Docstoc

CONTENTS Ahmad Yahya Nigeria Social and Institutional Problems

Document Sample
CONTENTS Ahmad Yahya Nigeria Social and Institutional Problems Powered By Docstoc
					CONTENTS Ahmad Yahya: Nigeria Social and Institutional Problems Affecting Muslim Women Inheritance in Hausaland Aleksandra Petrovic: Serbia Women’s history and women’s literature in Serbia in the context of Balkan multi-confessional and multi-cultural communities Alicia Gauch: USA Motherhood: Challenging Feminism as a Feminist Challenge Annemarie Westendorp: Netherlands Addressing gender equity issues in development work: Higher education and competence based learning for rural development professionals Barbara Bagilhole: UK ‘Dilemmas for Feminist Methodology: Intersectionality to the Rescue?’ Burçin Çakır: USA Gender, Empire and Women’s Travel Writing Burcu Ertem: Turkey Kadının Cinsel Dokunulmazlığının 5237 Sayılı TCK Kapsamında Korunması Burkay Pasin: Turkey Re-visiting the Turkish Hamam as a Gendered Heterotopia Through the Narratives of Female Western Travellers Cate Morriss: Australia Pacific Women, Pacific Plan: Is the Pacific Islands Forum Stepping up the Pace with a Gendered Approach to Regional Development? Ceren Göynüklü Moral: North Cyprus “Human Beings for Sale”: Trafficking in Women in North Cyprus Ceren Sözeri & Hülya Uğur Tanrıöver: Turkey İnternet Medyasında Kadınların Temsil Biçimleri ve Kadın Çalışan Oranının Temsil Biçimleri ile İlişkisi 1

2

3

4

5 6 7

8

9

10

11

I

CONTENTS Christina Marie Stoltz: Kyrgyzstan “Fate for Sale”: Mark(et)ing Domestic Violence in Central Asia Cristina Bonnet: USA Becoming Human, Becoming Women: Strategies and New Subjectivities within the Tibetan Women’s Association Cynthia Forson: UK Shifting Circles of Support - Organising and Reorganising Gendered Labour in Self-employment: an Intersectional Analysis Daniela Francesca Virdis: Italy Representing Female Clumsiness: The Figure of Susan in ABC’s Desperate Housewives Debora Zuin: Scotland Still Sitting on the Bosses’ Lap? Reflections on Definitions and the Present State of the Gendered Occupation of Secretarial Work Deborah Kala Perkins: USA A New Universal Culture Dilruba Çatalbaş Ürper: Turkey Media’s Obsession with Body: Ageism and Gender Discrimination in Turkish Online Newspapers Doğuş Derya: Cyprus Effects of Turkish Nationalism on the Representations of Motherhood and the Construction of Female Subjectivity in the Turkish Cypriot Society Döndü Üçeçam & Hulusi Karagel: Turkey Türkiye’de Kadın İşgücü (2000) Einat Lachover: Israel Media Representation of Women during War: The Case of Israel's Six-Day War Elisabetta Zurru: Italy Fairy tales at the crossroads: Princesses’ awakening in Shrek the Third Elona Rusi: Albania The Role of States and Non-governmental Organisations in Combating Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation: A Critical Appraisal 12

13

14

15

16

17 18

19

20 21 22

23

II

CONTENTS Emel Badur: Turkey Kadının Aile İçi Şiddete Karşı Korunması (Ailenin Korunmasına Dair Kanun ve İlgili Yönetmelik Kapsamında Bir İnceleme) Evren Barın Egrik: Turkey Yeşilçam Sinemasında İdeal Olmayan Kadından İdeal Kadın İmajına Bir Mitosun Yolculuğu: “Küçük Hanımefendi” Farah Asna Ashari: Iran The Flow of Iranian Women’s Life: A historical-demographic study Farideh Beykzadeh: Iran Poverty and Social Exclusion Fatma Güven Lisaniler and Sevin Uğural: North Cyprus Gender Wage gap in Public and Private Sector: A Case of North Cyprus Feryal Çubukçu: Turkey Cinderalla at the University Firozeh Navabakbar : Iran The Effects of Life Style and Attitude on Producing Handicrafts Among Knitters Women Tribes of Marandafzar Region Half Settled Fran Hassencahl: USA Separation and Individuation of Mothers and Daughters in Hollywood Films Gamze Turan: Turkey Evli Kadının Soyadı (Alman ve İsviçre Medeni Kanunları ile Karşılaştırmalı bir Çalışma) Griet Vandermassen: Belgium Evolutionary Gender Studies – A New Paradigm Gülcan Garip: UK Perceived Sexual Scripts by University Students for Stable and Casual Heterosexual Encounters Halimah Awang, Rohana Jani: Malaysia Women and Decision Making in the Home: Findings from a Nationwide Study in Malaysia Hamed Mousavinasab: North Cyprus “One Million Signatures just for Equality” A Campaign from Iran

24

25

26 27 28 29

30

31 32 33 34 35 36

III

CONTENTS Hatice Kurtuluş: Turkey Toplumsal Cinsiyete Bağlı Olarak Göç ve Göçmenlik: Türkiye’den Kuzey Kıbrıs’a Göçler Herlina Dyah Kuswanti: Indonesia Work-Family Conflict, Social Support, and Organizational Support: An Investigation in Jogjakarta, Indonesia Hülya Uğur Tanrıöver Ece Vitrinel & Ceren Sözeri: Turkey Gözlemlerden eylemlere: Türkiye’de cinsiyetçi olmayan bir medyaya Doğru… Indriaty Ismail, Anisah Zainal Abidin & Wan Fariza Alyati Wan Zakaria: Malaysia Sisters in Islam: The Study on Their Thought and Methodological Interpretation of The Qur'an İrem Bailie: North Cyprus The Curse of Discursive Worlds: 'Reel-istic' Antagonism between Gender and Professional Identities of Women Journalists Jacqueline Fewkes: USA A ‘Women’s Space’ at the Indian Ocean Crossroads: Women’s Mosques in the Maldives Jessica J. Savage: USA Eating Machines John White : USA To be Black and Woman: A Brief look at Existentialism, Language and Gender Julianna Donofrio: USA Flora: Ethnographic Performance of Non-Violent Radical Loving Karen Gabriel: India Globalization and the Changing Sexual Economies of Mainstream Bombay Cinema Karolina Sznycer: Poland Manipulation in the Construction of Gendered Identities and Discourses in Desperate Housewives Lori Brown: USA & Özlem Erdoğdu Erkarslan: Turkey A Study of Women’s Shelters: Places of Transcendental Homelessness and Identity Lynette Hlongwane: South Africa Race, Gender and Women’s Agency: The Role of American Women Missionaries in the Founding and Operation of Inanda Seminary African Girls School During the 19th Century 37

38

39 40

41

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

IV

CONTENTS M. Moncef Khaddar: North Cyprus ‘State Feminism’ in the Middle East and North Africa: The case study of the role of the First Ladies in Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia Maria João Cunha: Portugal Female body representations in Portuguese popular media Mashoed Bailie & Bekir Azgın: North Cyprus Disturbing the Peace: Gender, Journalism and Democratic Communication in Cyprus Melek Atabey: North Cyprus Melekler ve Caniler: Türkiye’de Haberlerde bir Anlatı Olarak Annelik Mohammad Maghaminiya: Iran Iran Aile Hukukunda Kadının Hak ve Yükümlülükleri Mohammadreza Iravani & Jafar Ebrahimi : Iran The Role of Women in Development of Iran Nadja Furlan: Slovenia Gender Religious Policy in a Globalised World: Perspectives from the Field of Christian Feminist Theology Nafia Akdeniz: North Cyprus Where Do Babies Come From? Where Do They Go To? Maternal Body in the Reproductive Nurten Kara: North Cyprus Press Coverage of Rape News: Is it about Crime or Victim? Osman Ürper: Turkey Portraits of Anatolian Women / Anadolu’dan Kadın Portreleri Patricia Delaney and Carey Kaplan: USA Gender on the Border: Orthodoxy, Heterodoxy and the Life History of Gender Studies at Roman Catholic College in the United States Patrizia Violi: Italy Gender identity and the role of women in peace processes and conflict resolution Pembe Behçetoğulları & Hanife Aliefendioğlu: North Cyprus Missing Histories of Cyprus: War, Displacement and Women’s Narratives

50

51 52 53 54 55

56

57 58 59

60

61 62

V

CONTENTS Ratna Noviani: Indonesia Vengeance of the Killed Women: Representing Women’s Resistance in Indonesian Horror Movies Raziye Nevzat Yaver: North Cyprus Signs and Semiotics of Gender in Cyprus: The Representation of the Female Body in Holiday Brochures Riitta Vanhatalo & Pekka Isotalus: Finland Networking Women in the Rural Areas of Finland Rumana Hashem: Bangladesh Gendered Dynamics of conflcit: Analysing the Violence in the Ethno-Nationalist Conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts Sagit Arbel-Alon & Eudice Yodelevich: Israel The firt Israli clinic for WSW Semra Purkis: Turkey Türkiye’den Kuzey Kıbrıs’a Son Göçlerde Kadın İşgücünün Göçmenlik Halleri Sevinç Eryılmaz, Gökçeçiçek Ayata & Burcu Yesiladali: Turkey Bir Yoksulluk ve Sosyal Dışlanma Örneği: Roman Kadınlar Steve Buckledee: Italy The Female in the Femail of the Daily Mail Suzanne Dyson: Australia Fair Game: Tackling Violence Against Women in Australian Football Sylvie Lausberg: Belgium Project for Educating to Citizenship by Respecting Gender- and Cultural Identity Şengül Hablemitoğlu & Filiz Yıldırım: Turkey Understanding Gender to Prevent Abuse and Trauma Depending on Violence: The Ecological Approach Şule Ergöl, Gülten Koç, Lale Taşkın& Kafiye Eroğlu: Turkey Problems Faced by Women Who Work as Academicians, in their Work and Home Lives From the Perspective of Gender 63

64

65

66

67 68 69 70 71 72

73

74

VI

CONTENTS Tahereh Sadaat Hashemi: Iran Factors & Motives in Human Trafficking (Emphasis on Central Asia) Tülen Saner & Şerife Zihni Eyüpoğlu: North Cyprus Job Satisfaction: Does Gender Make a Difference Türkan Uraz & Ceren Kürüm: North Cyprus The Gendered Comeback Story of the Live-in Kitchen Violetta Khoreva: Finland Power and Gender Equality: A New Look at the Gender Pay Gap Yu Bo: China Research on Determinants of Androgyny in Female Undergraduates in China Zeynep Alat & Serpil Alkış Turkey Turning Little Red Riding Hood into a Girl Power Story Zeynep Alat &Nehir Çabı: Turkey Working in the Ivory Basement: Early Childhood Teacher Educators Rowing against Feminist Current 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

VII

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

1

Social and Institutional Problems Affecting Muslim Women Inheritance in Hausaland
The issue of gender equity is today one of the most indisputably hot topics of discussion at many local and international fora. Among the aspects that attract attention is distribution of inheritance and the extent to which it is fair or otherwise to females. The Islamic system of inheritance, particularly the allotment to females half the share of males, led some non-Muslim scholars to allege that Islam is totally unfair to and segregates against the female gender at large. Despite the fact that women are accorded rights to inherit at various capacities and enjoy many advantages which males do not, this system of succession continues to be labeled as female unfriendly. In its eight hundred years of Islamic history Hausaland has been operating the Islamic system of succession. Unfortunately, social and institutional problems sometimes tamper with the distribution and are assumed by the critics to be inherent in the Islamic system of inheritance. This paper brings into the open the status of females in the Islamic system of succession and the problems which hinder muslim women in Hausaland from enjoying the inheritance rights which Islam gives them. This will help in determining weather these socio-institutional problems are integral parts of the Islamic system of inheritance or are external to it.

Ahmad Yahya
ahmadfaggekano@yahoo.co.uk Federal College of Education Nigeria

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

2

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Women’s History and Women’s Literature in Serbia in the Context of Balkan Multi-confessional and Multi-cultural Communities
The paper will present findings of the research into the presence of women’s history and women’s literature in Serbian textbooks and curricula. The presence of women’s history and women’s literature in schools is researched in relation to patriarchal system of values and orthodox moral views. However, social and historical context can be understood wider – as a development of multi-confessional and multi-cultural society in the territory of former Yugoslavia and the region. Past research indicates the prevalence of stereotypical media image of a Balkan woman as uneducated and marginalized in public life. The question is whether the same characteristics of Balkan woman are depicted in women’s literature selected for pupils of elementary and secondary schools in Serbia and other Balkan states.

Aleksandra Petrovic
apetrovic@rcub.bg.ac.yu Institute for Educational Research Serbia

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

3

Motherhood: Challenging Feminism as a Feminist Challenge
Adrienne Rich asserts that motherhood as we understand it is a patriarchal institution. She challenges us to reject this institution and develop an authentic understanding of the experience of motherhood. Sara Ruddick expands on this idea, suggesting that motherhood can be seen as one way of knowing, and can thus lead to a unique approach to political participation. This paper discusses why feminist theory must consider motherhood an important factor in the development of women’s political agency. Many feminist theorists elect to sanitize or outright reject the role of motherhood, relegating it to essentialism, manipulation, or subjugation. Such arguments lead only to the perpetuation of an often oppressive patriarchal institution and leave many women alienated from theories that attempt to describe their experience. Reclaiming motherhood as Rich suggests can elevate the perception of that experience from subjugation to empowerment. Ultimately, this allows a shift in the boundaries between the public and private spheres. Applying the skill sets and insights derived from motherhood to the political sphere allows a transformation of our understanding of politics. Furthermore, seeing motherhood as a valid source of knowledge will enable many women to find that feminist theory describes their own potential. Feminist theory and political action must reflect the experience and needs of women. By considering the opportunities and implications of motherhood, feminist thought can continue to challenge its own content and assumptions of women’s experience in the world.

Alicia Gauch
gaucha@tcd.ie Trinity College USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

4

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Addressing gender equity issues in development work: Higher education and competence based learning for rural development professionals
Nowadays there is the notion that in order to work in development and gender equity, we need facilitators of change. We know on the basis of experiences gained over the last 10 – 15 years working on capacity building with rural development professionals, from Africa and Asia, that that knowledge and skills are not enough to facilitate change. Only professionals with the right attitude can identify or address gender and other social equity issues in their working field. At our university we conduct Master courses, using a competence based learning approach. We introduce theories, and skills and at the same time challenge attitudes, and raise awareness of individuals of their behaviour within the organisation they are working, the household they are living. We teach professionals to identify inequalities in treatment and consequences for efficiency or equity. This is approach is new for the majority of the professionals who have been taught in a rather traditional, classroom oriented, knowledge-transfer-focused way. The concept of competency is new. It is difficult to indicate for professionals, in particular, which attitude is required to work in a gender-sensitive way. Several methods are applied to achieve strengthening of professional competencies. In this paper I like to share the experience of our course participants and show, with examples, which methods are successful in particular in achieving attitude change, in relation to creating gender sensitivity. Annemarie Westendorp
annemarie.westendorp@wur.nl Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied sciences Netherlands

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

5

‘Dilemmas for feminist methodology: Intersectionality to the rescue?
On the one hand it is important to acknowledge the very real gains women have made in all spheres, including many of the legal rights for which we have fought and won. To discount the significance of such changes is to discount women’s political achievements. On the other hand, women worldwide continue to face systematic disadvantage in both public and private spheres. Moreover, not all women have benefited to the same extent from the advances that have been made. Gender/feminist theory and politics have constructed the category of ‘woman’ differently over time and different cultures. Most recently a deconstructed model of woman has emerged. The theoretical advance of post-structuralism with its deconstruction of all such binary oppositions such as woman/ man, in face of multiple and fluid identities that make up each individual, undermined the notion of woman. However, this threatens equal opportunities policy making for women with the loss of subject and impotency. Cultural politics of identity, rooted in claims for recognition of difference, may become disconnected from egalitarian politics of justice and redistribution. Therefore, the theory and methodology of intersectionality has been proposed to move beyond identity politics to various forms of a politics of solidarity in difference. This is examined in the paper as a potential opening for continuing equality policy which acknowledges the re-categorisation of women whilst recognising diverse axes of domination. The paper acknowledges and analyses that where multiple disadvantages interplay and coincide or conflict between and within groups new fine-tuned policy approaches need to be considered. Barbara Bagilhole
B.M.Bagilhole@lboro.ac.uk Loughborough University England

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

6

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Gender, Empire and Women’s Travel Writing
Lady explorer is a traveler in skirts. That was the main image of women travelers during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For a very long time, women travelers were out of interest of scholars beginning from their life times. Earlier travel narratives “were aimed primarily at a male audience and were also written my men”. Little attention has been given to women’s travel writing until recently and only very recently there are anthologies on women’s travel writing appearing. Mary Kingsley’s travel writing was even published in her own time and was very popular but this was an exception. Otherwise, the publishing industry largely ignored women’s travel literature. The western literary production mainly focused on the writings of men who had traveled across the world. However, with the rise of gender and post-colonial studies, scholars become much more interested in female travel writers across different geographies from different origins. Scholars agree that the post-colonial travel writing can not be considered without the methods of gender, race and colonial studies. Within the limits of this historiographical paper on women’s travel writing, it is aimed to cover the interpretations of historians who had produced academic studies on women travelers of late eighteenth and nineteenth century who had written down their perceptions and representations of the Empire, gender and Orientalism that were coming from experiences of their “new” colonial world. Women’s travel writing is very much associated with the Empire. Most of the time, the wives of the imperial soldiers or elites became interested in colonial culture and practice, and particularly in the lives of women and started to keep diaries or memories of their experiences and travels during the eighteenth century. The assumptions and trajectories of these women’s lives and work, their feelings about empire, all have the mark of an historical background against which they measured and shaped their own imperial lives. Trained in a particular and historical mode of womanhood and conscious of the Britishness, these women often struggled to make sense of life in unfamiliar environments. Historians agree that women whose lives were shaped by the kinds of gendered considerations give valuables insights to the understanding of empire, class and identity.

Burçin Çakır
burcin.cakir@ttu.edu Texas Tech University USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

7

Kadının Cinsel Dokunulmazlığının 5237 Sayılı Türk Ceza Kanunu Kapsamında Korunması
Kadınların maruz kaldığı şiddet biçimlerinden özellikle cinsiyet farkına vurgu yapan erkek egemen kaynaklı cinsel şiddet, zaruri olarak psikolojik ve fiziksel şiddet tiplerini de bünyesinde barındırmaktadır. Cinsel şiddet, kadının cinsel özgürlük alanını kısıtlayan, ihlal eden, cinsiyete dayalı edilgenliğe vurgu yapan ve cinsel amaçlarla gerçekleştirilen her türlü rıza dışı müdahaleyi ifade etmektedir. Kadının cinsel özgürlüğünün hakimiyetinin toplumdan alınarak kadına iadesi gereğini nazara alan yasa koyucu, mülga 765 sayılı TCK’nun kadına obje olarak bakışını değiştirmiş ve 5237 sayılı TCK ile kadına erkeklerle birlikte toplumun eşit hak ve özgürlüklere sahip bir ferdi olarak yer vermiştir. Yasa koyucu, kadının cinsel özgürlüğü aleyhine işlenen bu grup suçları “Adabı Umumiyeye ve Nizamı Aile Aleyhine Cürümler” başlığı altında düzenlemekten vazgeçerek; Kanun’un “Kişilere Karşı Suçlar” başlıklı İkinci Kısmı’nın altında ve “Cinsel Dokunulmazlığa Karşı Suçlar” Bölümü’nde düzenlemiştir. Ayrıca ceza kanunlarının önleyicilik ve caydırıcılık işlevini harekete geçirmek amacıyla, öngörülen ceza oranlarında artırıma gidilmiştir. “Cinsel Dokunulmazlığa Karşı İşlenen suçlar” başlığı altında düzenlenen suç tipleri, suçun aktif ve pasif sujeleri açısından cinsiyete dayalı bir ayrıma gitmemiş, tüm bireylerin cinsel dokunulmazlıklarını koruma altına almıştır. Bu Bölüm’de düzenlenen ve kadının cinsel özgürlüğünün korunması kapsamında değerlendirilen suç tipleri, “cinsel saldırı” suçu (TCK md. 102) ile “cinsel taciz” (TCK md. 104) suçudur. Ancak kadının cinsel özgürlüğünün korunması, belirtilen suç tipleri ile sınırlı kalmamış ve diğer bazı suç tiplerinde -örneğin “Kişiyi Hürriyetinden Yoksun Kılma” suçunun cinsel amaçla işlenmesi- cinsel dokunulmazlığın kısıtlanması sonucunu doğuran fiillere suçun nitelikli hali olarak yer verilmiştir.

Burcu Ertem
burcuertem@cankaya.edu.tr Faculty of Law Çankaya University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

8

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Re-visiting th Turkish Hamam as a Gendered Heterotopia Through the Narratives of Female Western Travellers
Spaces and places, and our perception of them are gendered through and through, in a myriad of different ways, which vary between cultures and over time. And this gendering of spaces and places both reflects and has effects back on the ways in which gender is constructed and understood in the societies we live in. Communal bathhouses, as gendered spaces, proved to be not only ritualistic places of cleansing but also venues of social interaction, sexual pleasure and intimacy for different cultures. One well-known type of a communal bathhouse is the Turkish bath (hamam), a significant figure of the Ottoman-Turkish daily life, where multiple social, cultural and sexual realities of a particular society are associated within a single space. Having been alternately or separately used by the male and the female, the hamam has in time been turned into a privatized public domain, where erotic fantasies, bodily instincts and same-sex desires of both genders come to existence; strengthened by the hamam depictions of the orientalist authors. This paper aims to go beyond the orientalist view representing the female body as ‘a culturally constructed other’ in the hamam depictions and considers the contemporary hamam as a liminal space, the multi-sensory and eroticising aura of which creates a particular association of body, gender and space in both the physical and mental world of the individual bather. In this context, referring to Foucaultian heterotopology, the hamam is re-visited as a ‘gendered heterotopia’, through the contemporary narratives of three female Western travellers. Burkay Pasin
burkay.pasin@ieu.edu.tr Izmir University of Economics Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

9

Pacific Women, Pacific Plan, Pacific Way: Is globalising the South Pacific still a man’s job?
Globalisation has forced the island states of the Pacific to renew and strengthen commitments to cooperate and integrate. Debate has often centred on the possibility of a unionisation of the small island states along the lines of the European Union; however this is usually dismissed as an impractical solution to the complexities of the region given the geography and diversity of states. In response to the global pressures of trade, security and economic capacity The Pacific Islands Forum’s Pacific Plan for Regional Cooperation and Integration proposed and implemented a ten year plan which aims to unify and strengthen the island nations of the South Pacific across a number of areas. This paper argues that, while the Pacific Plan has merit in its vision, there was limited practical commitment to the inclusion of women’s perspective in the process of developing the plan. In the lead up to implementation of the regional plan women were unified in voicing concern about the Plans ability to address gender disparities. The use of gender mainstreaming created opportunities to marginalise women’s concerns and although this may not have been a deliberate outcome, culture and a resistance towards adopting approaches that might perceivably be considered a threat to the ‘pacific way’ have made it difficult for women to influence policy . The paper surveys responses by women’s organisations to the Pacific Plan proposal, together with early implementation strategies in regard to effecting improvement in gender equality and awareness of gender issues in the region. Cate Morriss
c.morriss@student.qut.edu.au cathrynmorriss@gmail.com Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane Australia

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

10

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

“Human Beings for Sale”: Trafficking in Women in North Cyprus

Trafficking in persons is one of the most serious human rights violations in North Cyprus just as it is worldwide. Trafficking in women for the purposes of sexual exploitation is the major form of trafficking in persons in North Cyprus which is a destination country for trafficked women mostly from Eastern and Central Europe. Traffickers who force women into prostitution recruit victims to work as “artistes” in nightclubs with 6-month artiste-visas according to the law regulating the operation of places of entertainment. Although prostitution is not allowed within the scope of that law and is a crime under the criminal law, it is a known fact that the women concerned are being used for prostitution. In addition to that, victims owe the employers for their travel expenses and their salaries are garnished to pay off smuggling fee; this is the inhuman method of debt bondage. The women concerned do not have freedom of movement. They are compelled to live in very bad conditions that can be regarded as inhuman treatment. They are threatened with harm if they attempt to escape. They are sometimes deprived of sleep, adequate medical care or other essentials. They are not allowed to socialize. Because of lack of knowledge and awareness in the local society, victims are also subjected to discrimination. They are regarded as prostitutes rather than victims. Despite reliable indicators showing the existence of trafficking in women in North Cyprus, effective steps have not been taken to combat trafficking in persons and to protect victims by the Turkish Cypriot administration. Trafficking in persons is defined as organized crime in several international instruments. However, in North Cyprus it has not been defined as such a crime. Thus, there is no legal basis to punish perpetrators as traffickers or to define the trafficked women as victims. Recently a bill has been referred to parliament trying to define and criminalize trafficking in persons according to internationally accepted criteria and providing protection for victims. But it has not been put into force, yet. This paper aims to review the situation regarding trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation in North Cyprus in all its complexity and discusses the phenomenon both as a crime and a violation of basic human rights.

Ceren Göynüklü Moral
ceren.goynuklu@ktihv.org Turkish Cypriot Human Rights Foundation North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

11

İnternet Medyasında Kadınların Temsil Biçimleri ve Kadın Çalışan Oranının Temsil Biçimleri ile Ilişkisi
Medya, içinde varolduğu üretim yapısının niteliğine göre örgütlenmekte ve üretim yapmaktadır. Dünya ekonomisi bugün yeni ekonomi adı verilen bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin çok önem kazandığı bir yapılanma içindedir. Günümüzde internet, haber dağıtımında da giderek baskın bir mecraya dönüşmektedir. Liberal düşünürler, sunduğu olanaklarla diğer mecralara göre üstün olduğu kabul edilen, her geçen gün daha geniş bir kitleye ulaşan internetin, haber üretim ve dağıtım süreçlerini daha demokratik, katılımcı, çoksesli hale dönüştürmesi beklentisini taşırken internet medyasının bugün geleneksel medyada varolan sorunları derinleştirdiği ya da yeniden ürettiğini savunan eleştirel yaklaşımlar da güç kazanmaktadır. Bu sorunların en önemlilerinden biri din, dil, ırk, cinsiyet gibi belirli kategorilerin geleneksel medyadakine benzer biçimde internette medyasında da temsil ediliş biçimleri, bu biçimlerin yaygınlaştırılması, meşrulaştırılması ve içselleştirilmesidir. Bu çalışmada temsil kategorilerinden biri olan cinsiyetin, ancak, cinsiyetin anatomik-biyolojik bir özellik değil toplumsal bir yapıntı olduğunu ortaya çıkaran çalışmalardan bu yana benimsenen terimle “toplumsal cinsiyet”in internet medyasına yansımasının, kadın - erkek temsilleri arasında varolan “ayrılık” ya da daha ötesinde “ayrımcılık”ın kadınların internet medyasında temsil biçimlerinin incelenmesiyle ve içeriklerin oluşumunda kadınların payının belirlenmesiyle ortaya konması amaçlanmaktadır. Araştırmada “Internet Medyasında Kadınların Temsil Biçimleri” bölümünde “eleştirel söylem analizi” yöntemi kullanılmış, “Kadın Çalışan Oranının Temsil Biçimleri ile Ilişkisi” bölümünde ise yüz yüze derinlemesine görüşme tekniğini içeren kalitatif yöntem kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada bütünsel olarak kantitatif teknikleri de içeren kalitatif amaçlı bir yöntem uygulanmıştır.

Ceren Sözeri
cerensozeri@gmail.com

Hülya Uğur Tanrıöver
hulyatanriover@gmail.com Galatasaray University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

12

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

“Fate for Sale”: Mark(et)ing Domestic Violence in Central Asia
The textual foundations for this paper lie not only in an autobiography written by Bibish, a young Uzbek belly dancer who currently resides outside of Moscow, but also in the figure of Bibish herself, as a popular “addendum” to her own work. A writer and performer who frequents clubs, talk shows, and has recently appeared in a rock music video, Bibish’s identity is as multiple as her diasporic experience. Originally from Khiva, a conservative town in Uzbekistan, and now a Russian citizen, Bibish has marketed her Islamic immigrant past, bringing sacred tradition to the forefront in a secular age. Despite her commercialized hybridity, as “Europeanized” novelist and “Middle Eastern” dancer, a disjuncture exists between the ways in which Bibish’s claims to authenticity are produced professionally and the ways in which she commodifies herself as authentic to remain relevant socially. It is the point where her contradictory commercialization and self-styling intersect with Western culture that this paper investigates. The theoretical underpinnings of my critical framework include third-world feminist literary and geographical analyses, in addition to content analyses of interviews conducted, December 2006August 2008, with Bibish and with university educators, crisis intervention advocates, and government representatives involved in domestic violence and gender awareness campaigns throughout Russia and Central Asia.

Christina Marie Stoltz
American University of Central Asia Kyrgyzs Republic

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

13

Becoming Human, Becoming Women: Strategies and New Subjectivities within the Tibetan Women’s Association
The current protests in Tibet and worldwide with the Olympic torch remind us that the Tibet cause has become a global symbol for enthusiastic demands for the preservation and the upholding of Human Rights in the world. From Argentina to India thousands of people protested with indignation about the Olympics being held in China – a country with an infamous Human Right’s abuse record. It is this international enthusiasm for Human Rights as well as for women’s rights that has been central in producing an effective rhetoric for the Tibetan Women’s Association (TWA) –the largest female organization among the Tibetans in exile and one of the two most politically active groups in the entire exiled Tibetan community. My research comprises the first in-depth ethnography of the TWA and this paper explores how the global enthusiasm for Human Rights and for gender equality has produced specific subjectivities among the Tibetan women in exile along with effective strategies for cultural survival. Tibetans in exile, a people without citizenship, a nation without a state, have often relied on a Western rhetoric of “universal freedom” and “universal human rights” which often come in contrast to other epistemological explanations of the “universal”, the “human”, and “rights” which are found predominantly within the Tibetan culture. Under situations of difficulty, violence and exile, the TWA has decided to adopt a “grid of intelligibility” which gives them access to resources that would not be available to them otherwise. However, they have also negotiated as to preserve their culture and their religion, which clearly bears alternative epistemologies of being a human with rights. My research has taken place during the last year in Dharamsala, India, the seat of the Tibetan government in exile, and it uses ethnographic research methods as well as historical and textual analysis to explore the relationship between citizenship – or a lack of it –and the embracing of particular Western discourses as a strategy for cultural survival. Additionally, it traces a genealogy of the Tibetan concepts of “human rights”, not only to underline the particularity and historicity of the adopted Western discourses, but also to explore the distinctive struggles that occupy Tibetan women in exile. Therefore, my paper will focus on the specificities of the TWA while engaging with broader discussions about the role of citizenship, the nation, and colonial violence – physical as well as “epistemic” – in producing subjects that need to negotiate “international” or “global” discourses in order to advance their political agendas.

Cristina Bonnet
cristibon@gmail.com Stanford University USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

14

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies Shifting Circles of Support - Organising and Reorganising Gendered Labour in SelfEmployment: an Intersectional Analysis Paper presents the findings of a study focused on Black women business owners in London. The paper seeks to explore the experiences of black women who have set up their own businesses in London examining the relationship between the business and the home. The paper examines the obstacles raised by the confrontation between the private and public space and the impact of gender, ethnicity, class and migrant status on the women’s strategies in creating and maintaining circles of support for the setting up and maintenance of their businesses. The literature on gender relations in the home acknowledges how the increased labour market participation of women has altered the patriarchal dynamics within the home. Although higher occupational status may bring with it the ability to delegate domestic tasks, Black women have to contend with the dynamics of ethnicity, gender, and class and for some, history and migration and the intersection of these structures in their lives. To study their experiences therefore requires an intersectional perspective which disengages with the traditional additive approach to understanding disadvantage and focuses on the interaction of different forms of oppression. Qualitative methods are used and semi-structured interviews with 50 black women business owners were conducted. The analysis of the paper will be informed by an intersectional approach in the context of a society that is stratified by sex, ethnicity and class.

Cynthia Forson
c.a.forson@herts.ac.uk University of Hertfordshire England

The findings portray the links between the various forms of work (paid/unpaid, public/private) and the various realms within which such work is performed in self-employment. The paper enables an understanding of interdependencies between different structures, institutions and activities of the domestic realm and the labour market spheres and provides a way of exploring the impact of the intersection of gender, ethnicity, class and migration in the nexus of domesticity and selfemployment for the participants.

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

15

Representing Female Clumsiness: The Figure of Susan in ABC’s Desperate Housewives
In this paper, I will analyse the American TV series Desperate Housewives (2004-present), produced by ABC, in particular the character of Susan Mayer and a conversation in the pilot show of the series in which she participates. Susan, who is in her early forties, is an illustrator of children’s books who works in her suburban middle-class home, and the divorced mother of fourteen-year-old Julie. Her main personality trait is clumsiness in words and actions — to take a random example from the pilot show, she accidentally sets fire to her neighbour’s house, which eventually burns to the ground. Through the linguistic tools provided by conversation analysis, pragmatics and stylistics, and through the theoretical frameworks of feminist television and media studies, I will examine Susan’s conversational style and interactional behaviour towards her friends and neighbours, especially towards Mike Delfino, a handsome plumber whom she feels attracted to, and Edie Britt, an estate agent and “the most predatory divorcee in a five-block radius” in the narrator’s words. Firstly, I will describe the specific linguistic means through which Susan’s awkwardness is constructed at textual and discoursal levels — namely, mainly, but not only, floutings and violations of the Gricean Cooperative principle and maxims. Secondly, I will examine the conversational implicatures triggered by these floutings and the outcomes of these violations, and I will try to identify and reveal the reasons why the female figure of Susan is represented as extremely ungainly.

Daniela Francesca Virdis
dfvirdis@unica.it Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature University of Cagliari, Italy

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

16

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Still Sitting on the Bosses’ Lap? Reflections on Definitions and the Present State of the Gendered Occupation of Secretarial work.
“Secretary” means different things to different people, but it is generally related to a highly feminized occupational function. Exploring the gender and sexuality arena that permeates the secretarial occupation, some sociological views address secretaries as commonly represented as women, at times also representing gender terms. There are many stereotypes related to secretaries and their relations at the workplace. New technology has changed the shape of many occupations in recent years, and the secretarial occupation is one of them. Its historical tasks, roles, qualification, autonomy and job design are controversial in organizations and in the public and academic arenas. The aim of this paper is to weave together a range of literature that explores definitions of terms related to secretarial work and multidisciplinary views on this gendered occupation. It reflects on the secretarial occupation, considering that secretaries can at times be regarded as devoid of agency within their role, a view that sprang initially from literature on clerical and secretarial work on the proletarianisation and degradation debates. This paper firstly explores historical aspects of the birth of secretarial labour and the inevitable association between women and the office clerical and secretarial work. Secondly, it presents a discussion on definitions of ‘secretary’ and ‘secretarial work’ and how it is translated into today’s state of the secretarial function. Lastly, it examines Rosemary Pringle’s definition of secretary in relation to three discourses: the “office wife”, the “sexy secretary” and the “career woman”.

Debora Zuin
dzuin@ufv.br

Brian Main
Brian.Main@ed.ac.uk University of Edinburgh Scotland

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

17

A New Universal Culture
Exploring symmetries across the nexus of science and spirituality, particularly in new cosmologies, profound resonance between the most ancient and future insights emerge. We leave behind fixed notions of space-time, as dark matter, dark energy and black holes are understood to comprise over 95% of our universe. Perhaps there are infinite universes, a megaverse of infinite infinities, churning, moving in and out of the spectrum of existence in eternal harmonic waves between the dynamics uttered by cosmos and global expression. Culturally, cognition of the feminine reintegrates into the forefront of scientific inquiry. Ancient concepts of human responsibility for the global life force, understanding woman as life giver, and conceptualized by first nations, as in Egypt’s Maat and Nun, interfaces with environmental imperatives and the discovery of 250 new planets orbiting other stars. Astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, its arising and cosmic ubiquity enters our reality in wholly new ways. Autopoiesis, its self-creative and emergent universal dynamics, are taking center stage. In our new universal culture, war is recognized as wholly immoral; life is venerated as principal interest; diversity and creativity are understood as primary wealth; and deep respect for the integrity of each and every seed of being is the fundamental practice of our civilization, as its lightning rod of actualizing reverence. Images and ideas from deep space, the birth and death of stars, the churning of our universe and the dance of human culture, respond to the suffusion of spatial and global life in this presentation. Deborah Kala Perkins
quasar9@mac.com Alden March Bioethics Institute, Albany Medical College USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

18

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Media’s Obsession with Body: Agism and Gender Discrimination in Turkish Online Newspapers
It can be argued that the idea of eternal youth is hardly a contemporary phenomenon. It seems, however, that modern consumer societies are less tolerant to aging and more obsessed with bodily appearance. Celebrities in particular are not entitled to get old. To put it righ, they may get older but they may not look old. In popular press physical manifestations of aging are represented like a terrible misfortune especially for women celebrities. ‘Once a gorgeous star, now a wreck’ kind of news stories seems to be a staple of online newspapers. Although men celebrities are also sometimes the subjects of a similar treatment it is mostly the women who are chosen for this public degradation of aging. Agism is not the only problem inherent in the media representation of body. Women are also constantly judged by their physical appearance. Online newspapers regularly provide stories on how much weight well known women have put on or lost; how bad their legs look because of cellulite and whether their breasts have silicon implants or not. This paper sets out to examine stories on aging and bodily appearance of celebrities in the mainstream Turkish online newspapers. It aims to explain the readers’ interest in and journalistic value of such stories. It argues that visual and verbal representations of aging and bodily appearance of celebrities in the popular media are ageist, stereotypical and discriminating against women.

Dilruba Çatalbaş Ürper
dcatalbas@gsu.edu.tr Galatasaray University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

19

Effects of Turkish Nationalism on the Representations of Motherhood and the Construction of Female Subjectivity in the Turkish Cypriot Society
This article will be an attempt to conceptualize the effects of Turkish nationalism in both constructing gendered power regimes and shaping female subjectivities in the Turkish Cypriot Society. In this article, I will analyze the roles of contradictory fantasies and power struggles generating around the gendered historiographical knowledge and national narratives, in order to elaborate a map whereon the discussions of the discourse of “The Motherland” and its role in interpellating and subjectifying Turkish Cypriot women as “the victims”, “the sacrifying patriots” and “the mothers” respectively, become possible. This map will be based on the narrative analyses of the historical texts and the writings and practices of the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot male elites, and on an ethnographic research conducted in various villages and cities of North Cyprus, with a focus on the ideology of gender in the Turkish Cypriot society.

Doğuş Derya
dogusderya@yahoo.com Middle Eastern Studies The North Cyprus University Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

20

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Türkiye’de Kadın İşgücü
Çalışmanın konusunu Türkiye’nin tüm il ve ilçe merkezlerinde 2000 yılı sayım sonuçlarına göre çalışan kadın nüfus sayısı ve oranlarının tespit edilmesi oluşturmaktadır. Türkiye’de çalışan kadın nüfusun hem sayıca hem de erkeklere göre oran bakımından gösterdiği farklılıklar ve bu farklılığa sebep olan faktörlerin ortaya çıkarılması bu çalışmanın temel amacını oluşturmaktadır. Ayrıca Türkiye’de belirli yerlerde kadın işgücünün erkeklere nazaran yoğunlaştığı alanları ortaya çıkarmak bir diğer amacımızı teşkil etmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışma, kadın işgücünün sosyal hayatta erkeklere nazaran ne derece önemli olduğunun belirlenmesi ile o sahalara yapılacak yatırımlarda bu özelliklerin göz önünde bulundurulması bakımından önem teşkil etmektedir. Böylece yeni yapılacak yatırımlar ile kadının işgücüne katılarak hem ev ekonomisine katkıda bulunması ve hem de ekonomik özgürlüğünü elde etmesi sağlanmış olacaktır. Bu çalışmada kullanılan veriler, TÜİK’ten temin edilmiştir. Araştırmanın temelini oluşturan bu istatistikî bilgiler nüfus sayım sonuçlarının ham verileri şeklinde olup toplu olarak herhangi bir basılı kaynakta yer almamaktadır. 2000 yılına ait verilerin içeriğini; Türkiye’nin tüm il ve ilçe merkezleri ile kırsal kesimlerine ait istatistikler oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmada ise sadece il ve ilçe merkezlerinde çalışan kadın, erkek ve toplam nüfusa ait değerler kullanılmıştır. Bu verilerin değerlendirilmesinde; öncelikle illere göre toplam, erkek ve kadın çalışan nüfus sayıları ile oranlarını yansıtan bir tablo hazırlanmıştır. Fazladan aza doğru bir sıralama yapılarak çalışan nüfusun yoğunlaştığı yerler tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Daha sonra oransal daire grafikler hazırlanmış ve bunlar Türkiye il sınırları haritasında görsel hale getirilmiştir. Diğer bir aşamada ise çalışan kadın oranları il ve ilçelere göre büyükten küçüğe doğru sıralanarak yoğunluk gösteren alanlar tespit edilmiştir. Bu sayede Türkiye’de il geneli dışında ilçe merkezlerindeki farklı ve benzer durumların da ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışan kadın nüfus oranının ortalamadan fazla çıktığı ilçelerde ise bu sefer nüfusun sosyal ve ekonomik niteliklerine ilişkin verilerden yararlanılarak bu ilçelerdeki kadın nüfusun hangi faaliyet kollarında çalıştığı ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

Döndü Üçeçam
ducecam@firat.edu.tr

Hulusi Karagel
Fırat University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

21

Media Representation of Women During War: The Case of Israel’s Six-Day War
The question investigated was whether the representation of women during the Six-Day war (1967) was different from their traditional representation in the news media? The study relies on a content-analysis of 168 news items dealing with women in the two largestcirculation newspapers in Israel. The results indicate that in quantitative terms, women’s representation was similar to that in news in general, that is, their visibility was low. Differences were found, however, in qualitative terms. Whereas women typically appear in the news as victims, this type of representation was rare in the Six-Day War. The most prominent feature found was that women were represented in the context of the collective and not the private sphere. This tendency emerged from analysis of the dynamics of their representation at different stages of the war: For example, the “egotistical woman” disappeared, replaced by the “volunteering woman.” Similarly, the wife/mother was represented in the national context during the war. However, she returned to her private world once the war was over, when representation of the woman soldier as a sexual object resumed as well. Thus the war did not serve as a real opportunity for women to redefine their relationship with men or with their nation and country. On the contrary, their representation in the press merely reflected and confirmed the existing gender boundaries and definitions. Einat Lachover
einat@consonet.com Sapir Academic College Israel

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

22

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Fairy tales at the crossroads: Princesses’ awakening in Shrek the Third
Fairy tales are a site were the representation of female characters is usually a stereotyped one: the princess, renowned for her beauty and grace, needs the prince, her true love, to save her from the life threatening danger she has to face. Animated films, on their part, have for a long time maintained this stereotypical structure, their plots generally being based on famous fairy tales of this kind (Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty and so on). The series of films based on the character of the ogre Shrek has been challenging since the first episode in many respects, as far as expectations connected with the genre “fairy tale” are concerned. Not only is the hero of the story an ogre rather than a charming prince, but also the heroine, Fiona, is a princess who is perfectly able to defend herself through martial arts, who deliberately chooses to renounce her (human) beauty at the end of the tale in order to listen to her heart. The gender oriented representation of female characters continues in the second episode, but reaches its heyday in Shrek the Third, where Fiona is surrounded and supported by an army of princesses of the fairy world (Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, Rapunzel and Cinderella), who turn out to be essential to the defence of the kingdom against the claims of Prince Charming. The aim of this paper will be to use the tools of stylistic analysis to investigate the conversations between the five princesses in order to show how the stereotypes which usually surround these figures are exploited in a reverse way, to build characters which step ahead from the background of the story and realise that they do not need any prince to save them but are to save the prince instead.

Elisabetta Zurru
elizurru@hotmail.com Department of Modern Philology and Literatures, University of Cagliari Italy

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

23

The Role of States and Non-governmental Organisations in Combating Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation: A Critical Appraisal
Trafficking in women for sexual exploitation is not a new phenomenon but with the impact of globalization it appears to be on the rise. It is a growing highly profitable industry which, unlike legal industries that should be encouraged, has to be combated. Resisting this kind of traffic is an immediate must considering two major reasons. Firstly the human rights dimension and secondly the harm it has for the society. Destroying the lives of sex traffic victims by forcing them to prostitution violates basic human rights on an increasing scale while the danger of HIV infection, other medical problems, including mental ones, and the damage of the society are the harms this traffic causes. Hence combating trafficking in women is both a domestic and international concern. Nevertheless, its effectiveness depends on the stage you try to stop it. Cutting the roots is always the best solution, for which, the most effective bodies have to deal with. This paper is firstly examining the roots of trafficking in women for sexual exploitation as well as the responsible organs for it. Afterward, it provides an overview of the recent state policies and international developments on the field, aiming to reveal that it is the states of origin who, by minimizing the causes of this kind of trafficking, should take the most important place in fighting against it. Finally, some measures the sending states should take are suggested. Elona Rusi
elona.rusi@yahoo.com Albania

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

24

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Kadının Aile İçi Şiddete Karşı Korunması: Ailenin Korunmasına Dair Kanun ve İlgili Yönetmelik Kapsamında Bir İnceleme
Kadınlar asırlar boyunca sürdürdükleri toplum ve aile içinde cinsel eşitlik mücadelesinin sonuçlarını, son dönemde yapılan kimi anayasal ve yasal düzenlemelerle -en azından hukuki platformda- kısmen kazanmışlardır. Ancak şiddet, kadının bu hak ve özgürlüklerden yararlanmasının önünde de bir engel oluşturmakta ve ayrımcılığın en yaygın aracı olmayı sürdürmektedir. Kadına yönelik şiddet kadının yaşam hakkının, güvenliğinin, onurunun, özgürlüğünün (düşünsel, ekonomik, cinsel vb.) ve bedensel bütünlük hakkının sırf kadın olması nedeniyle her türlü ihlalidir ve ne yazık ki kadına aile içinde de ulaşmaktadır. Aile içi şiddetin ortaya çıkış biçimleri fiziksel, cinsel, ekonomik ve psikolojik şiddettir. Aile içi fiziksel şiddet kadına yönelik olarak genellikle tartaklanmak, dövülmek (tekme, yumruk, tokat vb.), kesici-vurucu aletlerle bedenine zarar verilmek şeklinde ortaya çıkmaktadır. Evli kadının isteği dışında, istemediği şekilde ve ortamda cinsel ilişkiye zorlanması cinsel şiddet örnekleridir. Ekonomik şiddet, ekonomik kaynakların ve paranın kişi üzerinde bir yaptırım, tehdit ve kontrol aracı olarak kullanılması şeklinde tanımlanabilir. Kadına yönelen aile içi psikolojik şiddetin başlıca görünüm şekilleri hakarete uğraması, aşağılanması, aldatılması, tehdit edilmesi, istediği insanlarla görüşmesinin engellenmesidir. Kanun koyucu Medeni Kanun’da düzenlenen evlilik birliğini korumaya yönelik önlemlerin alınmasının mahkemelerin iş yükü nedeniyle uzun bir süre almasını ve bu tür önlemlerin aile içi şiddeti önlemede bazı hallerde yetersiz kalmasını dikkate alarak; önlem alınması sürecini hızlandırmak için, 14.01.1998 tarih ve 4320 sayılı Ailenin Korunması Hakkında Kanun’da bazı tedbirler düzenlemiştir. Yürürlük tarihinden itibaren etkin şekilde uygulanan bu Kanun’da -belirlenen bazı eksiklik ve tereddütlerin giderilmesi amacıyla- 26.04.2007 tarihinde esaslı değişiklikler yapılmış ve uygulamaya yol göstermesi için 01.03.2008 tarihinde Başbakanlıkça bir de Yönetmelik yayınlanmıştır. Çalışmada yakın tarihli bu iki düzenleme esas alınarak, kadının aile içi şiddete karşı korunma yolları üzerinde durulacaktır.

Emel Badur
badur@cankaya.edu.tr Faculty of Law, Çankaya University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

25

Yeşilçam Sinemasında İdeal Olmayan Kadından İdeal Kadın İmajına Bir Mitosun Yolculuğu: “Küçük Hanımefendi”
Popüler kültürün bir aracı olarak Yeşilçam sinemasındaki “ideal kadın” temsilleri var olan tahakkümcü sistemin söylemlerinin dışına çıkmasa da, bu söylemi meşrulaştırma adına kendi alanı içersinde bir mitos yaratır ve bu mitosu popülerleştirme adına, toplumsal cinsiyet tartışmaları kapsamındaki ikiliklerinden faydalanır. Toplumsal rol bağlamında, kadının özel alan ve kamusal alandaki temsil biçimlerinden faydalanılarak oluşturulan Yeşilçam’daki “kadın imajı”, mitolojik kahramanların öykülerinde olduğu gibi bir dizi “erginleme töreninden” geçirilerek “ideal” olana ulaştırılmaya çalışılır. Yeşilçam kadın mitosunun bu yolculuğu, eril söylemin, kadını yeniden ve yeniden yaratmak amacıyla oluşturduğu sınavları beyazperdede aşmasıyla son bulur. Mitosun yaratılmasında ve yolculuğundaki bu süreç, sosyolojik mit teorisiyle açımlanabilir. James G. Frazer’dan, Bronislaw Malinowski ve Mircea Eliade’ye uzanan araştırmacılar sosyolojik mit teorisi çerçevesinde, mitosu kendini sürekli yineleyen, “yaşayan bir gerçeklik” halini alan ve ilkel kültürlerin bugüne aktarılan anlatılarından ibaret olmayıp, disiplinlerarası ve birbirini bütünleyen alanlarda ele alınıp yorumlanabilen bir anlayışın ifadesi olarak tanımlamıştır. Sosyolojik mit teorisi, mitle ritüelin, manevi gelenekle toplumsal yapının normlarının sıkı ilişkisini savunur. Bu bağlamda ideal kadın mitosu, Malinowski’nin de belirttiği gibi, yalnızca bir sembol değil nesnesinin de doğrudan doğruya bir ifadesidir. Ortaya çıkan ideal kadın, bir arzu nesnesi olarak erkeğin kendini üstün ve tamamlanmış bir varlık olarak tanımlamasına da olanak verir. Yeşilçam’da anlatı biçiminde sürekli tekrarlanan bu senaryoların kadın/erkek, karşıtlığında kültür/doğa, zihin/beden ikiliklerine bağlı olarak geliştiği söylenebilir. İkiliklerin temelinde bilim insanlarının Darwin’in İnsanın Türeyişi adlı çalışmasından etkilenerek, gerek toplumsal yapıyı gerekse insanlık hiyerarşisini evrim teorisinin üzerinden tanımlama “çabaları” yatmaktadır. Tüm bu tartışma noktalarının ekseninde, ikiliklerin temsil biçimlerinin sunulduğu Yeşilçam sinemasındaki örneklerden en temeli 1961 yılında Nejat Saydam’ın ve 1970 yılında Ertem Eğilmez’in yönetmenliğinde çekilen “Küçük Hanımefendi” adlı filmlerdir. Dolayısıyla, bu sunumda “Küçük Hanımefendi” filminden yola çıkarak toplumsal cinsiyet bağlamında ideal kadın mitosunun oluşturulma biçemlerine değinilerek, bu “masalsı” söylem ardında yatan “gerçekler” tartışmaya açılacaktır.

Evren Barın Eğrik
evrenbarin@gmail.com Beykent University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

26

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

The Flow of Iranian Women’s Life
The second half of the nineteenth century is the beginning of fundamental structural and ideological transformations in Iran and the start of the women’s movement that is still going on. Defining the role and position of women has been an important arena where political interests have sought to gain support for their views and demonstrate their control of the state power. A clear recognition of their social, economic and cultural personality is a prerequisite for correct planning and administrating of female issues. This cognition necessarily relies on a solid and comprehensive statistical image of their position based on the data collected. This study has been undertaken to compile and organize all statistics on Iranian women. It focuses on the following subjects: population, vital indicators, family planning, literacy and education, marriage, economic activity, household headship, economic status of female-headed households, political participation and social deviations.

Farah Asna Ashari
farahesnaashari@yahoo.com Ministry of Education Iran

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

27

Poverty and Social Exclusion
The root cause of social exclusion is poverty. Social exclusion has been called “disadvantage”; deprivation”. It relates to economic and social class systems. Poverty lea ding to social exclusion is only part of the extent of poverty, however social exclusion is also affected by massive inqualities in cultural recognition and social diversity as well as huge inequalities relating to unequal access to information and education. This paper looks at the concepts of social exclusion which was originallay developed to describe the manifold consequences of poverty inequality. Then looks at defination of poverty and how poverty can be measured and targets to reduce poverty. Furthermore argues the ways the governments and society can help to tackle excluded people specially women.

Farideh Beykzadeh
fbeykzadeh@yahoo.com Payam-e-noor University Iran

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

28

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Gender Wage Gap in Public and Private Sector: Case of North Cyprus
The aim of the study is to investigate empirically the gender wage gap structure in the private and public sectors in the North Cyprus. The analysis employs data from the recent (March, 2004) Household Employment Survey to study the gender wage differentials in public and private-sector. Oaxaca and Ransom decomposition method is used to see what parts of the wages are due to the different levels of endowments and characteristics differentials. The paper is organized as follows. Following the introduction, section II presents the data and describes the methodology. Section III presents the empirical results. Section IV concludes.

Fatma Güven Lisaniler
fatma.guven@emu.edu.tr

Sevin Uğural
sevin.ugural@emu.edu.tr Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

29

Cinderalla at the University
There have been many attempts to define “fairy tales”. Magic is a key characteristic of many tales. Tolkien in Leaf says, a “fairy-story” is one which touches on or uses Faerie, whatever its own main purpose may be. In fairy stories, magical objects range from potions to talismans, while there are countless instances of magic words that must be spoken in a particular way. Fairy tales tend to be populated by characters such as princes, princesses, fairy godmothers, ogres, wicked stepmothers, witches, and talking animals, and are often characterised by repeated motifs and recurrent themes featuring the eventual success of younger sons or the rejects of society. They often have happy endings, not infrequently brought about by what Tolkien describes as a ‘eucatastrophe . . . a sudden joyous turn’. Campbell, who is well known for his research on mythology, has described these repetitive motifs as exemplifying natural elements of human thought and the variations in motifs as the social and historical thoughts arising from the cultural backgrounds of different peoples. These striking similarities have always been of major interest in research on fairy-tales. C. G. Jung was the first to try to answer this question with his theory of archetypes and his concept of a human collective unconscious.There are inherent elements in the human psyche which everyone has in common. It is through symbol formation that these so-called archetypes are filled with culturally specific imagery at a very early stage of each person’s life. This paper will first study how women are reflected in the fairy tales and secondly aim at showing how the university students’ attitude towards these gender roles depicted in the fairy tales to test the feminist hypothesis that the Cinderella-style fairy-tales promoted by Anglo-American society harmfully reinforce restrictive images of girlhood and womanhood.

Feryal Çubukçu
cubukcu.feryal@gmail.com Dokuz Eylül University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

30

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

The Effects of Life Style and Attitude on Producing Handicrafts Among Knitters Women Tribes of Marandafzar Region Half Settled
Handicraft is one of the economy activities that its first materials and human resources are supplying inside the country. Handicrafts have a great influence on Gross National Product (GNP). The women in tribal society have significant economy function. Specially settled tribal women have much free time and principal role in producing handicraft. Kilim knitting does by tribal women and has high quality in Marandafzar region in Ghirokarzin field (one of areas in Firouzabad). Research Statistical society consists of 57 families in above region, and the researches done in two parts of observe research and field research. In field research metrical method was used. Questionnaire was the research device and the information gathered by interview by the samples. Independent variables were: personal factors (age-literacy), life factors (life style, decamping style, the effects of life style on producing handicraft, attitude toward decamping) – participating in production- skills in knittingattitude toward knitting (interestedness and its reasons, the husband point of view in the matter of knitting, respect to the women in tribe and family, peace in family) and handicraft producing and its influence on the economy of the family. Dependent variables are income- costs and added value relative to the handicrafts. Firozeh Navabakbar
fir_nav@yahoo.com Enviromental Research Institute Fars Iran

Statistical results were done by step to step regression and Spearman correlation co- efficiency. 84.2% of interviewers believed that settlement is better for their knitting, 78.9% had high skill in knitting, and 50.9% declare that they do knitting because of their “Economy Need”. There were significant relations between Kilim knitting variable and dependent economy variables such as (income, cost and added value).

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

31

Separation and Individuation of Mothers and Daughters in Hollywood Films
On the second Sunday of the month of May in the United States, we observe Mother’s Day. Hallmark Greetings Cards, Teleflora. E-mail and our cell phones help to condense the miles and send the message that everyday is Mother’s day. Setting aside the commercial aspects of this holiday, we find that for some individuals, Mother’s day is not a day of celebration, a clutch of fond memories, or a time for expression of gratitude. In fact, the opposite is true; Mom is under attack. The mother and daughter relationship is fraught with problems. Susan Koppelman notes in her introduction to her collection of short stories, Between Mothers and Daughters,some of these problems, but also finds moments of sharing and celebration. The subject of mothers and daughters in literature has been examined, but how these relationships are portrayed in Hollywood films has not been explored in any systematic fashion. Fifteen films from 1968 to 2002 were chosen for analysis. The theoretical perspective draws upon psychoanalytic theory, more specifically Melanie Klein, Luce Irigaray, and Nini Herman to examine issues of separation and individuation between mothers and daughters. Drawing upon Koppleman’s terminology, I examine four types of mother daughter relationships in fifteen Hollywood films: 1) mothers and daughters up against the patriarchy, 2)the quest for identity, 3) mothers who control too much 4)story telling and the celebration of life events. Fran Hassencahl
fhassenc@odu.edu Old Dominion University USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

32

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Evli Kadının Soyadı (Alman ve İsviçre Medeni Kanunları ile Karşılaştırmalı bir Çalışma)
Evli kadının soyadının düzenlendiği Türk Medeni Kanunu’nun 187. maddesine göre, kadın evlenmekle kocasının soyadını alır; ancak kadının evlendirme memuruna veya daha sonra nüfus idaresine yapacağı başvuru ile kocasının soyadının önünde önceki soyadını da kullanabilir. Kadının soyadına ilişkin bu düzenleme, Anayasa’nın kadın ve erkeğin eşit haklara sahip olduğunu düzenleyen 10. maddesine aykırıdır. Zira evlilikte ortak soyadı kullanmak zorunlu olup, bu ortak soyadı madde 187’ye göre erkeğin soyadıdır. Bu itibarla bu düzenleme, soyadı konusunda eşler arasındaki eşitliği gerektiği gibi sağlayamamaktadır. Evlilik soyadının seçiminin, eşit haklara sahip bireyler olan eşlerin özgür iradelerine bırakılmaması, kadının soyadı üzerindeki kişilik hakkının sınırlanması ve bu yolla kadının maddi ve manevi varlığını koruma ve geliştirme hakkına müdahale edilmesi sonucunu doğuracağından Anayasa’nın 17. maddesine de aykırıdır. Avrupa İnsan Hakları Mahkemesi Ünal Tekeli- Türkiye davasında, evli kadının kızlık soyadını tek başına kullanabileceğine hükmetmiş olmasına rağmen, Medeni Kanun’nda bu yönde yapılması gereken değişiklik henüz yapılmamıştır. Evli kadının soyadına ilişkin İsviçre Medeni Kanunu’nda yeralan düzenleme de, kadının soyadının aile adı olmasına engel olmakta ve sadece erkeğe, kendi adını aile adı olarak sürdürebilme imkânı vermektedir. Alman Medeni Kanunu’ndaki düzenleme ise Türk ve İsviçre Medeni Kanunu’nun aksine, eşlerin eşit haklara sahip olması ilkesine uygun düşmektedir. Buna göre, eşler, kadın veya erkeğin soyadından istediklerini ortak soyadı olarak seçebilirler. Eğer anlaşamazlar ise her ikisi de önceki soyadını taşımaya devam eder. Bu düzenleme eşlerin eşit haklara sahip olması prensibine uygun düşmekle birlikte, aile soyadının birliği prensibi ile bağdaşmamaktadır. Netice itibariyle gerek cinsiyet ayrımı olmaksızın eşit haklara sahip olma ilkesi gerek aile soyadının birliği prensibi göz önünde bulundurularak, Türk Medeni Kanunu’nda evli kadının soyadına ilişkin gerekli değişiklikler yapılmalıdır.

Gamze Turan
gamzeturan@gmail.com Faculty of Law, Çankaya University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

33

Evolutionary Gender Studies – A New Paradigm
Within contemporary gender studies, the biological and evolutionary sciences have been regarded as mainly a topic of critical scrutiny, hardly ever as disciplines to gain new insights from. Although understandable to some extent, I would like to contend that this lack of openness towards other than environmentalist accounts of gender difference can harm the intellectual credibility of the feminist movement. If feminists continue to reject the mounting evidence from the biological sciences (e.g., genetics, behavioural genetics, neurophysiology, endocrinology, evolutionary biology) and the cognitive sciences (e.g., cognitive psychology, neurolinguistics, artificial intelligence) with regard to the biological underpinnings of human behaviour and of gender difference, they back themselves into an embarrassingly uninformed corner. In order to understand human nature and human behaviour, all possible sources of information should be taken into account, not just those that exert an ideological appeal to us. Therefore I would like to propose a new paradigm for feminism and for gender studies: evolutionary feminism/evolutionary gender studies. Evolutionary gender studies would start from an awareness of gender difference and gender inequality, as gender studies does now, but it would approach biological and evolutionary studies of gender difference as highly relevant sources of information. Evolutionary feminism would be a feminism that is prepared to investigate the growing body of knowledge from the biological and evolutionary sciences regarding evolved psychosexual differences between women and men. It would be a feminism that takes these evolved differences into account and strive for a world in which the interests of both sexes are taken seriously. Griet Vandermassen
griet.vandermassen@ugent.be Ghent University Belgium

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

34

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Perceived Sexual Scripts by University Students for Stable and Casual Heterosexual Encounters
Previous studies have shown that decision-making towards sexual behaviour is largely dependent on the context of the specific encounter (de Visser & Smith, 1999), more so than individuals’ intentions towards safe-sex behaviours. This study aimed at identifying university students’ perceived sexual scripts for stable and casual heterosexual encounters. Sexual scripts, sequences of events that guide sexual behaviour, may offer explanations for the discrepancy between intentions and behaviour towards safe-sex among heterosexual university students. Five focus groups were conducted with 20 sexually active students aged 18-29. Discussions were structured around 2 vignettes describing a stable and a casual heterosexual encounter. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis revealing 4 major themes: 1) Sexual scripts for stable relationships, 2) sexual scripts for casual encounters, 3) attitudes towards condom use and screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and 4) ideas for promoting safer-sex. Gender differences emerged in attitudes towards women possessing a condom during a casual encounter, where men generally perceived this behaviour positively and women tended to perceive it negatively. Knowledge of sexual scripts may be beneficial for understanding gender differences in attitudes which may be preventing women from engaging in safer sexual behaviours (e.g. carrying condoms). Additionally, sexual scripts may serve useful for developing current strategies for increasing condom-use and encouraging STI screening.

Gülcan Garip
gulcangarip@gmail.com University of Sussex England

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

35

Women and decision making in the home: Findings from a nationwide study in Malaysia
This paper examines the extent of women’s involvement in decision making on the home front among married couples in Malaysia. The analysis is based on data from a nationwide survey carried out in 2005 involving 1453 married women aged 25 to 59 years through personal interviews using structured questionnaire. Included in the study the women were asked whether the decisions were made by them, their spouses or both on matters pertaining to purchase of assets, property, investment shares, household expenditure, social activities and education of children. Between eight to nine percent of the women reported making their own decisions to purchase land, house, car and shares while 20 to 25 percent of them reported that these decisions were made by their husbands alone. The involvement of both the husbands and wives varies between 63 percent for investing in shares to 70 percent for purchasing of land and house. The proportion of women involved in sole decision making increased to 11 percent on matters related to children’s education, 12 percent household expenditure, 14 percent social activities and 19 percent in the purchase of furniture while the proportion of women involved in both husband and wife decision making was about 73 percent on social activities and 76 percent with regard to children’s education. The paper also examines differences in decision making across selected socio-economic and demographic variables.

Halimah Awang
halima@um.edu.my

Rohana Jani
janir59@yahoo.com University of Malaya Malaysia

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

36

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

“One Million Signatures just for Equality” A Campaign from Iran
“Flexibility and ingenuity is what makes us a true social movement” Sussan Tahmasebi, founding member, Campaign for Equality, said. Iranian women’s rights activists have been initiating a wide campaign demanding to eliminate legal discrimination against women in Iranian law. The Campaign called: “One Million Signatures Demand for equality for Laws,” aims to reach one million signatures from Iranian women to change the discriminatory laws against women. It is also follow-up effort to a peaceful protest with the same aim. The petition part in support for changes in the law is only one of several aims of this campaign. The Campaign also aims to achieve * Promotion of Collaboration and Cooperation for Social Change; * Identification of women’s needs and priorities; * Amplifying women’s voices; * Increasing knowledge, promoting democratic action; * Paying for women domestic labour; * Power in diversity (respecting different ethnics, religions, ideologies) The campaign seeks to secure equal rights in marriage and inheritance, to end polygamy, and heavier punishments for honour killings and other forms of violence against women. The organizers of the campaign consider that the demands of the campaign do not contradict Islamic Republic principles, and also in line with international commitments of Iran. Iran is a signatory of the UN Convention on Civil and Political Rights and as such, is required to eliminate all forms of discrimination, and needs to take specific action to eliminate discriminatory lows. Islamic jurists and scholars have been discussed and declared these demands are in no way contradictory to the foundations of Islam. This campaign works on face-to-face interactions and contacts in awareness training and publications, to achieve its goals. This campaign is important also because participants and supporters are today in big risk, because Islamic governmental regulations, some activist are in jail as political prisoners. Campaign will be implemented through the following strategies: * Collection of signatures through door-to-door contact; * Collection of signatures in places and events where women gather; * Organizing seminars and conferences to enlarge the profile of the campaign, * Promoting dialogue, and looking for new supporters.

Hamed Mousavinasab
hamed.mousavinasab@cc.emu.edu.tr

Faculty of Communication Eastern Mediterranean University
North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

37

Toplumsal Cinsiyete Bağlı Olarak Göç ve Göçmenlik: Türkiye’den Kuzey Kıbrıs’a Göçler
Kıbrıs’a ilişkin -özellikle politik- yazın ana dalga olarak “Kıbrıs Sorunu”na, dönüktür ve dolayısıyla gerek toplumsal sınıfa gerekse toplumsal cinsiyete bağlı olarak ortaya çıkan evrensel açık-gizli yaraları ihmal eder. Son yıllarda Kıbrıs’la ilgili politik-stratejik yazının yanında daha akademik bir politik yazın kuvvetli bir dalga olarak ortaya çıkmakla birlikte, bu da daha çok Kıbrıs Sorununun etno-dinsel temelli milliyetçilik süreçleri ve Adadaki sonuçlarının daha bağımsız-bilimsel analizine odaklanır. Son yıllarda Adanın modernleşme tarihi ve iki halkın toplumsal belleklerinin eski ve yeni inşa biçim ve süreçleri üzerine de nitelikli çalışmalar ortaya çıkmaya başlamıştır. Ancak bu çalışmalarda da, adanın 1960’lardan itibaren sosyo-mekansal ve politik olarak iki ayrı toplum biçiminde yeniden ölçeklenirken, sınıfların ve toplumsal cinsiyetin de nasıl yeniden inşa olduğuna dair analizlere pek sık rastlanmaz. Oysa Adanın Kuzeyinde ve Güneyinde 1974’den sonra dramatik bir biçimde çöken toplumsal işbölümünün yeniden inşası, her iki toplumda sınıf ve toplumsal cinsiyet konumlarını da yeniden biçimlendirmektedir. Kıbrıs’ta 30 yılı aşkın bir süredir devam eden politik “çözümsüzlüğe” rağmen her iki toplumun kendilerini yeniden inşa süreçleri devam etmektedir. Göçmenleri salt “politik olarak yerleştirilen” nüfus (sayı) olarak ele alan katı bir yaklaşım, Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta toplumsal işbölümü ve sınıf üzerine yapılabilecek bilimsel analizleri olumsuz yönde etkileyeceği gibi, göçmenlerin toplumsal cinsiyetleri ile göçmenliği yaşama halleri arasındaki ilişkiyi de önemsiz kılar. Oysa bütün dünyada olduğu gibi kadınların göçü ve göçmenliği yaşama biçimleri hem nicelik de nitelik açısından erkeklerden farklıdır. Kadınların göçe karar verme süreçlerine katılma, göçü yaşama ve göçmen kimliği ile özdeşleşme süreçleri erkelerden farklı olduğu kadar, göç edilen ülkeye-kente-mekana tutunma stratejileri de farklılıklar gösterir. Bu bildiride, 1974’den hemen sonra Türkiye ile KTFD arasında yapılan Tarımsal işgücü Protokolü ile Anadolu’nun topraksız köylülerinin Kıbrıs’a göçe “teşvik” edilmesi ile gerçekleşen göçlerde, göçmenlerin toplumsal cinsiyetlerine bağlı olarak göçü ve göçmenliği nasıl farklı algıladıkları ve yaşadıkları analiz edilmeye çalışılacaktır. Bildiri, Türkiye’den Kuzey Kıbrıs’a göçler üzerine sürdürülen bir TÜBİTAK projesi çerçevesinde 1975-1978 tarihleri arasında Kuzey Kıbrıs’a “yerleştirilen” birinci Türkiyeli dalga göçmenlerle sözlü tarih tekniği ile yapılan bir dizi görüşmeye dayanacaktır. Bildiri metni sözlü tarih görüşmelerinden bazı video kayıtları ile birlikte sunulacaktır.

Hatice Kurtuluş
hat_kurtulus@yahoo.com İstanbul Üniversity Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

38

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Work-Family Conflict, Social Support, and Organizational Support: An Investigation in Jogjakarta, Indonesia
There has been an increase in the number of women who work in public space. Unfortunately, this is not followed by sharing of domestic work equally within the family, which can lead women for getting work-family conflict. But, some quantitative researches held in Jogjakarta showed that work-family conflict reported by worker women was relatively low, which might affect organization in making policies for decreasing work-family conflict. The two research questions then: 1) how women view their role in public-private space? Was it true that their work-family conflict was low, or was it because they were forced to accept this condition by local culture which is collectivistic? 2) How social system (spouse, big family, and society) and organization support women involvement in public space? Some interviews, observation, and focused group discussion was held for getting information. Purposive sampling was used to obtain participants. Data was analyzed qualitatively. Result showed that generally 1) worker women tend to assume they have more responsibility than men for household management and childcare. They thought it’s their destiny, so, they couldn’t complain. 2) Society can accept women who work in public space, but, they still expect women for caring home. Collectivistic culture can ease women in balancing work-family role (it’s easy to get help for doing family tasks). In the other hand, this culture also can impediment this balance (society’s opinion can affect unequality in sharing family tasks). 3) Organization policy was not gender sensitive yet. Some policies that can ease work-family conflict were given informally. Herlina Dyah Kuswanti
hdkuswanti@yahoo.com Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

39

Gözlemlerden eylemlere : Türkiye’de cinsiyetçi olmayan bir medyaya doğru…
Türkiye’de medya, gazete manşetlerinden, televizyon dizilerine çok farklı metinlerde, kadınları temsil etme biçimleriyle, kimi zaman ciddi hak ihlallerine varacak bir tutum sergilemektedir. Öte yandan, “temsil” kavramını, medya sektöründe çalışanlara, yani söz konusu içerikleri üretenlere uyguladığımızda da manzara daha olumlu değildir : yeni medyaların devreye girmesinden önce kabaca “kadın gazeteciler” olarak tanımlanan çalışanlar bugün genişlemiş medya sektöründe, hala erkeklere oranla sayıca az ve nitel olarak daha alt kadrolarda istihdam edilmektedir. Bu durum, bir yandan, temel sorunsalı “toplumsal cinsiyet” olan bilimsel araştırmaları beslerken, öte yandan da, medyada cinsiyetçilikle mücadele etmek için ciddi bir sivil toplum hareketini başlatmıştır. Bu gözlemlerden hareketle, 2007 yılından bu yana gerçekleştirmiş olduğumuz iki araştırmanın bulgularını, hem uluslararası düzlemde benzeri alanda yapılan bilimsel çalışmaların ışığında, hem de ülkemizde genel olarak toplumsal cinsiyet sorunsalı, medyanın işleme mekanizmaları ve hem de sivil toplum düzeyinde siyasallaşma ve yeni siyasal edimciler gibi kavramsal-olgusal edinimlerden yararlanarak değerlendireceğiz.

Hülya UĞUR TANRIÖVER
htanriover@superonline.com

Ece VİTRİNEL
evitrinel@gsu.edu.tr

Ceren SÖZERİ
csozeri@gsu.edu.tr Galatasaray University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

40

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Sisters in Islam : The Study on Their Thought and Methodological Interpretation of the Qur’an
Sisters in Islam (SIS) is one of the leading women emancipation and feminism group in Malaysia the 1990s and 2000s. SIS was formed in 1988 and registered as a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) in 1993 under the name SIS Forum (Malaysia) Berhad. Sisters in Islam (SIS) is a group of Muslim women committed to promoting the rights of women within the framework of Islam. Some of the issues discussed by SIS are: to regain the educational status of women, marriage and the equal responsibility of husband and wives, endorsing and stipulating a condition in marriage agreement, violence against women, polygamy and equality condition, sexual harassment, monogamy campaign, family planning, aurat concept and Islamic women’s dress code and few other related issues. The paper is an evaluation on the thought and the methodological used by SIS in explaining and interpretating gender issues as their efforts to promote the rights of Muslim women are claimed to be based on the principles of equality, justice and freedom enjoined by the Qur’an as made evident during their study of the holy text. The methods used in carrying out the research are document analysis, observation and interviews. The main findings of this study are: (1) SIS uphold the revolutionary spirit of Islam, a religion which uplifted the status of women and believe that Islam does not endorse the oppression of women and denial of their basic rights of equality and human dignity; (2) SIS found that religion has been used to justify cultural practices and values that regard women as inferior and subordinate to men and believe that this has been made possible because men have had exclusive control over the interpretation of the text of the Qur’an; and (3) SIS suggested the participation of Muslim women as full and equal partners in the ummah’s socio-economic development and progress is the need of the day. They concluded that it is imperative that the female experience, thought and voice are included in the interpretation of the Qur’an and in the administration of religion in the religion in the muslim world.

Indriaty Ismail
indriaty@ukm.my

Anisah Zainal Abidin
aza@ukm.my

Wan Fariza Alyati Wan Zakaria
aufaa_01@yahoo.co.uk National University of Malaysia Malaysia

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

41

The Curse of Discursive Worlds: ‘Reel-istic’ Antagonism between Gender and Professional Identities of Women Journalists
Gender and professional identities of woman journalist characters in the ‘reel’ world of cinema are organized into antagonistic relationship(s) within filmic discourses. In general, the portrayal of these characters is based on conflict unparalleled in the depiction of their male counterparts. As a result of antagonism between gender and journalism discourses, the concept of the “woman journalist” in journalism movies entails either adopting traditional/patriarchal definition of what it means to be a journalist – that is becoming ‘one of the boys’ by adopting the masculine values of journalism as professional values – or the narrowly defined dominant articulation of femininity that insists that women remain within a territory assigned to them by covering women’s stories. In other words, no matter what subject positions woman journalist characters are assigned to in movies, they are constructed in such a way that they either follow traditional/patriarchal construction of the femininity or adopt traditional/patriarchal definition of what it means to be a journalist. This paper scrutinizes the ways in which antagonism between gender and professional identities of women journalists are organized on-screen that prioritizes dominant discourses suggesting an incompatibility between traditional understandings of femininity and professional identity in the workplace as constructed in the filmic texts. Drawing on concepts suggested by Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theoretical approach, this paper focuses on how antagonisms between discursively constructed subjectivities are organized and how these antagonisms are brought to temporary closure through hegemonic intervention.

Irem Bailie
irem.bailie@emu.edu.tr Eastern Mediterranean University North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

42

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

A ‘Women’s Space’ at the Indian Ocean Crossroads: Women’s Mosques in the Maldives
In this paper I will address the role that multiple social/cultural worlds can play in constituting a particular type of gendered religious site—in this case study, the women’s mosques of the Maldives. The Maldives, a country of low lying islands grouped in atolls in the Indian Ocean, has a regional history of involvement in international trade as a crossroads region between the Middle East and Asia. While many common Islamic practices in the region are clearly directly informed by these historical connections, as well as contemporary global movements, some of the practices associated with Islam in this region seem quite different from those found in neighboring countries. One of the most striking of these is the Maldivian practice of maintaining women’s mosques. These mosques, like the men’s mosques of the Maldives, are government institutions; thus the women’s mosques are run by government-hired women, who lead the prayers for other women and act as caretakers for the buildings. I will examine the ways in which practices associated with Maldivian women’s mosques challenge common notions of Muslim women’s roles in public and private spaces. In doing so, I hope to offer a perspective on gendered practices in Islam that requires critical examination of how associated institutions are situated within multiple social/cultural spheres. Through use of ethnographic material I will conceptualize ways of interacting with women’s mosques as significant spatial practices that express the Maldivian concepts of belonging concurrently within local, national, and global communities.

Jacqueline Fewkes
jfewkes@fau.edu Florida Atlantic University USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

43

Eating Machines
How the feminine roots of food preparation and the American food supply have been altered by home economists, the industrialization of food and agriculture, and advertising. Drawing from academic research and popular media, the author finds a male-gender basis for the industrialization of food and agriculture in America, introduced to the consumer through advertising, that has distorted the value and dignity of food preparation, the meaning of eating, and the quality of the food supply. Women’s role through the millennia in food production from growing plants to meal preparation has been replaced by machines and food itself has been replaced by manufactured products. Unless women and men make a conscious effort to humanize all aspects of food production, and many have, they’re in danger of treating their bodies like machines.

Jessica Savage
jsavage@cybermesa.com New Mexico State University USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

44

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

To be Black and Woman: A Brief look at Existentialism, Language and Gender
In his book, Existentia Africana, philosopher Lewis R. Gordon speaks upon how the moment one decides to take racism seriously as a philosophical subject, one is compelled to consider what he deems “black existentialism” or “philosophy of existence.” Why? Well, the moment one acknowledges the simple fact that some human beings have not been treated like human beings at all, one is not only forced to dig more into the question of what it means to be human, but also, what is it ultimately worth? If we allow for ourselves to factor the concept of gender into the equation, we see that for a black (American) woman to ask such questions, we have the basis for which more than a few paradoxes can arise. One of them being that if you look at the structure of racism, coupled with gender, it raises the question: Do black women deserve to exist? But outside of this being asked in a particular context, where certain norms are available and one can justify what she has done, there is no way any human being, let alone a black woman, can justify why she exists. So as a black American woman, one’s existence is already subordinated in the very question, due to the simple fact that she cannot offer her very existence itself as a right. Historically, white patriarchs have made “woman” synonymous with white women and black synonymous with black men. What does this say for the black women? Within the social hierarchy that white patriarchs established based on race and sex, the black woman, on most degrees, is literally non – existent. So how does one go about examining what is means to exemplify the contradiction, the paradox of being both black and woman? Furthermore, how does one go about this, using words, language, never intended for such us? My paper shall attempt to explain how this is an existential point - its meaning is a hermeneutical, existential one. Within the classical, formal standpoint of existence preceding essence, I will attempt to ask (and answer) what does it mean to say that the black woman, existentially, has been reduced to being the “slave of a slave?”

John White
hapu713@yahoo.com New Jersey City University USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

45

Flora: Ethnographic Performance of Non-Violent Radical Loving
A written representation of fictive iconic construction, Flora’s character is performance ethnography giving freedom to truth telling; calling accountable women’s sexual choices as tools for relation building and deconstruction of institutional evils. Intersecting Aristophanes’ play Lysistrata, with the nonviolent work of Gandhi this performance integrates themes of conflict, personal power and transformation. Like Starhawk, I find academic ideas can be transformed into personal myth hence Flora’s life is influenced by the lore of Sheela-na-Gig and the Greek belly bearing Goddess Baubo. The character uses current abstinence practices of our Western Christian culture to create a radical theology of loving as justice. She brings the ancient Red Tent to inform women’s indwelling divinity and healer. Standing honestly within her lesbian orientation, Flora creates remedies that confront the hetero-normal world view breathing a fresh spirit into this narrative without disparaging heteronormal expressions. Myth carries knowledge that the academy cannot; it heals by navigating within and between women’s interior psychological and spiritual domains and their everyday realities. This model is antithetical to those which currently mold women’s spiritual, cultural and economic development. Raising awareness of women’s generative life force capacity this model is rooted in erotic pleasure while depicting heterosexism’s affects upon all women. Relevant for cultural transformation; depicting mutual right-relations among women across borders of sexuality, color, ethnicity, ability and class, it unifies women against the narrow and constrained hold that ignorance and embarrassment about the subjects of sex and power have over women’s bodies and sexuality. The narrative’s potential to help women redefine and reclaim their body, their blood mysteries and their erotic energies for wellbeing and for cultural flourishing makes the mythic icon, Flora a transformational link for navigation of women’s corporal autonomy thus unraveling Western Christianity’s religious cultural constraints of the body feminine.

Julianna Donofrio
julianna_donofrio@yahoo.com Andover Newton Theological School, USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

46

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Globalization and the Changing Sexual Economies of Mainstream Bombay Cinema
The extent to which the mainstream Bombay cinema participates in, shapes and directs the construction and transformation of gender and sexual identities, and the extent to which these are now being shaped by the forces of globalization has only begun to be acknowledged. From the mid-1980s onward, but particularly in the 1990s mainstream Bombay cinema expanded its territories both spatially and financially, a development that was to have ideological, cultural and formal impacts on the cinema. This globalization has several aspects to it which include: (i) The expansion of overseas territories and their overseas audience, (ii) Financial investment in film from sections of the diasporic population, (iii) An ensuing and unprecedented attentiveness to a globalized diasporic ethnically Indian subject, as the subject of cinema and (deterritorialised) subject of the nation, (iv) The creation and representation of the highly idealized and ideologically loaded “Diasporic Indian Family”. Karen Gabriel
karen@cwds.ac.in Centre for Women’s Development Studies India

This last is a cultural-ideological development and has already had a significant impact on the ways in which ideals of gender, sexuality, family and the ‘Indian’ are being popularized and understood. Its impacts are boosted by the multi-media and convergence effect as images percolate from one medium (cinema) to another (television) swiftly and often without adequate critical commentary. This paper will 1. Set out the above contexts in detail, specifying the dynamics of and links between globalization, the flow of diasporic and foreign money, modes of cinematic representation and understandings of gender and sexuality. 2. Show how this Diasporic Indian Family is a direct consequence of globalization and that this familial model has disturbing links with revanchist and rightwing notions of nation, community, gender and sexuality. It will do the above using the films of second and third generation filmmakers like Karan Johar, Aditya Chopra and Sanjay Leela Bhansali, all of which have attained huge success in the overseas territories.

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

47

Manipulation in the construction of gendered identities and discourses in Desperate Housewives
The study examines the problem of the manipulative construction of gendered identities and discourses in three seasons of the ABC TV series Desperate Housewives and how it relates to the prevalent gender ideologies and power struggles. The selected method joins multimodal analysis and critical discourse analysis perspectives. The first section is dedicated to the identification and description of manifold strategies of representing femininity and masculinity in Desperate Housewives. The textual and visual investigation is framed within van Dijk’s (2001) notion of context encompassing the following categories: situation, setting, actions, participants in various communicative, social and institutional roles and their mental representations including goals, knowledge, opinions, attitudes and ideologies, which will be extended to account for affect. The second section focuses on the presentation of the implicit axiological structure underlying and significantly influencing gender representations. It is postulated that the manipulative representation in Desperate Housewives hinges on the co-existence of two levels of meaning-making: the surface level of recontextualised and subversive gendered identities and discourses and the deep, axiologically contradictory level. The result of the manipulation is a strategic neutralisation of opponent, feminine discourse.

Karolina Sznycer
karam11@wp.pl Adam Mickiewicz University Poland

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

48

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

A Study of Women’s Shelters: Places of Transcendental Homelessness and Identity
Urban life generally follows the capitalist system of market flows. The intense rhythms of life create insecure perceptions mixed with anxieties for the modern individual. In stark contrast to this urbanity - overwrought by crime and threat - home has been portrayed as a safe haven for women and children, a utopia for escape from these outer savage conditions. Mythified since before the 19th century, today home is not always a safe haven. It can become yet another example of urban strife, particularly for women. Historically in Turkey, domestic violence against women was implicitly sanctioned through social norms and behavior. In fact, domestic violence did not appear on the public agenda until the 1980’s, although informally acknowledged to be widespread. This project investigates women’s shelters in Turkey as spatial and political entities. Inhabitants of women’s shelters have experienced extreme trauma centered on the loss of their home, a space once identified as their own and inherently connected to their family and sense of security. These shelters are temporary spaces for those who must now re-define their idea of home in terms of safety, identity, privacy and possession. For this reason, we argue that the spatial organization of shelters, what will be referred to as pseudo-homes, be reconsidered as places representing the loss of the “idea” of home as well as its physical manifestation. The dichotomies between urban and rural shelters, ethnic identities and religious and societal influences, collective versus individual ownership, public versus private space within the shelter and the temporalities of use at the shelter are explored in several women’s shelters throughout Turkey. The research analyzes the occupational patterns as they relate to the use of space within the women’s shelters as compared to that of the home to better understand the conceptual and spatial connections between the shelter and the abandoned home.

Lori Brown
loribrown@mindspring.com Syracuse University USA

Özlem Erdoğdu Erkarslan
ozlemerkarslan@gmail.com Izmir Institute of Technology Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

49

Race, Gender and Women’s Agency: The Role of American Women Mssionaries in the Founding and Operation of Inanda Seminary African Girls School During the 19th Century
In 1869 the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) founded Inanda Seminary, the first ever school for girls in South Africa, which still exists today. The paper is set against the backdrop of Antonio Gramsci’s theory of hegemony, a theory “that encompasses both agency and structure”(1971:56); how human agency challenges dominant structural determinants. The factors that led to the founding of this school and determined its operation are couched in the strategy of ‘seeming passivity’ and ‘certain activity’ (1971: 365) - a strategy understood, respectively, as ‘accommodation’ and ‘resistance’ in this paper. The ABCFM as a hegemony of racial and gender oppression … “[could] not just passively exist as a form of dominance. It [had] continually to be renewed, recreated, defended, modified”, as “[it was] continually resisted, limited, altered, challenged by pressures not all its own” (Williams 1977:112). The African collective and women are the two constituencies that challenged the ABCFM as a hegemony, forcing it to ‘renew, recreate, defend and modify’ its mission from time to time. The paper elaborates on the women’s agency – American missionary women and indigenous women. Woman’s agency: despite the ABCFM’s sexist policies women missionaries agentically founded and operated Inanda Seminary, and offered the best education possible, while ABCFM men doubted the educability of Zulu girls. The school produced the first professional women. Pre- ABCFM work these missionary women were human and women’s rights activists, and so adopted a rights-based approach to education at Inanda. Inanda students understood that education provided points of exit from multiple forms of racial oppression. The ABCFM’s “Women’s Work” strategy to use women to improve conversion efforts aborted, as the two oppressed women constituencies used education for emancipation. Education, the double-edged sword, occupied centre stage. It was offered and received by womenfolk at Inanda to fulfill the quest for freedom and equality. Lastly, the paper will discuss views by graduates on the Inanda education experience and the role Christianity plays in their lives.

Lynette Hlongwane
Hlonglf@unisa.ac.za University of South Africa South Africa

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

50

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

‘State Feminism’ in the Middle East and North Africa: The Case Study of the Role of the First Ladies in Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia.
‘State Feminism’ is approached as a political project for reinforcing state control on MENA’s ‘civil societies’ under the guise of buttressing women’s rights. In this paper I examine the political significance and implications of the official activities and declarations of the First Ladies for the promotion and protection of human rights throughout the MENA region. My analysis focuses on the agenda and objectives of the First Ladies, as well as the individuals and groups that revolve around them when dealing with ‘social affairs’, and the claim of the official media at presenting them as “Human Rights Defenders”. This situation will be contrasted with the human rights advocacy championed by ordinary citizens, and organizations of civil society. The UN “Declaration on the right and responsibility of individuals, groups and organs of society to promote and protect universally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms”, (December 9, 1998), will be my starting point .The ultimate goal is to suggest a typology of various forms of ‘State Feminism’ that entail programs, policies, and discourses directed from, and formulated at, the state level regardless of the personal touch and the human face they are provided with by the First Ladies’ visibility. Keeping in mind the socio-political context within which state-sponsored women’s organizations have to compete with autonomous women movements and organizations, I will argue that the interaction between the latter and the former is obscured by the top-down intervention of the First Ladies in the women’s rights issues at the expense of the grass-root women’s rights groups. M. Moncef Khaddar
moncef.khaddar@emu.edu.tr Eastern Mediterranean University North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

51

Female body representations in Portuguese popular media
The aim of this paper is to analyse female body representations in female Portuguese magazines from a sociocultural theoretical standpoint. This perspective emphasizes that female body dissatisfaction comes from three main factors: the thin body ideal promoted in western societies, the tendency for females to see their body as an object and not as a process, and the assumption that thin is good. Departing from the underlying sociocultural idea that visual media in general promote the message that positive features are based on a thin body figure, we applied a semiological perspective to the advertisements of the four most read female magazines. Our main conclusions point to answering the question of which personal and social characteristics are associated to the body type represented in these magazines.

Maria João Cunha
mjcunha@iscsp.utl.pt Technical University of Lisbon Portugal

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

52

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Disturbing the Peace: Gender, Journalism and Democratic Communication in Cyprus
This paper takes up the issue of socially constructed reality in Cyprus and the role that Cypriot journalists and newspapers play in shaping our perceptions of gender: providing us with highly selective ways of thinking about the role of women and men in society. Here, we are particularly concerned with the way journalism defines Cypriot women both through the political economy of newspapers – the selection, hiring, and positioning of women journalists/media workers – and in the way that editors and journalists selectively present what we come to think of as important and worth thinking about. Do institutional and industrial journalism techniques marginalize women journalists? Does the selection of information and the techniques of presentation influence the way we come to think about the role of women in Cypriot society? When we think of the struggle for equality between the two dominant Cypriot communities, is gender ever a consideration? In this paper we consider 1) the institutionalized structuring of gender within the Cypriot newspaper industry, 2) the relationship between mediated representations of gender and the way those representations frame citizens along gender lines, and 3) discuss the potential ramifications of contemporary Cypriot journalism practices for gender democracy. This is a cross-communal project that engages five of the largest circulating daily newspapers in both the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities in order to understand the relationship between journalism, gender and democracy in Cyprus.

Mashoed Bailie
mashoed.bailie@emu.edu.tr

Bekir Azgin
bekir.azgin@emu.edu.tr Faculty of Communication, Eastern Mediterranean University North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

53

Melekler ve Caniler: Türkiye’de Haberlerde bir Anlatı Olarak Annelik
Türkiye’de son zamanlarda annelerin çocuklarına ya da kızların annelerine karşı işlediği cinayetlere ya da uyguladığı şiddete ilişkin haberlerde bir artış olduğu gözleniyor. Bu tür olayların sayısal olarak arttığı söylenmekle birlikte, bunun aslında medyanın bu tür sansasyonel olaylara olan ilgisindeki artıştan kaynaklandığı da tartışılmaktadır. Bu olayların gündeme getirdiği bir başka önemli konu da ‘annelik’ olgusunun ve kavramının ya da gerçekliğinin yeniden sorgulanır olması. Annelik ve anneliğe yönelik tutum ve inançlar toplumda yaygın olan toplumsal cinsiyet ve diğer iktidar ilişkileriyle belirlenmektedir. Feminist yazarlar anneliğin duygusal ve romantik yorumlarını eleştirmekte ve bunun ancak annelerin kendi annelik deneyimlerini içeren hikayeleri paylaştıkça daha gerçekçi- anneliğin hem zor hem de güzel yanlarını içeren anlatıların ortaya çıkacağını önermektedirler. Türkiye’de de anne olmak, annelik, anne-çocuk ilişkisi, anneye nasıl davranılması gerektiği geleneksel, dinsel ve idealleştirlmiş yaygın bir dizi inanç ve rutinlerden etkilenmektedir. Belki de bu nedenle, bir annenin çocuğuna ya da bir çocuğun annesine karşı işlediği cinayet ya da şiddet eylemleri toplum nazarında kabul edilemeyecek ve inanılması güç olaylar olarak yorumlanmaktadır. Bu çalışma, haberlere konu olan bu tür olaylara bakarak anneliğin nasıl anlatıldığını ve temsil edildiğine bakmayı amaçlamaktadır. Melek Atabey
Melek.atabey@emu.edu.tr Eastern Mediterranean University Faculty of Communication North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

54

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

İran Aile Hukukunda Kadının Hak ve Yükümlülükleri
İnsan temel hak ve özgürlüklerinin gelişimi, kadın haklarının tanımı ve olgunlaşması yönünde büyük atılım sayılmaktadır. Bu atılımın bazı toplumlarda kültürel etkinliklerle birlikte yürütülmesi, insane hak ve özgürlüklerinin saygınlığını artırmış ve uygulamasını kolaylaştırmıştır. Gerçekten de hiçbir yasal düzenleme tek başına, aile ve toplumun kültürel bağlarının desteği olmadan meşruluk kazanamaz ve yaygınlaşamaz. Aile Hukuku, Medeni Hukukun ama konusunu, kişilik haklarının temel ögelerini ve ilişkilerini belirleyen kural ve düzenlemelerdir. Bu hukukun içeriğinin genel çizgisini kültürel değerler yönlendirmektedir. Kültür, yaşam ve düşünme biçimlerini zaman içinde belirleme gücüne sahiptir. Kültürü biçimlendiren temel öge inanç düzenidir. Her toplumun aile hukuku da bir kişilik niteliği ile inanç içerikli kurallardan ibarettir. İran hukukunda başta Anayasa olmak üzere çeşitli yasal düzenlemelerde insan hakları konusuna özellikle buna ilişkin olarak kadının hak ve özgürlüklerinin tanımı, gelişimi ve korunması yönündeki konulara yer verilmiştir. İran aile hukukunda kadın hak ve yükümlülüklerinin tanınması ve konunun hukuki bakımdan söz konusu edilmesi iki yönden önem taşımaktadır: Birincisi, insan kavramı iki eşit yönlü (kadın-erkek) cinsiyet kimliğine sahiptir. Farklı cinsten eşit hukuki konuma sahip kadın ve erkeğin toplumdaki yeri, özellikle hak ve yükümlülükleri içinde bulundukları toplumun kültürel değerleri ve bakış açısıyla belirlenir. Böylece hukuki düzenlemelerde toplumsal değerler etkin rol oynar. İran hukuku dab u nedenle İslem dininin ilkeleri ile bütünleşmiş bir kültürel yapıyı ve düşünceyi yansıtmaktadır. Bu nedenle İran aile hukukunın bakış açısından kadının hak ve yükümlülüklerini tanımak, bir bakıma insan hak ve özgürlüklerinin uygulanmasındaki çeşitli yöntemler arasındaki uygunluk ve ayrımların belirlenmesine de yardımcı olacaktır. İkincisi, mukayeseli hukuk bakımından İran hukuku, diğer hukuklara oranla kendine özgü kavram ve kaynaklara sahip bir hukuk düzeni olarak bilinmektedir. Bu makale İran hukukunun temel kaynakları bakımından kadının ail eve toplumdaki yeri, hak ve özgürlüklerinin mahiyeti ve sınırları, özellikle yasal düzenlemelerde kadına özgü tanınan hak ve yükümlülükleri konu başlıkları altında incelenecek ve sonuç olarak konunun değerlendirilmesine yer verilecektir.

Mohammad Maghaminiya
maghami9876@gmail.com Payam Noor University Iran

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

55

The Role of Women in Development of Iran
If you study the women` s economic activities and their role in country` s economic expansion, you will find the importance of the participation of this major part of our country` s population in economic activities and the necessity of preparing women` s development and participation grounds in different economic, social, political and cultural areas of Iran. The economic participation of a 9 percent of active women (according to enumeration of 1996); by itself, reflects the lack of women` s economic and social participation in comparison with men in developing society of Iran; and while the women` s economic expansion, that is, suitable using of human power, along with development goals in industrial developed countries is a symbol of development, it seems that women` s occupation out of house in Iran is confronted with some misinterpretations, critiques, misjudgments and misgivings. In addition to effects of some factors like economic depressions, unemployment, unequal job opportunities for men and women in labor market of Iran that has a immediate effect on the level of women` s economic participation, we can add some other cultural and social factors like some certain interpretations of women` s occupational role and negative attitudes toward women` s activities that block the research processes and development of women` s participation in economic activities. In this article, the author, based on some theoretical deliberations and findings of empirical researches, tries to study these blocks.

Mohammadreza Iravani
iravani.reza@gmail.com Lecturer at Azad University of Khomeinishahr

Jafar Ebrahimi
Lecturer at Azad University of Khalkhal Iran

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

56

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Gender Religious Policy in a Globalised World: Perspectives from the Field of Christian Feminist Theology
This paper is cocerned both with stereotypical religion-determined pattern of femininity and masculinity and with identifying changes that are underway in global culture facing radical changes concerning the conception of gender as a biological, social and psychological category, as well as a transformation of gender roles and representations occurring in the ethos of gender equality and in the light of likeness to God and fundamental human dignity. The paper is organised in three parts. It opens with a conceptual outline of the negative impact of stereotypical religion-determined pattern of femininity. The changes in the image of woman in the secular world are consequently modifying her image in religion as well; the more vehemently women are stepping from behind the scenes of passivity onto a stage of activity, the more their religious image changes. Therewith, femininity and masculinity are taking a much more complete shape, breaking free of the partial, strictly polarised traditional stereotypical definition. Women and femininity have found themselves in a unique moment in history, marked by a high appreciation of the body, corporeality and at the same time of the humanity and likeness to God in both sexes. The paper then moves on to consider the main implications of globalisation for gender religious policy and the changes of the position of women in the Christian (Catholic) religious sphere. The third, and final, section of the paper focuses on the matter of gender hierarchy from theological point of view. Though the Church and society have in theory already accepted the equality of men and women, the harmful and influential nature of traditional stereotypes and prejudices is growing increasingly evident in ever more frequent manifestations. The centrepiece here is an analysis of the tensions inherent in contemporary gender religious policy.

Nadja Furlan
nadja.furlan@zrs.upr.si Science and Research Centre of Koper, University of Primorska Slovenia

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

57

Where Do Babies Come From? Where Do They Go To? Maternal Body in the Reproductive Politics of ‘The Brave World’
As argued by many, the human body is culturally and socially constructed and thus, it is gendered. The pregnancy of the female body is ‘idealized’ and ‘instituted’ per se and motherhood is understood, and experienced through biological, social and psychological attributes. Focusing on various theories dealing with prenatal and postnatal stages of pregnancy, this paper aims to show the construction of the maternal body and identity, and individuality in relation to the fetus becoming a subject through technological and scientific advancements. While Freud and Lacan claim separation of the baby from the maternal body as the baby enters into signification, and thereby language, Kristeva argues that the signification process starts at the maternal body and moves as the semiotic ‘chora’ towards the acquisition of language. Through this becominga-subject process, the baby ‘abjects’ the maternal body as the other and identifies himselfherself as self. However, recent technology, which declares a baby as a subject while still in the womb, precedes even Kristeva’s theory. Besides ultrasound images, the fetal images taken by the photographer Linnart Nilsson (published in Life, 1965) display fetuses as mature babies in the womb. Fetuses becoming subject even in the prenatal stage devalue the maternal body which was pushed to the forefront again with Demi Moore’s nude pregnant body (photographed and published in Vanity Fair, 1991). This paper is an attempt to show that what was once a science fiction—Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World in particular—is now today’s scientific reality regarding the studies giving birth to cloning and to artificial wombs. Nafia Akdeniz
nafia.akdeniz@emu.edu.tr Eastern Mediterranean University North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

58

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Press Coverage of Rape News : Is it about Crime or Victim?
Male dominated structure of the media organizations can be observed as ‘tiny’ patriarchal reflections on the media texts as well. News, films, ads and many other media products represent women in a way to strengthen the expectations of male dominance. Women are mostly represented on the media with the stereotype images and roles attributed to them by the dominant patriarchal understanding. Women are represented either as an ‘evil’ or an ‘angle’ if not as a ‘victim’. Rape is violence against the unity of body and soul which is very hard to recover. However, many research studies on the rape news prove that the content and the language of such news stories exacerbate the trauma of such events on the victims. The news reflects such events as full stories with details and makes the victims live the same shock again and again and inevitably develops a feeling of guilt. Peace and justice journalism started to be used and discussed as popular terms by the journalists as well as the academia. However, the sexist expressions in language has not changed much all around the world as well as the North Cyprus press. In order to motivate consciousness and sustainable development on gender equality we need to take necessary precautions on our cultural practices and language. The language and the discourse of the rape news on the North Cyprus press will be analyzed through a feminist perspective in this presentation. Nurten Kara
nurten.kara@emu.edu.tr Faculty of Communication, Eastern Medditerranean Unuversity, North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

59

Anadolu’dan Kadın Portreleri / Portraits of Anatolian Women”
Anadolu’da “kadın”ı imleyen yüzlerce kelime kullanılmaktadır. Bu kadının Anadolu’da yaşam bulan farklı kültürlere kattığı zenginliğin bir göstergesidir. Tanrıça Kybele’den günümüzün ikonlaşan kadınlarına kadar toplumda çeşitli roller içerisinde gördüğümüz ve tanımladığımız kadını anlamak, sırrını çözmek çoğu zaman imkansız gibi görünse de, onu keşfetme çabaları sürüp gitmektedir. Anadolu kadınları, kimi zaman toplumsal baskı ve törelerle ezilmiş; kimi zaman ise sosyal yaşamın cesur, güçlü ve savaşçı bir öğesi olarak varolmayı başarmıştır. Analığı, üremeyi, dişiliği, dolayısıyla bereketi simgeleyen kadın, hayat çarkının dönebilmesini de sağlamaktadır. Fotoğraflarda gördüğümüz Anadolu kadınları, yüzlerinde eksik olmayan ışıkları ile bu coğrafyada yaşayan kültürlerin çok renkli birer yansıması olarak her zamanki gibi bizleri aydınlatıyorlar. “Anadolu’dan Kadın Portreleri” bu coğrafyadaki kadınları kelimelerle değil, ışıkla renkle anlatmayı deniyor.

Osman Ürper
osmanurper@hotmail.com Maltepe University, Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

60

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Gender on the Border: Orthodoxy, Heterodoxy and the Life History of Gender Studies at Roman Catholic College in the United States
Almost by definition, Gender Studies at Saint Michael’s College is a declaration of heterodoxy. The Roman Catholic Church prohibits women from participating in the church hierarchy and Catholic doctrine prescribes narrow views of appropriate sexual expression: heterosexual, married, procreative. Nonetheless, the college approved a Gender Studies major. The number of majors and minors, straight and gay, male, female, and transgendered, continues to increase. A vibrant discussion of sexuality, gender, and identity flourishes in and out of classrooms. Activist faculty conduct research, express themselves as artists, and teach a range of issues in our Post Third Wave world: HIV/AIDs, homophobia, misogyny, the role of gender in US politics, critical feminist theory, gender and war. Members of our community were instrumental in securing the rights of gay couples to form civil unions in the state of Vermont. Faculty across campus display the “ally” symbol, demonstrating solidarity with lesbian, homosexual, and bi-sexual students. Female and male students question the gender balance of our senior administration and board of trustees. How did we get here from there? Tracing the history of Gender Studies at this college, this paper explores the border lands of gender, pedagogy, “new scholarship”, and multi-disciplinary conversation on our campus and with the wider world. What started as a challenge to patriarchal, misogynistic, and homophobic campus culture in the 1970s, became an academic major in 2008. Along the way, the program has prodded, poked, challenged, and questioned political, social, theoretical, and theological borders. Now that we find ourselves on the other side of the border, has our heterodoxy been co-opted? Is our work finished? We conclude with a look at the “new paradigm” in Gender Studies at Saint Michael’s College: the work that remains and the need to learn the lessons of gender studies from other cultures, other places, other worldviews.

Patricia Delaney
pdelaney@smcvt.edu

Carey Kaplan
ckaplan@smcvt.edu Saint Michael’s College USA

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

61

Gender Identity and the Role of Women in Peace Processes and Conflict Resolution
In the wider context of so called ‘new wars’ (Mary Kaldor), the role of women in conflicts, and the way gender identity is affected in contemporary conflicts, has recently been investigated from many different perspectives (Cynthia Cockburn, Cynthia Enroe) focusing attention on interrelationships between private and public sphere, collective and family violence. The question I shall address in my paper is what role women can play in peace processes. Is it possible to claim a specific positioning of women as such in conflict resolution processes, as a ‘transversal politics’ (Nira Yuval-Davis), grounded in a gendered-based approach to cultural, national, ethnic, religious and other conflictual diversities? My considerations will be based on a specific case study, the experience of Jerusalem Link and the two Israeli and Palestinian women’s associations that constitute it: Bat Shalom and Jerusalem Women’s Centre. My positioning is that of a third party, as participant in a three year project sponsored by the E.U., coordinated by ‘Orlando’, a Bologna-based women’s association. The project aims to support Jerusalem Link and is still in progress. I will focus on a number of crucial issues related to this experience: the interplay between gender and national identities; co-presence of, and shifting between, two discourse levels: the political and the personal; the use of narrative in women’s dialogue; the complicated transition of the ‘third party’ role from ‘foreign body’ to ‘place of mediation’ (cfr. C.S. Peirce’s notion of the Interpretant), and ‘emotional regulator’; the crucial role of emotions and contrasting feelings in a gendered-based action for peace; the need for a critical analysis of the concept of ‘peace’ in any ongoing conflict situation.

Patrizia Violi
patrizia.violi@unibo.it University of Bologna Italy

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

62

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Missing Histories of Cyprus: War, Displacement and Women’s Narratives
In every society, women are the reproducers of the nation both biologically and culturally and are seen as the symbolic ‘border’ of ethnic groups, communities, or even nations. In this regard, women represent authenticity and purity, and are viewed with disapproval or a as source of societal threat when they act in a way that is seen to be immoral. Subsequently, women’s bodies may arguably be equated to symbols of men’s honor when men of a ‘nation’ are called for fight in war to protect their women and children in the name of country. That is why war history is littered with incidents of victors raping enemy’s women and leaving them pregnant as the worst humiliation besides defeat of forces of one country by those of another. Since 1960s, oral history appeared as part of an effort to re-write history from the point of view of those who have been oppressed, such as women and other marginalized groups. This paper attempts to gain some of that “lost ground” by tracing and analyzing the Cypriot women’s experience and perception of war, displacement and related themes like ‘home’ and ‘loss.’ The study employed interviews as a part of an ‘oral history project’ and asked women to narrate what they have been through before, during and after the/ war(s) taken place in 1950s, 1960s and in 1974. With this research we seek and hope to see and display how and when these women see themselves as the subjects or doers and when they see themselves as victims or objects in the stories that they narrate; in what moments of the story they fall into the ‘victimized’ and in what moments stay as the “subjects” of the lives they are supposed to own.

Pembe Behçetoğulları
pembe.behcetogullari@emu.edu.tr

Hanife Aliefendioğlu
hanife.aliefendioglu@emu.edu.tr Faculty of Communication Eastern Mediterranean University North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

63

Vengeance of the Killed Women: Representing Women’s Resistance in Indonesian Horror Movies
From 2001 onward horror genre has become a significant money machine for Indonesian film industry. Interestingly, most of the horror movies are about murdered women who come back from the dead for vengeance. In this paper I analyse two Indonesian horror movies, i.e. “Beranak dalam Kubur” (Giving Birth in the Grave, 2006) and “Terowongan Casablanca” (Casablanca Tunnel, 2007), which narrate the story of a sexually abused woman who is killed by male killer. The soul of the woman is angry and raised from her grave for vengeance. In this regard, pretty tender woman are drastically transformed into an outraged scary female ghost that plays as a destructive killing machine. She roams around to make people petrified with fear. The woman comes back from dead not merely to go after the man who committed the kill, but also to go after the people who give hands for the killer. It is important to note that political reforms in Indonesia have brought more opportunities for women’s voices to be heard. However, Indonesian patriarchal society has attempted to maintain its control over women’s bodies and sexuality. In this sense, diegetic world of both film stories enable women to dreadfully challenge and resist patriarchal domination; something that remains hard to attain in the non-diegetic world. The analysis reveals, nonetheless, that both movies constantly restore women to their due position in the patriarchal order, as they choose to narratively kill the women and re-enact a morality play wherein monstrous killed women seek revenge and unleash chaos before the patriarchy steps in and restores the natural order.

Ratna Noviani
Ratna.Noviani@yahoo.com Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta Indonesia

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

64

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Signs and Semiotics of Gender in Cyprus: The Representation of the Female Body in Holiday Brochures.
This paper provides a semiotic reading of tourism and holiday brochures-specifically in Cypruswithin the current political situation of Cyprus and provides an analysis of brochures along with the theories of fetish. Recently, Henry Krips claimed that the Freudian sense of fetish which portrays women as sex objects has made the word “fetish” into a negative and conservative concept. One intriguing way of analysing this concept is to consider holiday brochures within the framework of fetish which reveals that the Freudian fetish has not disappeared; on the contrary; it has become a marketing tool to attract tourists to certain destinations and the female body plays an important role to attract -especially the male- tourists to feminized landscapes. The paper analyses the earliest forms of fetish; the gaze at the body of the Aphrodite, and puts forward that myths and legends like Aphrodite enable an association between landscape and the female body. The representation of the female body in holiday brochures and the way Cypriots smile on the cover of the brochures to offer the best type of service are also analyzed. I suggest that this framework ultimately serves the Freudian type of fetish and aims to satisfy the male gaze. The female body is used to sell a product in holiday brochures that serve as the ‘face’ of a country. Raziye Nevzat Yaver
raziye.nevzat@emu.edu.tr Eastern Mediterranean University North Cyprus

Similar to Henry Krips, I reiterate that the Lacanian concept of fetish has a more positive and ethical meaning and recently used in brochures to dwell on the sense of pleasure. Yet, unlike Krips, I suggest that the Freudian fetish is still culturally dominant and the female body is still displayed on the cover half naked to satisfy the male gaze.

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

65

Networking Women in the Rural Areas of Finland
Peripheral regions in Finland are suffering from depopulation, especially among women. Those women who are staying have noticed how patriarchal attitudes influence in the local decicionmaking and rural development. Though women participate decision-making they feel that they are having less power. Finnish women were seeking for a new kind of co-operation with other women at the same time with a new trend of networking and at the same time when Finland became a member of European Union.The funding of EU programmes made it possible for women to promote networking. In networks women support each other in personal life and professional paths. Many of them want to influence regional development. According to structuration theory groups build up their structures and manners of action in the interaction between social relations. Because networks are totally dependent on these relations and communication it is important to discuss networks from this perspective. This paper proposal is focusing on network interaction inside women’s networks and roles which come up in interaction processes revealing the nature and manners of network. The data was collected in two women’s regional networks in Finland by interviewing.

Riitta Vanhatalo
riitta.vanhatalo@uta.fi

Pekka Isotalus
pekka.isotalus@uta.fi University of Tampere Finland

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

66

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Gendered Dynamics of conflcit: Analysing the the Violence in the EthnoNationalist Conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts
There has been much academic work demonstrating on the complex links between gender, nation, state and ethnic conflict, though earlier literatures on political violence and armed conflict were ‘largely gender-blind’ (Moser and Cark, 2001). While nationalist projects and nation states are seen as public political sphere as well as domain for men (Yuval-Davis, 1997); explicitly feminist analyses of gender, nation and conflict address the different experience of women and men in the nationalist conflict and in political violence. In her recent book, “The Body of War”, Zarkov (2007) explored the ways in which women were subjected in the ethno-nationalist violence in former Yugoslavia and the media representation of female and male bodies that were gendered. Mukherjee (2008), in her article, on the gendered embodiment of the nation of Bangladesh, showed that the violence in Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 was inscribed upon the bodies of women. While men soldiers were fighting on the frontier for the sake of the motherhood; the mother, daughter and sisters of the ‘warriors’ were left at military camps or at ‘home’ to have been subjected to reproductive and sexual violence by Pak-Military. Furthermore, feminist scholarship such as Hyndman (2008), Korac (2006, 2003, 1998), Giles and Hyndman (2004), Cockburn (2004, 2001), Moser and Clark (2001) and Cynthia Enloe (1993) have articulated that there is a notion to see political violence and armed conflict as “male domains, executed by men, whether as armed forces, guerrilla groups, paramilitaries or peace-keeping forces” (Enloe 1993 cited in Moser and Clark, 2001) which portray women as simply victims in the nationalist struggle. However, this paper is informed by the above articulations and it argues that the violence in the armed conflict in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in Bangladesh is merely gendered where women’s victimization is constructed by the gender politics of the state. The paper is an extract from the doctoral thesis Gender and Armed conflict: the case of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. My analysis uses data collected in the three-month fieldwork in the Hill Tracts and the secondary literatures used for the historical background of the Jumma and the CHT. However, this article demonstrates the gender dynamics of violence in the conflict in South-eastern Bangladesh where the community, media and state played identical role in representation of female bodies.

Rumana Hashem
r.hashem@uel.ac.uk Media and Cultural Studies, University of East London England

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

67

The Firt Israli Clinic for WSW
the issue of women who have sex with women’s Health care, and sexual health , have been an under-studied aspect of women’s health. The question whether these women are at increased risk for poor health outcome has not been adequately examined. From the limited information available, arise that lesbian’s and bisexual women’s health status, their access to, and use of health care service may be lower than heterosexual women.Too often, health care providers assume that clients are heterosexual,- unless they explicitly state otherwise. Assumption that might lead to insensitive or inappropriate per speculum or per vaginal examination that optionally will be similar to the scream of Munch. Standards of care, teaching materials, and language used in practice setting are often based on the same assumption.Lesbians and bisexual women were less likely to have health insurance, and have difficulty obtaining needed medical care. According to large-scale national surveys, lesbians may smoke and drink more alcohol, have a higher body mass index, bear fewer or no children, and have fewer preventive health screenings than heterosexual women. Unfortunately, these behaviors constitute high-risk factors predisposing to colon, lung, endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer, as well as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. WSW have traditionally been viewed as “low risk” for STI, including HIV, and data from several small studies seem to support this belief.Sexual orientation itself of course is not a risk factor. Sexual behaviors, not sexual orientation, put people at increased risk, particularly for STIs and related gynecological cancer.HPV constitute >80 distinct types, some of which are sexually transmitted and predominantly infect genital skin and mucosa. Requires only skin-to skin contact, making sexual transmission between women by direct genitalto-genital or digital-genital contact plausible. The potential for transmission by shared sex toys may also exist.In the light of all that has been said, we felt in 2006 that there is room for ‘specialty’ clinic, for women who have sex with women,the first of its kind in Israel, which provides health care to women who have sex with women, and includes nursing, as well as medical services; gynecologist and surgeons for breast check ups, among other health care issues, in a supportive and welcoming clinical environment. now two years of experiece. Sagit Arbel-Alon
sagitalon@gmail.com

Eudice Yodelevich
marioy@netvision.net.il Hadassah Medical Centers Jerusalem Israel

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

68

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Türkiye’den Kuzey Kıbrıs’a Son Göçlerde Kadın İş Gücünün Göçmenlik Halleri
Türkiye’den Kuzey Kıbrıs’a 1974 yılından beri süren göçleri üç dalga olarak inceleyen daha kapsamlı bir TÜBİTAK projesinin verilerine dayanarak hazırlanan bu çalışmada, 1990’lı yılların ikinci yarısından beri başlayan ve 2000’li yıllarda hızlanarak artan, büyük ölçüde enformel nitelik taşıyan üçüncü dalga göçlerde kadın işgücü göçünün, dünyadaki diğer benzerleriyle ortak özellikler taşıdığı öne sürülecektir. Özellikle 1990’lı yıllarda uluslararası ölçekte sermayenin hareketliliğinin artmasına parallel olarak hızlanan işgücü göçlerinde kadın işgücü oranının giderek artması bir raslantı değildir. Üretimin ve işgücü piyasalarının gezegen ölçeğinde yeniden örgütlendiği günümüzde, sermaye birikiminin önündeki engellerin elimine edilmesi ve kar oranlarının yeniden restore edilmesi her zamankinden daha fazla emeğin değersizleştirilmesine dayanmaktadır ve kadın işgücü her zaman erkek işgücünden daha ucuz bir emek rezervidir. Bütün dünyada olduğu gibi Kuzey Kıbrıs’a Türkiye’den akan küreselleşme döneminin göçlerinde kadın işgücü, özellikle kendi toplumsal cinsiyet rollerine uygun görülen temizlik, çocuk-hasta-yaşlı bakımı gibi ev eksenli işlerde ve turizm, tarım, eğlence gibi sektörlerde, 2005 yılında yürürlüğe giren çalışma izni yasasına karşın, çoğu kez gerekli belgelere sahip olmadan ve sigortasız olarak çalış(tırıl)maktadırlar. İstihdam edildikleri sektörlerin niteliği gereği göçmen kadınlar arasında enformel çalışma biçimlerinin erkeklere göre daha yaygın olduğu varsayılır ve göçmen kadınların çok büyük bir kısmı daha önce de Türkiye içinde ve dışında, özellikle tarım kesiminde mevsimlik işçi olarak çalışmışlardır. Bu çalışmada, enformelliğin bir anlamda yasallaşmış şekli olan ve narenciye bahçelerinde portakal toplamak üzere mevsimlik işçi statüsünde Türkiye’den kontraktörlerce 6 aylık çalışma izni ile getirilen mevsimlik tarım işçilerinden, turist vizesi ile Kuzey Kıbrıs’a giriş yapıp vizeleri doluncaya kadar temizlik, bakıcılık gibi enformel Işlerde çalışan valizci kadınlara ve Kuzey Kıbrıs’a aile birleşmeleri ile gidip ev eksenli işlerde ya DA restoranların mutfakları gibi niteliği gereği “görünmez” olan işlerde çalışan Türkiyeli göçmen kadınlara kadar, büyük bir bölümü vasıfsız işgücü niteliğindeki göçmen kadın işgücünün göçmenlik halleri, dünyadaki diğer işgücü göçleri gibi bulundukları yerlerde yaş AMA olanakları kalmayanların seçmek zorunda kaldıkları bir yaşam stratejisi olması bağlamında incelenecektir.

Semra Purkis
mitanos@yahoo.com Muğla University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

69

Bir Yoksulluk ve Sosyal Dislanma Örnegi: Roman Kadınlar
Dunyanin bircok yerinde etnik kokenleri nedeniyle ayrimciliga ugrayan Romanlar yoksulluk ve sosyal dislanmayi en yogun yasayan gruplar arasindadir. Avrupa Komisyonu’nun 2004 yilinda hazirlanan bir degerlendirme raporuna gore Romanlar egitim, istihdam, sosyal guvence, saglik, konut ve sosyal hizmetlere ulasim konularinda en fazla ayrimciliga ugrayan kesimdir. Turkiye’de de son yillarda gerek arastirmacilarin, gerekse sivil toplum orgutlerinin calismalari Romanlarin yasadigi bu tur toplumsal sorunlarin Turkiye baglaminda da gecerli oldugunu gozler onune sermektedir. Diger yandan yoksulluk ve sosyal dislanma bakimindan dezavantajli gruplar arasinda kadinlar da yer almaktadir. Pekin 4. Dunya Konferansinda kadinlarin yoksullugunun bir dunya sorunu oldugu teyit edilmis, erkeklere kiyasla daha cok kadinin mutlak yoksulluk icinde bulundugundan bahsedilmis ve yoksullugun kadinlasmasi kavramina yer verilmistir. Sosyal dislanmaya ugrayan bir etnik gruba mensup olmanin otesinde toplumsal cinsiyet bakimindan da ayrimciliga ugrayan Roman kadinlar yoksulluk ve sosyal dislanmayi daha agir sartlarda yasamaktadirlar. Turkiye’de bu sorunun tespitine yonelik yapilan arastirmalar yetersizdir. Bu calisma cercevesinde Roman kadinlarin icinde bulundugu yoksulluk ve sosyal dislanmayi ve bununla mucadele etme bicimlerini ortaya cikarmak amaclanmaktadir. Bu amacla Istanbul’da Roman nufusun yogun olarak ikamet ettigi cesitli mahallelerde Roman kadinlarla derinlemesine mulakatlar yapilarak, Amartya Sen’in tabiriyle, ‘yapabilirlikleri’ uzerine analizler yapilacaktir. Yapabilirlik yaklasimi, yoksullugun degerlendirilmesinde kadinlarin aile icindeki esitsizliklerinin – bedensel butunluklerine yonelik tehditlerin, kaynak ve firsatlardaki esitsizliklerin – ele alinmasina olanak saglamistir. Arastirma cercevesinde yurutulecek mulakat araciligiyla Roman kadinlarin yasamlarinda karsilastigi maddi, sosyal ve kulturel engeller; yoksulluklarini azaltma konusunda etkili olabilecek degisiklikler; Roman kadinlarin yoksulluk ve sosyal dislanmayla mucadele bicimleri; yoksulluktan nasil kurtulacaklarina iliskin kendi dusunceleri ve kadinlarla erkeklerin yoksulluktan neden farkli etkilendigi ortaya cikarilmaya calisilacaktir. Sevinç Eryılmaz
seryilmaz@bilgi.edu.tr

Gökçeçicek Ayata
gayata@bilgi.edu.tr

Burcu Yeşiladalı
burcuy@bilgi.edu.tr Istanbul Bilgi University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

70

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

The Female in the Femail of the Daily Mail
Although the downmarket tabloid newspapers of the United Kingdom are noted for containing an inordinate number of photographs of naked women, it can be argued that the Daily Mail, a middlemarket paper that takes itself more seriously than the tabloids do, actually exerts a far more pernicious influence on how women are perceived in British society. This paper investigates Daily Mail articles from a linguistic point of view, employing analytic techniques drawn from the fields of sociolinguistics, discourse analysis and stylistics. The first part of the paper is concerned with the Daily Mail’s obsession with the physical appearance of female celebrities, and analyses the recurrent stylistic devices in unsigned articles. Of particular note is the way in which lexical choice creates a judgemental tone with regard to those celebrities guilty of failing to combat weight gain and cellulite. The work continues with consideration of two signed articles that challenge feminism head-on: Angela Epstein’s “I’m a FEMALE male chauvinist and proud of it” (Epstein’s capitals) and James Delingpole’s “Why can’t we just let girls be girly?” The analyses focus on Epstein’s use of value-loaded lexis and rhetorical questions to present her case, and on Delingpole’s unconventional use of direct speech to misrepresent the feminist agenda. Steve Buckledee
sbuckledee@unica.it University of Cagliari Italy

The linguistic approach is set against the backdrop of readership figures that show that the Daily Mail has a higher proportion of female readers than any other national daily newspaper in Britain. Indeed, of the ten national dailies, it is the only one with more female (53%) than male readers.

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

71

Fair Game: Tackling Violence Against Women in Australian Football
One of Australia’s most popular sports is Australian football, a national professional sport, as well as a popular community sport which has almost 2000 clubs in the State of Victoria alone. In recent years some professional footballers have been involved in high profile incidents of violence against women, and negative attitudes towards women appear to permeate many aspects of the sport. Regardless of the dominant masculine image of the game, women make up half of all members and fans, and are deeply engaged in all aspects of community clubs, including women’s football, coaching, umpiring, and other volunteer roles. Despite what might be seen as a hostile environment, women love the sport. In all sports, women have had lower participation rates than men, and Government efforts to change this have been successful, albeit in largely individual physical activities, such as walking, aerobics and fitness. While physical activity contributes to health, a sense of belonging and feeling connected to others in a meaningful way is also important for overall health and wellbeing. Increasing participation in individual forms of physical activity neglects this aspect of health for women. Being recognised as a valued member of a group, like a community football club, can make a significant contribution to the wellbeing of members. This paper will report on research with women in community football clubs, about their experience of inclusion and safety in the club, and on moves to introduce an intervention to change men’s attitudes and make the club culture safer for women.

Suzanne Dyson
s.dyson@latrobe.edu.au La Trobe University Australia

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

72

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Project for Educating Citizenship Applicants by Respecting Their Gender and Cultural Identities
With this plan we want to give to schools an instrument allowing, from the very beginning and in an adaptable way, the education of children towards an awareness of self and others and of the way in which understanding the difference leads to citizenship. In this experience, the sex difference might give a key to tolerance and conviviality between men and women as well as in regard to other differences. Our relation to others, from which springs our relation to the whole world, is essentially structured by language. This is our common tool, used at school as our common space, in order to understand which are our singularities. The participants experience difference by playing with words. Our work is guided by experiments made in Europe, Canada and the Unites States. Activities encourage the children to speak freely and precisely about their ideas on identity and its foundation, at the same time giving them the means to accept the diversity and to benefit by the difference. This project of education to citizenship aims at discovering themselves together, expressing an opinion or feeling, clarifying ideas received from elsewhere, better understanding their own inner life, free from stereotyped mental pictures or attitudes. During such exercises, the participants acquire new guide marks about self-analysis and new ways of communicating while fully respecting each other. Teachers and educators play an active role and try out new instruments in order to fight against attitudes of violence or exclusion . Experience shows that the children are able to discover several important differences between their ways of expressing themselves. These discoveries make them curious to go on with the work following the road the children have opened themselves.

Sylvie Lausberg
slausberg@skynet.be Belgium

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

73

Understanding Gender to Prevent Abuse and Trauma Depending on Violence: The Ecological Approach
Violence against women is the most pervasive yet underrecognized human rights violation in the world. It is also a profound health problem that saps women’s energy, compromises their physical and mental health, and erodes their self-esteem after the traumatic events. In addition to causing injury, violence increases women’s long-term risk of a number of other health problems, including chronic pain, physical disability, drug and alcohol abuse, and depression. Many of the women who have especially experienced gendered violence or traumatic events in their lives clearly suffer severe and devastating effects. In this context, gender is not seen simply an individual difference. Instead, gender is social status of social inequality, around which an entire set of social assumptions and practises are built. Therefore, to understand the impact of gender, researchers are increasingly using an “ecological approach” on abuse and trauma related violence against women. It explores the relationship between individual and contextual factors, and highlights the multiple causes of violence and the interaction of risk factors operating within the family and broader environments. This paper focuses on the ecological approach as a violence prevention tool, providing an overview of abuse and trauma framework and a discussion for prevention strategy.

Şengül Hablemitoğlu
hablemit@gmail.com

Filiz Yıldırım
filizyildirim06@hotmail.com Ankara University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

74

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Problems Faced by Women Who Work as Academicians in their Work and Home Lives from the Perspectives of Gender
The work life of the woman also starts and continues or is forced to end under the influence of these roles and status. The most important duties incurred upon the woman by societal structure are that of being a mother and wife. According to the traditional, gender based role distribution of societal structure, it is the duty of the man to provide daily bread to the family. The fundamental duty incurred upon the woman is that of being a housewife. According to common belief, women join work life due to reasons related to earn a living or due to their having received higher education. In our country, one of the areas women take part in most is the academic life. About 40% of the academicians in our country are women. Nevertheless, since the primary responsibilities of the woman are considered to be her home and family, her desire to have a successful career at work meets with criticism many a time. Women face a role enlargement even after joining the work life despite many obstacles and steering attempts. Especially married working women might experience conflicts between being a housewife and mother, roles traditionally attributed to them, and new work roles which the work life has provided them with. This study is a descriptive research aimed at determining the problems faced by women, who work as academicians, in their work and home lives from the perspective of gender. The domain of research is 1214 women who worked as full, associate, and assistant professors, and instructors at all faculties and colleges that have four-year long programs, with the exception of the conservatory. The sample size is calculated as 261 people, using the formula that is used to calculate the sample size when the size of the domain is known. Professors and instructors from all faculties and colleges are included in the sample using stratified sampling. Data have been collected through interviews in person using the data collection form, developed by the researchers.

Şule Ergöl
sergol@hacettepe.edu.tr

Gülten Koç
gultenko@hacettepe.edu.tr

Lale Taşkın
laletaskin@hotmail.com

Kafiye Eroğlu
keroglu@hacettepe.edu.tr Hacettepe University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

75

Factors & Motives in Human Trafficking (Emphasis on Central Asia)
Without a doubt human trafficking is a new form of modern slavery in the world. According to figures for 2004, annually between 800,000 and 900,000 people around the world are trafficked for forced labour, domestic servitude or sexual exploitation. After drugs and weapons trafficking, as an organized crime, human trafficking brings 7 to 10 million dollars profit. The main question of this article is: What is the essential nature of the factors in human trafficking in Central Asia? To get the answer to this question the results of theoretic and field studies in this regard have been used in the descriptive-analytical method in this article

Tahereh sadaat hashemi hashemi_t2005@yahoo.com Iran

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

76

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Job Satisfaction: Does Gender Make a Difference?
The job satisfaction of academicians in higher education is of particular importance when considering that the quality of the institutes to which the academicians belong and the quality of the students they educate depend to a great extent on the quality of the performance they put forth. This study aims to identify whether job satisfaction is experienced by academicians in Northern Cyprus with particular reference to a comparison of the differences and similarities experienced between male and female academicians. This will shed light on the aspects of the job that male academicians are satisfied and dissatisfied with and the aspects that female academicians are satisfied and dissatisfied with. Consequently, the study will answer the question “does gender make a difference in job satisfaction?”. The study instrument to be used will be the short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)(Weiss, Dawis, England, and Lofquist, 1967), one of the most popular and most widely used instruments in the study of job satisfaction. The instrument measures 20 aspects of the job such as ability utilization, compensation, responsibility, and company practices and policies to name a few. Tülen Saner
saner@neu.edu.tr

Şerife Zihni Eyüpoğlu
serifeeyupoglu@neu.edu.tr Near East University North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

77

The Gendered Comeback Story of the Live-in Kitchen
The kitchen has evolved drastically through periods of social change in human history. The space with fire has transformed from a gathering spot to a symbol of segregation; from the primitive hearth which was the sole space for every activity regarding life, to the Modern rational kitchen where women were isolated within. Today’s kitchen, however, has evolved back into its primal state, accommodating every member of the family hence including multiple functions. While changes in domestic architecture were induced by a range of factors, it is an evident fact that kitchen is a gendered space and the evolution of the kitchen is closely related to the evolution of gender roles. This study aims to investigate the impact of changing definitions of gender roles on the physical characteristics of the kitchen space, with main references to the Frankfurt Kitchen as the symbol of rational kitchen design, and Turkish Cypriot women’s influence on kitchen layouts by demanding togetherness of the family against the isolation caused by the rational kitchen. User-initiated transformations in kitchen spaces of social housing units are examined in an effort to reveal the underlying reasons beneath the modification efforts and to understand the meaning of the ‘living kitchen’ in Turkish Cypriot households.

Türkan Uraz
turkan.uraz@emu.edu.tr

Ceren Kürüm
cerenkurum@gmail.com Faculty of Architecture Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

78

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Power and Gender Equality: A New Look at the Gender Pay Gap
Abstract. Reducing the gender pay gap is an essential issue on the political agenda of most countries because it continues to persist and there is little evidence on improvement (Plantenga and Remery, 2006). This has generated the need to better understand the relevance of various factors contributing to the gender differences in pay as they might lead to different policy choices (Napari, 2008). Typical research across economic, sociological and psychological studies have focused on measuring gender pay gap by comparing males versus females on actual or self-report salary, promotion, or job responsibility measures (Blau and Kahn, 2007). However, little is known about how operations of power and gender equality influence the gender pay gap. This paper critically reviews theoretical and empirical literature surrounding the concepts of power and gender equality to formulate a coherent conceptual model. Results indicate that women as a population possess lower organizational power than men do; irrational operation of power discourages gender equality in organizations; gender inequality leads to the gender pay gap meaning that women do not get equal pay for equal job in comparison with men. Ultimately, irrational distribution of power between genders is one of the main reasons for gender inequality and this causes a problematic elimination of the gender pay gap.

Violetta Khoreva khoreva@hanken.fi Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

79

Research on Determinants of Androgyny in Female Undergraduates in China
A research published by East China Normal University in 2007 showed that almost 1/3 female undergraduates from 12 universities in China are androgynous. This paper is going to find out: what are the determinants of androgynous personality? How these factors influence personality development? Based on the researches of androgyny and theory of gender development, an exploratory research was conducted to investigate these questions. After addressing the conceptual framework the writer represents the result of in-depth interview. Ten interviewees from two top universities in China were interviewed. And the result is discussed from a social gender perspective. The conclusion is that the main factors contribute to androgynous personality are family factors and experience in school life.

Yu Bo
winter880116@163.com Renmin University of China, China

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

80

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

Working in the Ivory Basement: Early Childhood Teacher Educators Rowing against Feminist Current
Education of young children is such a field that dominant gender ideology in any society is both reflected and protested at the same time in the same battleground. It is a field that carrries great significance for feminist work for many reasons. First of all, early childhood education programs enabled women to infuse into public sphere and take a role in social change. Secondly, it was women who did the groundbreaking work and generated the field under the influence of progressivism emerged in Europe. Moreover, the field is almost entirely occupied by women who suffer from low social status and receive the lowest salary among educators. Finally, feminism does not have the luxury of ignoring education of young children because social change would not be possible unless we start at very early ages. This study revolves around the theme feminism in early childhood education and explores the early childhood teacher educators’ perspectives on teaching and feminism, and gender and sexuality issues. Interviews and classroom vignettes are used to describe how these women in academia work toward reproducing dominant gender ideology in the society; tensions arose during their discussions with the teacher candidates who do not necessarily absorbe the ideas offered by them, and, sometimes respond with a protest; and how both students and teacher educators reconcile the feminist messages given by a female professor teaching in the same department. This study brought to light a number of considerations for future educational practice and points to the urgent need that teacher education programs must provide specific coursework to preservice and inservice teachers in the area of gender and sexuality issues in order to enable future teachers to deconstruct dominant gender ideology and understand how its maintained and reproduced in schools and in teacher education programs.

Zeynep Alat
zeynep.alat@gmail.com

Nehir Çabı
Ondokuz Mayıs University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies

81

Turning Little Red Riding Hood into a Girl Power Story
Implementation of feminist theory in classroom may take different shifts. A gender blind focus may espouse by some who prefer not make any connection between gender and school life. Or the role of gender in construction and interpretation of experience may be acknowledged in a gender-sensitive classroom with a belief that ignoring the role of gender would not bring any benefit. This presentation will be about the endeavor of a student teacher to develop and implement a feminist curriculum for young children. The student, Kınalı, is a sophomore and majoring in early childhood education. Female, divorcee, single mom, returning student, a full time classroom teacher on a temporary contract, and minority are all that could be used to position her as an oppressed member of the society in a traditional sense. But all these qualities, in fact, are the ones that seem to work to empower and put her in a different vantage point where she can look at and do things differently. In Kınalı’s classroom, students breathe in a loving and caring atmosphere which stimulates questioning traditional gender roles and practicing alternative femininities and masculinities. She turns such well known stories as Little Red Riding Hood which are criticized by feminists for their representation of dominant gender ideology into feminist stories that celebrates peace, love and caring. Girls in her stories become power-girls and boys are allowed to show their emotions. Kınalı’s curriculum is not a finished product. It evolves everyday as she reflects on her classroom practices and life experiences and lets herself expose more to feminist writings. Her work does not isolate itself into the classroom, but extends to the homes of her students through her diaologue with the parents. Her journey, though not finished, sets an example for infusion of feminism into teaching practice.

Zeynep Alat
zeynep.alat@gmail.com

Serpil Alkış
Ondokuz Mayis University Turkey

Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

82

3rd international Conference on Women’s Studies
KADIN / WOMAN 2000 Kadın Araştırmaları Dergisi /Journal for Woman Studies Eastern Mediterranean University - Centre for Woman Studies ©EMUpress. ISSN 1302 – 9916

CALL for PAPERS KADIN/WOMAN 2000 welcomes papers, book reviews or news and reports on woman issues for the forthcoming issues. The Aim of the Journal The KADIN/WOMAN 2000 is a publication of EMU-CWS (Center for Woman Studies). It is published biannually and is a multi-disciplinary, refereed and bilingual journal (both Turkish and English) dedicated to the scholarly study of all aspects of women’s issues at global level. The articles published are primarily on topics concerning women rights, the socio-cultural aspects and position of women in society as well as particular legal issues. Articles are accepted from all disciplines such as literature, sociology, psychology, anthropology, law, political science, economics, medicine, cultural history as well as book reviews on recent publications and news and reports on important scientific events. KADIN/WOMAN 2000 is indexed in GenderWatch, Contemporary Women’s Issues, General Academic ASAP International, IT One File, General Reference Center, General Reference Center Gold, IT Custom, MLA International Bibliography, Turkologischer Anzeiger and Index Islamicus. KADIN.WOMAN 2000 is also an online journal that can be viewed through libraries that have memberships to General Academic ASAP International and GenderWatch (ProQuest) electronic databases.

For Detailed Information Tel: + 90 392 630 2269 E-mail: cws-kaem@emu.edu.tr Web: http://cws.emu.edu.tr
Gender at the Crossroads: Multi-disciplinary Perspectives 20-22 April 2009 Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus

http://kwj2000journal.emu.edu.tr


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:372
posted:11/26/2009
language:English
pages:90