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					REPORT OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT
THE DANISH NATIONAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION’S CENTRE FOR TEXTILE RESEARCH

2005
Period: 1st August –31st December 2005 Introduction In October 2004, The Danish National Research Foundation awarded 18 million Danish kroner to MarieLouise Nosch and the establishment of The Danish National Research Foundation‟ Centre for Textile Research at University of Copenhagen. The centre carries out basic research from 2005 to 2010. Centre for Textile Research opened the 1st of August 2005. CTR was opened officially the 16th of September at the University of Copenhagen with the participation of University officials and staff, representatives from the Danish National Research Foundation and more than 200 guests from Denmark and several European countries. The Danish Council for Research Policy had in 2005 invited all research institutions to define the core areas in Danish research. The SAXO Institute decided to define textile research as the upcoming core areas of research. The National Museum of Denmark, as well, defines textile research as its core research area. CTR has in 2005 focused on several different areas of the centre‟s activities:     Both CTR research programs were started Announcement of four PhD grants offered in open, international competition. The PhD applications have been evaluated and four successful candidates chosen Profiling CTR by giving interviews and lectures about CTR Developing of infra structure for the centre and the establishing of a web site

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CTR STAFF ACTIVITIES

1. CTR staff 1.1 Scientific personnel employed by CTR (position, period of employment) MLN=Marie-Louise B. Nosch, Director, post doc., August-December EA=Eva Andersson, research program manager, post doc., August-December (coming from Lund University, Sweden) UM=Ulla Mannering, research program manager, research assistant, November-December (coming from University of Copenhagen) MGU=Marta Guzowska, post doc., October-December (coming from University of Warsaw, Poland) MG=Margarita Gleba, post doc., October-December (coming from Bryn Mawr College, USA) SM= Susan Möller-Wiering, post doc., November-December (coming from Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesmuseen Schloss Gottorf, Germany) 1.2 Technical staff employed by CTR (position, period of employment) AB=Annette Borrell, academic officer, August-December LM=Linda Mårtensson, technician, October-December (part-time employment) (coming from Trelleborgs Museum, Sweden) ABH=Anne Batzer Høyrup, technician, October-December (part-time employment) (coming from Lejre Experimental Centre, Denmark) Several students 2. Lectures given by CTR staff          ”Textilforskning idag och igår” Textilsymposium at Glimmingehus, Sweden, EA (11.08.05) ”CTR, from vision to mission” 11th Annual European Association of Archaeologists Meeting, Cork Ireland, EA (09.09) Presentation of CTR at the Grand Opening, University of Copenhagen, MLN (16.09) Presentation of CTR at the Agnes Geier Meeting, Uppsala University, MLN (27.10) “Inte utan en tråd – textilproduktion under vikingatid” Workshop om genstandsfund, Odense, EA (07.11) Presentation of CTR research programs, Klassisk Arkæologisk Forening, MLN and MGU (16.11) Presentation of CTR at the Annual Danish Archaeological Conference, Fuglsø at Mols, UM (16.11) Presentation of CTR at the seminar “Textil, kulturhistoria, könsidentitet” arranged by the Kungliga Vitterhetsakademien, Stockholm, UM and EA (17-18.11) “Auratae vestes: Gold textiles in the Ancient Mediterranean”, at CTR, MG (21.11)

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“Auratae vestes: Gold textiles in the Ancient Mediterranean” 2nd International Symposium on Textiles and Dyes in the Ancient Mediterranean World, Athens, Greece, MG (25.11) Presentation of CTR at the 2nd International Symposium on Textiles and Dyes in the Mediterranean Ancient World, Athens, Greece, MG (25.11)

3. Teaching, supervision, evaluation 3.1 Teaching Lecture at Lund University on Textile production during the Viking Age, EA (29.09) Three lectures at Lund University on the topic of prehistoric textiles, EA (October). 3.2 Supervision, evaluation    Supervision of four MA students at Lund University who are all writing their MA thesis on the theme of prehistoric textiles, EA Evaluation of 3 PhD applications to CTR and Lund University, EA (Appendix IV) Evaluation of 11 PhD applications to CTR and co-financing institutions, MLN (Appendix IV)

4. Academic and administrative tasks Administrative tasks: (MLN) Employment contracts for ABH, LM, EA, MG, MGU; Work permit for MG and MGU; PhD co-financing contracts. Web site negotiations. Meeting in the research council of SAXO Institute (09.09); Meetings about accounting and budget with faculty staff, MLN, AB.

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CTR RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

5. Research programs 5.1 Textile and Costume from Bronze and Early Iron Age in Danish Collections (DTC) In 2005, the main work involved planning and arranging of the DTC research program and the creation of the Database of Iron Age Textiles. The time schedule for the research plan for 2005 and 2006 was outlined and updated (see Appendix I). Staff In 2005, Ulla Mannering (UM) was employed at CTR from November, working for the DTC. Margarita Gleba (MG) was employed from October, working for both CTR programs. Database During November-December 2005, MG created the Database of Iron Age Textiles in Microsoft Access based on the information in the monograph Ancient Danish Textiles from Bogs and Burials by Margrethe Hald (1980). The database consists of individual entry sheets for every textile/skin item, which gathers all relevant data for that item (provenance, location, dating, technical information and description, bibliography etc.). The database facilitates the organization of basic information about each item to be analyzed and, at a later stage, will enable statistical analyses of data. The database currently consists of 40 finds constituting about 110 individual pieces (textiles and skins) to be analyzed. Additional finds, not published by M. Hald, will be included in the database at a later stage. The database was checked against the records provided by the National Museum and a list of problematic items was created. Finally, a list of finds kept in holdings of other museums was also compiled. Planning and implementation Planning meetings with the Textile Conservation Department in Brede, with textile conservator Irene Skals and section leader Birgit Sørensen. Work plan, participation and facilities of the National Museum were discussed and agreed to. Access to the study room and magazines was discussed and arrangements with work permits etc. explained, UM and MG (01.09 and 06.12). UM, MG and EA visited Moesgård Museum to meet with Jørgen Ilkjær, who showed textile pseudo morphs on iron shield bosses from the hoard of Illerup Ådal, to be included in the DTC research program (14.10). SM will carry out this research for CTR and for the Carlsberg financed research project Iron Age in Northern Europe. UM and MG were by the National Museum in Copenhagen to assess and make recommendations about the display of Bronze and Iron Age costumes and textiles for the new installation of the Prehistoric section (16.10). The opening of the new Prehistoric section at the National Museum on May 16th 2008 is integrated in the DTC research plan. On the same date, the CTR monograph on Iron Age Textiles is planned to be released, and CTR will open the international conference North European Symposium on Archaeological Textiles. Archaeological textiles from the location Thorsbjerg in Schleswig are now preserved partly in the National Museum and partly in Landesmuseum Schloss Gottorf. These textiles are integrated in the DTC research 4

program, and will be analysed by SM who is employed at the Landesmuseum Schloss Gottorf. Therefore, a collaboration agreement was signed between Gottorp and CTR regarding the employment of SM (Appendix VI). In December, MG and MLN visited the Schloss Gottorp, where the collaboration agreement was signed between Gottorp and CTR regarding the pilot study project on strontium isotope analyses of archaeological textiles, which, if successful, will be the basis for a joint Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft application for further analyses. The pilot study will be carried out in a laboratory in Munich, in collaboration with Dr. Gisella Grupe, using samples from the Thorsbjerg finds in Schloss Gottorp. This pilot study is therefore now included in the research plan for 2006.

5.2 Tools and Textiles, Texts and Contexts (TTTC) The research program Tools and Textiles – Texts and Contexts started in August 2005. The main activities were: 1. The first experimental testing of spinning and weaving with reconstructed tools 2. The establishment of a database specially designed for Bronze Age textile tools 3. The organisation and performance of the 1st Tools and Textiles workshop in Athens, January 2006 The first phase of the research program culminated in the 1st Tools and Textiles workshop in Athens, January 2006 Thus, the TTTC report includes January 2006 (Appendix II and III). These activities were outlined in the CTR research plan to the Danish National Research Foundation. Experimental testing The first experimental testing of spinning and weaving with reconstructed tools resulted in new knowledge. In particular, using identical spinning tools showed that the output quantity of thread is extremely similar for different experienced spinners. The output quantity, on the other hand, showed significant differences when tools of different weight groups were used. This conclusion had been expected but had never been proven. Finally, the generally accepted claim that spindle whorls weighing less than 10 grams cannot be used as spindle whorls but should be classified as beads or buttons has now been firmly rejected. These important results allow us – and our international collaborators - to interpret textile production in a more differentiated way than was earlier the case. These experimental results will supplement the results of the systematic recording of textile tools in the database. Finally, the experimental testing of spinning and weaving will contribute to the development and methodology of experimental archaeology. Database The database specially designed for Bronze Age textile tools was developed and designed with Microsoft Access software and was presented at the Athens workshop in January 2006. Previously, in order to test the database, we had registered published textile tools from Mochlos and Kommos in Crete, and Nichoria in mainland Greece, and so far we can show that the database works as an optimal tool. We have also created a database manual to facilitate the work for our collaborators. The database is our systematic tool and, in addition, has potential for use in other periods and geographical areas as well. Collaborations Formalised agreements with collaborators from various countries working on sites were made, and we invited them to the 1st Tools and Textiles workshop in Athens, January 2006. Much effort was put into 5

the organisation in order to achieve successful interdisciplinary collaboration and results. We felt that our methods and experimental results had a strong impact on the collaborators from various disciplines. The workshop truly had a „snow ball effect‟ in the milieu of Bronze Age archaeology, and other scholars have afterwards proposed their collaboration. Finally, we have been pleased to see that young scholars in particular have been inspired by textile research. Our collaborators are: Dr. Assaf Yasur-Landa, Nàna Scheftelowitz Dr. Luca Peyronel, Claudia Minniti Dr. Dhimitris Matsas Prof. Iris Tzachili Dr. Anna Touchais Dr. Lorenz Rahmstorf / Dr. Magorzata Siennicka Prof. Iphyyenia Tournavitou, Mina Nikolovieni Prof. Erik Hallager / Dr. Maria Bruun Prof. Pietro Militello Dr. Margarita Gleba Dr. Joanna Smith Dr. Marta Guzowska Orit Shamir Textiles In addition, the unexpected find of archaeological Bronze Age textiles at Khania and Mochlos gave a new perspective to the research program. These artefacts were studied in Crete by SM in November 2005 and attracted attention in Athens. Tel Aviv University, Israel Universita di Roma, Italy 19th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, Arcaheological museum, Greece University of Crete, Greece École Française d‟Athènes, Greece Johnannes-Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Germany / Warsaw University, Poland University of Thessaly, Greece The Danish Insitute at Athens, Greece/ Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden University of Catania, Italy University of Copenhagen, Denmark Colombia University, USA Warsaw University, Poland Israel Antiquities Authority, Israel

5.3 Research training and PhD grants PhD grants In 2005 CTR has offered four PhD grants in open, international competition. The four grants are cofinanced with other research institutions. The aim of the co-financing was to ensure that the PhD scholars are embedded in the research environments both at CTR and in other research institutions, in order to integrate textile research outside CTR, and to facilitate the integration of the young PhD scholars in other institutions on a longer term. In agreement with the co-financing institutions, the following titles of the PhD grants were awarded (the last candidate was selected in January 2006): A. The PhD grant Textiles and Experimental Archaeology, co-financed by CTR and Lund University, was granted to Ulla Isabel Zagal-Mach. The PhD research project is termed: Sejlet på horisonten – et håndværksorienteret studie af den integrationsproces, der gjorde den nordiske båd sejlførende. Ulla Isabel Zagal-Mach started her PhD research on 1st February 2006. 6

B. The PhD grant Textiles and Conservation, with focus on textiles from the collections in the Danish National Museum, co-financed by CTR and the Danish National Museum, was granted to Maj Ringgaard. The PhD research project is termed: Nedbrydningsfænomener i tekstiler fra omkring 1700 fundet i københavnske byudgravninger. Maj Ringgaard will start her PhD research on 1st August 2006. C. The PhD grant Textiles and Archaeology, co-financed by CTR, University of Århus and the Danish Ph.D. School in Archaeology was granted to Judit Pásztókai-Szeoke. The PhD research project is termed: The archaeological evidence of textile production in Roman Pannonia. Judit Pásztókai-Szeoke started her PhD research on 1st March 2006. D. The PhD grant Design as a competitive parameter in the development of the Danish textile industry, co-financed by CTR, CBS/Centre for Business History, Centre for Design Research/School of Design at Kolding, and the private foundation Fonden Frigges Legat, was granted to Birgit Lyngbye Pedersen. The PhD research project is termed: Design som konkurrenceparameter i tekstilindustriens udvikling i Danmark efter 2. Verdenskrig. Birgit Lyngbye Pedersen will start her PhD research on May 1st 2006.

CTR SCIENTIFIC EXCHANGE ACTIVITIES 6.1 Research visitors at CTR   Dr. Susan Möller-Wiering, Landesmuseum Schloss Gottorf, came to plan her work for CTR (24.08) Dr. Michael Tellenbach, Dr. Astrid Böhme, Reiss-Engelhorn Museen, Mannheim, came to negotiate joint EU application and the realisation of an international exhibition in 2008 with CTR staff as scientific advicers (16.09) Associated professor Anders Linddal and Dr. Ole Stilborg, Lunds Universitet came to discuss collaboration for scientific analyses (11.10) Dr. André Verhecken, collaborator in CTR Tools and Textiles research program came to discuss his contribution to the monograph as well as his preliminary results of „moments of inertia‟ of spindle whorls (07-08.12) Prof. Lise Bender Jørgensen, Norges Tekniske, Naturvidenskabelige Universitet, Trondheim, Norway, came to plan her time as visiting professor at CTR (15-17.09)

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6.2 Research visits outside CTR     Meeting with collaborator Dr. Sylvie Müller, CNRS, in Lyon, MLN (29.09) Meeting and planning of joint activities with Mari-Louise Franzen, curator, director for the collections of archaeological textiles at Statens Historiske Museet, Stockholm, MLN (24.11) Participation in CIETA conference in Lyon, MLN (26-29.09) Participation in the Interdisciplinary conference of Fashion and Dress Cultures, Danmarks Designskole, MLN and MG (27-28.10)

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6.3 Site visits     Sealand, with SAXO Institute, MLN, EA, UM (25.08) Lejre Experimental Centre, MLN, EA, MG (18.10) Silkeborg Museum, exhibition “Rangarok, Odin‟s World”; Moesgård Museum, Ǻrhus, UM, MG, EA (14.10) National Museum, Copenhagen, exhibition “The Sky Disk and the Sun Chariot”, prehistoric section, UM, MG (16.10)

7. Lectures at CTR   “Auratae vestes: Gold textiles in the ancient Mediterranean”, MG (21.11) (app. 25 participants) Lecture, open atelier and demonstrations by hand spinner and hand weaver ABH and LM (09.12) (app. 50 participants) NETWORKING ACTIVITIES 8.1 Publicity and scientific networks Letters about CTR were sent to colleagues in museums throughout Europe and the USA. CTR link was added to SAA Fibers and Perishables Interest Group website. A 3-page description of CTR submitted to appear in the first issue of Kerkis, new international periodical on textile-related issues in the Mediterranean areas (editor Carmen Alfaro). On Prof Dominique Cardon‟s recommendation, CTR as an institution has been elected a member of the organisation Centre International d’Étude des Textiles Anciens (CIETA), located in Lyon, France. MLN was elected individual member on Cardon‟s recommendation. UM was elected member of the scientific board of the North European Symposium of Archaeological Textiles and was commissioned to organise the 10th NESAT international conference at CTR in 2008. 8.2 Visitors at CTR  Dr. Jana Jones, Macquaire University, Australia (14.-18.09)     Prof. Pierre Carlier, Université Paris X-Nanterre, (16.09) Hand-weaver, PhD student Ibolya Hegyi, Budapest (02.11) Keepers Charlotte Paludan og Kirsten Toftegård, Museum of Decorative Arts, Copenhagen (23.11) Prof. Dr. Claus von Carnap, director at Landesmuseum Schloss Gottorf (14.12)

8.3 Press and media  “Nu skal der forskes i tekstiler”, Jyllandsposten (06.12.04)  ”Researchers probe history of fabric” Copenhagen Post (06.12.04)  ”Nyt Center for Tekstilforskning” Arkæologisk Forum 12, 2005    ”Centre for Textile Research, CTR, in Copenhagen, Denmark 2005-2010” Ancient Textiles Newsletter 40, Spring 2005 “Danmarks Grundforskningsfonds Center for Tekstilforskning” Tenen. Dansk Tekstilhistorisk Forening 15:4, Forår 2005 ”At forske i tekstiler”, Humanist 9, 2005 8

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Danish Radio, P1 program „Ti Minutter‟ on CTR, 19th -23rd of September (each 10 minutes); the programs were reissued in „VITA‟ in October

8.4 Open house activities  App. 150 students from classical archaeology, Prehistoric archaeology and History, University of Copenhagen (30.-31.08)  App. 50 graduate students from History, University of Copenhagen (14.09)  App. 50 employees from Lejre Experimental Centre (04.11)  25 students from Art History, University of Copenhagen (02.12)   50 MA graduates at the SAXO Institute, University of Copenhagen (08.12) Ca 15 student conservators from EVTEK Institute of Art and Design, University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa, Finland (16.12) PUBLICATIONS Published Margarita Gleba, with N. T. de Grummond, S.V. Polin, L.A. Chernih, M.N. Daragan, 2005, The first campaign of Alexandropol barrow renewed excavations, in The Phenomenon of Bosporan Kingdom, Proceedings of the International Conference, Saint Petersburg: the State Hermitage Museum Editors House, pp. 272-282 (In Russian) Ulla Mannering, 2004 [2005], Dress in Scandinavian Iconography of the 5-10th centuries A.D., I J. Maik (ed.): Priceless Invention of Humanity – Textiles, NESAT VIII. Acta Archaeologica Lodziensia Nr. 50/1. Łódź. Pp .67-74. Eva Andersson, 2004 [2005], The Reconstruction of Archaeological Textiles, a Source Critical Approach, IJ.Maik (ed): Priceless Invention of Humanity – Textiles, NESAT VIII. Acta Archaeologica Lodziensia Nr 50/1. Łódź. Pp 195-197. Submitted/accepted papers Eva Andersson: Engendering Central Places, some aspects of the organisation of textile production during the Viking Age. A. Rast Eicher (ed) NESAT IX, 2005 Braunwald (accepted, in print) Margarita Gleba: Book review of Peter Bichler et al., Hallstatt Textiles: Technical analysis, Scientific Investigation and Experiment on Iron Age Textiles, Oxford: BAR International Series 1351, 2005, to be published in Ancient West and East (submitted) Margarita Gleba: Fabric remains from Sugokleya (Ukraine): Preliminary Report, submitted to the Institute of Archaeology, Kiev, Ukraine, to be published with the site report and later in ATN Lise Ræder Knudsen & Ulla Mannering: A Danish Early Germanic Iron Age Grave with Tablet Woven Cuffs. A. Rast-Eicher (ed.) NESAT IX, 2005 Braunwald (accepted, in print) Marie-Louise B. Nosch: The Knossos Od Series. An Epigraphical Study, Veröffentlichungen der Mykenische Kommission, Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, (accepted, in print) Editorials tasks Ancient Textiles editing, MLN (08.-09, 11.10). Research reports 9

Susan Möller-Wiering, State of research “Bronze Age textiles in the Aegean” (7 pages) Carol A. Christiansen, Shetland Fleece Selection (4 pages) Linda Mårtensson, Experimental testing; the work process and spinning (13 pages) Anne Batzer, Experimental testing; the work process and weaving (10 pages) Susan Möller-Wiering, Examination of spinning and weaving samples (20 pages) Margarita Gleba, Reconstruction of two loom weight sets from Troy (2 pages) Susan Möller-Wiering, Bronze Age textiles found on Crete (5 pages) APPENDIXES Appendix I Appendix II Time Schedule for CTR research program Textile and Costume from Bronze and Early Iron Age in Danish collections Research report for CTR research program Tools and Textiles - Texts and Contexts Appendix I TEXTILE AND COSTUME FROM BRONZE AND EARLY IRON AGE IN DANISH COLLECTIONS (DTC) Preliminary list of staff and participants 2005-2009 Ulla Mannering (UM) November-December 2005 Program manager/research assistant Margarita Gleba (MG) October-December 2005 Post doc. Susan Möller-Wiering (SM) November-December 2005 Post doc. Marianne Hansen (MH) 2006-2007 Student Lena Hammarlund (LH) 2006 Textile technician, participant Martin Ciszuk (MC) 2006 Textile technician, participant Anna Nørgård (AN) 2006 Textile technician, participant Lise Ræder Knudsen (LRK) 2006 Textile technician, participant Time schedule The time schedule for the program has been updated as follows: 2005 October-December December 6 December 15 December 2006 January February-June 23 February March March Planning, preparation and creation of database of Iron Age textiles based on M. Hald‟s “Ancient Danish Textiles from Bogs and Burials” Iron Age Textile Database finished Meeting with Textile Conservation Department at Brede Meeting at the National Museum about new installation of prehistoric section Background reading on material and preparation Registration and analyses of Iron Age textiles at the National Museum in Brede Start work at the National Museum in Brede Instruction at the National Museum in “How to handle textiles” Letters to participants and collaborators with DTC programme schedule and letters of collaboration agreement 10

September September October October-December December End of December 2007 17-20 January February-March April-May May June June-August September September October October-December End of December 2008 January February-March 14-17 May 16 May August-December End of December 2009 January-May June January-December

Registration and analysis of Iron Age textiles at the National Museum in Brede completed Preparation of the 1st workshop Information on the 1st workshop sent to collaborators Finishing work on Iron Age textiles and preparing publication manuscript Bronze Age Textile Database created Preliminary manuscript on Iron Age textiles ready The 1st workshop Registration and analyses of Bronze Age textiles at the National Museum in Brede Finishing publication manuscript on Iron Age textiles Deadline for collaborators‟ contributions for publication manuscript Manuscript on Iron Age textiles submitted to publisher Registration and analyses of Bronze Age textiles at the National Museum in Brede Registration and analysis of Bronze Age textiles at the National Museum in Brede completed Preparation of the 2nd workshop Information on the 2nd workshop is sent to collaborators Finishing work on Bronze Age textiles and preparing publication manuscript Preliminary manuscript on Bronze Age textiles ready The 2nd workshop Preparation for NESAT X NESAT X Presentation of the monograph on Iron Age Textiles in connection with the opening of the new prehistory installation at the National Museum Finishing publication manuscripts on Bronze Age textiles and NESAT X Manuscripts on Bronze Age Textiles and NESAT X submitted to publisher Preparation of manuscript on prehistoric textile and costume in European context Manuscript on prehistoric textile and costume in European context submitted Preparation of the booklet Textile Technology in Scandinavia

Appendix II RESEARCH PROGRAMME: TOOLS AND TEXTILES - TEXTS AND CONTEXTS Participants Dr Eva Andersson Dr Marie-Louise Nosch Dr Marta Guzowska Dr Margarita Gleba 1st August 1 August 15 September-31 January 1 October 11
st th st st

Project Manager Project Manager Post doc Post doc

Anne Batzer Linda Mårtensson Dr Susan Møller Wiering Birgitta Piltz Williams Introduction

15th October-30th December 15th October 1st November-30th December December 2005

Textile Technician Textile Technician Archaeological textile expert Archaeological textile expert Archaeologist and IT technician

Dr. Carol A. Christiansen October 2005

The geographical and chronological framework for the programme is the Central and Eastern Mediterranean in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. This was the period, when for the first time in history, textile production rapidly developed from household production to standardised, industrialised, centralised production, on the basis of a division of labour. This study will analyse and discuss the parameters for the development of this intensive, industry-like production of textiles, and its impact on society. Our aim is to reveal how tools and technology developed to meet the new demands, as many previous studies have merely used a descriptive approach. In the absence of archaeological textile remains, in order to grasp the real production processes, it is necessary to join forces and combine specialist knowledge, not only from the region itself, but also from other sources, such as the Scandinavian tradition. The research programme encompasses two projects: Tools and Textiles – and - Texts and Contexts. In the first part of the research program, Tools and Textiles, our mission is to conduct a systematic study of textile tools, based on their function in the 2nd millennium BC in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean, with clear parameters for their identification. A further mission is the development and systematisation of experimental textile archaeology as a scientific method. In the written records of the Mediterranean area in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, we have references to a complex terminology of textiles, tools and techniques, decoration and specialised textile occupational titles. However, we often are ignorant of their precise significance. The second part of the research program, Texts and Contexts, will investigate textile terminology diachronically (3rd to 1st millennium. BC), and comparatively. This stage will also profit from the knowledge of textile quality and types gained from the typology research in the Tools and Textiles project. When technical analyses of tools and archaeological textiles are woven together with historical, ethnographical, and anthropological knowledge and theoretical frameworks, the result will not only be a stimulating collaboration but also create new knowledge. Tool typology, methods and problems. A methodological and theoretical discussion of the best way to create a new tool typology was the starting point of this autumn‟s scientific work. To achieve the creation of a new typology based on textile tools function, we find that it is important to register not only all functional aspects but also for example the context in which the tools were found. Archaeology today is a science that takes advantage of technical developments. We use computers, GPS and other instruments. Different data programmes help us with both geographical and more detailed analyses of archaeological sites and finds excavated there. Comparing data on artefacts from different excavations can be problematic, due to differences in there recording traditions, which is often specific to each archaeological site. Therefore we have created a universal database that can be used to record material from any excavation site. The database was conceived for the investigation of Eastern Mediterranean Bronze Age textile tools, but it can also serve for the study of similar implements from

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other areas and periods. It is our hope that this database will be a useful instrument for the analysis of textile tools in the future. Once the tools from different sites have been registered, we will be able to unite and coordinate these various pieces of information, which will allow a broader and comparative analysis of data not only from single sites but from the entire Eastern Mediterranean region. This method then allow us to explore with a greater degree of certainty questions such as: does production change over time; what can be inferred about the products from the tools; what trends in textile production tools can be seen; what differences or similarities between tools can be detected at different sites; and what does this signify for the production processes and technological know-how at the relevant sites. The database is a Microsoft Access programme. It contains five different forms (formulas) for different types of textile tools: loom-weights, spindle-whorls, needles, spinning bowls and shuttles. Another form, “other textile tools”, can be used for tools that are either very rare or tools which are possibly related to textile production. Each form contains data fields that are specific to the function and morphology of the individual tool but some data fields (such as context, site, region etc.) are the same in all forms. To test the database we registered textile tools from Mochlos and Kommos in Crete, and Nichoria in mainland Greece, and so far we can show that the database works as an optimal tool. We have also created a database manual to facilitate the work for our collaborators. Collaborators Our collaborators are: Site Tell Kabri, Israel Tell Mardikh Ebla, Syria Mikro Vouni, Samothrace, Greece Akrotiri, Santorini, Greece Aspis, Peloponneses, Greece Tiryns, Peloponneses, Greece Mycenae, Peloponneses, Greece Khania, Crete, Greece Hagia Triada, Crete, Greece Miletos, Turkey Cyprus Troia, (Troy) Turkey Israel The collaborators have agreed on the following: • Providing information on textile tools from specific contexts chosen by them. The tools can be published or unpublished, but if unpublished, we have asked them to obtain the rights. The data has to be uniformly recorded and provided to the CTR in the form of the CTR database. The selection of contexts and the recording of tools have to be done in 2006. The deadline for submission of data is 1st March 2007. Writing a short chapter (1-3 pages) on the archaeological context(s) of the textile tools at their chosen site. The deadline for submission of the manuscript is 1st October 2007. Quoting the Danish National Research Foundation‟s Centre for Textile Research when they use our data and database for their publications. Name Assaf Yasur-Landa, Nàna Scheftelowitz Luca Peyronel, Claudia Minniti Dhimitris Matsas Iris Tzachili Anna Touchais Lorenz Rahmstorf, Magorzata Siennicka Iphyyenia Tournavitou, Mina Nikolovieni Erik Hallager/ Maria Bruun Pietro Militello Margarita Gleba Joanna Smith Marta Guzowska Orit Shamir

• •

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Besides these collaborators, several scholars have asked to participate and we have therefore decided to send out a second announcement for collaborators at the end of March 2006. The Publication of the Results The first book will be published in 2008. Agreements have been made with the authors. This is the preliminary structure of the publication:

Tools, Textiles and Contexts. Investigations of Textile Production in the Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean, Oxbow Press (2008)
Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Research history on experimental work on textile production Linda Mårtensson Wool and Linen fibres in the Bronze Age Susan Møller-Wiering, Carol Christiansen Documentation of the results of the experimental testing (spinning, weaving, tablet weaving) of reconstructed Mediterranean textile tools. Linda Mårtensson, Anne Batzer, Eva Andersson Analysis of the results of the experimental testing (thread, fabrics) Susan Møller-Wiering Archaeological textiles from the Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean. Susan Møller-Wiering Correlations between textile tools and archaeological textiles. Eva Andersson, Susan Møller-Wiering, Linda Mårtensson The archaeological contexts in which textile tools have been found at Bronze Age sites. All collaborators Functional typology of tools, resulting from the tools database and experimental testing Eva Andersson Discussion and synthesis of the results, and Conclusion. Eva Andersson, Marie-Louise Nosch Mathematical formulae for the weight of textile tools based only on their shape, material density and dimensions. André Verhecken

Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Appendix A

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Time Schedule The time schedule for the programme has been updated as follows:

2005
Addressing methods and problems and creating the Tool database. First experimental research stage. October – December 2005 First experimental archaeological research stage with the Lejre Experimental Centre on wool spinning and weaving; spinning with spindles of 8 grams and 18 grams; and the testing of weaving. November-December 2005 Analysis of archaeological textiles at Mochlos and Khania, Crete. November-December 2005 Creation of the Textile Tool Database in Microsoft Access. December 2005 Database manual prepared.

2006
Registration of material; communication with collaborators and collection of data. Catalogue of typical and possible tools. Entering and processing of data in the Textile Tools Database. Second and third experimental stages. January 2006 First workshop at the Danish Institute in Athens, Greece. February-April 2006 Second stage of experimental testing. May-June 2006 Writing of the research history of experimental work on textile production. June 2006 2nd workshop for new collaborators October – December 2006 Third stage of experimental testing: specific tests in experimental archaeology based on the workshop questions/issues.

2007
Entering and processing of data in the Textile Tools Database. Beginning of the programme‟s second stage, focusing of textual and iconographic sources. Preparation of the manuscript of Tools, Textiles and Contexts. January –June 2007 Registration of tools; collection of data. January-March 2007 Further collaboration with the Lejre Experimental Centre, conducting the experimental archaeological sections of the tool studies. March 1, 2007 15

Deadline for submission of data in the Textile Tools Database April 2007 3rd workshop at the Lejre Experimental Centre, Denmark, with all international collaborators: discussion of the first draft of the tool typology; presentation of the second and third experimental stage by CTR; presentation of material by the collaborators. June 2007 Iconography and Textile Technology project by Sylvie Müller-Celka. October 1, 2007 Deadline for the submission of manuscripts on the site contexts for Tools, Textiles and Contexts. June 2007 Phoenician-Punic textile terminology elaborated by Paolo Xella. Collaboration with Carmen Alfaro, CTR visiting professor.

2008
Tools, Textiles and Contexts ready for publication. Continuation of the programme in its second stage, focusing on textual and iconographic sources; preparation of the second volume, Texts, Textiles and Contexts. The Experimental Research Programme, Stage 1 The first stage has now been completed as outlined in the research plan and the reports have been written. The reports are: State of research “Bronze Age textiles in the Aegean” Shetland Fleece Selection A. Christiansen Experimental testing; the work process and spinning Experimental testing; the work process and weaving Examination of spinning and weaving samples Möller-Wiering Reconstruction of two loom weight sets from Troia Bronze Age textiles found on Crete Möller-Wiering 2p 13p 10p 7p Susan Möller-Wiering 4p Carol

Linda Mårtensson Anne Batzer 20p Susan

Margarita Gleba 5p Susan

The experiments were performed in accordance with CTR‟s principles for utilizing experimental archaeology as a scientific method. The principles are:      Raw materials must be selected according to our knowledge of Bronze Age wool and linen fibres; Tools must be reconstructed as precise copies of archaeological artefacts; The primary parameter to be investigated is the function; All processes must be performed by skilled craftspeople; Each test must be performed by at least two skilled craftspeople, in order to secure a more objective assessment of the results; 16

  

All processes must be documented and described in writing, photographed and some filmed; All processes must be analysed source critically in their own right; All products must be submitted to textile analysis by external persons.

The first experimental testing of spinning and weaving with reconstructed tools resulted in new knowledge. This experimental part had two main aims: to test two different types of spindle-whorls (8g and 18g) and to weave with the spun thread. Previous textile spinning experiments have shown that a thinner thread is produced with a lighter spindle and a thicker with a heavier. These spinning tests, however, had never been conducted in a scientifically controlled framework as envisioned by the CTR research plan. It is therefore necessary to do these tests - in accordance with CTR‟s principles – in order to get a more secure understanding of how the spindle whorl affects the spun thread. This new knowledge will be important because it enables us to elucidate the qualities of yarn that could have been produced at these sites. From the experiments we obtained several important results. In particular, using identical spinning tools showed that the output quantity of thread is similar for different experienced spinners. The output quantity, on the other hand, showed significant differences when tools of different weight groups were used (fig. 1). According to the calculations based on the length of the yarn, and the yarn weight, the length of thread increased with almost 40% when using the 8 g spindle. This conclusion had been expected but had never been proven. Finally, the generally accepted claim that spindle whorls weighing less than 10 grams are not suited as spindle whorls, but should be classified as beads or buttons, has now been firmly rejected. After finishing the experiments, samples were sent to a textile expert, SM for analysis. Her first task was to describe the products and especially the possible differences between the yarn samples, and within the fabric. No information about the spinners or the tools was provided to the external analyst. The overall impression is of a fine rather evenly spun thread. When the data were related to the individual spinners and tools, it turned out that both spinners produced a thread of similar thickness. The analysis also demonstrated that the thread produced by LM (spinner 2) met the expectations of the working hypothesis since clearly thinner yarns are derived from the lighter whorl. However, the same result could not been seen in the thread spun by AB (spinner 1). This result is unexpected and contradicts the result that spinner 1 spun 11000 m/kg on the light 8 g spindle and just 6500 m/kg with the heavier 18g spindle. There could be several explanations for this result and further tests and analyses are necessary. It could not be ascertained from the external analysis of the fabric that threads from two different spinners had been used or that the fabric was woven by two weavers. These results from the experiments allow us – and our collaborators - to interpret textile production in a more nuanced way than was earlier the case. These experimental results will supplement the results of the systematic recording of textile tools in the database. Finally, the experimental testing of spinning and weaving will contribute to the development and methodology of experimental archaeology. It also shows the importance of controlled experiments, and a source critical interpretation of their results.

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Figure 1 Calculated meter yarn/1000g spun wool

MOI - André Verhecken André Verhecken visited CTR on the 7th-8th December 2005. He informed us of his work with spindle whorls and the conclusions he had come to based on his research. It was decided to include some of his results in the research programme as a 3-paged contribution on the calculation of the weight of spindle whorls for the monograph on tool typology. INSTAP As an additional project in the main programme we would like to do a more detailed study on Khania, Crete to gain more extensive knowledge of the textile production process at this specific site, for the following reasons: A. Thanks to exceptional circumstances in Khania both textile tools and textile remains have been preserved in one archaeological context. A preliminary textile analysis has already been made, with very interesting but also surprising results (Möller Wiering forthcoming). The find creates a unique opportunity for linking the examination of tools and textiles in Khania in particular, but also in the wider perspective of Minoan society. B. An original combination of methods. The project consists of an interdisciplinary approach aiming at reconstructing both tools and textiles in Khania and linking them together. The unique find allows us the use of three combined scientific methods, experimental archaeology, study of tools and ananlysis of textiles, presented above in the same archaeological context. By applying all three methods we are aiming at reconstructing the fully technological textile production process at Khania. We have therefore applied for extra funds from INSTAP, The Institute for Aegean Prehistory and they have just announced that we have been awarded a grant of $8000. This work will be done during the course of 2006 and the planning is in the process. Athens’s Workshop January 2006 On January 20-21, 2006, the Danish Institute at Athens hosted the CTR 1st Tools and Textiles – Texts and Contexts workshop. The goal of the workshop was to bring together the CTR collaborators in order to introduce them to the Tools and Textiles – Texts and Contexts research programme and to present the results of research conducted at CTR in 2005, including the Textiles Tools Database and the first tests in experimental archaeology. The first day involved presentations by the CTR staff. After the welcoming introduction by the Director of the Danish Institute in Athens, Erik Hallager, and the CTR Director, Marie-Louise Nosch, the first 18

morning session started with Eva Andersson presenting Scandinavian background for the Mediterranean textile research. Marie-Louise Nosch then described the Mission of the “Tools and Textiles - Texts and Contexts” Research Programme. An overview of the various stages of textile production and archaeological finds associated with them was presented by Margarita Gleba in From fibre to finished products: Bronze Age textile tools. The paper by Marta Guzowska then focused on The “Tools and Textiles” Research Programme: presentation of the Database and the first results. Erik Hallager and Maria Bruun-Lundgren presented The Tools and their context in Khania and Susan Möller-Wiering introduced preliminary observations on The Archaeological Textiles from Khania. The afternoon session focused on the experimental textile tool research conducted at CTR in NovemberDecember 2005. Textile technicians Linda Mårtensson and Anne Batzer presented the First results of the initial part of the experiments, focusing, respectively, on spinning and weaving. Thereafter, Susan MöllerWiering discussed her External analyses of the spinning and weaving samples. The participants were then divided into 3 groups and rotated between three ateliers: demonstration of the CTR Textile Tools Database and its use (by Eva Andersson and Birgitta Piltz Williams), demonstration of fibre preparation and spinning (by Linda Mårtensson); and demonstration of weaving and the making of textile tools (by Anne Batzer). The participants were invited to try their hand at spinning and weaving and did so with great enthusiasm. The morning of the second day of the workshop was dedicated to the presentations of site/context/textile tools by the programme collaborators. Assaf Yasur-Landau (Tel Aviv University) presented Kabri: textile production in the Middle Bronze Age palatial context. Luca Peyronel (Univeristy of Rome “La Sapienza”) discussed Tools for textiles at Tell Mardikh – Ebla (Syria). Dhimitris Matsas (Greek Archaeological Service) presented Evidence for Weaving at Mikro Vouni, Samothrace. Iris Tzachili (University of Crete) focused on What textile tools do tell us in Akrotiri, and what they hide? Together with Youlie Spantidaki (Hellenic Centre for Research and Conservation of Archaeological Textiles), she also presented some of the latest exciting results of the analyses on archaeological textiles found in Akrotiri. Anna Touchais (French School in Athens) showed Some textile tools and their context at the MBA settlement of Aspis at Argos. Lorenz Rahmstorf (University of Mainz) presented Contextual analysis of textile tools at Bronze Age Tiryns. Iphiyenia Tournavitou (University of Thessaly) and Gerasimoula Nikolovieni (University of Crete) discussed the problems associated with studying textile tools at Mycenae. Finally, Maria Emanuela Alberti (Rome) focused on Textile industry indicators in Minoan work areas: problems of typology and interpretation. Throughout the duration of the workshop, the individual presentations elicited many questions and discussions continued both during sessions and at coffee and lunch breaks. The afternoon session of the second day was dedicated to the discussion of the results and planning of the next steps for the research programme. Eva Andersson, Anne Batzer, Linda Mårtensson then presented Plans for next experimental tests, to take place in spring 2006. Anne Batzer introduced the Lejre Experimental Centre in Denmark, which is planned as the venue for the second Tools and Textiles – Texts and Contexts workshop. For the remainder of the workshop, some of the more pressing problems and questions regarding tools in the Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean were summarized by Erik Hallager for Crete, Iphiyenia Tournavitou for mainland Greece and Assaf Yasur-Landau for the Near East. It was felt that more sites, including those in Egypt, needed to be included in the programme in order to get as reliable a result as possible. The workshop ended on a highly enthusiastic note. We hope that the team spirit that grew over the duration of the workshop will be the harbinger of success for the Tools & Textiles-Texts & Contexts programme and will push forward the frontiers of textile tool research. Conclusion The main activities in this first phase were 1. The first experimental testing of spinning and weaving with reconstructed tools; 2. The establishment of a database specially designed for Bronze Age textile tools;

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3. The formalisation of research agreements with the international network of collaborators. 4. The organisation and performance of the 1st Tools and Textiles workshop in Athens, January 2006. These activities were outlined in the CTR research plan to the Danish National Research Foundation and were carried out in autumn and winter 2005. The results from the experiments allow us to interpret textile production in a more specific way. These experimental results will supplement the results of the systematic recording of textile tools in the database. The database specially designed for Bronze Age textile tools was developed and designed from Access software and was presented at the Athens workshop in January 2006. The database is our systematic tool and has in addition potential for use in other periods and geographical areas as well. Formalised agreements with collaborators from various countries and sites were made, and we invited them to the 1st Tools and Textiles workshop in Athens, January 2006. Much effort was put into the organisation in order to achieve optimal interdisciplinary collaboration and results. We felt that our methods and experimental results had made a strong impact on the collaborators from various disciplines. The workshop truly had a „snow ball effect‟ in the milieu of Bronze Age archaeology, and other scholars have afterwards proposed their collaboration. Finally, we have been pleased to see that in particular young scholars have been inspired by textile research.

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