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					USA Progress Report on Cetacean Research - May 2000 to April 2001 With Statistical Data for Calendar Year 1998
Compiled by Janeen Quintal NOAA-NMFS-NEFSC 166 Water Street Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA The following information summarizes cetacean research conducted or supported by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service at Silver Spring, Maryland (NMFS HQ), and by the five NMFS Science Centers; Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC); Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) in Seattle, Washington; Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC), La Jolla, California, Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC), Woods Hole, Massachusetts; and the Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC), Miami, Florida. Information was also contributed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG), Anchorage, Alaska, the Alaska Beluga Whale Committee (ABWC), and the North Slope Borough (NSB), Barrow, Alaska, and the National Museum of Natural History (NMNH), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. The following information was compiled in consultation with the above agencies.

U.S.A. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Waters
1. SPECIES AND STOCKS STUDIED Common Name Atlantic spotted dolphin Atlantic white-sided dolphin Beaked whale Bottlenose dolphin Bryde’s whale Clymene dolphin Common dolphin Fin whale Fraser’s dolphin Harbor porpoise Humpback whale Melon-headed whale Minke whale Pantropical spotted dolphin Scientific Name Stenella frontalis Lagenorhynchus acutus Mesoplodon sp. Tursiops truncatus B. edeni S. clymene Delphinus delphis B. physalus Lagenodelphis hosei Phocoena phocoena Megaptera novaeangliae Peponocephala electra B. acutorostrata Stenella attenuata Area/Stock(s) No. Gulf of Mexico western N. Atlantic western N. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico western N. Atlantic, Florida, Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico western N. Atlantic western N. Atlantic No. Gulf of Mexico western N. Atlantic western N. Atlantic Gulf of Mexico western N. Atlantic western N. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico 1 Referred to in Section(s): 4 7 7 2, 3, 4, 7, 10 4 4 7 6 4 2, 7, 10 2, 6, 10 4 6 2, 4

Common Name Pilot whale Right whale Risso’s dolphin Rough-toothed dolphin Sperm whale Spinner dolphin Striped dolphin

Scientific Name Globicephala sp. Balaena glacialis Grampus griseus Steno bredanensis Physeter macrocephalus S. longirostris S. coeruleoalba

Area/Stock(s) western N. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico western N. Atlantic western N. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico Florida, Gulf of Mexico western N. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico western N. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico

Referred to in Section(s): 2, 4, 7 2, 3, 4, 8, 10 7 4 2, 4 4 7

2. SIGHTINGS DATA 2000 2.1 Field Work NEFSC Marine mammal visual observations were conducted in conjunction with the Office of Naval Research from aboard the R/V Endeavor and the R/V Oceanus in waters of the Western North Atlantic Ocean both on and off the continental shelf during May 31, 2000 through June 5, 2000. The primary objectives of the survey were to determine the presence or absence of marine mammals and sea turtles in and around a predetermined location in the continental shelf waters and to develop sighting survey methodology, (e.g., observer effort, observer rotation schedule, and observer location), for a site specific study while in a stationary or in a transiting mode. During the survey period approximately 780 miles of cruise track were transited. Six (6) species of marine mammals and zero (0) species of sea turtles were sighted. However, observed concentrations of marine mammals were sparse in the immediate vicinity of the center of the operations area (near 39-17N; 72-41W). (Contact: J. Nicolas, NEFSC) North Atlantic Right Whales A shipboard survey was conducted aboard the NOAA Ship Delaware II from July 7th to August 31st, 2000 encompassing the offshore waters from Georges Bank to the Bay of Fundy, and over Roseway Basin on the Scotian Shelf. Sixteen satellite-monitored radio tags were deployed on right whales in the lower Bay of Fundy on July 9 (n = 3), July 13 (n = 1), August 11 (n = 5) and August 12 (n = 7). All of the tags were deployed in Grand Manan Basin. Twenty eight right whales were tagged with TDRs in Grand Manan Basin while a total of 66 CTD/OPC casts were made near TDR-tagged right whales. Broad scale surveys were conducted in two known right whale high-use areas: the lower Bay of Fundy and Roseway Basin on the Scotian Shelf. During survey operations, 108 broad-scale units were sampled. Of these, 65% (n = 70) were in the Bay of Fundy while the remaining 35% (n = 38) were in Roseway Basin. Numerous photographs some video footage were recorded and 8 skin samples of right whales were also collected. (Contact: P. Clapham or T. Cole, NEFSC). Northeast Right Whale Sighting Advisory System (SAS) Right whale aerial surveys were flown in the Cape Cod Bay and Great South Channel Right Whale Critical Habitats off Massachusetts and other offshore areas from December 1999 through June 2000. Cape Cod Bay surveys (late December to early May) were conducted by the Center for Coastal Studies under contract to the state of Massachusetts; Great South Channel and offshore surveys (mid-March to end of June), by NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).The surveys were conducted using standard protocols of a 750 feet (229 meters) flight altitude and a ground speed of 100 knots. The Northeast Right Whale Sighting Advisory System was established to document the locations of right whales in the critical habitats and offshore waters. These sighting locations are provided as real time as possible to the maritime industry to reduce the likelihood of vessel collisions with right whales. Photographic data were also collected for photo- identification, age and 2

sex determination, and residency patterns of individual right whales. NMFS completed a total of 36 flights offshore in the Great South Channel, Block Island Sound, Stellwagen Bank, and in the Gulf of Maine covering approximately 13,000 n. miles in 228 flight hours. A total of 187 right whales, 2 entangled large whales, and a ship struck sperm whale were observed during the 2000 season. The Center for Coastal Studies completed 37 flights in Cape Cod Bay and adjacent waters covering approximately 10,000 n. miles in 151 flight hours. A total of 554 right whales were observed. No right whales calves were seen in the northeast in 2000. A dead right whale was observed off Rhode Island in January 2000, but cause of death was not determined (Contact: P. Gerrior, NEFSC). Additional marine mammal aerial sighting surveys were conducted in the Gulf of Maine with particular emphasis on sighting and photographing right whales. Eighteen 1-day aerial survey flights were conducted between April and July covering approximately 8,500 survey miles (Contact: T. Cole, NEFSC). SEFSC Northeastern Caribbean: An acoustic and visual survey for humpback and other cetaceans was conducted in the waters of the Northeastern Caribbean by the NOAA RV Gordon Gunter. The survey consisted of two legs comprising a total of 3,750 nm of trackline. Total “on effort” visual survey effort was 2,767 nm, and total “acoustic monitoring” effort was 3,264 nm. The most frequently seen cetaceans were humpback and sperm whales, and dolphin of the genus Stenella sp. (Contact S. Swartz, SEFSC). Gulf of Mexico: From April 18 to May 30, 2000, a visual line-transect survey was conducted throughout oceanic and continental slope waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico aboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter. During the 35 survey days, 4009 transect km were surveyed, resulting in 198 cetacean sightings of at least 19 species. The most commonly sighted species were pantropical spotted dolphins (65 sightings), sperm whales (20 sightings), and bottlenose dolphins (15 sightings). Observations were recorded on the prevalence of bite wounds from cookie-cutter sharks (Isistius spp.) and presence of remoras on cetaceans. Thirty-eight biopsy samples, representing 10 cetacean species, were obtained during the cruise. Samples were collected from animals riding at the bow of the Gordon Gunter and from small boats. The skin and blubber samples were sent to the NOS Charleston (South Carolina) Laboratory for analysis and storage. (Contact: K. Mullin, SEFSC). From 27 June to 27 July, 2000, a pilot study was conducted to test and/or refine a wide range of sperm whale research techniques in the northern Gulf of Mexico, south of the Mississippi River delta, between 87.0º W and 91.0º W where sperm whales had been consistently sighted throughout the previous year. Work was primarily devoted to attaching acoustic tags to sperm whales, biopsy, photo-ID, and line-transect techniques incorporating both visual and acoustic surveying. Six acoustic tags were attached to whales, and of the six, three remained attached for approximately 40 minutes, 90 minutes, and 4.5 hours. Forty-five tissue samples were collected and photo-ID work resulted in over 50 usable photographs of sperm whale flukes. The acoustic array kept the ship in close proximity to one group of whales for over 50 hours and was used to record the vocalizations of sperm whales and other cetaceans. (Contact: K. Mullin, SEFSC). From September 5 to October 2, 2000, a visual line-transect survey was conducted throughout continental shelf waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II. During the 16 survey days, 1968 transect km were surveyed, resulting in 84 cetacean sightings of at least four species. Observations were recorded on the prevalence of bite wounds from cookie-cutter sharks (Isistius spp.) on Gulf of Mexico cetaceans. Fifty biopsy samples, representing three species, were obtained during the cruise. The skin and blubber samples were sent to the NOS Charleston (South Carolina) Laboratory for analysis and storage. (Contact: K. Mullin, SEFSC). Southwestern Atlantic: Early Warning System Aerial Surveys for right whales were flown again off the coast of the Southeastern United States. The purpose of these flights is to detect the presence of North Atlantic right whales in the winter calving grounds off northern Florida and Georgia. Flights began in December 2000 and continued through March 2001 and were conducted under contract with the New England Aquarium. A total of 229 NM of transects resulted in 233 sightings of right whales that included 42 adult whales and 27 calves. Two dead calves were observed. Additional flights off Georgia and Florida were conducted by the Natural Resources Divisions of the States of Georgia and Florida. Aerial surveys along the mid-Atlantic coast including Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina in February resulted in additional sightings of right whales in these areas during the winter. (Contact S. Swartz, SEFSC). 3

2.2. Analyses/Development of Techniques NEFSC An aerial photogrammetry survey was conducted aboard the NOAA DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft during August 6-26, 2000. Data was collected during 9 flight days within the survey time period. Sophisticated camera systems with forward image motion compensation (originally used for military reconnaissance), were used to record images of right whales while congregated in the summer feeding grounds to the east of Grand Manan, Canada. The camera systems were integrated into a computer based Data Acquisition System (DAS) which collected data from the cameras, the aircraft’s GPS system (Trimble), an aircraft-independent radar altimeter (Sperry 913), and operator input from the keyboard. The study resulted in identification of 127 individual animals. Of these animals, 98 had photographs of sufficient quality to allow total length and/or fluke width measurements. Girth measurements were possible on 20 of the animals allowing for some measure of condition factor. Eight of these 20 animals subsequently calved in the Florida/Georgia nursery area 4 to 6 months after the study (Contact: D. Potter, NEFSC). Development continued of a forward looking sonar designed to detect and track large cetaceans underwater at distances up to a kilometer. The system has been tested aboard University and Naval vessels and will be installed in the R/V Delaware II in July 2001. Systems testing will be undertaken on a variety of cruises to test the concept of tracking underwater activity of great whales. Additionally, the system has been nominated as a candidate for use in protecting endangered whales against ship strikes in defined geographic areas of potential co-occurrence (Contact: David Potter, NEFSC). An aerial survey was designed to evaluate a twin team survey approach to resolve g(0) for turtles and to evaluate the platforms capability to conduct this type of survey. Aerial surveys were flown from Patrick Henry Airport in Newport News, VA on four consecutive days in July (7/28-31) attempting to fly ten (10) 40 nautical mile tracklines/day. These transects were repeated as often as possible to form replicate samples. The survey flew 1480 nautical miles of tracklines from 13 transects of approximately 40 miles in length (Contact: Deb Palka, NEFSC). Coordinated effort is underway to develop a method to utilize both visual sightings and acoustic detections to estimate abundance of cetaceans. (Contact: Debra Palka, NEFSC; David Borchers, Univ. of St. Andrews; Jonathon Gordon, SMRU). An electronic device was designed and built to accurately determine the distance to cetaceans in the water from the ship while using big-eye binoculars. The device measures the angle of declination over a period of observation, averages the data, and then calculates a distance (Contact: David Potter, NEFSC). To assist in implementing the recommendations of the Harbor Porpoise Take Reduction Team, a pinger detector device is being developed which returns a visual and audio signal to the user indicating the presence of a 10 or 50 kHz pinger. These tools will be used by the observer program staff to test for the operation of pingers around porpoise takes and for NMFS Enforcement to use as a tool to check strings of pingers in the field (Contact: David Potter, NEFSC). The Critical Sightings Program published and distributed a visual aid placard to facilitate real-time and more accurate reporting of marine mammal sightings which are vital to science and management efforts. The placard outlines vital information to be collected when sightings are made of right whales, and dead or entangled whales of any species. The two-sided, laminated placard was distributed to U.S. Coast Guard stations and cutters of all sizes along the entire eastern seaboard, as well as several state agencies and some Navy installations. (Contact: Tim Cole, NEFSC) SEFSC The SEFSC laboratories at Miami, Florida and Pascagoula, Mississippi continue to conduct simultaneous passive acoustic and visual surveys for marine mammals to develop improved and more effective cetacean survey methods. As reported in Section 2.1, the SEFSC conducted vessel based acoustic and visual surveys for humpback and sperm whales in the Northern Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. These surveys utilized directional sonobuoys, towed hydrophone arrays, and bottom mounted acoustic recorders to gather acoustic data for comparison with visual sightings data. The results of these surveys will be reported to the Scientific Committee this year. (Contact: S. Swartz, SEFSC). 4

3. MARKING DATA 3.1. Field work Natural Marking Data for Calendar Year 2000 NEFSC Species No. Atl. right whales, Eubalaena glacialis Area/Stock Grand Manan New Animals ID’d 0 Catalog Total 127 Contact Person/Institute D. Potter, NEFSC

SEFSC Species Bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus Area/Stock Biscayne Bay New Animals ID’d 9 Catalog Total 170 Contact Person/Institute J. Contillo, SEFSC

3.2. NEFSC

Telemetry Data (satellite radio, Time Depth Recorder (TDR tags)) for Calendar Year 2000.

Species No. Atl. right whale Eubalaena glacialis No. Atl. right whale Eubalaena glacialis

Area/Stock Grand Manan Basin Grand Manan Basin

Tag Type radio tags TDR tags

No. Deployed 16 28

Contact Person/Institute P. Clapham, NEFSC P. Clapham, NEFSC

SEFSC None reported 4. TISSUE/BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES COLLECTED 4.1. Biopsy Samples for Calendar Year 2000 NEFSC Species No. Atl. right whales, Eubalaena glacialis SEFSC Species Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni) Area/Stock NW Atlantic, coastal No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico 5 No. Collected 15 49 1 Contact Person/Institute K. Mullin, SEFSC Area/Stock Bay of Fundy, Roseway Basin No. Collected 8 Contact Person/Institute P. Clapham, NEFSC

Species Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra) Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) Fraser’s dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Clymene dolphin (Stenella clymene)

Area/Stock No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico No. Gulf of Mexico

No. Collected 2 2 1 5 1 42 10 7 3

Contact Person/Institute

5. POLLUTION STUDIES NEFSC None reported SEFSC None reported 6. STATISTICS FOR LARGE CETACEANS - 1998 Other Non-Natural (e.g., Ship Strike, Entanglement) Mortalities For The Calendar Year 1998 as Reported in Waring et. al. 2000. NEFSC and SEFSC Species Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae Area/Stock Ocracoke Is., NC Nags Head, NC Montauk Pt., NY Minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus Long Beach, NY Cape Cod Bay, MA Salvo, NC Rhode Island Sex F M N/A M N/A N/A M Cause entanglement entanglement entanglement entanglement ship strike ship strike ship strike Methodology USCG witnessed report N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Arrived in RI waters on bow of tanker

6

7. STATISTICS FOR SMALL CETACEANS Incidental Mortalities For The Calendar Year 1998 as Reported in Waring et. al. 2000 and in Yeung, 1999. NEFSC and SEFSC Species Area/Stock Incidental Mortality Reported Beaked whales (undifferentiated) Bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, offshore stock Bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, coastal stock Common dolphin, Delphinus delphis NW and Mid-Atlantic NW and Mid-Atlantic Mid-Atlantic NW and Mid-Atlantic Mid-Atlantic 11 4 3 255 17 Est. Total 11 4 63 255 17 Fishery type Pelagic drift gillnet Pelagic drift gillnet Coastal sink gillnet Pelagic drift gillnet Mackerel joint venture NE multispecies sink gillnet Coastal sink gillnet Pelagic drift gillnet Squid/mack/butt. trawl Coastal sink gillnet Pelagic drift gillnet Pelagic longline Pelagic drift gillnet NE multispecies sink gillnet

Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

NW Atlantic Mid-Atlantic

12 53

332 446

Pilot whales, Globicephala sp.

NW and Mid-Atlantic NW and Mid-Atlantic Mid-Atlantic

12 1 1

12 85 7

Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus

NW and Mid-Atlantic Mid-Atlantic NW and Mid-Atlantic NW Atlantic

9 1 4 1

9 35 4 34

Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba White-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus

8. OTHER STUDIES AND ANALYSES NEFSC A three-day invitational workshop was convened on right whale reproduction, and was attended by 35 participants from several disciplines in April 2000 (Contact: Phil Clapham, NEFSC). History of Marine Animal Populations (HMAP) - Twenty seven historians and ecologists reviewed information on historical sources for several exploited ecosystems, and selected several as being most promising for further study. This is part of the Census of Marine Life program (Contact: Tim Smith, NEFSC). SEFSC None reported 7

9. LITERATURE CITED Waring, G.T., J. Quintal and S. Swartz,(eds.) 2000. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2000. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-162. 303p. NOAA-NMFS, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water St., Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Yeung, Cynthia. 1999. Estimates of marine mammal and marine turtle bycatch in by the U.S. Atlantic pelagic longline fleet in 1998. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-430, 26p., NOAA-NMFS, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, 75 Virginia Beach Drive, Miami, FL 33149. 10. PUBLISHED LITERATURE - 2000 and 2001 10.1. Published or “In press” literature Clapham, Phillip. 2001. Why do baleen whales migrate? A response to Corkeron and Connor. Mar. Mammal Sci., Letters, 17(2):432-436. Clapham, P.J. 2000. The humpback whale: seasonal feeding and breeding in a baleen whale. In: Mann, J.; Tyack, P.L.; Connor, R.; Whitehead, H., eds. Cetacean Societies. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; p. 173-196. Dutton, P.H., E. Bixby, and S.K. Davis. In press. Tendency toward single paternity in leatherbacks detected with microsatellites. Proc. of the 17th Ann. Symp. on Sea Turtle Biol. and Conservation. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-NMFS, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, 75 Virginia Beach Drive, Miami, FL 33149. Friday, N., T.D. Smith, P.T. Stevick and J. Allen. 2000. Measurement of photographic quality and individual distinctiveness for the photographic identification of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae. Mar. Mammal Sci.16(2):355-374. Meador, J.P., Ernest, D., Hohn, A.A., Tilbury, K.L., Gorzelany, J., Worthy, G., Stein, J.E. In press. Comparison of elements in bottlenose dolphins stranded on the beaches of Texas and Florida in the Gulf of Mexico over a one-year period. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. McClellan, D.B., J.A. Browder, J.L. Tobias, G.J. Konoval, M.D. Hearon, O. Bass, and J. Osborne. 2000. Opportunistic sightings of bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, along the Southeast Florida Coast and Florida Bay, 1992-1997. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-435. 18pp. NOAANMFS, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, 75 Virginia Beach Drive, Miami, FL 33149. Mullin, K.D. and W. Hoggard. 2000. Visual surveys of cetaceans and sea turtles from aircraft and ships. Pages 111-172 In: R.W. Davis, W.E. Evans, and D. Würsig (eds.), Cetaceans, sea turtles and seabirds in the northern Gulf of Mexico: distribution, abundance and habitat associations. Volume II: Technical Report. Prepared by Texas A&M at Galveston and the National Marine Fisheries Service. U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, USGS/BRD/CR-19990006 and Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, Louisiana. OCS Study MMS 2000-003. 346 pp. Pace, R.M. III. 2000. Radio tracking via triangulation: The folly of censoring locations on the basis of error ellipse size. Pg. 528-534 In: J.H. Eiler, D.J. Alcorn and M.R. Newman (eds). Biotelemetry 15: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Biotelemetry. Juneau, AK USA. International Society of Biotelemetry. Wageningen, The Netherlands. Palka, D.L. and P.S. Hammond. 2001. Accounting for responsive movement in line transect estimates of abundance. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. 58: 777-787. Reeves, R.R., J.M. Breiwick, and E.D. Mitchell. In Press. History of whaling and estimated kill of northern right whales, Eubalaena glacialis, in the northeastern United States, 1620-1924. Marine Fisheries Review. Swartz, S.L. Cole, T., McDonald, M.A., Hildebrand, J.A., Oleson, E.M., Martinez, A., Clapham, P.J., and Barlow, J. In press. A combined acoustic and visual survey of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Eastern and Southern Caribbean Sea. Caribbean Journal of Science 15p. Swartz, S.L. Martinez, A., Cole, T, Clapham, P.J., McDonald, M.A., Hildebrand, J.A., Oleson, E.M., Burks, C. and Barlow, J. 2001. Visual and acoustic surveys of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Eastern and Southern Caribbean Sea: Preliminary findings. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFSSEFSC-456, 37 p. Waring, G. and D. Palka. In press. North Atlantic Marine Mammals. In “Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals”, Academic Press. 8

Waring, G.T., J. Quintal and S. Swartz,(eds.) 2000. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2000. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-162. 303p.

10.2.

Unpublished Literature

Clapham, Phillip J. and Richard M. Pace, III. 2001. Defining Triggers for Temporary Area Closures to Protect Right Whales from Entanglements: Issues and Options. NOAA-NMFS-NEFSC Ref. Doc. 01-06. 39p. Clapham, P.J. and L.T. Hatch. 2000. Determining spatial and temporal scales for population management units: lessons from whaling. IWC Working Paper SC/52/SD2. 11p. Clapham, P., J. Robbins, M. Brown, P. Wade and K. Findlay. 2000. A note on plausible rates of population growth in humpback whales. IWC Working paper. SC/52/IA -WP14 presented at Int. Whal. Commn. 3p. Friday, N. and T.D. Smith. 2000. The effect of age and sex selective harvest patterns for baleen whales. IWC Working Paper. SC/52/AS22. 10p. McFee, W.E., and S. Hopkins-Murphy. In review. Bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, strandings in SouthCarolina 1992-1996. Fishery Bulletin. Mullin, K.D. Submitted. Abundance and Distribution of Cetaceans in the Southern U.S. Atlantic Ocean during Summer 1998. Fishery Bulletin. Palka, D. 2000. Abundance of the Gulf of Maine/Bay of Fundy harbor porpoise based on shipboard and aerial surveys during 1999. NOAA/NMFS NEFSC Ref. Doc. 00-07. 29p. Palka, D. 2000 Effectiveness of gear modifications as a harbor porpoise by-catch reduction strategy off the MidAtlantic coast of the USA. IWC Working Paper SC/52/SM24. 27p. Reeves, R.R., P.J. Clapham, S.L. Swartz, S. Wetmore and T.D. Smith. 2000. Historical occurrence of humpback whales in the eastern and southern Caribbean Sea, based on data from American whaling logbooks. Final Report to NOAA-NMFS-SEFSC. NOAA-NMFS, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, 75 Virginia Beach Drive, Miami, FL 33149. Reeves, R.R., P.J. Clapham and S. Wetmore. 2000. Humpback whaling at the Cape Verde Islands, and a summary of humpback catches elsewhere in the eastern North Atlantic. Final Report to NOAANMFS-NEFSC. NOAA-NMFS, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water St., Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Roden, C.L., and K.D. Mullin. Submitted. Sightings of Cetaceans in the Northern Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Waters, Winter 1995. Fishery Bulletin. Rossman, Marjorie C. 2000. Effectiveness of time/area closures and acoustic deterrents as harbor porpoise bycatch reduction strategies off the northeast coast of the United States. Rept. Int. Whal. Commn SC/52/SM23. 13p. Smith, Tim D. 2000. Comparison of two computer programs for calculating catch limits under the Revised Management Plan. Rept. Int. Whal. Commn. SC/52/Mg1. 16p. Swartz, S.L., Martinez, A., Proni, J., and Stamates, J. 2001. Acoustic and Visual Survey of Humpback and Other Endangered Whales in the Waters of the Eastern Bahamas, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands During February – March 2001: Preliminary Summary. Rept. Intl. Whal. Comm., SC/53/NAH17. Working paper submitted to the Scientific Committee at their July 2001 meeting. 25 p.

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U.S.A. Pacific Waters
1. SPECIES AND STOCKS STUDIED Common Name Baird’s beaked whale Beaked whale Beluga whale Blue whale Bottlenose dolphin Bottlenose whale Southern Bowhead whale Bryde’s whale Common dolphin Cuvier’s beaked Dall’s porpoise Dense beaked whale Dwarf sperm whale Fin whale Gray whale Harbor porpoise Scientific Name Berardius bairdii Mesoplodon sp. Delphinapterus leucas Balaenoptera musculus Tursiops truncatus Hyperoodon sp B. mysticetus B. edeni Delphinus delphis Ziphius cavirostris Phocoenoides dalli Mesoplodon densirostris Kogia simus B. physalus Eschrichtius robustus Phocoena phocoena Area/Stock(s) Oregon, Northeast Pacific, Southeast Bering Sea eastern tropical Pacific, Oregon Northeast Pacific Alaska, N. Pacific California California, eastern tropical Pacific, western N. Atlantic, Florida Oregon, Northeast Pacific Alaska, western U.S. Arctic Eastern Tropical Pacific California, eastern tropical Pacific, N. Pacific Oregon, Northeast Pacific, Bahamas California, Washington, N. Pacific, Oregon, Southeast Bering Sea Bahamas Oregon, Northeast Pacific California, N. Pacific, Oregon, Southeast Bering Sea California, Washington, NE and NW Pacific, Oregon Alaska, eastern N. Pacific, Oregon, Northeast Pacific; Southeast Bering Sea California, Hawaii, No. Pacific, Alaska, Japan and Mexico, Oregon, Southeast Bering Sea Alaska, British Columbia, Oregon, Northeast Pacific; Southeast Bering Sea, California, eastern tropical Pacific Referred to Section(s): 2, 9, 10 2, 8 2, 3 4, 8 4 2 2, 4, 5, 8 4 4 2, 4 2, 7, 8, 9, 10 4 2 2, 8, 9, 10 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 2, 7, 8, 9, 10 in

Humpback whale

Megaptera novaeangliae

2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10

Killer whale

Orcinus orca

2, 4, 5, 8, 10

10

Common Name Minke whale Northern right whale Northern right whale dolphin Pacific white-sided dolphin Pantropical spotted dolphin Pilot whale Pygmy killer whale Pygmy sperm whale Risso’s dolphin Rough-toothed dolphin Sei whale Sperm whale Spinner dolphin Striped dolphin

Scientific Name B. acutorostrata Eubalaena glacialis Lissodelphis borealis L. obliquidens Stenella attenuata Globicephala sp. Feresa attenuata Kogia breviceps Grampus griseus Steno bredanensis Balaenoptera borealis Physeter macrocephalus S. longirostris C. coeruleoalba

Area/Stock(s) California, N. Pacific, Oregon, Southeast Bering Sea North Pacific, Sea Southeast Bering

Referred to Section(s): 2, 4, 9, 10 8, 9, 10 2 2, 4, 7, 9, 10 4 4 4 4 2 4 2, 8, 9, 10 2 4 4

in

Oregon, Northeast Pacific California, eastern tropical Pacific, N. Pacific, Oregon eastern tropical Pacific California, eastern tropical Pacific eastern tropical Pacific Eastern N. Pacific California, eastern tropical Pacific, Oregon, Northeast Pacific eastern tropical Pacific, Florida N. Pacific, Southeast Bering Sea California, N. Pacific, tropical Pacific, Oregon eastern tropical Pacific eastern tropical Pacific, California eastern

2. SIGHTINGS DATA 2.1. Field Work AFSC Gray Whales off Washington Coast From March 21 to November 17, 2000, vessel surveys were conducted along the northwestern coast of Washington, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and off the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. During these surveys, 131 gray whales were sighted and 110 gray whales were photographed for identification. Approximately 16 per cent of the sightings were made in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 14 per cent on the northwest coast of Washington, and 65 per cent off the west coast and southwest coast of Vancouver Island. (Contact: M. Gosho, AFSC) Beluga Count in Cook Inlet NMFS made a 43-hr aerial survey of Cook Inlet, Alaska, 6-13 June 2000 to assess distribution and abundance of the small, isolated stock of beluga whales. The survey methods were consistent with NMFS’ annual surveys conducted in Cook Inlet each year since 1993. The flights in June 2000 included complete coverage of coastal areas around the entire Inlet (flown 1.4 km offshore) and 1,841 km of transects across the Inlet. On each survey, a representative of the Cook Inlet Marine Mammal Council participated as an observer. After finding beluga groups, a series of aerial passes were made to allow at least two pairs of primary observers to make 4 or more counts of each group. The sum of the aerial estimates for June 2000 is 184 (an index count not corrected for 11

missed whales). Video analysis provided more precise counts of whales than can be done by aerial observers and counts were corrected for whales missed. Accordingly, the calculated abundance for June 2000 was 435 (CV = 0.23, 95% CI=279-679) (Contact: R. Rugh, AFSC). Aerial Surveys in Norton Sound NMFS staff participated in aerial surveys directed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG), as part of the annual beluga whale monitoring project of the Alaska Beluga Whale Committee. The survey was designed to estimate the abundance of the Norton Sound stock of beluga whales in Alaska. Surveys were flown from 17 to 20 June 2000. As in past surveys in Norton Sound, a large concentration of beluga whales was found near the mouth of the Yukon River. AFSC’s National Marine Mammal Lab (NMML) will assist the ADFG with the preparation of a report after the survey data are analyzed. (Contact: R. Angliss, AFSC). 2001 Aerial Marine Mammal Surveys An aerial survey of marine mammals was conducted south of St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea during 1731 March 2001. Aerial transects were flown between St. Lawrence and St. Matthew Islands from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Polar Star as part of the St. Lawrence Island Polynya Project research cruise, funded by the National Science Foundation. This survey filled a critical need, because the region had not been surveyed for over 20 years, and the population size of many of the marine mammals in the region was unknown. In addition, data from this survey, which was conducted during a year when the ice edge was unusually far north, will provide an interesting contrast to past and future surveys conducted in years with more normal ice extent. A total of 23 helicopter flights, surveying approximately 2750 linear transect miles of sea ice habitat were flown. There were 1281 individuals of eight species of marine mammals sighted (Contact: L. Hiruki-Raring, AFSC). Gray whale census A census of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales was conducted by the National Marine Mammal Laboratory throughout most of the whales’ southbound migration from 13 December 2000 to 5 March 2001. The study was conducted from observation sheds 21 m above the sea at Granite Canyon (in central California), the research station used for this census most years since 1974. Typically, the southbound migration has ended and northbound migration begun in mid-February, yet in 2001 there were still many southbound whales seen even in March. Relative to the previous census, conducted in 1997/98, counts in the winter of 2000/01 were low. This may be due in part to the late migration, a high proportion of whales not migrating as far south as Granite Canyon, unusually poor visibility conditions, or a real decline in the size of this population. (Contact: D. Rugh, AFSC) Whale survey off the northeastern coast of Brazil A National Marine Mammal Laboratory scientist participated in a whale survey from 14 August to 5 September 2000 aboard the Brazilian Navy ship Almirante Graca Aranha off the northeastern coast of Brazil sponsored by the Brazilian Environmental Agency (IBAMA) with support from the Brazilian Navy and the National Council for Science and Technology (CNPq). The primary objectives were to conduct a line transect survey for Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) in offshore waters of Brazil and to conduct a line-transect survey for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in shelf waters. All other cetacean species were recorded. A total of 1071.1 nm were surveyed. Results from this survey will be combined with previous years to produce abundance estimates for minke and humpback whales and to report other new information about cetacean species in Brazilian waters (Contact: J. Waite, AFSC). Southeastern Bering shelf survey A cetacean line-transect survey was conducted in conjunction with an AFSC/Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering program acoustic-trawl survey for walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf from 10 June to 3 July 2000 (vessel: Miller Freeman). There were 288 sightings of single or groups of cetaceans during 2194 km of survey effort. Estimates of abundance were calculated for fin, minke, and killer whales, Dall’s and harbor porpoise using standard line-transect methods (Contact: J. Waite, AFSC). NWFSC Cetacean surveys during GLOBEC Northeast Pacific Northern California Current Program Line-transect surveys of cetaceans were conducted during two U.S. Northeast Pacific Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) process cruises in the Northern California Current off Oregon and northern California during 2000. Surveys were conducted in passing mode from the flying bridge of the R/V New Horizon from May 29 – June 13 and from July 27 – August 13, 2000, as part of a three-ship multidisciplinary oceanographic program to examine the physical and biological factors contributing to linkages between top trophics (marine 12

mammals and seabirds) and mid-trophic level prey (zooplankton and fish). Analyses are in progress to compare the distribution and abundance of cetaceans relative to climate forcing and weather patterns, physical oceanographic features (e.g. coastal upwelling fronts, mesoscale eddies, bank circulation dynamics) and scales of biological production at levels of primary production (e.g. chlorophyll values), secondary production (acoustic and net-tow derived estimates of zooplankton) and fish production (via acoustic and trawl-derived estimates of fish). During the May-June cruise 235 cetacean sightings were obtained and a total of 310 cetacean sightings were obtained on the July-August cruise. Sixteen species or genera were observed during these cruises: humpback whale, fin whale, minke whale, gray whale, sperm whale, dwarf sperm whale, Baird’s beaked whale, Cuvier’s beaked whale, Mesoplodon sp., Pacific white-sided dolphin, Dall’s porpoise, northern right whale dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, harbor porpoise, killer whale, and Hyperoodon sp. (Contacts: C.T. Tynan, NWFSC and D.G. Ainley, H.T. Harvey & Assoc., California). SWFSC Gray Whale northbound cow/calf shore-based and aerial surveys A seventh consecutive year of a shore-based sighting survey was conducted to estimate the number of northbound migrating gray whale calves in the eastern North Pacific stock. The primary objective of the survey is to determine whether the proportion of calves in the population (indexed as the number of calves passing the research site divided by the population size estimated from the most recent southbound survey) has declined since calf surveys done in 1980 and 1981. Aerial surveys of this stock were also conducted during the northbound migration in order to assess reproductive condition of females, the overall condition of the population, and to examine the temporal segregation of the migrating whales. Photos taken during these aerial surveys are used to help determine mortality rates for calves and to aid in evaluating conditions of individual animals. (Contact: W. Perryman, SWFSC). Stenella Population Abundance Research Between August and December 2000 two research vessels surveyed the study area, which extended from the U.S.-Mexico border south to the territorial waters of Peru and west to the Hawaiian Islands. The primary focus of the study was to determine marine mammal abundance through line-transect surveys and to assess fisheryrelated stress in dolphins due to the tuna purse-seine fishery in the ETP. Approximately 57,000 km of trackline were surveyed and 1,393 marine mammal sightings recorded. Tissue samples, acoustic recordings and photographs (both ship-based and aerial) of marine mammals were collected during the survey. Oceanographic data were collected throughout the survey as were ecological data including seabird and turtle sightings, and flying fish and micronekton sampling. (Contact: L. Ballance, SWFSC). Northern Right Whale Aerial and Vessel Surveys An aerial survey was conducted for the third consecutive year in the southeastern Bering Sea during July of 2000. The objectives of the aerial survey were to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of right whales on their summer feeding grounds and to develop a minimum estimate for the number of whales in this area. Five sightings, totaling 13 right whales were made and eight were photographed during the aerial survey. The minimum estimated number, based on photos is now 12. Information on the sizes and lengths of animals from aerial photographs were collected as well as identifying characteristics of individual right whales and scars that might indicate human-related interactions (Contact: R. LeDuc, SWFSC). Bowhead Whales in the Okhotsk Sea A long-term study which started in 1995 to better understand the status and ecology of Okhotsk Sea bowhead whales was continued in August and September of 2000. Thirty biopsy samples and 32 sloughed skin samples were collected during the 2000 field season. This research is conducted under the U.S.-Russia Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection (Contact: R. LeDuc, SWFSC).

3. MARKING DATA 3.1. Field work Natural Marking Data for Calendar Year 2000. AFSC Gray whales Photo-identification surveys were conducted from March 21, 2000 to November 17, 2000 for gray whales which use summer and fall feeding grounds in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, along the northwest coast of Washington, and off the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Of the 131 gray whales that were sighted during 13

these surveys, 110 were photographed for later identification and to separate out duplicate sightings. (Contact: M. Gosho, AFSC). Humpback whales Computer-assisted matching success rate was tested with a database of over 24,000 photos (Mizroch and Harkness, submitted). The database was stratified by photographic quality code, and a random draw was conducted of 125 photos. Tests of the system showed that, on average, matching speed depended on photo quality. Match success did not appear to be strongly related to whether the tail flukes had especially distinctive markings or pigment patterns (Contact: S. Mizroch, AFSC). NWFSC None reported SWFSC None reported 3.2. Telemetry Data (satellite and radio tags) for Calendar Year 2000. AFSC Species Beluga Beluga

Type of Tag Satellite TDR, suction cup

No. successfully deployed 2 1

Maximum time 126 days 2.3 days

Contact Person Hobbs, AFSC Hobbs, AFSC

Beluga whale tagging Two beluga whales were captured and satellite tagged in Cook Inlet, Alaska, by researchers from the National Marine Mammal Laboratory and the Alaska Region National Marine Fisheries Service. During 7-14 September 2000, fourteen net sets were made on belugas using a modified encirclement technique. Of the three whales that were caught, satellite tags were attached to two–the first whale was not tagged because it was too small. The tag on a juvenile female transmitted for 126 days. The tag on an adult male transmitted for 112 days. A time depth recorder (TDR) was attached to the juvenile female. The TDR stayed on for at least 90 hours and recorded 55 hours of data. Biopsies of skin were taken from all three animals for genetic analysis. (Contact: D. Rugh, AFSC) NWFSC None reported

SWFSC None reported 4. TISSUE/BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES COLLECTED 4.1. Biopsy Samples for Calendar Year 2000 AFSC and NWFSC In 1989, the National Marine Mammal Laboratory initiated studies on the life history and ecology of Southeast Alaskan killer whales. Annual surveys have been conducted each year (1989 through 2000). Killer whale investigations include photo-identification research, biopsy sampling, and underwater recordings. In 2000, surveys were conducted during May and September aboard the NOAA vessel John N. Cobb. Population size has been determined through photo-identification studies. Tissue samples are being analyzed to determine genetic structure (Dr. Rus Hoelzel, Univ. of Durham) and contaminant loads (Gina Ylitalo, NWFSC) of both resident and transient whales. In September 2000, radio-tagging research was incorporated into the project (Contact: M. Dahlheim, AFSC)

14

Species Bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus Killer whale, Orcinus orca Killer whale, Orcinus orca Gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus

Area/Stock(s) Alaska (from directed catches or bycatches) Puget Sound, Washington Prince William Sound, AK Strait of Juan de Fuca/ Eastern North Pacific

No. Collected 169 9 4 1

Contact Person/Institute Todd O’Hara, NSB Marilyn Dahlheim, AFSC Craig Matkin, North Gulf Oceanic Society M. Gosho, AFSC

SWFSC Species Minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Bryde’s whale, Balaenoptera edeni Blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis Common dolphin, Delphinus sp. Pygmy killer whale, Feresa attenuata Short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus Area/Stock No. Contact Person/Institution S. Chivers, SWFSC

eastern tropical Pacific 2 eastern tropical Pacific 1 eastern tropical Pacific 6 eastern tropical Pacific 6 eastern tropical Pacific 13 eastern tropical Pacific 6 eastern tropical Pacific 17

Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus eastern tropical Pacific 5 obliquidens Killer whale, Orcinus orca Pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata Pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella subsp. Striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba Spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris orientalis o Spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris centroamericana Spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris orientalis Rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis Bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus eastern tropical Pacific 7 eastern tropical Pacific 31 eastern tropical Pacific 1

eastern tropical Pacific 4 eastern tropical Pacific 21 eastern tropical Pacific 5

eastern tropical Pacific 12 eastern tropical Pacific 4 eastern tropical Pacific 19 15

5. POLLUTION STUDIES AFSC None reported NWFSC Blubber samples of 20 gray whales that stranded off the California and Oregon coasts were analyzed for selected organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, as well as for lipid content. The lipid values in the blubber of the 2000 stranded whales were quite low compared to lipid concentrations reported in blubber of gray whales harvested during a Russian subsistence harvest in 1994. The lipid concentrations in the 2000 stranded whales were similar to those previously reported in gray whales that stranded off the West Coast of North America from 1988-91 and 1998-99. The gray whale blubber samples with low lipid content had lower proportions of neutral lipids (e.g., triglycerides) than did blubber of nondecomposed gray whales. In most cetaceans, blubber is comprised primarily of neutral lipids. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs (based on wet weight) in blubber of gray whales that stranded in 2000 were similar to those levels measured in the 1998/99 stranded gray whales (Contact: G. Ylitalo, NWFSC). Analyses of different blubber strata have suggested interspecies differences in vertical distribution of organochlorine concentrations and lipid content. Blubber samples from bowhead whales from the Western Arctic/Bering Sea were collected during subsistence harvest in 1999 and analyzed for various classes of lipids and for selected organochlorines. The lipid concentrations ranged from 14 – 65%. The blubber contained primarily triglycerides (94 – 100%) and, in some cases, there was a small portion of phospholipids (equal to or less than 6%). The mean lipid content in the 1999 bowhead whales was significantly lower than the mean concentration of the 1998 whales. However, the mean proportions of triglycerides and the phospholipids were significantly higher in the 1998 animals compared to the 1999 whales. In general, the lipid percentages analyzed by multi-factor ANOVA showed no significant differences among the dorsal, ventral and lateral positions for the 169 samples analyzed. In all blubber samples, HCB was the analyte present in the highest concentrations; o,p-DDT and p,p-DDE were the predominant DDTs present. However, all contaminants were present at low concentrations. (Contact: G. Ylitalo, NWFSC) Blubber biopsy samples of 6 additional killer whales from Alaska were analyzed. The concentrations of CBs and DDTs were relatively high compared to OC concentrations measured in blubber of other marine mammal species that occur in Alaska, but were in the same range as those previously determined in biopsy blubber samples of whales during 1995 – 1998 (Contact: G. Ylitalo, NWFSC). A marine mammal blubber test material (Control Material IV) was prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for an intercomparison exercise. Control Material IV and standard reference blubber SRM 1945 were analyzed by 6 participating laboratories for selected organochlorines. Results had small relative standard deviations (RSDs) for replicate analyses of both the test blubber samples and the SRM and were comparable to the data of the other participants (Contact: G. Ylitalo, NWFSC). NWFSC participated in NIST’s Interlaboratory Comparison Exercise for Determination of Trace Elements in marine mammals. This focused on 5 core analytes (Cd, Cu, Hg, Fe, Pb) and 5 optional analytes (Ni, Se, As, Zn, Ag) in whale liver homogenates. The laboratory was considered competent for all elements because the difference between its mean and the mean of the data determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis was less than 30% (Contact: G. Ylitalo, NWFSC). SWFSC None reported

6. STATISTICS FOR LARGE CETACEANS Direct Catches (Commercial, Aboriginal and Scientific Permits) for Calendar year 2000.

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AFSC Species Bowhead whale, B. mysticetus Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus Type of catch Alaska Eskimo subsistence harvest Makah tribe subsistence harvest Area/Stock N. Slope Borough, Alaska Eastern No. Pacific Total Landed 41 0 Struck & Lost 12 Contact C. George, NSB 0 Contact: M. Gosho, AFSC

The Makah Tribe conducted a gray whale subsistence hunt from April 17 to May 29, 2000. Although canoes were launched on seven days, no whales were struck or landed. (Contact: M. Gosho, AFSC). 7. STATISTICS FOR SMALL CETACEANS - 1998 (Not Strandings - unless cause of death can be attributed to direct or incidental capture) 7.1. Directed Catches for Calendar Year 1998. AFSC Species Beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas

Location Beaufort Sea E. Chukchi Sea E. Bering Sea Bristol Bay Cook Inlet Total

Reported harvested n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

no.

Estimated no. struck & lost n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Reported taken n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

total

7.2. Incidental Catches For The Calendar Year 1998 AFSC and NWFSC Species Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli Dall’s porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli Pacific white-sided dolphin, L. obliquidens Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae Unidentified large whale Source: M. Perez, AFSC Area/Stock Alaska groundfish fisheries Alaska, groundfish fisheries Washington, Oregon and California Washington, Oregon and California Alaska, groundfish fisheries Alaska, groundfish fisheries Incidental Mortality Reported Est.Total 1 2 5 2 1 6 3 1 Fishery type Trawl, longline and pot Trawl, longline and pot At-sea processing groundfish trawl fishery At-sea processing groundfish trawl fishery Trawl, longline and pot

1

2

1 (live)

No est.

Trawl, longline and pot

17

SWFSC Species Harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

Area/Stock Central California

Incidental Mortality Reported Est. Total -* 57

Northern California Dall’s porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli California/Oregon/ Washington

1 2

1 3

Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens

California/Oregon/ Washington, Northern and Southern stocks

1

1

Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis

California/Oregon/ Washington California/Oregon/ Washington

9

51

2

2

Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis Sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus

California stock

2

2

California/Oregon/ Washington

1

5

Fishery type California angel shark/halibut and other species large mesh (>3.5") set gillnet fishery California Klamath River tribal salon gillnet fishery Washington/Oregon/ California domestic groundfish trawl fisheries (At-sea processing Pacific whiting fishery only) Washington/Oregon/ California domestic groundfish trawl fisheries (At-sea processing Pacific whiting fishery only) California/Oregon thresher shark/swordfish drift gillnet fishery California angel shark/halibut and other species large mesh (>3.5") set gillnet fishery California angel shark/halibut and other species large mesh (>3.5") set gillnet fishery California/Oregon thresher shark/swordfish drift gillnet fishery

Source: Forney et al. 2000. U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments. * The observer program for this fishery was discontinued between 1995 and 1998. The mortality estimate for 1998 is based on total estimated fishing effort and prior-year entanglement rate data. See Forney et al. 2000 for more information.

8. OTHER STUDIES AND ANALYSES AFSC North Atlantic humpback whales A stochastic individual-based model was designed to simulate the sample probabilities of individual humpback whales during the Years of the North Atlantic Humpback project in 1992 and 1993. This model is being used to evaluate the effects of potential violations of the assumptions of mark-recapture abundance estimators. A paper reporting the results of these analyses will be presented at the 2000 IWC meeting.(Contact: N. Friday, AFSC) A framework within which an assessment of North Atlantic humpback whales can be conducted was developed. The population dynamics model underlying this framework is density-dependent, age- and sex-structured and allows for multiple feeding and breeding grounds. A paper describing the assessment framework and population dynamics model will be presented at the 2000 IWC meeting. (Contact: N. Friday, AFSC)

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Ecosystem studies The Eastern Bering Sea Ecopath/Ecosim model developed by Trites et al. (1999) is being modified in an attempt to more accurately model the dynamics observed in that ecosystem. A thorough literature search has been conducted for information on abundance, biological parameters, and diet composition for cetacean species which occur in the Eastern Bering Sea. Changes have been made to the groupings of fish species, and similar changes to the groupings of cetacean species are anticipated. (Contact: N. Friday, AFSC) Platforms of Opportunity Program The Platforms of Opportunity Program, coordinated by the National Marine Mammal Laboratory in collaboration with the University of Washington, has expanded its coverage to additional vessels. The sightings database currently contains over 88,600 marine mammal sightings records, dating from 1958 through 1997. (Contact S. Mizroch, AFSC)

NWFSC Abundance estimation and environmental analyses Estimation of the abundance of cetacean species, stratified by shelf and slope strata, in the southeastern Bering Sea during the summers of 1997 and 1999 has been completed (Tynan, 2001, Deep-Sea Res.). The analysis of cetacean distribution also considers the interannual and longer-term climatic and ecological variability in the shelf system, as well as the amount of prey consumed by each species. The abundances of cetaceans during summer for the southeastern Bering Sea Middle Shelf (50 – 100 m) Outer Shelf (100 – 180 m), slope (180 – 2000 m), and Inner Shelf north of the Aleutians (< 50 m depth) are estimated at: 794 (CV=43.3%) fin whales for 1997 and 1184 (CV=44.8%) fin whales for 1999; 1730 (CV=53.1%) humpback whales for 1997; 27,268 (CV=28.2 %) Dall’s porpoises for 1997 and 32,303 (CV=21.0%) Dall’s porpoises for 1999; and 16,885 (CV=26.6%) harbor porpoises for 1997. (Contact: C. Tynan, NWFSC). An oceanographic description of critical habitat and prey of North Pacific right whales Eubalaena glacialis on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf has been completed (Tynan et al., 2001, Nature, submitted). (Contact: C. Tynan, NWFSC). An analysis of the distribution and abundance of killer whales Orcinus orca on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf and slope during 1997 and 1999 has been completed (Tynan, unpublished report, 2001). (Contact: C. Tynan, NWFSC). SWFSC Blue Whales With the goal of examining the differences between pygmy and true blue whales, we are conducting a Bayesian analysis of sequence and microsatellite data from southern hemisphere blue whales. This analysis is not dependent on a priori assumptions of sample identity, which is unreliable or unknown for most of these samples. (Contact: A. Dizon, SWFSC) Gray Whales An analysis is being conducted to measure the level of haplotypic diversity within the southern feeding aggregation, using mitochondrial control region sequence data. This level is being compared to levels measured in other small populations of baleen whales, and to those predicted by simulations of isolated populations with similar demographic histories. The comparisons will indicate whether or not the southern feeding aggregation represents an isolated population. (Contact: A. Dizon, SWFSC) Bowhead Whales Control region sequences were generated from three skin samples taken from whales off the Chukotka Peninsula in Russia. These were compared to sequences from other studies, which included ancient bone samples from Chukotka and modern samples from the Okhotsk Sea and Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort (BCB) Seas populations. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Chukotka whales are not members of the Okhotsk Sea population, but is inconclusive regarding their affiliation to the BCB population. (Contact: R. LeDuc, SWFSC)

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9. LITERATURE CITED Ferrero, R.C., D.P. DeMaster, P.S. Hill and M.M. Muto and A.L. Lopez. 2000. Alaska marine mammal stock assessments, 2000. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-119. 191p. NOAA-NMFS, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, BIN-C15700, Seattle, WA 98115-0070. 191p. Forney, K.A., M.M. Muto and J. Baker. 2000. U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments: 2000. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-300 227p. +app. NOAA-NMFS, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, P.O. Box 271, LaJolla, CA 92038-0271, USA. Mizroch, S. A. and S. Harkness. In review. A test of computer-assisted matching using the North Pacific humpback whale tail photograph collection. Shelden, K.E.W., Rugh, D.J., Laake, J.L., Waite, J.M., Gearin, P.J. and Wahl, T.R. In press. Winter observations of cetaceans off the northern Washington coast. Northwestern Naturalist. Trites, A.W., Livingston, P.A., Mackinson, S., Vasconcellos, M. C., Springer, A. M., and Pauly, D. 1999. Ecosystem change and the decline of marine mammals in the Eastern Bering Sea: Testing the ecosystem shift and commercial whaling hypothesis. Fisheries Centre Reports 1999, Vol. 7(1), 106 p. Tynan, C.T. (submitted, in review 2001). Ecological importance of cetaceans on the Southeastern Bering Sea shelf: Changes in carbon flow to large whales. Deep-Sea Res. II.

10. PUBLISHED LITERATURE - 2000 and 2001 10.1 Published or “In Press” Literature. Au, D.W, R.L. Pitman, and L.T. Ballance. In press. Yellowfin tuna associations with seabirds and subsurface predators. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop in the Ecology and Fisheries for Tunas Associated with Floating Objects. Ballance, L.T. and R.L. Pitman. In press. In: N. Adams and R. Slotow (eds.) Feeding ecology of tropical seabirds. Proceedings of the 22nd International Ornithological Congress. Ballance, L.T., D.G. Ainley, and G.L. Hunt Jr. In Press. Birds: foraging ecology. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. Ballance, L.T., R.C. Anderson, R.L. Pitman, K. Stafford, A. Shaan, Z. Waheed, & R.L. Brownell, Jr. In press. Cetacean sightings around the Republic of the Maldives, April 1998. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. Special Issue 2. Brownell, R.L. Jr., A.V. Yablokov and V.A. Zemsky. Accepted. USSR pelagic catches of North Pacific sperm whales, 1949-1979: conservation implications. Rept. Int. Whal. Commn. 50:000. Brownell, R.L. Jr., and T. Kasuya. In press. Western gray whale captured off western Hokkaido, Japan. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. (Gray Whale Special Issue). (as of 2/22/01) Cross, D.A., B.R. Tershy, R. Hewitt, D. Demer, S. Hayes, P. Fiedler, J. Popp, and V.L. Lopez. In press. An integrated approach to the foraging ecology of marine birds and mammals. Deep-Sea Research. Dahlheim, M., York, A., Towell, R., Waite, J. and Breiwick, J. 2000. Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) abundance in Alaska: Bristol Bay to Southeast Alaska, 1991-1993. Mar. Mammal Sci. 16(1):28-45. Da Silva, C. Q., Zeh, J., Madigan, D., Laake, J., Rugh, D., Baraff, L., Koski, W. and Miller, G. 2000. Capturerecapture estimation of bowhead whale population size using photo-identification data. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. 2(1):45-61. Dizon, A., S. Baker, F. Cipriano, G. Lento, P. Palsbøll, and R. Reeves. 2000. Molecular genetic identification of whales, dolphins, and porpoises: Proceedings of a workshop on the forensic use of molecular techniques to identify wildlife products in the marketplace. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAATM-NMFS-SWFSC-286. 51p. Dutton, P.H., E. Bixby, and S.K. Davis. In press. Tendency toward single paternity in leatherbacks detected with microsatellites. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA Technical Memorandum Escorza-Trevino, S., and A.E. Dizon. 2000. Phylogeography, intraspecific structure, and sex-biased dispersal of Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, revealed by mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA analysis. Molecular Ecology 9(8):1048-1060. Fiedler, P.C., S. Reilly, R.P Hewitt, D. Demer, V.A. Philbrick, S. Smith, W. Armstrong, D.A. Croll, B.R. Terhsy, and B.R. Mate. In press. Blue whale habitat and prey in the Channel Islands, California. Deep-Sea Research, Special Issue on the California Current. Finneran, J.J., C.W. Oliver, K.M Schaefer, and S.H. Ridgway. 2000. Source levels and estimated yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) detection ranges for dolphin jaw pops, breaches, and tail slaps. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(1):649-656. 20

Forcada, J. and A. Aguilar. 2000. Use of photographic identification in capture-recapture studies of Mediterranean monk seals. Mar. Mammal Sci. 16:767-793. Forcada, J. 2000. Can population surveys show if the Mediterranean monk seal colony at Cap Blanc is declining in abundance? Journal of Applied Ecology 37:171-181. Forney, K. A., J. Barlow, M. M. Muto, M. Lowry, J. Baker, G. Cameron, J. Mobley, C. Stinchcomb, and J. V. Carretta. 2001. U.S. Pacific marine mammal stock assessments: 2000. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NOAA-TM-NMFS- SWFSC-300, 276 p. Forney, K.A. 2000. Monitoring marine mammal and seabird bycatch in the Monterey area set gillnet fishery. In: J. Carless (ed). Ecosystem Observations, Annual Report of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary 1999. (1 page article) Forney, K.A. 2000. Environmental models of cetacean abundance: a step towards reducing uncertainty in population trends. Conserv. Biol. 14(5):1271-1286 Forney, K.A., S.R. Benson, and G.A. Cameron. 2001. Central California gillnet effort and bycatch of sensitive species, 1990-98. In: E.F. Melvin and J.K. Parrish (eds) “Seabird bycatch: Trends, Roadblocks and solutions.” Univ. of Alaska Sea Grant, Fairbanks, AK. AF-SG-01-01, 21 p. Forney, K.A. In press. Trends in harbor porpoise abundance off central California 1986-95: evidence of interannual changes in distribution? J. Cet. Res. and Manage. Friday, N., Smith, T. D., Stevick, P. T. and Allen, J. 2000. Measurement of photographic quality and whale distinctiveness for the photographic identification of humpback whales. Mar. Mammal Sci. 16(2):355374. Gabriele, C. M. Straley, J., Mizroch, S. A., Baker, C. S., Craig, A. S., Herman, L. M., Glockner-Ferrari, D., Ferrari, M. J., Cerchio, S., von Ziegesar, O., Darling, J., McSweeney, D., Quinn II, T. J. and Jacobsen, J. K. 2000. Estimating the calf mortality rate of central North Pacific humpback whales. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:589-600. Gendron, D. and Mesnick, S.L. In press. Sloughed skin: a method for the systematic collection of tissue samples from Baja California blue whales. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. Gilmartin, W., T. Johanos, and T. Gerrodette. In press. Estimates of population size for the Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi), 1983-1988. Mar. Mammal Sci. Hertel, F. and L.T. Ballance. In press. Wing ecomorphology of seabirds from Johnston Atoll. Condor. Hobbs, R., Rugh, D., Waite, J., Breiwick, J. and DeMaster, D. In press. Abundance of gray whales in the 1995/96 southbound migration in the eastern North Pacific. J. Cetacean Res. Manage. Special Issue. Hobbs, R. C., Rugh, D. J. and DeMaster, D. P. In press. Abundance of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1994-2000. Mar. Fish. Rev. Hobbs, R.C., Waite, J. M. and Rugh, D. J. In press. Beluga whale group sizes based on aerial video and observer counts. Mar. Fish. Rev. Hyrenbach, K.D., K.A. Forney and P.K. Dayton. 2000. Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10:437-458. Jackson, A.R. In press. Cetacean survey line-transect data verification and management. NOAA Technical Memorandum 42 p. (as of 4/25/01) Kinzey, D. and T. Gerrodette. In press. Conversion factors for binocular reticles. Mar. Mammal Sci. 17(2). Kinzey, D., T. Gerrodette, A. Dizon, W. Perryman, P. Olson and S. Rankin. 2001. Marine mammal data collected during a survey in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean aboard the NOAA ships McArthur and David Starr Jordan, July 28 - December 9, 2000. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC303, 100 p. Kinzey, D., T. Gerrodette, J. Barlow, A. Dizon, W. Perryman and P. Olson. 2000. Marine mammal data collected during a survey in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean aboard the NOAA Ships McArthur and David Starr Jordan, July 28 - December 9, 1999. NOAA Tech.l Memo. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC293. 89 pp. Krahn, M.M., G.M. Ylitalo, R.L. Brownell, Jr., A. Blokhin, D.G. Burrows, K.L. Tulbury, S.E. Moore, T. Rowles and J.E. Stein. In press. Environmental assessment of eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus): Lipid and organochlorine contaminant profiles. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. Special Issue 2. Krahn, M.M, Ylitalo, G.M., Burrows, D.G., Calambokidis, J., Moore, S.E., Gosho, M.,Gearin, P., Plesha, P.D., Brownell, R.L., Blokhin, S.A., Tilbury, K.L., Rowles, T. and Stein, J.E. In press. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and lipid profiles in eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). J. Cetacean Res. Manage. Krone, C.A, Robisch, P.A, Tilbury, K.L., Stein, J.E., MacKey, E.A., Becker, P.R., O'Hara, T.M., and Philo, L.M. In press. Elements in liver tissues of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). Mar. Mammal Sci.. Laidre, K.L., Shelden, K. E. W., Rugh D. J. and Mahoney, B. A. In press. Distribution of belugas and survey effort in the Gulf of Alaska. Mar. Fish. Rev. 21

LeDuc, R.G., and A.E. Dizon. In press. Reconstructing the rorqual phylogeny: With comments on the use of molecular and morphological data for systematic study. In: C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.) Cell and Molecular Biology of Marine Mammals. LeDuc, R.G., D.W. Weller, J. Hyde, A.M. Burdin, P.E. Rosel, R.L. Brownell, Jr., B. Würsig, and A.E. Dizon. Accepted. Genetic differences between western and eastern North Pacific gray whales. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. (Gray Whale Special Issue). LeDuc, R.G, W.L. Perryman, J.W. Gilpatrick, Jr., J. Hyde, C. Stinchcomb, J.V. Carretta and R.L. Brownell, Jr. Accepted. Recent surveys for right whales in the southeastern Bering Sea. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. Meador, J.P., Ernest, D., Hohn, A.A., Tilbury, K.L., Gorzelany, J., Worthy, G., Stein, J.E. In press. Comparison of elements in bottlenose dolphins stranded on the beaches of Texas and Florida in the Gulf of Mexico over a one-year period. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. Mesnick, S. In Press. Genetic Relatedness in Sperm Whales: Evidence and Cultural Implications. Behavior and Brain Science. Moore, S.E. 2000. Variability of cetacean distribution and habitat selection in the Alaskan Arctic, autumn 198291. Arctic 53(4):448-60. Moore, S.E., DeMaster, D. P. and Dayton, P. K. Cetacean habitat selcetion in the Alaskan Arctic during summer and autumn. Arctic 53(4): 432-447. Moore, S.E., Shelden, K. E., Rugh, D. J., Mahoney, B. A. and Litzky, L. K. In press. Beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, habitat associations in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Mar. Fish. Rev. Moore, S. E., Waite, J. M., Mazzuca, L. L. and Hobbs, R. C. 2000. Mysticete whale abundance and observations of prey associations on the central Bering Sea shelf. J. Cetacean Res. Manage. 2(3):227-34. Nachtigal, P.E, W.W.L. Au., J.L. Pawloski, K. Andrews and C. W. Oliver. 2000. Measurements of the low frequency components of active and passive sounds produced by dolphins. Aquatic Mammals 26(3):167-174. Norman, S., Muto, M., Rugh, D. and Moore, S. In press. Gray whale strandings in 1999 with a review of stranding records in 1995-1998. NOAA Tecnical. Memorandum. [also as Paper SC/52/AS5 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee in June 2000]. Norris, T., J. Jacobsen, and S. Cerchio. In press. (Contract Report) A comparative analysis of humback whale songs recorded in pelagic waters of the eastern North Pacific: Preliminary findings and implications for discerning migratory routes and assessing breeding stock identity. NOAA Technical Memorandum. 29p. O’Corry-Crowe, G. M., A. E. Dizon, and L. F. Lowry. In press. Molecular genetic studies of population structure and movement patterns in a migratory species: the beluga whale. In: Cell and Molecular Biology of Marine Mammals. C. J. Pfeiffer (ed.). Olson, P.A., R.L. Pitman, L.T. Ballance, and S.B. Reilly. 2000. Summary of seabird, marine turtle, and surface fauna data collected during a survey in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean July 30 - December 9, 1998. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-298. 69p. Olson, P.A., R.L. Pitman, L.T. Ballance, K.R. Hough, P. Dutton and S.B. Reilly. 2001. Summary of seabird, marine turtle, and surface fauna data collected during a survey in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, July 28-December 9, 1999. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-301. 55 p. Olson, P.A., R.L. Pitman, L.T. Ballance, K.R. Hough, P. Dutton and S.B. Reilly. In press. Summary of seabird, marine turtle, and surface fauna data collected during a survey in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, July 28-December 9, 2000. NOAA Technical Memorandum. 58 p. (as of 4/26/01) Pitman, R.L. and M. Lynn. In press. Biological observations of an unidentified mesoplodont whale in the eastern tropical Pacific and probable identity: Mesoplodon peruvianus. Mar. Mammal Sci. 17(3):xxxxxx. Pitman, R. L., Ballance, L. T., Mesnick, S. L. and Chivers, S. In press. Killer whale predation on sperm whales: observations and implications for large whale biology. Mar. Mammal Sci. 17(3):xxx-xxx. Pitman, R.L. and S.J. Chivers. In press. Terror in black and white: Killer whales destroy a pod of sperm whales off California. Natural History Magazine. 11 p. Ralls, K. and B.L. Taylor. 2000. Special Section: Better policy and management decisions through explicit analysis of uncertainty: approaches from marine conservation. Conservation Biology: 1240-1242 Ralls, K and B.L. Taylor. In press. How viable is population viability analysis? In: S.T.A. Pickett, R.S. Ostfeld, M. Shachak, and G.E. Likens, Eds. Enhancing the Ecological Basis of Conservation: Heterogeneity, Ecosystem Function, and Biodiversity. Proceedings of the Sixth Cary Conference. Chapman and Hall, New York. Rosenbaum, H.C., R.L. Brownell, Jr., M.W. Brown, C. Schaeff, V. Portway, B.N. White, S. Malik, L.A. Pastene, N.J. Patenaude, C.S. Baker, M. Goto, P.B. Best, P.J. Clapham, P. Hamilton, M. Moore, R. Payne, V. Rowntree, C.T. Tynan, J.L. Bannister, and R. DeSalle. 2000. World-wide genetic 22

differentiation of Eubalaena: questioning the number of right whale species. Molecular Ecology 9:1793-1802. Rosenbaum, H.C., M.G. Egan, P.J. Clapham, R.L. Brownell, Jr., S. Malik, M. Brown, B.N. White, P. Walsh, and R. DeSalle. 2000. Utility of North Atlantic right whale museum specimens for assessing changes in genetic diversity. Conservation Biology 14(6):1837-1842. Rugh, D.J., Lerczak, J. A., Hobbs, R. C., Waite, J. M., and Laake, J. L. In press. Evaluation of high-powered binoculars to detect inter-year changes in offshore distribution of gray whales. J. Cetacean Res. Manage. Special Issue. Rugh, D. J., Shelden, K. E. W., and Schulman-Janiger, A. In press. Timing of the southbound migration of gray whales. J. Cetacean Res. and Mgmt. Rugh, D. J., Shelden, K. E. W. and Mahoney, B. A. 2000. Distribution of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, in Cook Inlet, Alaska, during June/July, 1993-2000. Mar. Fish. Rev. Schaefer, K.M. and C.W. Oliver. 2000. Shape, volume and resonance frequency of the swimbladder of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Fishery Bulletin. 98)2):364-374. Shelden, K. E. W., DeMaster, D. P. Rugh, D. J. and Olson, A. M. In press. A proposal for developing classification criteria under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: the bowhead whale as case study. Conservation Biology. Shelden, K. E. W., Rugh, D. J. and Boeve, S. A. In press. Gray whale calf sightings collected by the National Marine Mammal Laboratory during southbound migrations, 1952-95. J. Cetacean Res. Manage. Special Issue. Slooten, E., D. Fletcher, and B. Taylor. 2000. Accounting for uncertainty in risk assessment: Case study of Hector’s dolphin mortality due to gillnet entanglement. Conservation Biology 1264-1270. Spear, L.B., L.T. Ballance, and D.G. Ainley. 2001. Responses of seabirds to thermal boundaries in the tropical Pacific: the thermocline vs. the Equatorial Front. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Stein, J.E., Tilbury, K.L., Meador, J.P., Gorzelany, J., Worthy, G.A.J., and Krahn, M.M. In press. Ecotoxicological investigations of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) strandings: accumulation of persistent organic chemicals and metals. In: Toxicology of Marine Mammals, (Bossart, G., Fournier, M., O’Shea, T., and Vos, J., eds.) Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia, PA. Swartz, S. L., A. Martinez, T. Cole, P. J. Clapham, M. A. McDonald, J. A. Hildebrand, E. M. Oleson, C. Burks, and J. Barlow. 2001. Visual and acoustic survey of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the eastern and southern Caribbean Sea: Preliminary Results. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFSSEFSC-456. 37pp. Taylor, B. L., P. R. Wade, D. P. DeMaster, and J. Barlow. 2000. Incorporating uncertainty into management models for marine mammals. Conservation Biology 14:1243-1252. Taylor, B. L., S. J. Chivers, S. Sexton and A. E. Dizon. 2000. Estimating dispersal rates using mitochondrial DNA data and incorporating uncertainty. Conservation Biology 14:1287-1297. Taylor, B. L. and P. Wade. 2000. "Best" abundance estimates and best management: why they are not the same. In: (Ferson, S. and Burgman, M., eds.) Quantitative Methods for Conservation Biology. SpringerVerlag, New York, New York. Taylor, B. L., Wade, P.R., Ramakrishnan, U., Gilpin, M. and Akçakaya H.R. In Press. Incorporating uncertainty in PVAs for the purpose of classifying species by risk. In: (S.R. Beissinger and D.R. McCollough, eds.) Population Viability Analysis. Thode, A., T. Norris, and J. Barlow. 2000. Frequency beamforming of dolphin whistles using a sparse threeelement towed array. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(6):3581-3584. Tynan, C.T. 1999. Redistributions of cetaceans in the Southeastern Bering Sea relative to anomalous oceanographic conditions during the 1997 El Niño. PICES Sci. Rep. 10: 115-117. Weller, D.W., and Würsig, B. In Press. Bottlenose dolphins of Aransas Pass, Texas: Annual and seasonal patterns of occurrence, site fidelity, and behavior. Fishery Bulletin Weller, D.W. (In Press). Book Review -- Cetacean societies: Field studies of whales and dolphins. In: ( J. Mann, R.C. Connor, P.L. Tyack, & H. Whitehead, eds.). Animal Behaviour. Weller, D.W., and Brownell, R.L., Jr. 2000. Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus: Asian or Western Pacific Population. In: The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Species Survival Commission 2000 Red List of Threatened Species. Gland, Switzerland. Weller, D.W., Würsig, B., Lynn, S.K., and Schiro, A.J. 2000. Preliminary findings on the occurrence and site fidelity of photo-identified sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science, 1:35-39. Ylitalo, G.M., Matkin, C.O., Buzitis, J., Krahn, M.M., Jones, L.L., Rowles, T., and Stein, J.E. In press. Influence of life-history parameters on organochlorine concentrations in free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) from Prince William Sound, AK. Sci. Total Environ. 23

Zorn, H.M. J.H. Churnside, and C.W. Oliver. 2000. Laser safety thresholds for cetaceans and pinnipeds. Mar. Mammal Sci. 16(1):186-202.

10.2.

Unpublished Literature

Allen, A.C., S.L. Mesnick and T. Gerrodette. 2000. Evasive behavior of eastern tropical Pacific dolphins relative to research vessels, 1986-90 and 1998. SWFSC Admin Rept. LJ-00-09. 42p. Archer, F., T. Gerrodette, A. Dizon, K. Abella, and S. Southern. Submitted. Unobserved kill of nursing dolphin calves in a tuna purse-seine fishery. Mar. Mammal Sci.. 24 p. Barlow, J. and B.L. Taylor. In press. Estimates of large whale abundance off California, Oregon, Washington and Baja California based on 1993 and 1996 ship surveys. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-01-03. 12p. (as of 3/29/01) Barlow, J., T. Gerrodette, and J. Forcada. Submitted. Factors affecting perpendicular sighting distance on shipboard line-transect surveys. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. Boness, D.J., P.J. Clapham, and S.L. Mesnick. Submitted. Life history and reproductive strategies. In: (R. Hoelzel, ed.) Marine Mammal Biology. Blackwell Science, Ltd. Brownell, R.L., Jr., B.E. Curry, W. V.Bonn, and S.H. Ridgway. Submitted. Letter to Science. Science. 4p. Caldwell, M.J., R.H. Defran, A.R. Lang, D.W. Weller. In Review. Photographic evidence for two geographic populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off the Pacific coast of California and Baja California Norte. Mar. Mammal Sci. Carretta, J.V., M.S. Lowry, C.E. Stinchcomb, M.S. Lynn, and R.E. Cosgrove. 2000. Distribution and abundance of marine mammals at San Clemente Island and surrounding offshore waters: Results from aerial and ground surveys in 1998 and 1999. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-02. 44p. Carretta, J.V., B. Taylor and S.J. Chivers. Submitted. Abundance and depth distribution of harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in northern California determined from a 1995 ship survey. Chivers, S.J., A.E. Dizon, P. Gearin, and K.M. Robertson. Submitted Small-scale population structure of eastern North Pacific harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, indicated by molecular genetic analyses. Molecular Ecology (as of 4/4/01). Donahue, M.A., B.L. Taylor and S.B. Reilly. 2000. IDCPA research program chase-recapture experiment consultation, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, CA, 25-26 April 2000. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-15. 14p Donahue, M.A. & S.B. Reilly. 2001. IDCPA Research Program analysis decision framework consultation, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, CA, 27-28 April 2000. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-16. 32p. Ferguson, M.C. In press. Spatial distribution and density of cetaceans in the eastern Pacific Ocean based on 1986-1996 research vessel surveys. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-01-04 (as of 4/26/01) Fiedler, P.C. and D.W. Behringer. Submitted. Physical forcing and biological effects of the Cost Rica Dome. Journal of Geophysical Research. Gerrodette, T. 2000. Preliminary estimates of 1999 abundance of four dolphin stocks in the eastern tropical Pacific. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-12. 18p. Hamilton, H., S. Caballero, A.G. Collins, and R.L. Brownell, Jr. Submitted. Evolution of river dolphins. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Biological Sciences. Heyning, J.E., R.L. Brownell, Jr., and T. Kasuya. Submitted. Extended longevity in male beaked whales. Nature. Kinzey, D., P. Olson and T. Gerrodette. 2000. Marine mammal data collection procedures on research ship line-transect surveys by the Southwest Fisheries Science Center. SWFSC Admin Rept. LJ-00-08. 32p. LeDuc, R.G., A. Rosenberg, A.E. Dizon, A.M. Burdin, S.A. Blokin, and R.L. Brownell, Jr. Submitted. Genetic analyses (mtDNA and microsatellites) of two populations of bowhead whales. J. Cet. Res. and Manage. (as of 4/26/01) Lowry, M.S. and J.V. Carretta. Submitted. Market squid (Loligo opalescens) in the diet of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in southern California (1981-95). CalCOFI Reports. 23p. Martien, K.K. and B.L. Taylor. Submitted. Limitations of hypothesis-testing in defining management units for continuously distributed species. Conservation Biology. (as of 3/01) Mesnick, S.L., Evans, K. Taylor, B.L., Hyde, J., Escorza-Treviño, S and Dizon, A.E. Submitted. Sperm whale social structure: why it takes a village to raise a child. In: (F.B.M. de Waal and P.L. Tyack, eds.) Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture and Individualized Societies. Harvard University Press. 24

Mobley, J.R., Jr. S. Spitz, K.A. Forney, R. Grotefendt., and P.H. Forestell. 2000. Distribution and abudnance of odontocete species in Hawaiian waters: Preliminary results of 1993-98 aerial surveys. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-14C. 26 pp. Nachtigal, P., W. Au. J. Pawloski, K. Andrews and C. Oliver. 2000. Measurements of the low frequency components of active and passive sounds produced by dolphins. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-07C. 20 p. Norman, S., Muto, M., Rugh, D. and Moore, S. In prep. Gray whale strandings in 1999 with a review of stranding records in 1995-1998. NOAA Tech. Memorandum. Olson, P. and T. Gerrodette. In press. Report of the meeting to review the preliminary estimates of eastern tropical Pacific dolphin abundance in 1998 - January 21, 1999. SWFSC Admin Rept. LJ-99- . 28pp. Oswald, J.N, J. Barlow, & T.F. Norris. Submitted. Acoustic identification of nine Delphinid species in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Mar. Mammal Sci.. 25 p. Pabst, D.A., W.A. McLellan, S.A. Rommel, T.K. Rowles, R.S. Wells, T.M. Williams, and Andrew J. Westgate. 2000. Final report. Measuring surface and deep body temperatures of dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific: Is thermal stress associated with chase and capture in the ETP-tuna purse-seine fishery? SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-13C. Perkins, P.C. 2000. The feasibility of using tuna vessel observer data to estimate trends in dolphin abundance. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-03. 18 p. Perryman, W.L., M.A. Donahue, P.C. Perkins and S.B. Reilly. Submitted. Annual calf production for the California stock of gray whales and environmental correlates 1994-2000. Mar. Mammal Sci.. Pitman, R.L. and L.T. Ballance. Submitted. Feeding ecology of dark-rumped petrels (Pterodroma phaeopygia and P. sandwichensis) in the eastern Pacific: two perspectives as different as night and day. The Auk. Pitman, R.L., S. O’Sullivan, and B Mase. Submitted. Killer whales attach a school of pantropical spotted dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico. Mar. Mammal Sci. Ramakrishnan, U. and B.L. Taylor. Submitted. Can gray whale management units be assessed using mitochondrial DNA? J. Cet. Res. and Manage. Rosenberg, A. and S. Mesnick. In press. The cetacean XFX and ZFY genes: Interfamilial characterization of a novel region facilitates gender determination. SWFSC Admin Rept. LJ-01-XX. 31 pp. Sisson, J, and E. Edwards. 2000. Consultation between NMFS and non-governmental organizations regarding a potential chase/recapture experiment: Meeting report. SWFSC Admin. Rept. LJ-00-04. 24p. Snyder, G.M., K.W. Pitcher, W.L. Perryman, and M.S. Lynn. Submitted. Counting Steller sea lion pups in Alaska: An evaluation of medium-format, color aerial photography. Mar. Mammal Sci. Tynan, C.T. (Submitted). Ecological importance of cetaceans on the Southeastern Bering Sea shelf: Changes in carbon flow to large whales. Deep-Sea Res. II. Tynan, C.T., DeMaster, D.P., and Peterson, W. T. Submitted. Ecological refuge for endangered North Pacific right whales on the Southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Nature. Tynan, C.T. Distribution and abundance of killer whales Orcinus orca on the Southeastern Bering Sea shelf and slope during summer 1997 and 1999. Report submitted to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, May 2001, 11 pp. Tynan, C.T. and DeMaster, D.P. 2000. Recent trends, observations, and predictions of Arctic climate change. 6 p. Rept. Int. Whal. Commn., SC/52/E7.

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