Corcuff R. 160 Corriher S. O. 99 Cortes R. 267 Cote G. 234 Crosby K. M. 109 Crosby K. M. 112 Crosby K. M. 113 Cui D. 6 Culver C. 48 Da Costa N. C. 256 Dalton P. H. 228 Dansby M. Y. 67 Dao C. A. 142 Dao L. T. 96 De Meulenaer B. 215 Dean L. L. 67 Del Pozo D. 259 Della Loggia R. 152 Deming R. L. 159 Deming R. L. 186 Denon Q. 215 Devantier H. 267 Devlieghere F. 215 Dia V. P. 53 Diatta M. 140 Dong C. 148 Donner E. 167 Dotson C. D. 202 Dragastin K. 162 Drayna D. 205 Duan S -C. 127 Dwiyanti M. S. 26 Dwiyanti M. S. 28 Dziadas M. 251 Eades J. 225 Ebeler S. E. 23 Engel K -H. 253 Erhan S. Z. 51 Erhardt W. 164 Erick A. 167 Erk T. 116 Esatbeyoglu T. 69 Everard J. D. 107 Fakharzadeh S. 227 Fan X. 168 Fan X. 270 Faudale M. 152 Feas X. 192 Feas Sanchez X. 182 Feas Sanchez X. 191 Feng Q -L. 155 Fente Sampayo C. 180 Fente Sampayo C. 182 Fente Sampayo C. 188 Fente Sampayo C. 189 Fente Sampayo C. 190 Fente Sampayo C. 191 Fente Sampayo C. 192 Ferguson P. J. 121 Fernandez-No I. 181 Finkenstadt V. L. 234 Finley J. W. 5 Finn C. 39 Fisher D. 90 Forbes J. 50 Franco-Abuin C. 180

Franco-Abuin C. 180 Franco-Abuin C. 181 Franco-Abuin C. 182 Franco-Abuin C. 188 Franco-Abuin C. 189 Franco-Abuin C. 191 Franco-Abuin C. 192 French A. 230 Friedman R. B. 235 Fu R. 249 Fu Z. 145 Furumo N. C. 158 Furutani S. 158 Fushan A. 205 Gaborieau M. 231 Gallagher M. 227 Gallardo J. M. 181 Gallardo J. M. 183 Gallardo J. M. 184 Gallardo J. M. 185 Gallardo J. M. 190 Gao Q. 198 Gao Q. 199 Gelperin A. 224 Gelperin A. 225 Genovese M. I. 57 Geveke D. J. 168 Geveke D. J. 270 Gilbert A. N. 223 Gilbert R. G. 231 Giusti M. M. 249 Gizaw Y. 232 Gochenaur K. 94 Gomez I. 223 Gonzalez K. M. 263 Gonzalez de Mejia E. 53 Goorissen H. P. 68 Gordon A. 216 Grainger B. 258 Gray-Weale A. A. 231 Grewal N. 196 Griesser M. 41 Gubitz G. M. 137 Gubitz G. M. 151 Guo S. 12 Gustavsson K -E. 85 Gutzeit D. 70 Haddad P. S. 91 Hager T. J. 219 Hajika M. 10 Hanson W. 225 Harrison J. 277 Hart P. E. 153 Hasin Y. 222 Heber D. 71 Heber D. 150 Hempstead P. 223 Hendrix C. J. 267 Henning S. M. 71 Henning S. M. 150 Heredia F. J. 44 Hernandez L. R. 157 Herrero Acero E. 151 Higley J. S. 213

Ho C -T. 24 Ho C -T. 140 Ho C -T. 141 Ho C -T. 143 Ho C -T. 144 Ho C -W. 127 Ho C. T. 18 Ho C. T. 252 Ho C. T. 255 Hodges D. M. 133 Hoffmann T. 41 Hofmann T. 275 Hong M. K. 195 Hong Y -J. 128 Hongsprabhas P. 9 Hoover R. 167 Horn C. 245 Hosokawa M. 62 Howard L. R. 219 Huang L. 198 Huang Q. 273 Huber K. C. 213 Huber L. S. 132 Hurtado N. 44 Hustedt E. J. 6 Ibrahim S. A. 156 Im M. H. 195 Irwin A. J. 107 Ishiguro T. 79 Ishimoto M. 29 Iwatsuki K. 244 Jabalpurwala F. 25 Jackson L. S. 73 Jahan M. S. 6 Jamison J. 163 Jane J -L. 229 Jayakody L. 167 Jayaprakasha G. 89 Jayaprakasha G. 111 Jayaprakasha G. 236 Jayaprakasha G. 237 Jayaprakasha G. 239 Jayaprakasha G. K. 86 Jayaprakasha G. K. 87 Jelen H. H. 251 Jeong E -J. 104 Jerz G. 70 Jesudhasan P. 237 Jiang H. 229 Jifon J. 89 Jifon J. 113 Johnson A. 224 Johnson G. P. 230 Johnston D. B. 211 Jones O. G. 170 Joseph J. A. 90 Juliani R. 141 Juliani R. 147 Kahle K. 116 Kahlon T. S. 118 Kalantari S. 110 Kalkunte S. 240 Kanamaru K. 26 Kanamaru K. 27

Kao F -J. 30 Kasuga H. 260 Katja K. 233 Kaziunas A. 200 Kehrli M. E. 250 Keller A. 223 Kennedy L. M. 263 Khamis S. M. 224 Khan S. I. 138 Kiessling A. 174 Kijjanapanich P. 159 Kim H. 104 Kim I -H. 171 Kim I -H. 172 Kim J -W. 172 Kim J -Y. 172 Kim K. K. 240 Kim M -C. 172 Kim M -M. 154 Kim S -K. 154 Kim S. W. 175 Kitamura K. 26 Kitamura K. 27 Kitamura K. 28 Kitamura K. 29 Kitsawatpaiboon P. 186 Knaup B. 116 Kobori C. N. 132 Kochhar S. 221 Koehler N. 69 Kondo M. 153 Kopsell D. A. 114 Kopsell D. E. 114 Kowalczyk J. 256 Kragh K. M. 210 Kramer J. 238 Krammer G. E. 253 Kraus M. 116 Krishnan S. 169 Kropycheva R. P. 246 Kuo T. M. 179 Kuutti L. 233 Kwak J. 224 Kwak J. 227 Kwon C. H. 195 Kwon K -I. 172 Kwon Y -I. 92 Lack J. 163 Lai H -L. 56 Lai H -M. 58 Lam C. K. 64 Lambros T. 252 Lan H. 167 Lancet D. 222 Leavens J. B. 67 Lee B -M. 171 Lee B -M. 172 Lee E. J. 88 Lee J -S. 172 Lee J. 175 Lee M -H. 30 Lee M -H. 146 Lee R. 150 Lee S -M. 172

Lee S -Y. 102 Lee S. H. 195 Lee S. P. 267 Lefsrud M. G. 114 Lei Q. 6 Lelkes P. 129 Lertsiri S. 108 Leskovar D. 113 Leskovar D. I. 109 Leskovar D. I. 112 Lester G. E. 113 Lester G. E. 133 Levey V. 277 Ley J. P. 253 Li C. 148 Li J. 273 Li L. 229 Li M. 129 Li S. 252 Li S. 255 Liansheng Y. 197 Liberty A. M. 153 Life R. C. 254 Lin C -C. 146 Lin L. 129 Lin P -Y. 58 Lipson S. M. 120 Liu B -H. 149 Liu D -Q. 155 Liu G -Y. 43 Liu Q. 167 Liu R. H. 93 Liu Z. 12 Lo C -Y. 252 Lorenz A -R. 134 Loss C. R. 124 Lozano P. R. 103 Luchtman D. 36 Luo Z. 198 Lutterodt H. 59 Lv F. 155 MacKinnon S. L. 153 Mahattanatawee K. 276 Mai J. 34 Maistrovich F. D. 250 Majcher M. 251 Mane J. M. 76 Manichaikul A. 205 Maningat O. 214 Manthey J. A. 136 Margolskee R. F. 242 Martinez Ruiz B. 180 Martinez-Mayorga K. 139 Marx F. 216 Matsumura K. 226 Mattes R. D. 220 Matthes A. 134 Matthes A. 135 Mattingly T. 277 McAloon A. J. 211 McClements D. J. 170 McClements D. J. 176 McCluskey T. 205 McGee H. J. 98

McGorrin R. J. 3 McGorrin R. J. 42 Meehan A. 161 Melgarejo L. M. 84 Meng Q. 36 Mennella J. A. 262 Meyerhof W. 203 Micketts R. J. 107 Mikkelsen R. 210 Mikkonen H. M. A. 233 Miller A. F. 6 Miller A. R. 249 Miller C. J. 227 Miranda Lopez J. M. 180 Miyashita K. 35 Miyashita K. 62 Mizuno C. S. 138 Momma M. 10 Morales A. L. 44 Moriyama Y. 247 Mottram D. S. 13 Mottram D. S. 16 Mottram D. S. 100 Mukherjee P. 250 Muller W. S. 161 Munger S. D. 202 Muramoto K. 54 Nakamura E. 244 Nakasato K. 78 Nakornpanom N. N. 9 Neelwarne B. 241 Nelson S. D. 111 Neto C. C. 142 Neto C. C. 153 Ngo D -N. 154 Nie S. 145 Nie S. 148 Nunez Rueda F. 259 Oelmann A. 274 Oh J -E. 171 Oh J -E. 172 Oka H. 226 Okajima S. 260 Olsson M. E. 85 Olszowka K. J. 165 Ono T. 78 Ono T. 79 Ono T. 81 Ono T. 82 Onodera Y. 78 Onwulata C. I. 166 Onwulata C. I. 269 Opiekun M. 226 Ortea I. 184 Ortea I. 185 Osorio C. 44 Osorio Roa C. 84 Palmer R. K. 267 Pan M -H. 140 Pan M -H. 141 Pan M -H. 143 Pan M -H. 255 Pangestu N. 249 Park C -H. 141

Park H -K. 172 Park Y. W. 175 Parry J. W. 60 Pascoal A. 183 Pascoal A. 184 Pascoal A. 185 Patil B. 111 Patil B. 113 Patil B. S. 72 Patil B. S. 86 Patil B. S. 87 Patil B. S. 88 Patil B. S. 89 Patil B. S. 236 Patil B. S. 237 Patil B. S. 239 Peate J. 231 Peltonen S. 233 Perets A. 129 Perez J. L. 86 Perez J. L. 87 Perez-Cachol P. R. 25 Perucka I. J. 165 Peter R. 253 Peterson S. C. 177 Petrich J. W. 250 Petroski R. J. 74 Petroski R. J. 173 Phillips M. 47 Pierre H. 167 Pillai S. D. 237 Preti G. 224 Preti G. 225 Preti G. 227 Pricelius S. 137 Prior R. L. 219 Qi P. X. 269 Qian M. 66 Qian M. C. 39 Qian M. C. 40 Qunyu G. 197 Qvintus-Leino P. 233 Racicot K. 161 Ragaert P. 215 Rakariyatham K. 159 Rakariyatham N. 159 Rakariyatham N. 186 Ramirez E. C. 211 Ramming D. W. 96 Rasmussen M. A. 250 Reed D. 222 Reese R. N. 249 Regal Lopez P. 182 Regal Lopez P. 188 Regal Lopez P. 189 Reichelt K. V. 253 Reichling C. 203 Reineccius G. A. 38 Reineccius G. A. 169 Richling E. 116 Richt J. A. 250 Riha W. E. 49 Riha W. E. 261 Rimando A. M. 90

Rimando A. M. 138 Rinaldi P. L. 249 Risch S. J. 4 Risch S. J. 97 Rizzi G. 14 Rockway S. W. 32 Rodrigues R. B. 216 Rodriguez B. 157 Rodriguez-Amaya DB 132 Roloff M. 253 Rotsachakul P. 106 Roudnitzky N. 203 Rouseff R. L. 25 Rouseff R. L. 168 Rouseff R. L. 276 Rubio F. 187 Ruiz Perez-Cacho P. 276 Rychlik M. 70 Saari J. 233 Sadat Taghavi T. 110 Salas E. 157 San Gabriel A. M. 244 Sanchez-Garcia L. 192 Sang S. 144 Sarantopoulos C. I. 132 Sasama H. 29 Savory P. 252 Schauss A. 95 Scheerens J. C. 249 Scheppach W. 116 Scheurer S. 134 Schieberle P. 17 Schieberle P. 274 Schieberle P. 278 Schlake R. 200 Schmitz-Eiberger M. 134 Schmitz-Eiberger M. 135 Schmults C. D. 227 Schonenbrucher H. 250 Schreiber H. D. 254 Schreier P. 116 Schwab W. 41 Schwartz S. J. 218 Seeram N. P. 71 Seeram N. P. 150 Seiber J. N. 2 Seki T. 10 Shafiee M. 110 Shahidi F. 20 Shahidi F. 63 Shahidi F. 217 Shao X. 144 Sharma B. K. 51 Shen D. 141 Shetty K. 92 Shimoyamada M. 11 Shukitt-Hale B. 90 Simon J. E. 140 Simon J. E. 141 Simon J. E. 143 Simon J. E. 147 Simons C. T. Singh A. P. 240 Singh R. K. 240

Singh V. 211 Sinuco D. C. 44 Sinuco D. C. 84 Slack J. P. 205 Slawecki R. 187 Smith A. B. 264 Smith G. M. 45 Snyder D. J. 201 Soares J. 161 Sokorai K. J. B. 270 Solarte M. E. 84 Solis D. 157 Song C. 36 Song D. 156 Soontrunnarudrungsri A 162 Sosa S. 152 Spielman A. I. 227 Sprous D. G. 267 Stanley D. 74 Startup W. 277 Stein P. D. 267 Steinhaus M. 278 Steinle N. I. 202 Stenhouse P. 161 Stoner G. 115 Strassburger K. J. 277 Stucchi M. 265 Sun X. 227 Suwonsichon T. 108 Swanepoel K. M. 253 Swink A. M. 254 Szuler K. M. 174 Taepavarapruk P. 36 Takada Y. 29 Takahashi K. 81 Takeoka G. R. 96 Tanaka T. 62 Tang Z -X. 160 Taylor A. J. 15 Taylor A. J. 125 Taylor A. J. 257 Tewani S. 196 Thaler E. 225 Thimmaraju R. 238 Thomas A. E. 166 Thompson D. B. 208 Toda K. 81 Tomasula P. M. 269 Tordoff M. G. 207 Torii K. 243 Torii K. 244 Torres A. B. 157 Trail A. 258 Trinnaman L. 256 Trinnaman L. 258 Troy M. 225 Tsachaki M. 257 Tsukamoto C. 29 Tsuzuki K. 11 Tubaro A. 152 Tulio A. Z. 249 Tunick M. H. 1 Tunick M. H. 19 Tunick M. H. 166

Turowski M. 128 Uckoo R. M. 111 Uneyama H. 244 Van Camp J. 215 van Hylckama Vlieg JET 68 Vandekinderen IVTJ 215 Vanden Heuvel J. 142 Vanderhoek J. Y. 33 VanDerveer D. 130 Varma D. 129 Vazquez-Belda B. 180 Vazquez-Belda B. 182 Vazquez-Belda B. 183 Vazquez-Belda B. 188 Vazquez-Belda B. 189 Vazquez-Belda B. 191 Vazquez-Belda B. 192 Veigas J. M. 241 Vikarm A. 237 Vinson J. A. 22 Vivian C. 90 Vorsa N. 240 Vosshall L. B. 223 Walters B. M. 6 Wampler D. 259 Wanakhachornkrai P 108 Wang D. 150 Wang J -J. 194 Wang L -S. 115 Wang S. 26

Wang S. 27 Wang S. Y. 119 Wang W. 53 Wang X. 65 Wang X. 130 Wang Y. 18 Wang Y. 148 Wang Y. 255 Wang Z. 252 Wargovich M. J. 130 Wasowicz E. 251 Wedzicha B. 16 Weerasinghe D. K. 52 Welch C. R. 140 Wen Z. 272 Wesdemiotis C. 249 Wheeler M. 158 Whitaker J. R. 45 Whitson S. E. 249 Wilkens A. 69 Willett J. L. 234 Wilson M. A. 117 Wilson T. 277 Winterhalter P. 69 Winterhalter P. 70 Wittanalai S. 186 Woerdeman D. L. 129 Wolf B. 257 Wolkow C. A. 117 Woo K. 214

Wu Q -L. 140 Wu Q -L. 141 Wu Q -L. 147 Wu Q. 143 Wu T -S. 149 Wu T. H. 178 Wulfert F. 15 Wysocki C. J. 222 Wysocki C. J. 227 Wyzgoski F. J. 249 Xie J. 148 Xie M. 145 Xie M. 148 Xu Y. 143 Xu Y. 147 Xu Z. 7 Yagasaki K. 81 Yamada T. 26 Yamada T. 27 Yamada T. 28 Yamauchi R. 11 Yamazaki K. 226 Yamazaki Y. 260 Yang C. S. 144 Yang L. 64 Yang L. 198 Yang Y. 256 Yasui Y. 62 Ye W. 199 Yeming C. 78

Yin J -J. 37 Yokoyama W. H. 128 Yoo K. S. 88 Yoo K. S. 109 Yoo K. S. 112 Young S. 128 Yu F -Y. 149 Yu F -Y. 194 Yu L. 61 Yu M -W. 146 Yu S. 210 Yuan S. 8 Yuan S. 80 Zacchigna M. 152 Zhang H. 130 Zhang H. Q. 168 Zhang J. 164 Zhang Y. 36 Zhang Y. 71 Zhang Y. 150 Zhao G. 268 Zhao Y. 66 Zhigang L. 197 Zhou L. 164 Zhou S. 164 Zoller M. 266 Zolotarev V. A. 246

AGFD
CONTINUE THE CELEBRATION
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at the 237th ACS National Meeting in Salt Lake City March 22-26, 2009

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CORNUCOPIA
DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL & FOOD CHEMISTRY AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY TH 1155 16 STREET, NW WASHINGTON DC 20036

the

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