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					Field Trip Report – HAITI August 20 - September 12, 2003

Haitian art depicts a country lush with trees

I - INTRODUCTION Through a grant from USAID, Partners of the Americas invited John Leary of Trees for the Future, a 501 (c) (3) charitable organization in Maryland, to provide agroforestry consultancy as a Farmer to Farmer (FtF) volunteer. He assisted FtF Coordinator, Benito Jasmin, for 22 days in which they toured numerous project sites, conducted lectures and trainings, and worked to improve agroforestry and tree planting efforts in the Northeast and Southeast regions of Haiti. Agroforestry systems, especially those in Haiti, must be multifunctional and support income generating projects, conservation efforts, and agricultural development activities. Whether producing honey, raising goats, decreasing erosion, or making soap, all income-generating activities benefit greatly by selecting and planting appropriate tree species. This report serves not only as a trip report for Farmer to Farmer and Trees for the Future, but also as a resource for anyone working in agricultural development in Haiti.
I. Introduction II. Executive Summary III. Project Sites Visited IV. Background V. Projects and Places in the North VI. Projects and Places in the South VII. Follow-Up VIII. Future Contacts 1 1 2 3 3-10 11-14 15 15-16 Appendices A-1. Learning from Past Projects A-2: Summary of FTF Activities A-3: Agroforestry Systems in Haiti A-4: Lecture Plan for St Barnabas A-5: Contour Planting in APV A-6: Seed Collection in APV A-7: A Lesson in IPM in APV 17 18 19 20-23 24 25 26

II - EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FtF Coordinator Benito Jasmin is working on numerous projects in diverse regions with different climatic and soil conditions. Activities include, but are not limited to: rabbit production, beekeeping, agroforestry technologies, fruit tree production, bamboo varieties, peanut production, coffee production, a leadership academy and goat/pig production. Some of these are further described in Appendix 1. The FTF Coordinator’s constant effort and dedication, in face of constant transportation difficulties, have propelled his to continue training more farmers and producing food and other agricultural products, while encouraging sustainable land-use techniques. In the Northern Departments, the Volunteer was not able to visit the majority of projects in the FtF program, but of those observed, rabbit, honey, and coffee production, as well as gardening, have demonstrated opportunities to greatly benefit from tree planting. Throughout the region surrounding Cap-Haïtien, the Volunteer delivered technical advice and trainings to 8 separate groups and numerous individuals,

most of whom are discussed in Section V. He was also able to visit past projects which had failed and demonstrated lessons to learn from (see Appendix 2). In the South, the Volunteer focused most of his time building on recommendations of the previous FTF Volunteer, Dave Deppner (see Section IV). The Volunteer aided in training and organizing efforts to establish contour demonstration sites throughout the communities of APV. The main recommendation stemming from this field visit mirrors that of the previous volunteer: To establish agroforestry training sites, where under the umbrella effort of agroforestry systems, farmers will learn how to supply their basic needs can supply the materials and food necessary for sustainable growth of a myriad of income generating projects. The establishment of these sites is under way with the support and technical guidance of FtF, Trees for the Future, APV, Sharpe, and numerous other local organizations, yet most sites require more material and financial resources.

III - PROJECT SITES VISITED The first 13 days of the trip, efforts were made to network with numerous professionals working in the region around Cap-Haïtien and to visit many projects in the north. The Volunteer and the FtF Coordinator visited village projects for rabbit production, tree production, backyard/school gardens, bamboo, and ecotourism and forest management. These projects were dispersed among towns and villages in the North and Northeast Departments (see inset map). They were frequently joined by Jean Nesley St Croix. These places are discussed in depth in Section V.

Area of inset map

Inset Map: Project sites visited in the North are marked by yellow dots.

● Vallue The remaining 10 days were spent in the East Department in the mountain communities of Vallue between the two towns of Petit-Goâve and Grand-Goâve. Work in Vallue is in coordination with APV, the Association of Paysanes de Vallue. Activities by the Volunteer included increasing the capacity for tree production and the establishment of contour/windbreak demonstration sites.

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IV - BACKGROUND Nearly all of the Volunteer's insight and preparation for this visit came from the Director of Trees for the Future, Dave Deppner, info@treesftf.org, who served as an FtF Haiti Volunteer in February 2003. The present Volunteer understood the necessity to unify FTF’s various agroforestry projects under an umbrella effort of reforestation, thereby also better supporting other projects. Furthermore, at the recommendation of Mr. Deppner, the present Volunteer also focused on developing training sites in key spots throughout Haiti. V - PROJECTS and PLACES in the NORTH Terrier Rouge Youth Group The citizens of Terrier Rouge witness the massive Sam Mompoint. quantities of vegetables, food and other products trucked from sammompoint@msn.com across the border of the Dominican Republic everyday. Terrier Office (954) 435 0002 Rouge Christian Youth Group hopes to challenge that by producing their own diverse array of vegetables and farm products for sale in Terrier Rouge and the surrounding towns. Sam Mompoint, also living and working in Miami, is one of the main contacts for Union Jeune Christian de Development de Terrier Rouge (the Terrier Rouge Youth Group). They have acquired 45 hectares for which we are helping design an agroforestry system (see Appendix 3). This working farm will serve as both a central source of income for the Youth Group and a demonstration farm to train other farmers. The Youth Group is currently using local thorny species to build a living fence around the field. They also have access to barbwire and a well drilling machine. The next step for FTF and TFTF is to train and assist the youth group in delineating windbreaks and woodlots, and aiding in the collection of seeds and training the group in tree propagation. More specifically, they need seeds of Leucaena K 67, Cassia siamea, Moringa oleifera, cuttings of Glyricidia sepium, and neem seeds. St Barnabas St Barnabas is an agricultural school near Terrier Rouge where students from around Haiti come to study for two years. The Volunteer delivered a 4-hour interactive lecture (see Appendix 4 for the lecture plan) on agroforestry theory for 22 students. He also guided the students through a practicum for water clarification using Moringa seeds
Students observe the coagulation of particulates in the glass on the right by using seeds of the Moringa tree

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and another on making anti-bacterial / Lines of Glyricidia sepium at St Barnabas are a great source for anti-mosquito soap using the leaves of the cuttings. neem tree, Azadirachta indica. St Barnabas is a great place for seed collection, primarily Moringa and Leucaena 67, as well as cuttings of Glyricidia sepium, whose boundary plantings need to be trimmed. These seeds are important for other projects in the area – specifically with the Terrier Rouge Youth Group. The FTF Coordinator and the Volunteer must now finalize the collection of these Moringa and Leuceaena seeds, as well as the collection of a several truckloads of Glyricidia cuttings – to be used in Perches and Terrier Rouge. Pleasance Gerard-Michel Joseph, the FTF contact in Pleasance, had overseen the planting of numerous cassia, eucalyptus, and oak seedlings over the past year. We met Mr. Joseph in Cap Haitian, yet we were never able to make a visit to Pleasance.

Gerard-Michel Joseph Pleasance FTF Leader papyleroc@hotmail.com

Limonade The Volunteer delivered a training with cards and slides to Philome Jean Pierre and four of his technicians at the Anglican Church in Limonade (see picture on right). The training encompassed forest management and agroforestry systems. He also distributed several papers on Leucaena uses and propagation. Father Jean Pierre’s technicians acknowledged that they are familiar with many agroforestry interventions, as well as some soil conservation techniques such as composting and neem insect repellent, since having been trained by FAO in years past. Though familiar with topics of the session, the Church’s technicians lacked a firm understanding of the use of neem solution and composting, which the Volunteer clarified. More importantly, the technicians reported that they themselves, though responsible for training farmers in throughout the region, do not practice agroforestry techniques themselves. They sited a fear of using trees near agricultural lands and a lack of faith and patience for composting and natural insect control. Even after affirmation of sustainable techniques and a slide show on the successes of agroforestry, the Church’s old

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technicians remained unimpressed. It seems, similar to the Volunteer’s experience in West Africa, that only a working demonstration farm can convince farmers and locallytrained technicians of the potential in agroforestry systems. The strength of the program in Limonade seems to be their ability to produce trees. They currently have over 30,000 fruit tree seedlings ready for outplanting, and they have the room and facilities to produce hundreds of thousands. They did not report much difficulty in obtaining seeds of citrus, mango, cassia, oak, and Leucaena species (they must transport their francis mango seeds from the West and South regions of the country). Yet though September to February is their main planting period, they presented little in terms of a program for outplanting the 30,000 seedlings. Father Philome standing in his nursery in Limonade. The next step is to continue discussions with Father Philome Jean Pierre to help him design a better program for delivering trainings, transferring information, and outplanting seedlings. The Volunteer also supplied them with information on neem tea (recipes for 1 gallon), water clarification using Moringa seeds, and information on Leucaena K1000, a non-seed bearing cultivar, to which the technicians were very interested. Labadie The previous Volunteer had recommended seed collection near Labadie beach because of the abundance of Leucaena 67 trees. Unfortunately, many of the original trees were cut down, and the area has been turned into a burning garbage dump (see photo on left). Seed collection in this area will still be very productive this winter, despite the loss of many mature trees. The next step at Labadie is to return in the next few months to collect Leucaena 67 seeds. At Labadie beach, the Volunteer also identified local materials that could be used for rabbit cages, yet because it has become a tourist town, local people were demanding more for locally-made cages (see photo on right) than the cost of new chicken wire cages. The FTF Coordinator is determined to further investigate more opportunities to use local materials for rabbit cages.

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Phaëton / Piton: Phaëton and Piton are two towns located in the dry northeast. Though instituting more agroforestry techniques is necessary for this land overexploited by sisal plantations, few are currently undertaken. The detrimental effects of grazing animals are currently keeping this area from exceeding minimal productivity. Farmers do use cacti and other thorny species as live fences, yet few if any secondary products are realized. The Volunteer is continuing an on-going discussion with the FTF Coordinator concerning agroforestry techniques appropriate for Phaëton and the surrounding region. Though cactus hedges are relatively easy to establish, the Volunteer strongly recommends encouraging local communities to diversify these fences with other thorny, drought tolerant species that will produce secondary products – there are numerous possibilities, including Prosopis juliflora and Haematoxylon campechianum. We visited four different sites in this region where Nelta Jean-Louis FTF is working with rabbit production. These visits were made with Nelta Jean-Louis, Director of the World Food World Food Program Program in Haiti. At most sites, the farmers were feeding neltajeanlouis@yahoo.fr the rabbits Leucaena and Moringa, at the recommendation office 262-9238/ 262-5466. of the FTF Coordinator, as well as wheat, bought from the Dominican Republic. Leucaena was actually not very plentiful anywhere, and Moringa was even more scarce. An obvious recommendation is to plant more Leucaena and Moringa trees by training all farmers, currently raising rabbits, in seedling production. Two bareroot nurseries with minimal inputs (only manure, ash, and seeds) can be established in the yards of all participating farmers’ houses. Because Moringa trees sometime tend not to product large amounts of foliage, especially during the dry season in the Northeast, the Volunteer also recommends a technique used in West Africa for leaf production: the Moringa garden (see photos below). Similar to a bareroot nursery bed, the land is prepared by double digging the soil and mixing manure. Yet in a Moringa garden bed, the seedlings are NOT outplanted – they are simply cut at 2-3” height, consumed, and the small stumps remaining in the ground, already complete with strong roots structures, re-grow consecutive harvests of nutritious, easilycollected Moringa leaves. Moringa is often called Cajanus cajan is another species which grows ‘Nebeday’ in West Africa, for very well in the NE and could be further utilized. it ability to never die. These moringa garden beds look just like a bareroot nursery, but they will be cut and continually harvested as new seedlings sprout from the established root systems.

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Bois-de-Lance We toured and spoke with Pastor Wiljean Compere and his students during our visit to Bois-de-Lance, a town with 18,000 people and 40 villages. The FTF leader in Bois-de-Lance, Ender Gilleis, who is working well at encouraging families to create backyard gardens (whose backyard garden is pictured on the right) was not available during our visit. Pastor Compere is involved with school gardens, square meter gardens, fish culture, and is A backyard garden and a Leucaena anxious to begin working with rabbit production. bareroot bed at Mr. Gilleis’ house. His youth group has about 150 kids, enough labor to accomplish unprecedented work, Pastor Compere looks out at his Church but they are waiting to finish their group’s gardens during the dry season. water pumping system before starting intensive vegetable production. Their land, pictured on the Pastor Wiljean Compere right with Pastor Compere and the Open Door Church wiljeancompere@hotmail.com unfinished water system, is located H - 011-509-262-9897 right next to the church and the school. Grazing cattle have crushed the barbwire fence around the field. Their other main water pump near the school and church was fixed the morning the Volunteer arrived – ending three months of disrepair. Our recommendation for Pastor Wiljean and his students was simply to restart gardening activities immediately, instead of waiting to finish a second water pump for the field. We recommended salvaging the remains of the barbwire fence, filling the holes with branches and thorny species, and starting the gardens and tree nursery. We further discussed the importance of planting fast growing, multipurpose trees around their field, for which the Volunteer supplied ½ kilo of Leucaena 67 seeds. Several places throughout Haiti could use trainings in market gardens, and Boisde-Lance is one of them. The Volunteer pointed out their loss of potential by waiting for a second water source. They were at a time when the students were all on vacation and accomplishing little, the land was bare, and the prices for vegetables are at a yearly high! Throughout Bois-de-Lance were the dry season remains of numerous backyard gardens, all missing the same The Volunteer and FTF Coordinator market opportunity as Pastor Compere.
discuss future plans with the group.

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Perches Jean Claude Pierre-Louis (pictured on the right), a Volunteer for Plan Haiti, is sincerely interested in expanding his work around Perches. He has been working with 18 communities over this past years to distribute 16,920 fruit tree seedlings and deliver trainings on composting, backyard and school gardens. Now he is looking for our collaboration in developing better use of forestry species. We are working with Mr. Pierre Louis to develop an agroforestry training center at the Carpentry and Agricultural School in Perches. The school, though having been forced to close in years past due to financial reasons, is opening in October with a new set of students studying agriculture. Plan Haiti, FTF, and Trees for the Future are working together to create a functioning agroforestry system on a field of 2 hectares (see Appendix 3). Also in Perches, Peace Corps Volunteer (PCV) Katie Jens is working with a farmers’ coop that is finalizing the acquisition of 7 hectares in Perches. Katie and her counterpart (both pictured below) are interested in developing agroforestry technologies on their newly acquired land, including contour strips and windbreaks. They are currently waiting to finalize

Jean Claude Pierre-Louis Soleil Agro-Volunteer Plan Haiti PO Box 2193 Port-au-Prince, Haiti (O) 262-3331 le_sagepl@hotmail.com

paperwork with NARA before work can begin. Ms. Jens had also begun a school nursery, and after having PCV Katie Jens and her expressed much interest in Counterpart incorporating the use of Moringa trees in her community, the Volunteer supplied her 6 oz of seeds to begin Moringa seedlings in her school’s nursery. The next step is for FTF and TFTF to supply Mr. Pierre Louis with seeds and cuttings, as well as to return to Perches to give further on-site advice on establishing this demonstration site. Many of the required seeds and cuttings can come directly from St Barnabas Agricultural School, which is not very far from Perches. As for Ms. Jens and her counterpart, we must keep continued contact to know when we can solidify plans to help develop their newly acquired land. Project Pierre Toussaint - Cap-Haïtien Project Pierre Toussaint strives to teach trades and life skills to troubled youth. The students have also voluntarily undertaken a garden and small nursery. Though their efforts may never reach into local communities because of the nature of the walled-in school, we were proud to help them out.

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The Volunteer gave the Director, Douglas Perlitz, and those working along side him, plenty of suggestions concerning lining the school wall with trees, establishing a windbreak for their garden, growing Moringa trees for a nutritious food supplement and rabbit fodder, and pruning citrus trees. Furthermore, the Volunteer gave Project Pierre Toussaint ½ kilo Leucaena trees and 300 Moringa oleifera to expand their tree nursery pictured on the right.

Douglas C. Perlitz, MA Director, Project Pierre Toussaint douglasperlitz@hotmail.com tel: 011-509-4431-1177

Milot / Grande Rivière Though there are opportunities to Yvose Constant buy land in Milot for about 300 dollars for Socapih Secretaire a hectare, there are no current areas ready Grande Riviere du Nord #91 to develop an agroforestry training center yvoseg@hotmail.com – though the FTF Coordinator could potentially find several groups and locations. In this area, there are numerous individuals producing honey,

FTF Coordinator Benito Jasmin, seen kneeling, exchanges ideas with Mr. Perlitz

and it is through this network, specifically with Yvose Constant (pictured on the right), that we have the opportunity to expand tree planting activities. Last year, the FTF Coordinator was able to distribute and plant 600 Haematoxylon campechianum, a thorny tree favored by Haiti’s honeybees. It is through this avenue that we are currently investigating how to increase the number of A seedling of Haemattrees planted to the tens of thousands. Grande Rivière also has a center for fruit processing oxylon campechianum, a tree favored by Haiti’s called Sagla. While visiting this center, the Volunteer honeybees. noticed a Moringa tree next to some gardens with hundreds, if not thousands of seedpods (see bottomright). The branches of the tree were simply being cut back and thrown away – an obvious waist of valuable seeds, leaves, and cuttings. A long conversation ensued and the FTF Coordinator explained the many uses of Moringa. A group of workers then assisted in quickly collecting 1 kilogram of Moringa seeds. Collecting moringa seeds at Sagla Production Our next step is to further develop Transformations Fruits in Big River outside of a tree nursery in Grande Rivière, perhaps Cap-Haitien. at the fruit-processing center, to distribute appropriate seedlings to the hundreds of beekeepers under the guidance of Yvose Constant and her co-workers.

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Dondon Tracy Henderson, originally from Canada, is overseeing a mahogany plantation in Dondon, which houses a couple thousand full-grown mahogany trees (see picture on right). He has started the Tarna Project to preserve the inherent value of the forest. He is developing an ecotourism site with a hiking trail, aquaculture, field trips to neighboring sites, and numerous tree planting activities, including fruit trees, fast growing forestry species, and slow growing hardwoods. Mr. Henderson understands the strength of his efforts depends directly on his relationship with local residents of the neighboring community, and so he is reaching out to include them in all his activities. The Volunteer and FTF Coordinator made several recommendations concerning topics such as: working with the local community, called Matador Tracy Henderson Superior; where to establish the nursery; how to Tarna Foundation prune the existing trees; the importance of planting www.tarna.org more mahogany seedlings immediately; and, seed collection from the existing trees. We were also accompanied by an individual interested in developing a flower business in conjunction with the Jocelyne Laurin Environmental and Public Health future aquaculture system. After having met Jocelyne Laurin, Partners of jolaurinfr@yahoo.com 011-509-262-0060 the America’s Health Coordinator who frequently Carenage No 25 works along with GTZ in the Dondon area, and after Cap Haitien, Haiti having discussed with her the environmental health and nutritional benefits from tree planting activities, the Volunteer encouraged Mr. Henderson to begin a community nursery immediately for all interested parties. The Volunteer supplied ½ kilo of Leucaena seeds and ~300 Moringa seeds, thereby supplying species beneficial to the Tarna Project as well as the health concerns in Ms. Laurin’s line of work. The next step is to send Mr. Henderson technical sheets in English, information on Moringa and its applic-ations, and information on the amount of CO2 a mature mahogany tree stores every year, as well as to monitor his progress at developing his site in Dondon and a strong relationship with local people.

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VI - PROJECTS and PLACES in the SOUTH Asosyasyon Peyizan Vallue / APV APV is an organization unifying several mountainous communities in Vallue. Though their main office is in Port-au-Prince, their mountain top headquarters in Vallue consists of a hotel, radio station, Internet cafe, school, pharmacy, and administrative offices. APV has been very effective in initiating development in this upland area, and they are a solid organization through which to reach, organize, and train numerous farmers and families. Our time in Vallue consisted primarily of preparing demonstration sites where farmers will utilize contour plantings to begin agroforestry systems. The FTF Coordinator orchestrated the selection of pilot farmers with two radio-syndicated meetings. After meeting with the 12 APV leaders and 10 local farmers (left), the FTF Coordinator designated 10 individuals who are going to take part in establishing contour planting demonstration sites. These demo sites will serve as local training centers for the families and farmers in the area. The FTF Volunteer spent Ferjuste Lafontant three days training the new Ecomont manager, Ferjuste Lafontant Representative, (pictured on the right), in technical APV aspects of establishing the #17 Angle Rues demonstration sites. Mr. Lafontant 6 et Jose Marti Port-au-Prince is working for Ecomont, the Haiti environmental division of APV. 287-28-20 The contour plantings must be designed to provide maximum benefit to the farmers. The contour design, tree species, and secondary products, are all extremely important when considering an improved highland land use system (see Appendix 5 for more specific recommendations and considerations).

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The first demonstration site had already been started, yet it needed changes. It was a small field with few rocks, clearly visible from the main road (see picture on the right). The FTF Coordinator had previously direct-seeded Leucaena K67 in two contour lines across this small 35m*35m plot of land; the seedlings were presently at an average height of 10cm. Those two strips nearly spanned the width of the field, showing a great germination rate by pretreating and direct seeding these Leucaena K67 at ~600 meters. Another unsupervised farmer had also dug five canals in the field and planted citrus and oak seedlings in the troughs (visible in the photos on the top-right and just below). Unfortunately, two of the canals demonstrated a strong decline and would probably increase erosion! Furthermore, the canals were staggered out of accordance with the two strips of growing Leucaena trees.

The FTF Volunteer and Coordinator assisted Mr. Lafontant and his helpers in using finalizing the plan for this demonstration site. We utilized various combinations of Leucaena trees, vetiver, lemon grass, and napier grass (see picture below). This training was important in beginning to turn the reigns over to Mr. Lafontant who will lead the establishment of the ten remaining sites.

A contour strip in this mountainside field consists of vetiver and Leucaena K67, the combination of which will be effective in stopping soil erosion and will give forth numerous secondary products.

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At the second demonstration site, the The FTF Volunteer worked with Mr. Lafontant, second FTF Volunteer trained from left and the owner of the demonstration site, second Mr. Lafontant and 5 from the right, and a team of Ecomont assistants, all seen assistants in establishing holding vetiver bayonets. contour plantings on rocky terrain. This training session was important for demonstrating the methodology for beginning to work on rocky terrain, characteristic of most of the ten participating sites. The FTF Volunteer assisted in leading Mr. Lafontant, 4 assistants, and the farmer/owner of the land, to delineate the field, to determine distance between contour strips, and to find contours on winding, rocky terrain. After these two practica in contour planting, the FTF Volunteer delivered an intense session to Mr. Lafontant concerning recommendations and considerations for the contour strips in APV (see Appendix 5 for a copy of this session). Additionally, because seed collection is such a vital part of this program, the FTF Volunteer delivered an additional session with Yvon, Coordinator of the Village Committee for APV, who is sharing much of the responsibility for seed collection. This session entailed training the APV Coordinator in seed selection, collection, processing, and storage (See Appendix 6 for a copy of the Seed Session Outline) APZ, a Subgroup of APV: The Volunteer took the opportunity to visit the nursery of the Asosyasyon Peyizan Zanmo (APZ), a subgroup of APV, to determine how to improve their nursery for the benefit of both APV and APZ. This trip was taken with David Lofleur, leader of APZ. APZ’s nursery is close to a faucet and is in an area of little traffic. Their nursery contained
David Lofleur Jeandavido200220022002@yahoo.fr Asosyasyon Peyizan Zanmo Bois-Gency 12iem section, Petit Goave Or write letter to Vallue APV

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200 Simaruba glauca ready to outplant, ~85 mango seedlings, 80 grapefruit, and 100 empty sacks. We were able to identify numerous seedlings in local gardens to transplant into empty sacks, as well as to discuss the soil quality used in sacks. We identified areas near their nursery most appropriate for bareroot beds, and how to better manage watering an expanded nursery. We also discussed nutritional aspects and propagation of Moringa trees that happened to be growing near the nursery. It was decided over the next two days that though the fruit tree seedlings were to be distributed among APZ constituents, but APV was going to buy the 200 Simaruba glauca to begin filling in the contour lines and to begin establishing shade trees for the field of coffee. It was further agreed that APZ will produce 10,000 trees over this next season for APV. APZ, like most of APV, also needs further training in vegetable production and sustainable use of fast growing multipurpose forestry species. Next step for APV: Though work has begun at establishing these contour plantings, we need to continue developing a better system for seed collection in APV. The radio and village committees should be used to identify strong, seeding trees, as well as places where seedlings are naturally regenerating and should be transplanted. Though most seeds can and should be collected locally, the FTF Volunteer will continue to search for sources able to supply Calliandra and Sesbania species, not very available in APV. Nursery space is also a major issue. APV must continue to develop areas to serve as nursery sites, though financial support and better transportation are immediate hindrances. Though with minimal inputs, places like APZ can go from producing hundreds to producing tens of thousands of trees. It is also important for the FTF Coordinator or another FTF Volunteer to monitor progress on the demonstration sites and to continue developing ideas to mobilize the community for tree planting activities. Two additional needs are for a technician to train APV in producing neem soap and natural pesticides (see Appendix 7). The neem soap can be easily made using the neem trees currently invading the base of the mountain. This soap can be sold to/at the hotel and markets in local towns. Mouvman Koperativ Agricol pou Sove Sodo (MKASS) PCV Megan Affrunti and her counterpart, Papouloute Gaby, pictured on the right, are working with MKASS, a group of 80 individuals from 4 communities, interested in preserving their waterfall and local environment. Their $1,400.00 SPA project has been approved and the group is currently building their first large nursery in Sodo. Their primary efforts are to preserve eroded lands around their waterfall, a place whose annual pilgrimage is in June. The Volunteer donated ~7000 Leucaena seeds to aid in the establishment of their nursery, as well as discussed the technical aspects of soil conservation. The next step requires the FTF Coordinator to make a study of this site in Sodo.

Papouloute Gaby Productive Co-operatives Haiti jbauman@hainet.net address: Hotel Holiday’s Plaza Champs Mars, P-au-P

556-0565

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VII - FOLLOW-UP Because of both the numerous on-going projects, as well as the numerous activities for which project constituents require technical training, it is the recommendation of the FTF Volunteer to program another field visit as soon as possible for the main reason of monitoring the further development of agroforestry demonstration sites. While in the field, the FTF Volunteer also received numerous requests for information concerning various topics. He will tend to those requests from the Loret Miller Ruppe Center for Sustainable Development. Finally, there are topics discussed between the FTF Volunteer and the Coordinator, including maximizing fodder production from Moringa trees, maximizing germination rates of Leucaena seeds, seedless varieties of Leucaena, purifying water with Moringa seeds, and alternative live fence species, for which the Volunteer had relayed ideas to the FTF Coordinator and will continue to investigate new possibilities.

VIII - FUTURE CONTACTS           J. Keith Flanagan, the International Veterinary Program Coordinator for the InterAmerican Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, Flanagan@acn2.net Tom Dhaeyer, Dutchman working with water irrigation in Central Haiti tom@dhaeyer.be www.protos.be Paul and Nick Mantini, nimantini@hotmail.com working at Pierre Toussaint Doug Perlitz (431-0177) Liam John Pigot, rents small cottages near the beach Mathieu Lucius, APCD Natural Resources, US Peace Corps 509-256-8320 Form a cooperative among charcoal producers in all major towns to incorporate sustainable production through tree planting and sustainable harvesting. Contact CICDA/SICDA a French organization in port-au-Prince who should know who is currently working with large reforestation efforts Contact Communie Protos Haiti Visit aquaculture in Fondwa out side of P-au-P Get in touch with Cadet Brunel, Drouet, Street #96, Gonaives, Haiti (WI) Tel. 274 0117, an outstanding student at St Barnabas who has recently graduated from the two year agriculture program.

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Find out who is responsible for this lone forest 20 miles south of Cap-Haïtien, the only protected forest observed by the Volunteer.

 

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. Contact Sharon Gaskell, a missionary making a long-term commitment to help communities south of Cap-Haïtien . 519-928-9872. She is interested in tree planting projects for her schools. Contact Pastor Rick and Debbie Hutchinson serving in North Haiti Mission, Caesse Haiti www.northhaitimission.org, rickhutchinson@yahoo.com, address Lynx Air PMB, PO Box 407140, Ft. Lauderdale, Fl 33340. They are living in North Haiti and are working with raising animals. www.cities.com Research if any plastic trainer designs are appropriate for massive seedling production in Haiti.

Appendices Table of Contents Appendix 1:Summary of FTF Activities and other efforts in Haiti. Appendix 2: Learning from Past Projects in Haiti Appendix 3: Agroforestry Systems in Haiti – Concepts for Demonstration Farms in Perches, Terrier Rouge, and Bois-de-Lance. Appendix 4: Lesson Plan for Lecture at St Barnabas, August 28, 2003 Appendix 5: Considerations and Recommendations for Contour Planting in APV Appendix 6: Seed Collection and Storage – a technical discussion with Yvon, 9/6/2003 Appendix 7: A Lesson in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) with Myriam Salazar

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Appendix 1: Summary of FTF Activities and other efforts in Haiti. This list does not explain work with creating the leadership academy.
Aquaculture: A system is being developed around Haiti entailing the use of an 8 ft diameter fish tank and an 8 ft long gravel pit that will recycle water and potentially grow seedlings/plants/veggies/flowers. At the same time tilapia will grow 1 pound in 9 months. The kit costs about $2000. The fish tank is 5 feet deep and can hold 400-500 fish. One is set up in Fondwa, between Jacmel and Port-au-Prince. Rabbit Production: The rabbit program has three or four major steps. The first is to familiarize people with rabbits and promote rabbit production this entails talking, giving cages and rabbits, and driving around with the rabbit cage on the roof of the car. 2) Reinforce rabbit raisers with training and promote a standard cage. 3) Learn more about rabbit nutrition, feeding alternatives, and with TFTF establish an efficient food supply system. 4) Market and trading of rabbits. See page 6 on Phaëton and Piton for more information on rabbit fodder. Peanuts: FTF is working with Mouvman Organizasyan Peyizan Agrikol Gran-Basen between Terrier Rouge and Perches. Work has been going for about 3 years. Seed supply is really low. Concerning peanuts, it is mostly grown in the NE Nov-Dec, but production is always inconsistent. The virugard variety is the best in Haiti, ready in 145 days, with 65% oil, but they need more seed, as well as intercropped lands with cover cropping to improve the soil. MDR98 was tested because of its resistance to leaf spots, but a horrible 18% germination rate was unacceptable. Haitian walnut takes 150 days and Haitian bunch only takes 90 and yields 50% oil and good peanut butter.

Beekeeping: Beekeeping needs appropriate trees that beekeepers should be planting, namely compeche. They have about 300 people through their association with the Society of Apiculteurs de Haiti (SOCAPIH). What they need most is credit to invest in new hives rather than traditional logs and baskets. They planted 600 Compeche with 30 beekeepers and could expand those treeplanting efforts to 50,000 with enough seeds and sacks. Coffee: The coffee program reportedly needs more funds. Overall, not only in trees but also in peanuts, they are experiencing genetic erosion.

Goat: Looking for credit to purchase goats and also build fences Charcoal coop – The Volunteer discussed the possibility of establishing a charcoal coop in the town of Trou de Nord. The FTF Coordinator has undergone initial conversations with interested parties, though this idea should be further developed.

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Appendix 2: Learning from Past Projects in Haiti Development work in Haiti has left little institutional knowledge. A good place to start is reportedly the PADF office in Port-au-Prince, for past reports and projects. The FTF Volunteer recommends contacting Jonas/Johanas Gue at the PADF office in Port-auPrince, as well as Joel Timian of the SECID program in Auburn to learn more about past agroforestry efforts in Haiti. The pépinière in Caracol, funded by PADF and containing approximately 40,000 sacks, was abandoned by local residents. They had merely filled sacks with sand and abandoned them after cows invaded their nursery. Not only were tens of thousands of plastic sacks still usable, but money and time were waisted in plowing the more than 10 adjoining hectares in preparation for the outplanting (topleft). The Hillside Agricultural Project (HAP's) had attempted to minimize erosion in this gully, though sacks of sand without a barrier of vegetation is little match to Haiti’s heavy rains (Lower-right). The FTF Volunteer holds sustainability as a bottom line for all projects. Because of this, his current focus has been on training and identifying places, motivated groups, and people of interest, as seen in this report. Now, with the direct field experience of agents from Trees for the Future, along with the experience of the FTF Coordinator, the FTF Volunteer recommends a national project plan which responsibly provides further material and financial support to deserving projects. The FTF Volunteer constantly brainstormed with the FTF Coordinator to develop organizational methodologies that will improve local people’s involvement in the decision making for tree planting activities.

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Appendix 3: Agroforestry Systems in Haiti – Concepts for Demonstration Farms in Perches, Terrier Rouge, and Bois-de-Lance. We recommend first establishing a live fence around any field using thorny species that also give forth secondary products - though Haitians tend to simply use cacti and plants similar to Sisal, which have few other uses. The FTF Volunteer recommends using Compeche or Prosopis juliflora in areas of appropriate rainfall. Upon establishing protection around the Leucaena windbreaks field, we suggest dividing the field into acre-sized segments, thereby surrounding each segment with a double-lined Leucaena windbreak, as shown in the pictures above and to the left. The double rows, seen clearly in the picture on the left, will not only provide full time protection against wind for flowering vegetables, fruit trees, and field crops, but they will allow for alternating harvesting of the two lines of Leucaena trees. They can be repeatedly harvested Harvesting techniques for decades, thereby constantly producing supplies of strong, straight poles (pictured below). The poles present numerous uses. They Pole and timber production make a great charcoal, as seen in the picture below. Large rice sacks full of charcoal are sold for 25-30 Haitian dollars in towns. The poles can also be used for building fences, tools, chairs, and other carpentry uses. Fencing animals with Leucaena branches and feeding them combinations of Leucaena leaves with field crop residue will fatten animals at much higher rates that currently witnessed by grazing animals. These harvested windbreaks also supply tons of animal fodder per hectare (estimates range from 5-80 depending on Charcoal production rainfall and density), as well as massive amounts of green fertilizer, in the form of millions of small leaflets. These leaflets not only contain 25-30% protein, but they also can decpompose quickly, thereby improving topsoil. The final recommendation is to factor in the soil types and water availability to determine which areas of the give site are appropriate for which fruit trees, field crops, vegetables, and forestry trees – these recommendations tend to be site specific.

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Appendix 4 Lesson Plan for Lecture at St Barnabas, August 28, 2003

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Appendix 5: Considerations and Recommendations for Contour Planting Demo Sites in APV
Selection of Species Products secondaire - sont important pour le selection des arbres the contour strip play a major role in species selection C'est nécessaire de poser aux fermiers de ses idées/besoins/désires, Fruit, vetiver products, green (or real) charcoal - bois sauvage, animal fodder, lemon grass - citronel, production de miel / lapin Aussi, qu'est que le fermiers vouloir faire dans le terrain dans l'avenir S'il veut produire de café, nous recommandons Glyricidia, Leucaena, and Calliandra pour couverture rapide, Sucrin et Sammanea saman pour le longtemps Le selection des arbres depends de la disponability Il faut diversifier les lignes avec beaucoup des speces pour protégér de les insects/fungi/ maladies/bacteria etc. Other Encouragez les fermiers de transplanter les petites arbres qui ont grosses naturalment Recommended Species and Considerations Vetiver, napier, and Gymbopogon citrates - lemon grass citronel Leucaena leucocephala K-67 (approximately 120,000 provided) [K8 K28 K636] * Calliandra calothyrsus (-7000 seeds provided) Glyricidia sepium - bouture Albizzia lebek - keep low because of wind (tcha-tcha) Samanea saman - very slow but will be great for shade grown coffee Sesbania grandiflora - allow this tree to grow to 3m before coppicing Haematoxylon campechianum - campech - good for charcoal, highly coppiceable Cassia siamea - seeding now * Frenne - Simaruba glauca, kilo 1600 seeds Sucrin - seeding now * Chêne / Oak Placement des Speces *Melangez les arbres fruitieres avec les lignes de vetiver pour maximizer le space pour le development des raciness et branches, et eventuelment la production de fruits. Beaucoups des arbres forestier a côte de les arbres fruitieres vont minimizer la production parceque le competition entre les raciness pour nouriture et entre les feulles pour la lumiere Features of Design Single fields (curve) vs. long mountainsides (follow contour) Creusser Borders Frontière / lisière de les site de demonstration Les gens reconnaissent mombin, le candelabre, et autres pour les lisière Elephant grass and vetiver will grow fast to establish a visual/physical border/ live fence

John Leary - Trees for the Future 9000 16th St - PO Box 7027 Silver Spring, MD 20907 USA (bureau #) 301-565-5012 info@treesftf.org

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Appendix 6: Seed Collection and Storage – a technical discussion with Yvon, Coordinator of the Village Committees and seed collection, September 6, 2003
1) sources for obtaining tree seeds. 2) criteria for selection and collection of seeds. 3) seed germination test. Selection and Collection Guidelines a. Parent Tree Selection guidelines – ID best parent trees for trunk and branch formation, resistance to pests and disease, rate of growth b. Collect same species seeds from a distance of 100m from any other collection of the same species. This is for genetic diversity. It reduces the possibility of inbreeding that can occur when seeds drop and sprout close to the mother tree and crossbreed with it. c. Avoid trees that are isolated from others of the same species. This limits genetic diversity. d. Harvest only mature seed from ripened fruits. e. To ensure genetic variation, collect fruits equally from all parts of the crown-top, sides, and bottom, as these parts may have been pollinated at varying times from different sources (use long sticks with sharp ends that the women use to collect firewood to get to high places). f. Collect throughout a species normal habitat, noting variations in site. Include trees that cover a broad geography and environmental extremes. g. Man-made stands like live-fencing, plantations, or windbreaks should be carefully reviewed as to their establishment before being selected as a seed source. Processing a. Removing husks * husks are home to insects * husks are home to larvae * husks attract many pests * husks are bulkier to store b. Other factors * pick out bad seed ( disfigured, irregular form, boring insects) Storage a. moisture * causes rot * make sure seeds are dry when placed in storage and remove lids once per month to expel built up moisture and to also check for larvae which could have hatched b. temperature  keep in a cool and dark place  some species cannot survive in temperatures above 40C  fruit tree seeds should be refrigerated and may only be stored for a short time  Acacia seeds may be stored in cool places for several years c. atmosphere * containers should be kept off floors and away from walls due to insects and dampness * keep containers so that air can circulate around them as this helps with cooling and dryness d. containers * plastic- (pros)- no light, non-breakable, dark, (cons)-pests esp. mice, can’t see the seed * glass- (pros)-can see the seed, mice and pest safe, (cons)-breakable, prone to light disturbance * metal- (pros)- no light, non-breakable, no pests, (cons)- can’t see e. knowledge * species- NAME * collectionDATE,LOCATION,NAME OF COLLECTOR * storage- BEGINNING DATE TREATMENT * quantity f. pest control  store in ash / poison  shake the jars often * dry in shade after washing/ removing membrane such as citrus species, papaya, and orange * dry to avoid rot through moisture build-up in an enclosed environment

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Appendix 7: A Lesson in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) with Myriam Salazar Myriam Salazar, originally from Columbia, spent two months working as an agroecologist for APV. She assisted with IPM interventions and trained locals in composting methods. This is one of her favorite IPM interventions to combat nearly Myriam Salazar any insect that should be further exploited. mysavil@yahoo.com The FTF Volunteer had recommended Colombia that she also include soap. Soap helps IPM concoctions not only adhere to the surface of plants, but it is also effective against small sucking insects, such as aphids and thrips, and larger bugs and insects in concentrations around 8g/L. Ingredients seen in bucket:  1 kilo mango leaves  10L water  ½ kilo marigold flowers  1 kilo Leaves (Higuerilla) Ricinus comunis  100 grams diced hot chili pepper  2 kilo neem seeds  1 kilo leaves of Catalpa longissima  8g/L Plain local soap

Directions: 1) Crush all ingredients together with a mortar and pestil or similar tools. 2) Combine all ingredients and let seep overnight – do not store in the sun or warm area. 3) Strain the solution with an old t-shirt or cloth. 4) Dissolve the soap in the solution by either heating it in a separate container or by scrubbing firmly. 5) Apply by dipping infested branches in the solution or by spraying (see pictures below).

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