Towards an EU gender equality index

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					         Towards an EU gender equality index

 Feasibility study commissioned by and presented to the European Commission



                               Janneke Plantenga
                                Hugo Figueiredo
                                Chantal Remery
                                    Mark Smith




December 2003
Utrecht School of Economics/UMIST
Vredenburg 138
3511 BG Utrecht
J.Plantenga@econ.uu.nl
Foreword

Promoting gender equality is an important element of the European employment policy. In the
new employment guidelines of 2003, it is again acknowledged that equal opportunities and
gender equality are vital for making progress towards the three overarching objectives of the
European Employment Strategy: full employment, quality and productivity at work, and
social cohesion and inclusion. In more practical terms this means that there is a commitment
of member states to tackle gender gaps, with a particular emphasis on the gender pay gap, and
to take appropriate action in order to encourage the sharing of family and professional
responsibilities.
        Effective monitoring of progress made within the field of equal opportunities depends
on the development of a common set of indicators that can be used to assess actual
performance. Such a set of indicators, summarised in a ‘gender equality index’, should signal
the strong and weak aspects of a national situation and facilitate the process of evaluation and
assessment. Until now, however, it has been unclear which indicators are the most appropriate
for evaluating national practices and a gender equality index has not been developed. As a
result, the verification of progress is severely hampered.
         The report presents a first attempt to develop an European gender equality index. In
doing so, it strives to achieve a dual goal. First, it aims to contribute to the methodology of
assessing equal opportunities. In this sense, the concern is primarily on the appropriate
definition of gender equality and the ensuing set of indicators. Secondly, it aims to identify
countries that have achieved relative success in promoting equal opportunities. Establishing
the extent of gender-equality at a certain point in time and the distance to full gender equality
might increase gender awareness and induce member state to take specific actions. In this
context, the development of an European gender equality index should be seen as an
instrument to further the goals of the European Employment Strategy.



Acknowledgements
This report has profited strongly from discussions within the EU Group of Experts on Gender
and Employment and is funded by the European commission.


The authors want to thank Jules Korsten and William Pang for their enthusiastic assistance in
the earlier stages of this project. In addition, several actors in the field provided us with useful
comments on earlier drafts.

                                                 2
Table of contents


Summary table                                                      4


1     Measuring gender equality: points of departure               5
      1.1    Defining gender equality                              6
      1.2    Practical requirements for a gender equality index    8


2     UNDP indices: GDI and GEM                                   11
      2.1    GDI                                                  11
      2.2    GEM                                                  13
      2.3    Discussion of GDI and GEM                            14


3     Gender equality in the field of employment:
      a benchmark index based on EO indicators                    17
      3.1    Calculating the index                                19
      3.2    The composite index score of EO indicators           20


4     Towards an EU gender equality index: EUGEI                  24
      4.1    Equal sharing of paid work                           24
      4.2    Equal sharing of money                               26
      4.3    Equal sharing of decision-making power               29
      4.4    Equal sharing of knowledge                           31
      4.5    Equal sharing of time                                33
      4.6    The overall index                                    35
      4.7    Monitoring change                                    43


5     Conclusions                                                 47


References                                                        51


Appendices                                                        53




                                            3
Summary table


Composition of the EU Gender Equality Index


Dimensions                      Subdimensions                    Indicators
1. Equal sharing of paid work 1a. Labour force participation     •   Gender employment gap
                                1b. Unemployment                 •   Gender unemployment
                                                                     gap
2. Equal sharing of money       2a. Pay                          •   Gender pay gap
                                2b. Income                       •   Gender poverty gap
                                                                     among single headed
                                                                     households
3. Equal sharing of decision-   3a. Political power              •   Gender gap in parliament
making power
                                3b. Socio-economic power         •   Gender gap in ISCO 1
4. Equal sharing of             4a. Participation in education   •   Gender gap in
knowledge                       and training                         participation in education
                                                                     and training
                                4b. Educational attainment       •   Gender gap in educational
                                                                     attainment
5. Equal sharing of unpaid      5a. Caring time                  •   Gender gap in caring time
time                                                                 for children
                                5b. Leisure                      •   Gender gap in leisure time




                                               4
1      Measuring gender equality: points of departure


The development of an EU gender equality index would in line with the strengthened
commitment to gender quality within the European Union and the emphasis on effective
monitoring of measures taken. In 1997 the Council of Ministers agreed at the Luxembourg
summit that member states would be required to prepare National Action Plans on
Employment according to agreed guidelines. These guidelines consisted of four pillars, one of
which was concerned with the promotion of the equality between women and men. The
commitment to gender equality within the European Employment Strategy has since been
strengthened by the inclusion in the 1999 guidelines of a requirement for all policies in each
of the pillars to be gender mainstreamed.
       This strengthened commitment to gender equality is coincided and reinforced by
international developments. At the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995 a
Platform for Action was adopted which calls upon governments to take strategic action in 12
critical areas of concern to achieve the advancement and empowerment of women (e.g.
women and poverty, violence against women and women and the environment). Though the
primary responsibility for the advancement of women lies with the national governments, the
European Community was involved in the formulation of this Declaration and supports
member states to take action. In December 1995 the European Council acknowledged the
commitment in Beijing and expressed to monitor the action platform annually. In 1998 the
Council agreed that the annual assessment of the implementation of the Platform for Action
would include a proposal on a simple set of quantitative and qualitative indicators and
benchmarks. The Council subsequently adopted conclusions concerning reconciliation of
family life and working life in 2000 and unequal pay in 2001. In 2002 indicators with regard
to violence against women were developed.
       Developments within the UNDP have been another important source of inspiration.
Since 1990, the UNDP has published the Human Development Index (HDI). This index
summarises in one compact measure different elements/indicators of human development. In
1995 this index was supplemented with two indices of gender equality. One of the indices, the
Gender-related Development Index, is a gender version of the HDI. In addition, the Gender
Empowerment Measure (GEM) was developed. Both indices should give a clear picture of the
extent of gender equality in the world. The (pioneering) work of the UNDP has raised




                                               5
attention for measuring gender inequality, both from a policy as from a scientific point of
view.
        The international developments and initiatives have been supplemented by national
attempt to evaluate and assess the current practices with regard to equal opportunities.
Statistics Sweden, for example, developed a gender equality index that gives information on
how equal inhabitants in one municipality are in comparison to the inhabitants in another
municipality. The index consists of about 13 different variables ranging from proportion of
men and women in gainful employment to sickness leave and the proportion of men and
women active in the municipal council (Statistics Sweden 2000).

The current report builds upon these national and international efforts to assess gender
equality. The primary aim is to assess the feasibility of an EU index based on a broad
definition of gender equality, while keeping in mind the European Employment Strategy. We
will, therefore, not focus solely on the employment dimension, but also take into account
achievements in other areas. A first step in the process of creating the new index is to find an
acceptable definition of the term gender equality. The second step concerns the essential
features of a gender equality index. These refer not only to aspects of theoretical and political
relevance, but also to feasibility and reliability.


1.1     Defining gender equality


Gender equality is a term with diverse dimensions and many layers of meaning. It may refer
to a formal equality concept centring on equal starting points, or it may indicate the
achievements of equal results. Defining gender equality in terms of equal results seems more
ambitious, as the focus shifts from procedures to outcomes, asking not where people start out,
but where they end up. However, the association of gender equality with equal results is not
without difficulty. Especially within feminist literature there has been a strong debate about
the one-sidedness of the ‘equality’ approach if this would imply women becoming equal to
men. Instead a ‘difference’ approach was advocated, where difference means treating women
differently in so far as they differ from men (Fraser 1997). Proponents of the differences
approach emphasised that equality strategies based on the male as norm, in fact disadvantage
women as it is by no means obvious that women’s position is strengthened by having to work
as many hours in paid employment as men. Egalitarians on the other side have argued that a




                                                  6
difference view relies on essentialist notions of femininity, thereby reinforcing existing
stereotypes and the current organisation of labour and care.
       An interesting attempt to go beyond the equality and difference debate has been made
by Nancy Fraser. Fraser, quite deliberately using the term ‘equity’ instead of ‘equality’,
conceptualises ‘gender equity’ as a complex idea. ‘This means, breaking with the assumption
that gender equity can be identified with any single value or norm, whether it be equality,
difference or something else’ (Fraser 1997, 26). Based on this notion, she unpacks the idea of
gender equity as a compound of seven distinct normative principles, namely: anti-poverty,
anti-exploitation, income equality, leisure time equality, equality of respect, anti-
marginalization and anti-androcentrism. The author then argues that the current models with
regard to gender equity, like the American model of incorporating women into the workforce
and the European model of compensating women for their time spent on care, do not meet all
seven conditions of gender equality. Therefore, she proposes ‘a third way’ to reach gender
equality, which she calls the universal caregiver model. This third way entails that women’s
current life-patterns are the norm for everyone. As a result men should change their life styles
and should be induced to become more like most women are now, i.e. they should work less
and should take up more of their care responsibilities. Fraser argues that ‘the trick is to
imagine a social world in which citizens’ lives integrate wage earning, care giving,
community activism, political participation and involvement in the associational life of civil
society - while also leaving time for some fun’ (1997: 48).
       This vision of a gender equal society may not translate very easily into quantifiable
indicators, on the basis of which countries can be ranked on their distance towards that
particular vision of gender equity. Yet, the universal caregiver model makes clear from the
very outset, that gender equality implies a change in the lives of both women and men through
promotion of greater equality in the distribution of paid and unpaid work between them. It
also indicates that an equal distribution of paid and unpaid work is not enough. A full concept
of gender equality should also take into account the political dimension and should refer to
assets like time, income and knowledge. As a result, the term gender equality used in this
report is conceptualised rather broadly as an equal sharing of paid work, money, decision-
making power, knowledge and time. As such, the proposed gender equality index might also
be referred to as a full citizenship index as it refers to all important aspects of human life.




                                                 7
1.2    Practical requirements for a gender equality index


Besides these fundamental issues of an adequate definition and encompassing dimensions,
there are also some practical requirements that new gender equality index has to fulfil.
       Firstly, it can be argued that an index should stimulate countries to pay more attention
to gender equality, including more attention to data collection on gender sensitive issues. This
implies that the index should not simply be a ranking of countries scoring more or less, but
should identify the extent of (in)equality at a certain point in time, by revealing how far (or
close) a member states is towards achieving a gender equal society. The actual index-score
might induce research towards the causes of inequality with a view to suggesting policies to
reduce it, or research on the relationship between economic growth and gender equality, high
participation levels and economic independence etc. The indicators selected should therefore
be practical, they should be easy to read, meaningful and consistent. They should allow easy
monitoring of current trends and facilitate inter-country comparison.
       Political relevance also implies that there is a strong focus on reducing gender gaps.
That is: the index is to measure the extent of gender (in)equality and not a combination of
absolute well-being and (in)equality. This is not a statement that is self-evident. The GDI, for
example, developed by the UNDP to measure gender related development, combines a
measurement of gender inequality with measures of absolute well-being (see also chapter 2).
In fact, achievements measured by various indicators (life expectancy, education and per
capita GDP) are re-valued by the extent of gender inequality with a substantial discount if the
gender inequality is high. For both practical and theoretical reasons, however, an argument
can be made in favour of an index which concentrates on gender (in)equality as such, that is
an index which abstracts from the absolute level of unemployment or employment. Whatever
the absolute level of socio-economic indicators a high degree of gender inequality is an ethical
problem as such and should concern policy.
       Political relevance also implies that the gender equality index should take into account
the gender equality indicators which are currently being developed within the context of the
European Employment Strategy and the social inclusion process. Although somewhat smaller
in scope and not explicitly targeted towards measuring gender (in)equality, the indicators play
an important role in the European social debate and it is extremely important that the new
gender equality index is connected with all the current efforts to reinforce equal opportunities.
       Finally, an important consideration with regard to the index is that the index should
both be feasible and reliable. The emphasis on monitoring over time and on inter-country


                                                8
comparison implies the availability of comparable harmonised data. It is therefore important
that the operationalisation of the gender equality index takes into account the availability of
harmonised statistics. In addition, it appears sensible to limit the number of indicators, as a
large collection of indicators could obscure the most salient developments. Obviously, these
demands are not easily met, since comparative reliable data sources are scarce, especially in
the field of earnings, income and time use. As a result it might be tempting to focus on the
relatively well-charted area of paid work and/or unemployment, thereby implicitly narrowing
the definition given to gender equality. At the same time, disclosing important data gaps
might induce member states to improve both quantitatively and qualitatively the data
collection on gender equality.


The stage of a new gender equality index having been set, the next step in the process is to
review the literature on existing indices and to analyse how these indices have managed
conceptual and practical problems.




                                                9
10
2         UNDP indices: GDI and GEM


The following section will give an overview of two most important existing indices regarding
gender equality; the Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment
Measurement (GEM). The section identifies their conceptual and practical strengths and
shortcomings and explains why a new gender equality index with alternative indicators is
necessary in order to evaluate and assess national practices with regard to equal opportunities.
The discussion on GDI and GEM has also stimulated the development of alternative gender
indices. Each of these indices has its own goals and therefore angles of incidence, some being
more useful for the new EU index than others. These indices are described in more detail in
appendix A.


2.1       GDI


The measurement of gender equality in society has become an important topic in the academic
literature. At present several indices have been developed to measure gender equality. One of
the first attempts to develop a single index on gender equality is the Gender-related
Development Index by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). This index is
part of the Human Development Report published annually by the UNDP. The main index of
this annual report is the Human Development Index, but since 1995 UNDP added the
dimension of gender equality. The GDI is comprised of three components (UNDP 2002):
      •   Life expectancy: the capability of living a long and healthy life. This is measured by
          life expectancy at birth;
      •   Educational attainment: capability of acquiring knowledge, communicating and
          participating in the life of community. This is measured by adult literacy rate and
          combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio;
      •   Access to resources: needed for a decent standard of living; this is measured by the
          real GDP per capita.
The set of the three components was originally developed for the HDI (Human development
index). This is reflected by the fact that these indicators focus on human development in
general. The selection of these three components is based on two factors: the relevance and
the availability of data on the components; all three components measure primary but essential
societal aspects that could indicate the degree of human development. Furthermore, the data


                                                 11
of all three components are available and highly accessible on a continuous basis, so that
long-term trends in human development can be analysed.
        The GDI is constructed of the same components as the HDI, based on the assumption
that the equality between men and women could be measured on their separate scores on the
HDI indicators. The GDI is the un-weighted mean on the indices of the three components.
The aim is to rank countries according to both their absolute level of human development and
their relative scores on gender equality. Achievements measured by the various indicators are
thus re-valued by the extent of gender inequality with a substantial discount if the gender
inequality is high. The maximum possible score on this index is one. The components of the
GDI are calculated as follows:


X ede=(pfXf1-e + pmXm1-e)1/1-e .


Pf and pm are the population proportions of males and females respectively and Xf and Xm are
the male and female achievements. ‘e’ is a value that reflects the preference for gender
equality. UNDP sets e equal to two, implicating a fairly strong preference for gender equality.
        In table 2.1, the GDI scores of 146 countries are summarised, with Australia in top
position and Niger closing the ranks. Within the sub-sample of the European member states,
Belgium has the highest GDI score (0.943), followed by Sweden (0.940) and Finland (0.933).
The EU member states that score lowest on this index are Portugal (0.876) and Greece
(0.879).




                                               12
Table 2.1         Country ranking based on the GDI and GEM
Country                          GDI rank 2002        Value       GEM rank 2002       Value
Australia                              1              0.956            10             0.759
Belgium                                2              0.943            14             0.706
Norway                                 3              0.941             1             0.837
Sweden                                 4              0.940             3             0.824
Canada                                 5              0.938             7             0.777
USA                                    6              0.937            11             0.757
Finland                                8              0.933             5             0.803
The Netherlands                        9              0.933             6             0.781
United Kingdom                        10              0.932            16             0.684
Japan                                 11              0.927            32             0.527
France                                12              0.926             -               -
Denmark                               13              0.925             4             0.821
Austria                               15              0.921            12             0.745
Germany                               16              0.920             8             0.765
Ireland                               17              0.917            17             0.675
Luxembourg                            19              0.914             -               -
Italy                                 20              0.907            31             0.539
Spain                                 21              0.906            15             0.702
Greece                                24              0.879            41             0.512
Portugal                              28              0.876            20             0.638
Bangladesh                            121             0.468            66             0.223
Niger                                 146             0.263             -               -
Source: UNDP, Human Development Report 2002



2.2        GEM


In addition to the GDI, the UNDP has also developed the Gender Empowerment Measure
(GEM). While the GDI measures gender equality in human development, the GEM
specifically measures gender equality in decision-making power. It examines the position of
women in the economic and political fields of society. The GEM is made up of three
indicators (UNDP 2002):
      •    The female share in parliament;
      •    The female share in professional and technical positions, combined with the female
           share in administrative and management positions;
      •    The female share in earned income.



                                                 13
UNDP intentionally chose a set of broad indicators that could measure the full dimension of
economics and politics. As these are very broad dimensions, comparability forms an
important condition in the choice of indicators; broad indicators have a higher external
validity and thus were preferred over specific indicators. The main advantage of the three
chosen indicators is that they are relatively easy available world wide, which was an important
prerequisite for this international index.
        In order to be consistent with the methodology applied in the GDI, the weighting of
components is calculated in a similar way as for the GDI, by using the population-weighted
harmonic means. Again, the maximum score is one. In table 2.1 the values are summarised. In
general the values of the GEM are lower than those of the GDI. Moreover, the ranking of the
EU countries is more dispersed, indicating that an equal sharing of power is apparently more
difficult to achieve then an equal sharing of basic aspects of human development. Of the EU
countries Sweden has the highest score (0.824), followed by Finland (0.783), while the lowest
scores are found for Greece (0.512) and Italy (0.539).


2.3     Discussion of GDI and GEM


The indices developed by the UNDP are among the first indices to measure human
development and gender inequality and proved to be extremely important in raising the
attention on these issues. They also induced a substantial amount of discussion, which has
focused on the political and policy relevance of the index, the validity of the index and the
reliability of the data used.
        Given the emphasis in the current report on assessing the extent of gender (in)equality
in the EU member states, the GDI possesses two conceptual shortcomings. One of these
weaknesses is pointed out by Dijkstra & Hanmer (2000) who show that the GDI scores are
strongly positively related to per capita GDP: the GDI increases, as countries get richer (see
figure 2.1). This means that when ranking countries, the GDI only gives a limited amount of
new information over and above the information contained by the GDP. The GDI scores are
heavily influenced by the level of average income (e.g. Dijkstra & Hanmer 2000; Dijkstra
2002). Countries may have high gender equality but low absolute levels of well-being and as a
result get a low score on the GDI. Or, rather, countries may have a low gender equality, but
high absolute levels of well-being and as result get a high score on the GDI. Therefore, a main
criticism of the GDI index is that it does not measure gender inequality in itself, but a


                                               14
combination of gender inequality and levels of achievement. If the focus is on gender equality
as such, the GDI is less relevant.


Figure 2.1 Graphical analyses of GDI and GDP (ln)

                        1,0


                         ,9


                         ,8


                         ,7


                         ,6


                         ,5


                         ,4


                         ,3
                  GDI




                         ,2
                              6       7      8          9          10         11

                              LNGDP



From a European point of view, the second main shortcoming is the fact that the UNDP
indices are developed to compare countries on a world-level basis. This is also clearly
reflected in the choice of indicators. Life expectancy, educational attainment and GDP are
useful to compare countries that differ widely on these indicators. For an index though that
will solely compare EU countries, these indicators are not very useful as intra-EU differences
in this respect are small. This can be exemplified by GDI score differences between countries.
A total of 146 countries are ranked on their GDI scores. The difference between the highest
score (Australia, 0.956) and the lowest score (Niger 0.263) is 0.693. The highest intra-EU
difference between Belgium and Portugal though is only 0.067 (see table 2.1).
       With regard to the GEM, it can be stated that this is a well-developed index to measure
gender empowerment. However, similar conceptual problems as with the GDI apply. For
example, as with the GDI the population-weighted harmonic means are used to calculate the
indicators. As a result, GEM is not a direct measure of gender equality either (Dijkstra 2002).
In addition, for our purpose, the scope of the GEM is too narrow - focusing only on
empowerment - whereas the EU equality index should encompass the full scope of civil life.
       Furthermore, besides the conceptual problems, some operational problems exist
concerning both the GDI and the GEM, an example being the differences in variance of the


                                              15
indicators regarding the construction of the overall index. When the variance of indicators
differs widely, the indicator with the largest variance has the strongest weight in the overall
index. In the calculation of the GDI, for example, the income indicator proves to have a
substantially larger variance than the other two indicators. As a result, this indicator has,
unjustifiably, the largest weight (Dijkstra 2002).
       In conclusion, a new measure of gender equality should be developed which ideally
meets the following requirements (Dijkstra 2002:317):
       •   The index should comprise a number of indicators that, taken together, represent a
           broad vision of gender equality;
       •   The index should measure gender inequality and not some combination of absolute
           well-being and inequality;
       •   The construction of the overall index should be such that there is no unintended
           weighting of some factors over other.


Of course, the ideal may not be feasible due to constraints in the data availability. Before
addressing the conceptual and practical issues with regard to the EU gender equality index, we
will first present the results of an index based solely on indicators from the European
Employment Strategy. That is, an index with a strong focus on employment issues.




                                                16
3       Gender equality in the field of employment: a benchmark index based
        on EO indicators


In the former section, it has been concluded that an EU gender equality index has a different
aim than that of the GEM and GDI indices. The new index should enable a meaningful
comparison of EU countries and should be based on a broad vision of gender equality. The
next step in constructing the index is to identify those dimensions and indicators that are most
appropriate for measuring gender equality. In that respect, it seems sensible to align the
indicators of the new index with the indicators as developed within the context of the EU
Employment Strategy, especially those that are designed specifically to monitor progress in
the field of equal opportunity. Apart from the fact that it is important to link with ongoing
developments, an additional advantage of this procedure is that data are widely available for
these indicators. This solves more or less the problem that the indicators have to be based on
harmonised (Eurostat) data. In the Joint Employment Report 2002 (EC 2002: 123-124) the
key equal opportunity indicators are:
    •   EO1: Absolute unemployment gap- the difference in unemployment rates between
        women and men in absolute figures (percentage points);
    •   EO2: Absolute employment gap- the difference in employment rates between women
        and men in absolute figures (percentage points);
    •   EO3: Index of gender segregation in occupations- the average national share of
        employment for women and men is applied to each occupation, the differences are
        added up to produce an amount of gender imbalance. This figure is presented as
        proportion of total employment;
    •   EO4: Index of gender segregation in sectors- the average national share of
        employment for women and men is applied to each sector, the differences are added
        up to produce an amount of gender imbalance. This figure is presented as proportion
        of total employment;
    •   EO5: Gender pay gap- the ratio of women’s hourly gross earnings index to men’s for
        paid employees working at least 15 hours;
    •   EO6: Gender gap in the employment impact on parenthood- the ratio between
        employment rates of men, with and without children, and employment rates of
        women, with and without children, age group 20-50. Children from 0-6 years are
        included;


                                               17
   •   EO7: Employment impact of parenthood- the absolute difference in employment rates
       without the presence of any children and with the presence of a child aged 0-6 (age
       group 20-50), by gender.


Based on the seven indicators, a cumulative gender equality score can be computed for the
fifteen EU countries. This score could serve as a first benchmark for the new gender equality
index to be developed. However, it has to be taken into account that the seven EO indicators
have not been intentionally developed as components of a gender equality index. As a result, a
composite index based on these indicators has some important shortcomings. The most
important is the one-sided image of gender (in)equality that is mainly based on the paid work
dimension and does not represent the full scope of civil life. Unpaid time, for example, or the
equal sharing of (political) power is not taken into account. It should be emphasised that this
is not a critique of the EO indicators as such but only on their use as elements for an index
measuring gender equality.
       In addition, taking into account that the index only focuses on paid labour, comments
can be made on the choice of indicators and the operationalisation (for a full account see
Rubery et al. 2001). For example, two out of seven indicators measure segregation, as a result
of which the score on segregation weighs rather heavily in the overall composite score.
Regarding this issue, large methodological problems still exist. The problems of measuring
segregation lie primarily in the use of a single figure for a complex process. The fact that a
positive relationship between the level of female employment and the level of segregation
exists is an example of this. Another reason for being sceptical about the inclusion of this
issue in a gender equality index is that the reduction of segregation should be treated as a
long-term process which makes segregation indices unsuitable for monitoring year to year
progress. Finally, and perhaps most fundamentally, it is not clear whether segregation indeed
refers to an aspect of gender (in)equality. If it does, segregation is implicitly connected with
restrictions and the impossibilities of making a free choice. It is not clear, however, whether
this is indeed the case and whether in a real ‘gender equal’ world all segregation should
vanish. Together, these factors make EO3 and EO4 not very relevant indicators for measuring
the extent of gender equality in the field of employment.
       In addition, the indicators on the employment impact of parenthood (EO6 and EO7)
prove to have a high correlation (r=0.96). From an index point of view this is undesirable;
(sub)dimensions and indicators should be as independent as possible otherwise, some
elements are double counted with the effect that differences between countries are


                                                18
overestimated. Given the stated problems, in addition to the ‘full’ EO index, a ‘limited’ EO
index was calculated, excluding the segregation indicators and indicator EO7.


3.1 Calculating the index


To calculate the composite index, two important decisions had to be made. The first refers to
the question how to calculate (in)equality, the second concerns the standardisation, that is the
question how to compare different indicators.
       In order to calculate inequality, all scores on the indicators are transformed into gender
gaps. As gender equality is conceptualised as the absence of gender gaps, positive or negative
gender gaps are treated in the same way. That is: an unemployment situation in which women
face an unemployment rate of 7 percent and men of 14 percent is treated in the same way as
an unemployment situation in which the figures are the opposite (see for more details on the
methodology Appendix B).
       In addition, the different scales on which indicators are measured have be taken into
account. In order to combine the scores in a composite index, the actual values on the
indicators have to be standardised. This has to be done in such a way that all indicators are
given more or less the same weight. In this report the actual values of gender (in)equality
(gender gaps) have been standardised by applying the min-max methodology which is also
used for calculating the GDI and GEM-indices. The maximum refers to the ideal (gender
equal) situation, for example the absence of gaps in unemployment or complete pay equality.
The minimum refers to a situation of inequality, i.e. the occurrence of gender gaps. As there is
no natural benchmark in this respect, the minimum value is set at a level which is a little
below the actual minimum value within the EU countries. This fixed minimum is treated as a
baseline (or in the words of the UNDP: ‘goalpost’). The assumption is that the actual value
will not go beyond this minimum (again, see for more details on the methodology annex B).
       The composite index has been calculated by simply adding the standardised scores and
dividing the total score by the number of indicators. Unfortunately, data on the gender pay
gap, EO5, are lacking for Sweden, Finland and Luxembourg. Data on the Employment Impact
of Parenthood, EO6 and EO7, are lacking for the three Scandinavian countries as well as for
Ireland. For these countries the average EU score is inserted (see appendix B for a
clarification). In the tables only the standardised figures are included. Appendix C provides a
table with the actual values of the EO indicators.



                                                19
3.2    The composite index score of EO indicators


Table 3.1 provides the full EO index, whereas in table 3.2 the limited EO index is presented.
On the basis of table 3.1, it appears that Portugal has the highest composite index score,
followed by Belgium and two of the Scandinavian countries (Denmark and Sweden), while
Spain has the worst gender equality performance in this respect. The table shows a ranking of
countries that deviates from most other gender equality rankings, in which the Scandinavian
countries are often ranked on top while the Mediterranean countries can be found in the
bottom (e.g. Plantenga & Hansen 1999). This is partly the result of the rather heavy weight of
the segregation indices (EO3 and EO4). In addition to the methodological problems with the
segregation indicators, mentioned above, it is well known from the literature, that there is an
inverse relationship between occupational segregation and the female labour force
participation. Denmark, Sweden and Finland thus score very low on these indicators whereas
this bad performance cannot be compensated by their (presumably) more favourable score on
the EO6 and EO7 indicators (employment impact on parenthood). For these indicators data
are not available and the EU average was inserted as alternative. However, for the
Scandinavian countries these average figures provide presumably an underestimation of the
actual values.




                                               20
Table 3.1 Country ranking on the basis of full EO composite index score1

Country            EO1          EO2         EO3         EO4         EO5           EO6          EO7       Composite
                  Max=0        Max=0       Max=0       Max=0       Max=0        Max=0        Max=0          index
                  Min=9       Min=30       Min=32      Min=23      Min=25      Min=0.65      Min=30        score2
Portugal            0.79        0.47        0.17        0.07         0.76         0.88         0.75         0.56
Belgium             0.84        0.38        0.18        0.21         0.71         0.77         0.62         0.53
Denmark             0.88        0.72        0.12        0.17         0.59         0.45         0.27         0.46
Sweden              0.97        0.90        0.13        0.08         0.35         0.45         0.27         0.45
Netherlands         0.88        0.42        0.22        0.21         0.15         0.65         0.46         0.43
Austria             0.86        0.45        0.15        0.12         0.15         0.72         0.56         0.43
France              0.62        0.53        0.17        0.24         0.57         0.48         0.29         0.41
Luxembourg          0.92        0.20        0.16        0.15         0.35         0.60         0.45         0.41
Finland             0.88        0.82        0.08        0.05         0.35         0.45         0.27         0.41
Italy               0.38        0.08        0.32        0.34         0.66         0.54         0.37         0.38
Ireland             0.98        0.29        0.16        0.10         0.21         0.45         0.27         0.35
Germany             0.96        0.54        0.16        0.21         0.22         0.18         0.02         0.33
UK                  0.88        0.56        0.17        0.18         0.03         0.28         0.09         0.31
Greece              0.04        0.01        0.32        0.33         0.47         0.55         0.35         0.30
Spain               0.11        0.04        0.22        0.16         0.43         0.37         0.25         0.23
1 all indicators refer to 2001 except EO5, which is based on data of 1998; numbers in italic refer to EU average
2 composite index score is the sum of indicators’ scores divided by the number of indicators
Source: EC, Joint Employment report 2002




                                                       21
Table 3.2 Country ranking on the basis of a limited EO composite index score1
Country               EO1                 EO2                 EO5                 EO6              Composite
                     Max=0               Max=0               Max=0              Max=0              index score2
                     Min=9              Min=30              Min=25             Min=0.65
Portugal               0.79               0.47                0.76                0.88                0.73
Belgium                0.84               0.38                0.71                0.77                0.67
Sweden                 0.97               0.90                0.35                0.45                0.67
Denmark                0.88               0.72                0.59                0.45                0.66
Finland                0.88               0.82                0.35                0.45                0.62
France                 0.62               0.53                0.57                0.48                0.55
Austria                0.86               0.45                0.15                0.72                0.55
Luxembourg             0.92               0.20                0.35                0.60                0.52
Netherlands            0.88               0.42                0.15                0.65                0.52
Germany                0.96               0.54                0.22                0.18                0.48
Ireland                0.98               0.29                0.21                0.45                0.48
UK                     0.88               0.56                0.03                0.28                0.43
Italy                  0.38               0.08                0.66                0.54                0.41
Greece                0.04                0.01                0.47                0.55                0.27
Spain                  0.11               0.04                0.43                0.37                0.24
1 all indicators refer to 2001 except EO5, which is based on data of 1998; numbers in italic refer to EU average
2 composite index score is the sum of the indicators’ scores divided by the number of indicators
Source: EC, Joint Employment report 2002


Table 3.2 shows the results of a limited EO index, which excludes the segregation indices and
corrects for the double counting of the employment impact of parenthood by excluding EO6.
Note that most countries have a higher composite score now that only a limited number of
indicators have been taken into account. Again, Portugal and Belgium rank highest, followed
by the Sweden and Denmark. Finland has risen to the fifth place, particularly due to the
exclusion of the segregation indices. Spain and Greece remain at the lowest level. The new
ranking, with all Scandinavian countries ranking higher, seems more in line with the results of
other well-known rankings. However, the disadvantage remains that the index is based on a
rather limited definition of gender equality. The next chapter will provide the results of a new
European gender equality index encompassing the full scope of civil life.




                                                       22
4       Towards an EU gender equality index



In the former chapters we have concluded that neither the existing UNDP indices nor an index
based on the current EO indicators measure the full scope of gender equality in civil life
across the European Union countries. Whereas the UNDP indices are composed of indicators
that are not suited for intra-EU comparison, the EO indicators only measure one dimension of
gender inequality. Given the importance of a broad approach to gender equality, we have
chosen five dimensions that together should cover the relevant aspects of civil life, namely
equal sharing of paid work, money, decision-making power, knowledge and time. In addition,
each dimension is further specified in two sub-dimensions, see box 4.1 for an overview.


Box 4.1 Overview of dimensions and subdimensions
Dimensions                               Subdimension 1                   Subdimension 2
Equal sharing of paid work               Labour force participation       Unemployment
Equal sharing of money                   Pay                              Income
Equal sharing of decision-making power   Political power                  Socio-economic power
Equal sharing of knowledge               Participation in education and   Educational attainment
                                         training
Equal sharing of unpaid time             Caring time                      Leisure



With regard to the choice of dimensions and sub-dimensions, it should be noted that the
(sub)dimensions included can be considered as ‘outcome variables’ (dependent variables).
Independent (or instrumental) variables are not included. This is not only because of reasons
of data availability (see also chapter 2) but more importantly for conceptual reasons. When
trying to monitor the extent of gender inequality, dependent and independent variables should
not be used within the same framework. Child-care facilities and flexible working time
arrangements, for example, are important provisions in order to promote women’s full
participation. They should, however, be treated as instrument (independent) variables and not
variables that can be treated at the same level as labour market participation or decision-
making power. If they are, there is a real danger of double counting and of overestimating
differences.




                                                    23
4.1    Equal sharing of paid work


The reasons to choose the equal sharing of paid work as the first dimension are obvious.
Being active on the labour market is an important pre-condition of economic independence
and as such an indispensable dimension in any gender equality index. The first sub-dimension
refers to the employment level. High employment rates are an important goal in the EU social
policy; many existing EO indicators refer to this dimension. The second sub-dimension refers
to unemployment. Lowering the unemployment rate is an important policy goal of the EU.
The absence of a gender gap in unemployment suggests an equal access to the labour market,
enabling both men and women to participate in wage-earning.


4.1.1 Participation
The gender gap in labour force participation can be measured in several ways. The indicator
used in the European Employment Strategy refers to the employment gap, defined as the
difference in employment rates between women and men. This indicator captures the overall
gender difference in labour market participation, but a major disadvantage is that gender
differences in working hours are not taken into account. As a result the gender gap in
participation may be underestimated. Yet, taking account that the Lisbon targets are also on a
headcount, it is decided that countries will be scaled on:
-      The gender employment gap, measured by the difference in employment rates between
       women and men.
The indicator corresponds with the European EO2 indicator. For more details on the impact of
several participation indicators see appendix D.


4.1.2 Unemployment
The indicator used within the context of the European Employment Strategy is based on the
absolute unemployment gap. The main advantage of this indicator is its concise and
straightforward character. There are also disadvantages, however, as the absolute gender gap
may hide inequalities in unemployment by education, age and duration. Nevertheless, given
the importance attached to a close correspondence with the EU indicators, it is decided that
countries will be scaled on:
-      the gender unemployment gap, measured by the difference in absolute unemployment
       rates between women and men.



                                               24
In this way the indicator corresponds to the European EO1 indicator. For more details on the
data see appendix D.


4.1.3 Country scores on the dimension equal sharing of paid work
Table 4.1 provides a ranking of the European countries on the basis of the paid work
indicators. This is done in two steps. First, the scores on the two indicators are standardised
according to the min-max methodology (for more details see appendix B). Secondly, the
scores on the sub-dimensions are added and divided by two, resulting in the ‘overall score on
equal sharing of paid work’; see the last column of table 4.1. As is explained in the preceding
chapter and in annex B, for countries with missing data, the EU average is inserted.
       From the table it appears that all countries have negative gender gaps on employment.
In other words, in all countries the participation rate of women is lower that that of men.
Differences in this respect appear also to be quite extensive, with Greece having the largest
gap (-29.9) and Sweden the smallest (-3.4). With respect to unemployment, the inter-country
differences appear to be much smaller. Again, the largest gap is found in Greece (8.6), with
most countries wavering around 1 percentage point difference. With regard to the overall
score, Sweden, Finland and Denmark score highest, followed by Germany and UK. At the
other end of the ranking are Italy, Spain and Greece.




                                               25
Table 4.1 Country ranking based on the dimension equal sharing of paid work

                   Gender         Gender      Participation,   Unemployment,   Overall score
                 employment    unemployment   standardised      standardised     on equal
                   gap 2001         gap           score            score        sharing of
                                    2001        Max = 0           Max = 0       paid work
                                                Min = 35          Min = 12
Sweden               -3.4           -0.7            0.90            0.94           0.92
Finland              -5.4           1.1             0.85            0.91           0.88
Denmark              -8.2           1.0             0.77            0.92           0.84
Germany             -14.0           0.1             0.60            0.99           0.80
UK                  -13.3           -1.1            0.62            0.91           0.76
Austria             -15.7           1.0             0.55            0.92           0.73
Netherlands         -17.5           0.9             0.50            0.93           0.71
Portugal            -15.7           1.9             0.55            0.84           0.70
Belgium             -17.8           1.6             0.49            0.87           0.68
Ireland             -21.5           -0.2            0.39            0.98           0.68
France              -13.7           3.3             0.61            0.73           0.67
Luxembourg          -24.1           1.0             0.31            0.92           0.61
Italy               -27.5           5.6             0.21            0.53           0.37
Spain               -29.4           7.9             0.16            0.34           0.25
Greece              -29.9           8.6             0.15            0.28           0.21
Source: ELFS (Employment in Europe 2003)




4.2        Equal sharing of money


The second dimension is equal sharing of money. Money in this respect refers to both income
and wages. An equal society should be based on the principle of equal pay for work of equal
value and should also rule out the large discrepancies between men’s and women’s income.
This particularly concerns poverty. The absence of gender poverty gaps seems an important
precondition for any society claiming title to gender equality.


4.2.1 Pay
Reliable data on pay are extremely scarce and monitoring progress in this respect is difficult
due to the fact that data are not available on a yearly basis. Nevertheless, pay should be
deemed an indispensable aspect of the (in)equal position of women on the labour market and




                                               26
as such should be included in any gender equality index. For the purpose of this report,
countries are scaled on:
-      the gender pay gap, measured by the ratio of women’s gross hourly earnings to men’s
       for paid employees who work at least 15 hours.
A major advantage of this indicator is its wide coverage. In addition the emphasis on hourly
earnings controls for differences in working hours and as such takes account of both part-
timers and full-timers. The indicator corresponds to the European EO5 indicator and as such
is firmly incorporated within the EU employment strategy. For more details on the availability
of data see appendix D.


4.2.2 Income
The gender gap in income should provide information on income differences other than wage
income. An absence of a gender gap would suggest that despite possible differences in labour
market behaviour men and women face the same difficulties in making ends meet. Women, in
other words, are not hit harder in economic terms because of their involvement in unpaid care
activities. It should be taken into account though, that poverty data are scarce and lack
sophistication, especially when measuring income gaps at the household level. The poverty
rate among women may be underestimated, because an equal sharing of income within the
household is implicitly assumed. One way to avoid that problem, is to concentrate on single
households only. Therefore, with regard to income, countries will be scaled on:
-      the gender poverty gap, measured by the proportion of single women (aged 15 years
       and older) under the low income threshold set at 60% of the median net annual
       equivalised income, minus the proportion of single men under the low income
       threshold.
The gender poverty gap thus provides information about the risks of single men and women
of a low income. As no upper age limit is applied, the indicator also takes into account
differences in poverty among elderly people. See appendix D for more details on the poverty
measures.


4.2.3 Country scores on the dimension equal sharing of money
Table 4.2 provides a ranking of the European countries on the basis of the money indicators.
The scores are calculated on the basis of the same methodology as table 4.1. From the table
we can see that in all EU member states, women earn less than men. In Italy and Portugal the
differences are smallest, whereas the gender wage gap is particularly large in Germany and


                                               27
UK. In addition, women in single households have more often a low income than single men.
In the Netherlands this gender gap is smallest, followed by Germany. UK and Austria have
the largest gap in this respect. With regard to the overall score on the equal sharing of money
it appears that Italy and the Netherlands rank highest. The high score of Italy is mainly related
to their small gender pay gap, whereas the Netherlands scores favourably on the gender
poverty gap. UK and Austria are at the lower end of the ranking. Both countries score low on
both the pay and the poverty sub-dimensions. Harmonised figures on the wage sub-dimension
are missing for Sweden and Luxembourg; their score is based on the EU average. Given the
fact that national sources suggest a rather limited gender wage gap, this may result in an
overestimation of the gender pay gap in Sweden and, therefor, an underestimation of their
score on the dimension of equal sharing of money.


Table 4.2 Country ranking based on the dimension equal sharing of money1

                   Gender pay             Gender        Pay,        Income,      Overall score
                       gap          poverty gap    standardised   standardised      on equal
                      2000                2000          score        score         sharing of
                                                    Max = 0,        Max=0           money
                                                    Min = 25        Min=21
Italy                  0.94                8.4          0.77         0.60            0.68
Netherlands            0.82                1.0          0.29         0.95            0.62
         2
France                 0.87                6.7          0.50         0.68            0.59
Luxembourg             0.86                5.2          0.42         0.75            0.59
Sweden                 0.86                5.2          0.42         0.75            0.59
Portugal               0.92                11.1         0.68         0.47            0.57
Greece                 0.85                7.9          0.42         0.62            0.52
Germany                0.79                3.0          0.15         0.86            0.50
Belgium                0.87                11.7         0.50         0.44            0.47
Denmark                0.87                11.5         0.46         0.45            0.46
Finland                0.83                9.2          0.31         0.56            0.44
Spain                  0.86                12.6         0.43         0.40            0.42
Ireland                0.84                12.3         0.36         0.42            0.39
UK                     0.78                15.2         0.13         0.27            0.20
Austria                0.80                19.3         0.22         0.08            0.15
1 Numbers in italic refer to EU average
2 Data refer to gross income
Source: Eurostat, ECHP, UMIST calculations; Germany: data from SOEP; Luxembourg: data on poverty from
PSELL; UK: data from BHPS




                                                   28
4.3    Equal sharing of decision-making power


The third dimension refers to decision-making power. There are several important reasons to
choose this dimension. Not only is this choice in line with the international literature (see for
example the GEM), but also with developments at the EU level. According to the EU, a
balanced participation is increasingly recognised as "a requirement for democracy and will
presumably have a positive outcome for society in that different ideas and values will be fed
into the decision-making process, leading to results which take into account the interests and
needs of the whole population" (European Commission, 2000: 3). The dimension is broken
down in two sub-dimensions: political power and socio-economic power. Together, we
presume that they provide an accurate estimate of the differences in decision-making power of
women and men in society.


4.3.1 Political power
Among other things, political power refers to influence at the level of (local) government.
Gender differences can be captured by measuring the gap between the share of women and the
share of men at parliament, among ministers, mayors and/or local politicians. Given the
availability of data (and taking into account that the number of ministers is limited as a result
of which the share of female ministers is not a very stable or reliable figure) we decided to
concentrate on the differences in political power in parliament. Therefore with regard to the
political sub-dimension countries will be scaled on:
-      gender gap in political power, measured by the share of women in parliament (lower
       house).
This is the indicator par excellence of political power. For example, it is one of the three
indicators of UNDP’s Gender Empowerment Measure and one of the indicators of the EU
indicators on Women in decision-making.


4.3.2 Socio-economic power
An equal sharing of socio-economic power refers to an equal representation of men and
women at higher-level jobs. This may also be referred to as the absence of vertical
segregation. The ISCO classification is constructed to divide occupations both in a vertical
and horizontal dimension. In group 1 of the ISCO classification we find occupations like
legislators, senior officials, among others from organisations such as trade unions and



                                                29
charitable organisation, and corporate and general managers. With regard to the socio-
economic sub-dimension therefore, countries will be scaled on:
-      gender gap in socio-economic power, measured by the share of women among
       legislators, senior officials and managers (as covered by ISCO category 1).
This indicator can provide information on the ‘ceiling’ at the socio-economic level and as
such covers vertical segregation.


4.3.3 Country scores on the dimension equal sharing of decision-making power
Table 4.3 presents the ranking of the European countries on the decision-making power
dimension. Again, the scores are calculated on the basis of the same methodology as table 4.1.
From the table it appears that neither in parliament nor amongst higher level jobs, is there an
gender equal sharing of power. The largest gender gap in Parliament is found in Greece,
Ireland, France and Italy, whereas Italy and Denmark have the lowest share of women in
supervisory occupations. On the overall dimension equal sharing of decision-making power,
Sweden score rather favourably, followed at some distance by Finland and Spain, while
Greece and Italy close the ranking. Though Denmark has one of the highest scores on the
political sub-dimension, the overall score on the power dimension is limited due to a rather
low score on the socio-economic sub-dimension. The opposite seems to be the case for
Ireland and France. Both countries score highest on socio-economic power, however, this is
partly offset by low scores on political power.




                                                  30
Table 4.3 Country ranking based on the dimension equal sharing of decision-making power
                     Share of         Share of         Political          Socio-        Overall score
                    women in         women in           power,          economic          on equal
                    parliament        ISCO 1         standardised         power,         sharing of
                      2001              2001               score       standardised       decision-
                                                       Max = 0            score        making power
                                                       Min = 90          Max = 0
                                                                        Min = 65
Sweden                 43.6             30.6               0.86            0.40             0.63
Finland                36.5             27.8               0.70            0.32             0.51
Spain                  28.2             33.2               0.52            0.48             0.50
Netherlands            34.0             26.2               0.64            0.27             0.45
Belgium                23.3             32.9               0.41            0.47             0.44
Germany                30.9             26.9               0.58            0.29             0.44
Austria                26.8             30.1               0.48            0.39             0.43
Denmark                38.0             20.7               0.73            0.10             0.41
Portugal               20.1             31.3               0.34            0.43             0.38
Ireland                11.4             35.9               0.14            0.57             0.37
France                 12.3             35.5               0.16            0.55             0.36
UK                     18.4             30.1               0.30            0.39             0.34
Luxembourg             16.7             30.0               0.26            0.38             0.32
Greece                 6.3              25.2               0.03            0.24             0.13
Italy                  13.2             18.7               0.18            0.04             0.09
Source: political power: IPU, Women in National Parliaments, data refer to the situation on December 31; socio-
economic power: Eurostat, ELFS, UMIST calculations



4. 4       Equal sharing of knowledge


The fourth dimension of the indicator is equal sharing of knowledge. The achievement of a
successful transition to a knowledge-based society, at the heart of the EU Lisbon strategy, is
critically dependent upon the mobilisation of all skills and talents. Continuous upgrading of
labour force skills and life-long learning are important strategies in this respect. Moreover,
knowledge is an important precondition for communication and participation in community
life. The dimension is further specified in two sub-dimensions: participation in education and
training and educational attainment. These sub-dimensions have been chosen because they are
in the field of life long learning and as such make the link between the Equal Opportunities
and the Life Long Learning indicators.



                                                      31
4.4.1 Participation in education and training
An important policy goal of the EU is to increase the participation of working age population
in education and training in order to avoid skill gaps in the labour market. The growing
demands made on the working population with regard to employability justify the use of an
indicator that measures gender gaps in education during the life course. Therefore, with regard
to participation in education, countries will be scaled on:
-      the gender gap in educational participation, measured by the difference between the
       share of women and men of working-age population participating in education and
       training.
This indicator corresponds to the European key indicator LLL2.


4.4.2 Educational attainment
Equal access to education is important in order to equip al individuals with the skills required
for a modern work force. The absence of gender gaps in education and training, however,
should also be deemed an important indicator in itself, because knowledge is an important
precondition for the full integration in all dimensions of civil life.
Therefore, countries will be scaled on:
-      the gender gap in educational attainment, measured by the difference between the
       share of women and men of working age population having achieved at least upper
       secondary education (ISCED level 3).
As such the indicator is in line with the European context indicator LLLc1. It provides
information on the basic competence level of the population and is used by the EU to monitor
upskilling of population.


4.4.3 Country scores on the dimension equal sharing of knowledge
Table 4.4 provides a ranking of the European countries on the basis of knowledge indicators.
Again the scores are calculated on the basis of the same methodology as table 4.1. With
respect to participation in education and training, it appears that gender differences are rather
small, the only exceptions being Sweden and Finland, with a positive gender gap of 4.3
percentage point and the UK with a positive gender gap of 7.6 percentage point. With regard
to the difference in educational attainment, the country differences are more divers, with
relatively large negative gaps in Austria (-10.0), Luxembourg (-8.3) and Germany (-7.1). The
overall scores on equal sharing of knowledge show that Italy is at the top of the ranking, with


                                                 32
no real gender gap on both sub-dimensions, followed by Belgium, Greece and Spain. On the
other end of the ranking is the UK that combines a high, though positive, gender gap with
respect to participation in education and training with a rather high (negative) gender gap in
educational attainment.


Table 4.4 Country ranking on the dimension equal sharing of knowledge
                  Gender gap in    Gender gap in     Participation   Educational       Overall scores
                  participation     educational      in education    attainment,          on equal
                   in education      attainment      and training,   standardised        sharing of
                   and training                      standardised    score               knowledge
                                                           score         Max=0
                                                        Max=0            Min=15
                                                       Min=10
Italy                  0.3              0.1                0.97              0.99           0.98
Belgium                -0.8             -0.4               0.92              0.97           0.95
Greece                 -0.3             -1.3               0.97              0.91           0.94
Spain                  1.1              0.0                0.89              1.00           0.94
France                 0.5              -3.5               0.95              0.77           0.86
Portugal               0.7              3.9                0.93              0.74           0.84
Ireland                0.1              5.0                0.99              0.67           0.83
Denmark                2.7              -2.1               0.73              0.86           0.79
Netherlands            -1.5             -4.8               0.85              0.68           0.77
Germany                -0.9             -7.1               0.91              0.53           0.72
Sweden                 4.3              3.4                0.57              0.77           0.67
Luxembourg             1.2              -8.3               0.88              0.45           0.66
Finland                4.3              4.1                0.57              0.73           0.65
Austria                -2.3            -10.0               0.77              0.33           0.55
UK                     7.6              -4.2               0.24              0.72           0.48
Source: participation in education and training: Joint Employment report 2002; educational attainment: ELFS,
UMIST calculations



4.5        Equal sharing of unpaid time


The fifth and final dimension of the gender equality index refers to equal sharing of time. This
is a significant dimension of gender equality not only because an equal distribution of unpaid
time must be seen as a major precondition for an equal distribution of paid work, but also
because an equal distribution of unpaid work should be perceived as an emancipatory goal in
itself. The assumption is that in a truly gender equal society every citizen can participate in a


                                                      33
balanced manner in all spheres of life – work, care and leisure (see section 1.1). The equal
sharing of unpaid time, therefore, refers to both the time men and women spend on care
activities and their involvement in leisure time.


4.5.1 Caring time
Preferably, an indicator measuring (the difference in) the involvement of men and women in
unpaid caring activities should be rather broad. That is, it should refer to caring time for
children, elderly people and dependent others. However, data are rather scarce in this field and
refer either to care spent on children or care spent on others. Since care for children is often
the most time-intensive, the sub-dimension refers to this type of care. The age-category 20-49
is chosen because for this age group the weight of care-activities is largest.
Therefore, countries will be scaled on:
-      the gender gap in caring time, measured by the difference in average time of men and
       women aged 20-49 spent on providing care for children.


4.5.2 Leisure
The second sub-dimension is leisure. Each individual should have a certain amount of leisure
and gender equality should include the absence of gender gaps in this respect. Unfortunately,
there are no harmonised data on leisure. Not all countries conduct time use studies and if
available, the population and/or the method of research may differ. A recent Eurostat
publication contains a compilation of time use studies of different EU countries that follow to
a large extent harmonised guidelines issued by Eurostat. This is the case for Belgium,
Denmark, France, Finland, Sweden and UK. On the basis of these figures, for the remaining
countries the average of these six EU member states is inserted. Therefore, countries will be
scaled on:
-      the gender gap in leisure time, measured by the ratio of women’s leisure time to the
       leisure time of men.


4.5.3 Country scores on the dimension equal sharing of time
Table 4.5 provides a ranking of the EU countries on the basis of the sub-dimensions care
activities and leisure. Again, the scores are standardised. The table shows that in all EU
member states the gender gap in caring time is negative, indicating that women on average
spend more time caring for children than men. In Denmark the gap is smallest, followed by
Finland and the Netherlands. The largest differences are found in Greece, Spain and Ireland.


                                                34
Unfortunately, data are lacking for Sweden, Germany, Luxembourg and UK. Data for these
countries are based on the EU average. Table 4.5 also indicates that the gender gap in leisure
is negative in all countries. Given the lack of data however, it is hard to make any definitive
statements in this respect. The ranking of the overall scores on the equal sharing of time
shows that the Scandinavian countries rank highest on this dimension. Ireland, Spain, France
and Greece have the lowest scores in this respect.


Table 4.5 Country ranking based on the dimension equal sharing of time1

                  Gender gap in    Gender gap in          Care         Leisure,       Overall score
                  care intensity      leisure         activities,    standardised     on the equal
                      2000                          standardised         score         sharing of
                                                          score         Max=0             time
                                                       Max= 0          Min=13
                                                     Min = 6.5
Denmark                1.7             0.92               0.89           0.40             0.65
Finland                1.8             0.92               0.88           0.35             0.62
Sweden                 3.9             0.95               0.55           0.61             0.58
Belgium                3.8             0.92               0.57           0.38             0.48
Netherlands            3.0             0.90               0.69           0.23             0.46
UK                     3.9             0.91               0.55           0.34             0.45
Germany                3.9             0.90               0.55           0.23             0.39
Luxembourg             3.9             0.90               0.55           0.23             0.39
Italy                  4.4             0.90               0.48           0.23             0.36
Austria                5.1             0.90               0.37           0.23             0.30
Portugal               5.1             0.90               0.37           0.23             0.30
France                 3.8             0.87               0.57           0.02             0.29
Ireland                5.7             0.90               0.27           0.23             0.25
Spain                  5.9             0.90               0.25           0.23             0.24
Greece                 6.3             0.90               0.18           0.23             0.21
1 Numbers in italic refer to EU average
Source: care intensity: Eurostat, ECHP, UMIST calculations; leisure: Aliaga & Winqvist 2003



4.6        The overall index


In the overall index, scores on all available indicators are combined. The index is calculated as
the sum of the scores on the sub-dimensions divided by the number of indicators. Table 4.6
presents the overall ranking on the EU member states on the basis of this index. It appears that



                                                     35
the Scandinavian countries, Sweden1, Denmark and Finland score highest, followed by
Belgium and the Netherlands. At the lower end of the tail are UK, Austria and Greece. See
figure 4.1 for a graphical presentation, also including the EU average based on the simple
arithmetic mean of the 15 country scores.
        With regard to the overall index score, it should be noted that in all countries full
gender equality is still a long way off. The maximum value of the proposed index is 1, which
corresponds to a situation of complete gender equality. However, the maximum score does
not exceed 0.68, and five countries score at or below 0.50. Scores differ substantially across
the dimensions, though. With respect to the knowledge dimension, most countries score
rather well, with the exception of Austria which scores rather poorly with regard to education
over the life course, and UK, which has a low mark on the indicator of educational attainment.
Another sub-dimension on which countries score rather well is unemployment: low scores in
this respect are concentrated in Italy (0.53), Spain (0.34) and Greece (0.28). In contrast,
relatively low scores are found for the sub-dimension socio-economic power; the highest
score (0.57) is for Ireland. Other sub-dimensions which signify a large gap to full equality are
pay, care and leisure (although the scores on the latter indicator must be treated with some
caution, due to the lack of data).

Figure 4.1 Graphical presentation of the overall ranking of countries based on the gender
equality index

                                      1,00
             Com posite index score




                                      0,80



                                      0,60



                                      0,40



                                      0,20



                                      0,00

                                             S   DK   FIN   B   NL     D    P    F    L    IRL   I     E   UK   A   EL
                                                                            Countries

                                                                     Country scores       EU average


1
  Note that for Sweden data on two sub-dimensions are missing. In these cases the European average was
inserted, but in the Swedish case these values may result in an underestimation of the actual values




                                                                            36
Table 4.6 The overall ranking of countries based on the gender equality index
              Partici-   Unemploy-      Pay        Income      Political      Socio-    Participation   Educational     Care       Leisure   Composite
               pation      ment                                 power        economic   in education    attainment    activities             index score
                                                                              power     and training
Sweden         0.90         0.94        0.42        0.75         0.86          0.40         0.57           0.77         0.55        0.61        0.68
Denmark        0.77         0.92        0.46        0.45         0.73          0.10         0.73           0.86         0.89        0.40        0.63
Finland        0.85         0.91        0.31        0.56         0.70          0.32         0.57           0.73         0.88        0.35        0.62
Belgium        0.49         0.87        0.50        0.44         0.41          0.47         0.92           0.97         0.57        0.38        0.60
Netherlands    0.50         0.93        0.29        0.95         0.64          0.27         0.85           0.68         0.69        0.23        0.60
Germany        0.60         0.99        0.15        0.86         0.58          0.29         0.91           0.53         0.55        0.23        0.57
Portugal       0.55         0.84        0.68        0.47         0.34          0.43         0.93           0.74         0.37        0.23        0.56
France         0.61         0.73        0.50        0.68         0.16          0.55         0.95           0.77         0.57        0.02        0.55
Luxembourg     0.31         0.92        0.42        0.75         0.26          0.38         0.88           0.45         0.55        0.23        0.52
Ireland        0.39         0.98        0.36        0.42         0.18          0.57         0.99           0.67         0.27        0.23        0.51
Italy          0.21         0.53        0.77        0.60         0.14          0.04         0.97           0.99         0.48        0.23        0.50
Spain          0.16         0.34        0.43        0.40         0.52          0.48         0.89           1.00         0.25        0.23        0.47
UK              0.62        0.91        0.13        0.27         0.30          0.39         0.24           0.72         0.55        0.34        0.45
Austria         0.55        0.92        0.22        0.08         0.48          0.39         0.77           0.33         0.37        0.23        0.43
Greece         0.15         0.28        0.42        0.62         0.03          0.24         0.97           0.91         0.18        0.23        0.40




                                                                        37
In order to facilitate the evaluation and assessment of the national situation, figure 4.2
provides the country profiles, combining the national scores with the EU average, again
calculated as the simple arithmetic mean of the 15 country scores. With regard to Sweden, for
example, it can be ascertained that their scores are above the European average on most (sub)
dimension, the only exception being the knowledge indicator ‘participation in education and
training’. Denmark and Finland also score below the European average on this dimension. In
the case of Denmark this is combined with a low score on socio-economic power, whereas
Finland also score low with regard to pay. At the other end of the spectrum, it appears that the
UK has a relative large gender gap on the sub-dimensions of pay, income, political power and
educational participation, while Greece indicates low marks, and therefore high gender gaps,
with respect to employment and unemployment, political and socio-economic power, caring
time and leisure. When interpreting these figure, it should be taken into account that the focus
on absolute gender gaps does not differentiate between countries with ‘positive’ or ‘negative’
gender gaps. Therefore, in principle, a country in which women do better than men on all
indicators, receives the same index score as a country in which men do better than women.
However, this situation is not very likely given the results described in section 4.1 to 4.5.




                                              38
                                                      Standardised value of equality                                                                                  Standardised value of equality                                                                                  Standardised value of equality
                                        LF                                                                                                              LF                                                                                                              LF
                                          pa                                                                                                              pa                                                                                                              pa
                                            rti                                                                                                             rti                                                                                                             rti




                                                                 0,00
                                                                        0,20
                                                                               0,40
                                                                                      0,60
                                                                                             0,80
                                                                                                    1,00
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    member state



                                               ci                                                                                                              ci




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0,00
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0,60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0,80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1,00


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                                         rt                                                                                                             rt




                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        rt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sweden




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                                                                                                                     EU average
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     EU average
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                  Subdim ensions
                                                                                                                                  Subdim ensions
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39
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                                                          x                                                                                                               x                                                                                                               x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 4.2 Graphical presentation of the subdimensions of the gender equality index per EU
                                                     Standardised value of equality                                                                                   Standardised value of equality                                                                                  Standardised value of equality                                                                                     Standardised value of equality
                                       LF                                                                                                               LF                                                                                                               Un                                                                                                                LF
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                                                                0,00
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                                                         x                                                                                                                x                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 x
                                                     Standardised value of equality                                                                               Standardised value of equality                                                                                 Standardised value of equality                                                                                    Standardised value of equality
                                       LF                                                                                                           LF                                                                                                             LF                                                                                                                LF
                                          pa                                                                                                           pa                                                                                                             pa                                                                                                                pa
                                            rti                                                                                                          rti                                                                                                            rti                                                                                                               rti




                                                                0,00
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        France




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ireland
                                        rt                                                                                                           rt                                                                                                             rt                                                                                                                rt




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 EU average
                                           in             er                                                                                            in             er                                                                                              in             er                                                                                                 in             er
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   EU average




                                               ed                                                                                                           ed                                                                                                            ed                                                                                                                 ed




                                                                                                                  EU average




     EU average
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                                                 ta




                                                                                                                               Subdim ensions
                                                                                                                                                              ta




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Subdim ensions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Subdim ensions




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     Italy
                                                   in                                                                                                           in                                                                                                             in                                                                                                                in
                                                      m                                                                                                            m                                                                                                              m                                                                                                                 m




                                                                                                                  Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   France




                                                         en                                                                                                           en                                                                                                             en                                                                                                                en
                                                            t                                                                                                            t                                                                                                              t                                                                                                                 t




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Luxembourg
                                            Ca                                                                                                           Ca                                                                                                             Ca                                                                                                                Ca
                                                rin                                                                                                          rin                                                                                                           r in                                                                                                               rin
                                                    g                                                                                                            g                                                                                                              g                                                                                                                 g




41
                                                       tim                                                                                                          tim                                                                                                            tim                                                                                                               tim
                                                           e                                                                                                            e                                                                                                              e                                                                                                                 e
                                                  Le                                                                                                           Le                                                                                                            Le                                                                                                                 Le
                                                     is                                                                                                           is                                                                                                             is                                                                                                                is
                                                        ur                                                                                                           ur                                                                                                             ur                                                                                                                ur
                                                           e                                                                                                            e                                                                                                              e                                                                                                                 e
                                                     In                                                                                                           In                                                                                                             In                                                                                                                In
                                                       de                                                                                                           de                                                                                                             de                                                                                                                de
                                                         x                                                                                                            x                                                                                                              x                                                                                                                 x
                                                     Standardised value of equality                                                                                Standardised value of equality                                                                                  Standardised value of equality                                                                                         Standardised value of equality
                                       LF                                                                                                            LF                                                                                                              LF                                                                                                                     LF
                                          pa                                                                                                            pa                                                                                                             pa                                                                                                                     pa
                                            rti                                                                                                           rti                                                                                                             r ti                                                                                                                  rti
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0,20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0,40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0,60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0,80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1,00




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ci




                                                                0,00
                                                                       0,20
                                                                              0,40
                                                                                     0,60
                                                                                            0,80
                                                                                                   1,00
                                                                                                                                                                              0,00
                                                                                                                                                                                     0,20
                                                                                                                                                                                            0,40
                                                                                                                                                                                                   0,60
                                                                                                                                                                                                          0,80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0,20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0,40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0,60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0,80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1,00
                                               ci                                                                                                            ci                                                                                                               ci                                                                                                                     pa
                                                 pa                                                                                                            pa                                                                                                               pa                                                                                                          Un
                                        Un          tio                                                                                               Un          tio                                                                                                Un            tio                                                                                                                  tio
                                          em           n                                                                                                em           n                                                                                                  em            n                                                                                                       em            n
                                             pl                                                                                                            pl                                                                                                              pl                                                                                                                    pl
                                                oy                                                                                                            oy                                                                                                               oy                                                                                                                   oy
                                                   m                                                                                                             m                                                                                                                m                                                                                                                    m
                                                     en                                                                                                            en                                                                                                               en                                                                                                                   en
                                                        t                                                                                                             t                                                                                                                t                                                                                                                    t

                                                       Pa                                                                                                            Pa                                                                                                              Pa                                                                                                                     Pa
                                                         y                                                                                                               y                                                                                                               y                                                                                                                      y
                                                  In                                                                                                            In                                                                                                              In                                                                                                                     In
                                      Po            co                                                                                              Po            co                                                                                               Po             co                                                                                                      Po             co
                                        lic              m                                                                                            lic              m                                                                                              lic              m                                                                                                     lic              m
                                            tic            e                                                                                              tic            e                                                                                                tic            e                                                                                                       tic            e
                                   So           al                                                                                               So           al                                                                                                So            al                                                                                                       So            al
                                                   po                                                                                                            po                                                                                                              po                                                                                                       ci            po
                                     ci
                                       o-             w                                                                                            ci
                                                                                                                                                     o-             w                                                                                              ci
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     o-             w                                                                                                       o-             w
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                                              on                                                                                                            on                                                                                                              on                                                                                                                     on
                                                   po                                                                                                            po                                                                                                              po                                                                                                      Pa             po
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Spain




                                     Pa               w                                                                                            Pa               w                                                                                             Pa                w                                                                                                                      w




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Austria




                                                                                                          Greece
                                        rt                er                                                                                          rt                er                                                                                            rt                er                                                                                                   rt                er
                                           in                                                                                                            in                                                                                                              in                                                                                                                     in




     EU average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ed




                                                                                                                   EU average
                                               ed                                                                                                            ed                                                                                                              ed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         EU average




                                                   uc                                                                                                            uc                                                                                                              uc                                                                                                                     uc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        United Kingdom




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  EU average
                                      Ed                                                                                                            Ed                                                                                                             Ed                                                                                                                     Ed
                                        uc              &                                                                                             uc              &                                                                                               uc              &                                                                                                      uc              &
                                                          tr                                                                                                            tr                                                                                                              tr                                                                                                                     tr
                                              at                                                                                                            at                                                                                                              at                                                                                                                     at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Subdim ensions




                                                 ta                                                                                                            ta                                                                                                              ta




                  Subdim ensions
                                                                                                                                Subdim ensions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Subdim ensions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  UK
                                                   in                                                                                                            in                                                                                                              in                                                                                                                     in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Spain




                                                      m                                                                                                             m                                                                                                               m




     Greece
                                                                                                                   Austria
                                                         en                                                                                                            en                                                                                                              en                                                                                                                     en
                                            Ca              t                                                                                             Ca              t                                                                                               Ca              t                                                                                                      Ca              t
                                                rin                                                                                                           rin                                                                                                             rin                                                                                                                    rin
                                                    g                                                                                                             g                                                                                                               g                                                                                                                      g
                                                       tim                                                                                                           tim                                                                                                             tim                                                                                                                    tim
                                                           e                                                                                                             e                                                                                                               e                                                                                                                      e




42
                                                  Le                                                                                                            Le                                                                                                              Le                                                                                                                     Le
                                                     is                                                                                                            is                                                                                                              is                                                                                                                     is
                                                        ur                                                                                                            ur                                                                                                              ur                                                                                                                     ur
                                                           e                                                                                                             e                                                                                                               e                                                                                                                      e
                                                     In                                                                                                            In                                                                                                              In                                                                                                                     In
                                                       de                                                                                                             de                                                                                                             de                                                                                                                     de
                                                         x                                                                                                              x                                                                                                              x                                                                                                                       x
4.7    Monitoring change


An index summarises the current state of affairs with regard to gender equality into one single
figure. An international comparison might identify countries that have achieved relative
success in promoting equal opportunities and/or might indicate policy priorities for those who
are serious about achieving a more gender equal society.
       An index might also be used for a comparison over time. A rise in the index would
indicate a narrowing of the gender gaps, whereas a decreasing score would signal the
opposite. An effective monitoring depends entirely on the availability of comparable
harmonised data. Reliable data sources are scarce, however, as soon as we leave the relatively
well-charted and documented field of paid employment. Especially data with regard to the
sub-dimension of leisure are lacking. As already mentioned in section 4.5, Eurostat has only
just begun to collect data based on harmonised guidelines. It proved to be impossible to make
comparisons over time with regard to the leisure time of men and women. Also the knowledge
indicator appeared to be problematic. The classification of the ISCED changed in 1998 as a
result of which a comparison over the years is not possible.
       Given this situation, table 4.7 provides details on the index scores over the period
1996-2001 based on only three dimension and six sub-dimensions: equal sharing of paid
labour, equal sharing of money and equal sharing of political power. Implicitly therefore, the
perspective on gender equality has narrowed. Given this more narrow focus, the outcomes of
this section cannot be compared with the outcomes of section 4.6; the index scores and the
comparison over time are a first preliminary attempt to monitor progress. Further examination
of the empirical evidence is needed in order to answer the question whether gender equality
has improved or deteriorated over time.
       With this proviso in mind, table 4.7 shows that over the period 1996-2001 in nine
countries the index value has risen, indicating a closing of the gender gaps. Three countries
indicate a lower score on the gender equality index and three countries signal a rather
fluctuating development. In order to have some more detailed information about the causes of
change, figure 4.3 provides details for four countries: two (Belgium and Germany) presenting
a positive change and two (Finland and Spain) indicating a negative change.
       It appears that in Belgium the increasing index score can be mainly attributed to the
closing of the gender gap in the field of unemployment. Whereas in 1996, the gender gap is
5.1 percentage points, as the unemployment rate of women is 12.5 and of men 7.4, the gender
gap has diminished in 2001 to 1.6 percentage point as the unemployment of women has


                                            43
decreased to 7.6 percent and the unemployment rate of men increased to 6.0. In Germany the
income gap decreased, especially between 1996 and 1999, because in that period the poverty
rate of men increased slightly (from 18.4 to 20.4), whereas the poverty rate of women
decreased rather substantially (from 28.5 to 23.4). Also in Finland and Spain, the income
indicator generated the largest change. For both countries, the gender gap increased,
especially because of the higher female poverty risk.
           These examples emphasise that changes over time, indicating a closing or a widening
of the gender gap, might be the result of higher scores of women or lower scores of men. As a
result there is a need to contextualise scores on the gender equality index and to combine this
information with a wider range of qualitative and quantitative information. In short:
developments in the gender equality index should not be taken as a final answer, but rather as
an incitement to further research.

Table 4.7 Monitoring change: an equality index based on the dimensions equal sharing of paid
work, money and decision making power, 1996-2001
                      Index 1996        Index 1999        Index 2001         Change
Sweden                   0.66              0.73              0.71               ±
Finland                  0.67              0.63              0.61               -
Netherlands              0.50              0.54              0.59               +
Germany                  0.46              0.58              0.58               +
Denmark                  0.52              0.53              0.57               +
Portugal                 0.59              0.57              0.55               -
France                   0.52              0.53              0.54               +
Belgium                  0.41              0.52              0.53               +
Luxembourg               0.36              0.45              0.50               +
Ireland                  0.44              0.43              0.48               +
Austria                  0.43              0.40              0.44               ±
UK                       0.39              0.46              0.44               ±
Spain                    0.47              0.40              0.39               -
Italy                    0.33              0.36              0.38               +
Greece                   0.25              0.27              0.29               +




                                              44
                                             Standardised value of equality                                                                      Standardised value of equality                                                                        Standardised value of equality                                                                         Standardised value of equality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Spain

                                 LF                                                                                                  LF                                                                                                    LF                                                                                                   LF
                                    pa                                                                                                  pa                                                                                                    pa                                                                                                   pa




                                                       0,00
                                                              0,20
                                                                     0,40
                                                                            0,60
                                                                                   0,80
                                                                                          1,00
                                                                                                                                                           0,00
                                                                                                                                                                  0,20
                                                                                                                                                                         0,40
                                                                                                                                                                                0,60
                                                                                                                                                                                       0,80
                                                                                                                                                                                              1,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0,20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0,40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0,60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0,80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0,00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0,20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0,40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0,60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0,80
                                      rti                                                                                                 rti                                                                                                   rti                                                                                                  rti                                                   1,00
                                         ci                                                                                                  ci                                                                                                    ci                                                                                                   ci
                                           pa                                                                                                  pa                                                                                                    pa                                                                                                   pa
                                             tio                                                                                                 tio                                                                                                   tio                                                                                                  tio
                                                n                                                                                                   n                                                                                                     n                                                                                                    n
                                  Un                                                                                                  Un                                                                                                    Un                                                                                                   Un
                                    em                                                                                                  em                                                                                                    em                                                                                                   em
                                       plo                                                                                                 plo                                                                                                   plo                                                                                                  plo
                                           ym                                                                                                  ym                                                                                                    ym                                                                                                   ym
                                              en                                                                                                  en                                                                                                    en                                                                                                   en
                                                 t                                                                                                   t                                                                                                     t                                                                                                    t



                                               Pa                                                                                                  Pa                                                                                                    Pa                                                                                                    Pa
                                                 y                                                                                                   y                                                                                                     y                                                                                                     y




     1996
                                                                                                         1996
                                                                                                                                                                                                               1996
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1996
                                            Inc                                                                                                 Inc                                                                                                   Inc                                                                                                   Inc
                                                om                                                                                                  om                                                                                                    om                                                                                                    om




                                                                                                 Spain
                                                   e                                                                                                   e                                                                                                     e




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Finland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Belgium




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Germany
                                Po                                                                                                  Po                                                                                                    Po                                                                                                    Po
                                  lic                                                                                                 lic                                                                                                   lic                                                                                                   lic




     1999
                                                                                                         1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                               1999
                                      tic                                                                                                 tic                                                                                                   tic                                                                  1999                             tic
                                          al                                                                                                  al                                                                                                    al                                                                                                    al
                                             po                                                                                                  po                                                                                                    po                                                                                                    po
                                                w                                                                                                   w                                                                                                     w                                                                                                    w




            Subdim ensions
                                                                                                                Subdim ensions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Subdim ensions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Subdim ensions




                                                  er                                                                                                  er                                                                                                    er                                                                                                     er




     2001
                                                                                                         2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                               2001
                             So                                                                                                  So                                                                                                    So
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2001


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             So
                               ci                                                                                                  ci                                                                                                    ci                                                                                                    ci
                                 o-                                                                                                  o-                                                                                                    o-                                                                                                    o-
                                    ec                                                                                                  ec                                                                                                    ec                                                                                                    ec
                                        on                                                                                                  on                                                                                                    on                                                                                                   on
                                             po                                                                                                  po                                                                                                    po                                                                                                   po
                                                w                                                                                                   w                                                                                                     w                                                                                                   w
                                                  er                                                                                                  er                                                                                                    er                                                                                                     er




45
                                             In                                                                                                  In                                                                                                    In                                                                                                    In
                                               de                                                                                                  de                                                                                                    de                                                                                                    de
                                                 x                                                                                                   x                                                                                                     x                                                                                                     x
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Figure 4.3 Graphical presentation of monitoring change in Belgium, Germany, Finland and
46
5      Summary and conclusions


The aim of this project was to investigate the feasibility of a new EU gender equality index.
Taking into account that equal opportunities is a complex issue whose many aspects are
difficult to summarise into a single index score, the following requirements were set:
• The index should comprise of a number of indicators that, taken together, represent
  relevant dimensions of gender equality;
•   The index should measure gender inequality and not some combination of absolute well-
    being and inequality;
•   The construction of the overall index should avoid unintended weighing of some factors
    over other ones .
As such, the report has a dual goal: on the one hand, it concerns the methodology of a gender
equality index and the selection of reliable indicators. On the other hand, it is also an
empirical exploration of the terrain. This later focus was on identifying countries that have
achieved relative success in promoting equal opportunities, and on identifying the origins of
performance gaps. The most salient conclusions can be summarised as follows:
1. The relevance of the index, its feasibility and reliability depend to a large extent on the
    choice of (sub)dimensions and indicators. As a result the selection of the (sub) dimensions
    and indicators has to be very careful. However, it should also be taken into account that in
    the current design each indicator only weighs an equal tenth of the overall score.
    Therefore, changing the actual content of an indicator may not always have major
    implications for the overall Gender Equality Index. For example, in the current design, the
    gender gap in participation is measured on a headcount basis (see indicator 1). Measuring
    the gender gap in FTE would imply a major (and politically sensitive) change in the
    indicator. Yet the effect of such a change on the overall ranking of the EU member states
    is only modest. As figure 5.1 indicates, it only affects the position of the Netherlands and
    the UK in the overall ranking.




                                             47
Figure 5.1 Graphical presentation of the composite index based on labour force participation
in head counts and in fulltime equivalents


                                          1,00
         Standardised value of equality

                                          0,80



                                          0,60



                                          0,40



                                          0,20



                                          0,00

                                                 S   DK   FIN   B   NL    P    D    F      L    I      IRL   E   UK   A   EL
                                                                               Countries

                                                                         Index headcount   Index fte




2. The index as developed in chapter 4 focuses on gender equality, measured as the absence
   of gender gaps with regard to the distribution of paid labour, money, power, knowledge
   and time. Gender gaps are standardised in such a way that the values indicate the actual
   distance towards a situation of full gender equality. It gives no indication whether the
   actual inequality refers to a ‘negative’ gender gap, that is a gap at the disadvantage of
   women, or to a ‘positive’ gender gap. Moreover, if gender equality is defined as the
   absence of gender gaps, movements in time may be difficult to evaluate because the
   gender gap in, for example, the gender pay gap can be reduced through an increase in the
   hourly wages of women or through a decrease in the hourly wages of men. In short,
   without information on the backgrounds and the context, the effectiveness of equal
   opportunities policy cannot be measured in terms of reduced gender gaps. A score on the
   gender equality index should therefore not be seen as a final answer, but rather as an
   incitement to further research.


3. A responsible benchmarking procedure stands or falls with comparable, harmonised data.
   Reliable comparative data sources are scarce, especially in the field of pay, unpaid caring
   time and leisure. With regard to pay the available data sources are hardly adequate for the
   task of comparing gender pay gaps across countries or for monitoring the development of
   the gender pay gap over time. Data on caring time are available through the European


                                                                               48
   Community Household Panel (ECHP) but these only provide partial answers to the issues
   raised. The discontinuation of this survey makes the future of such data uncertain. There is
   also a dearth of available data on time allocation patterns. If the assumption is that in a
   truly gender equal society, every citizen can participate in a balanced manner in all
   spheres of life - work, care and leisure - ‘time’ should have a more prominent place in the
   equation and ‘leisure’ should be included in regular statistics. Furthermore, highlighting
   these important data gaps might encourage member states to improve both quantitatively
   and qualitatively the data collection on gender equality.


4. From a policy perspective the results of table 4.6 imply that there is still a long way to go
   if the equal distribution of paid work, money, power, knowledge and time are taken
   seriously. Full gender equality implies a radical change in the organization of working life
   and tackles traditional forms of specialisation. Women today often combine paid and
   unpaid work, albeit with great difficulty. A true gender equal society should ensure that
   men also combine these activities while re-arranging the institutional mix of provisions, so
   as to eliminate the difficulty, strain and sources of inequality.


5. A more detailed analysis indicates that county scores differ substantially across the
   dimensions. With respect to the knowledge dimension, most countries score rather well,
   and the same goes for the unemployment. In contrast, the results indicate relatively low
   scores on the sub-dimension of socio-economic power. Apparently an equal representation
   of men and women at higher-level jobs is still a long way off. Other sub-dimensions
   which identify other sources of inequality are pay, care and leisure (although data
   restrictions mean that the scores on the latter indicator must be treated with some caution).
   Despite the complicated nature of the statistical material however, it seems fair to say that
   this exercise has again demonstrated that the gender gap in unpaid time is fairly large and
   resistant.


6. Developments with regard to equal opportunities seem rather fragmented. Within the
   European Union, there is a strong emphasis on generating equal access to the labour
   market and increasing the participation rate of (especially) women. As a result there is a
   tendency for the gender gap on the dimension ‘equal sharing of paid labour’ to close (at
   least when measured on a headcount basis). At the same time an emphasis on
   strengthening market forces and the restructuring of the welfare state might widen the


                                             49
gender gap in other ways , for example on the money and time dimensions. The results of
section 4.7 indicate that the gender income gap has indeed deteriorated in some countries
and there is no ‘natural’ trend towards closing. Overall the evidence from the Gender
Equality Index underlines the importance of a broad definition of gender equality, going
beyond the field of paid labour.




                                        50
References

Aliaga, C. & K. Winqvist (2003). How women and men spend their time. Results from 13
European countries. In: Statistics in focus, theme 3 –12/2003, p. 1-8


Barry, U. et al. (2001). Indicators on gender gaps in pay and income. In: Rubery et al.(2001).
Indicators on gender equality in the European Employment Strategy. Manchester: UMIST.


Dijkstra, A.G. & L.C. Hanmer (2000). Measuring socio-economic gender inequality: toward
an alternative to the UNDP gender-related development index. In: Feminist Economics, 6 (2)
p. 41-75.


Dijkstra, A.G. (2002). Revisiting UNDP’s GDI and GEM: towards an alternative. In: Social
Indicators Research (57): 301-338.


EC (European Commission) (2002). Joint employment report 2002. Brussels: EC.


EC (European Commission) (2003). Employment in Europe 2003. Brussels: EC.


EU (Council of the European Union) (2002). Review of the implementation by the Member
States and the EU institutions of the Beijing Platform for Action – Draft Council Conclusions
(14578/02). Brussels: EU.


Fraser, N. (1997). After the family wage: a postindustrial thought experiment. In : B. Hobson
& A.M. Berggren, Crossing borders. Gender and citizenship in transition, p. 21-55. Sweden:
Swedish Council for Planning and Coordination of Research.


IPU (Inter-parliamentary Union) (2001). Women in national parliaments. Downloaded from
http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/arc/world051201.htm.


Juster, F.T. & F.P. Stafford (1991). The allocation of time: empirical problems, behavioral
models and problems of measurement. In: The Journal of Economic Literature, nr. 2, p. 471-
522.



                                            51
Kjelstad, R. & J.E. Kristiansen (2001). Constructing a regional gender equality index:
Reflections on a first experience with Norwegian data. In: Statistical Journal of the United
Nations ECE 18, pp. 41-49.


OECD (2001). Balancing work and family life: helping parents into paid employment. In:
OECD Employment Outlook (2001). Paris: OECD.


Plantenga, J. & J. Hansen (1999). Assessing equal opportunities in the European Union. In:
International Labour Review, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 351-379.


Rubery et al.(2001). Indicators on gender equality in the European Employment Strategy.
Manchester: UMIST.


Statistics Sweden (2002). The Gender Equality Index. Downloaded from http://www.scb.se on
13 June 2002.


UNDP (2002). Human Development Report 2002. New York: Oxford




                                            52
Appendices


A         Alternative indices


The discussion of the GDI and GEM has stimulated the development of alternative gender
indices. Table A.1 outlines five alternative indices. Each of these indices consists of different
indicators and thus measures different aspects of gender equality. These various indices
provide useful information for the development of a new index.


Table A.1 overview of alternative gender equality indices

Indices        Authors                Description
RWS            Dijkstra &             The RSW is based on the same indicators as used for the GDI and
               Hanmer (2000)          is a more direct measure of gender equality by using relative
                                      achievements. That is, the focus is on absolute gender gaps only.
SIGE           Dijkstra (2002)        Dijkstra (2002) developed an alternative index, based on four
                                      factors: culture, power, access to social assets and access to
                                      economic assets. Allthough these factors are considered as
                                      important aspects of gender inequality, due to data problems not all
                                      indicators could be included. The result is a Standardised Index of
                                      Gender Equality (SIGE5) that measures gender equality and is
                                      based on the indicators from both the GDI and the GEM.
Benchmark      Plantenga &            Benchmarking means measuring the performance of country
               Hanssen (1999)         against a standard. Plantenga & Hansen use two definitions of
                                      equality: a relative one and an absolute one. The method of the
                                      radar chart approach is chosen to identify best performances. This
                                      method results in a SMOP index (Surface Measure of Overall
                                      Performance). Plantenga & Hansen take both gender gaps and
                                      levels of achievement into account. Moreover, the benchmark is
                                      based on both paid and unpaid work.
Swedish        Statistics Sweden      This index is developed solely for Sweden and is based on 15
               (2000)                 variables for which differences between men and women are
                                      calculated. It combines gaps with levels of achievement. Moreover
                                      it takes care activities into account by including indicators on
                                      parental leave. Its main shortcoming is that this index is difficult to
                                      apply within an international comparative framework.
Norwegian      Kjelstad &             Comparable index as Sweden. The Norwegian index is based on 9
               Kristiansen            indicators, which also include childcare. Again, the index is
               (2001)                 difficult to apply within a comparative framework.




                                                    53
B       Methodological issues


Standardisation
In general, indicators are measured on different scales. For example, employment rates of
women in 2001 vary from 41 percent in Greece to 72 percent in Sweden, whereas the female
unemployment rate is 3 percent in Luxembourg and almost 16 percent in Greece. In these
cases simply adding the scores is not possible as the indicator with the largest scale will get
the largest weight. In order to combine scores in a single index, scores on the indicators have
to be standardised. Several (statistical) methods are available. A frequently used method is
transformation to z-scores (see for example OECD, 2001). The advantage of the z-score is its
comprehensibility. A z-score indicates how far and in what direction a case deviates from the
mean of the variable, expressed in units of its distribution’s standard deviation. The properties
of the z-score transformation are such that the z-scores of a variable have a mean of zero and a
standard deviation of one. Z-scores are especially useful when seeking to compare the relative
standings of items from distributions with different means and/or different standard
deviations. A positive (negative) z-score indicates that the observation has a value that is
higher (lower) than the mean.
        A disadvantage of z-scores is that they cannot be interpreted as a measure of equality;
z-scores only relate each country score to the overall spread. Instead a gender equality index
ideally goes from 0-1 or 0-100, with the maximum value representing complete equality. A
second disadvantage of using the z-score is that it does not seem appropriate for comparisons
over time. The value of variables (in our case the indicators) may change as a result of which
the mean and standard deviation of the variables and, related to this, the z-score change. So
changes in the z-score of a country over the years may occur as a result of a change in the
mean whereas the actual country value remains the same. This makes comparisons over the
years difficult.
        Given these disadvantages, we have decided to standardize on the basis of a min-max-
methodology, which is comparable to the UNDP indices. The min-max standardization means
that each value is transformed by the following formula:


                                          Standardized value =
            (|actual value x1|- minimum value x1) / (maximum value x1- minimum value x1)




                                             54
The actual value refers to a national score on the indicator, for example a gender gap in
unemployment of 4 percentage points (e.g. women 8 percent, men 4 percent). As gender
equality is conceptualised as the absence of gender gaps, positive or negative gender gaps are
treated in the same way. Therefore, the absolute value of the gender gap is taken. The
maximum value refers to the theoretical maximum value in the case of full equality and has
always the value 0, which corresponds to the absence of gaps. The minimum refers to a
situation of inequality. The value is set at a level which is a little below the actual minimum
value within the EU countries. This fixed minimum is treated as a baseline (or in the words of
the UNDP: ‘goalpost’). The assumption is that the actual values will not go beyond this
minimum. The standardised value on an indicator has a maximum of 1, which corresponds to
a situation of equality. Country scores below 1 indicate the actual distance from full equality
on that particular indicator. Comparisons over time are possible by applying the same values
for the minimum.
       When choosing the minimum values it is important to take into account differences in
variance of the indicators. When the variance of indicators differs widely, the indicator with
the largest variance has the strongest weight in the overall index. However, all indicators
should weigh more or less the same. Therefore, the minimum value is chosen so that the
variance of the indicators is comparable.
       In order to apply this methodology in a consistent way, all scores on indicators are
transformed to gender gaps. In our current design of the EU gender equality index, five
indicators are based on rates (employment, unemployment, poverty, participation in education
and training and educational attainment). In these cases, gaps are simply caculated as the
value for women minus the value for men. Gaps are less obvious for indicators based on
ratio’s (pay, caring time and leisure) or shares (political power and socio-economic power).
Indicators based on ratio’s, for example women earning 75 percent of men, are transformed in
gaps by substracting these ratio’s from 1. Indicators based on shares are transformed in gaps
by substracting the share of men and using the absolute value. For example, when the share of
women in parliament is 35 percent, the share of men is 65 percent and the gender gap is 30.


Missing data
For several countries harmonised data are missing. There are different options to solve this
issue. A first option is to exclude the sub-dimension(s) concerned. In this case it is assumed
that the standardised value on the missing dimension is comparable to standardised values on
the other sub-dimensions. This is problematic in case the (available) values on the sub-


                                             55
dimensions show a large variation. Secondly, missing values can be based on other (national)
data sources. The main problem here is the comparability of data sources. In general, data
sources differ in several respects and as a result the data can only be compared with caution.
A third method is to insert an average regional value. For example, a proxy for missing data
for Sweden could be the average of the figures of Denmark and Finland. Defining the region
is, however, in general rather problematic. Finally, the EU average of available figures can be
inserted. Evidently, this may result in an over- or underestimation of the real country score.
This method avoids, however, making a comparison solely on the basis of a small sub-sample
and the problem of comparability of data.




                                             56
C          EO indicators


Table C.1 Actual values of the EO indicators and country ranking on the basis of EO
composite index score, 20011

Country            EO1       EO2          EO3    EO4     EO5    EO6    EO7    Composite
                                                                              index score
Portugal            1.9      -15.8        26.5   21.5    94.1   1.08   7.6       0.56
Belgium             1.4      -18.7        26.1   18.1    92.7   1.15   11.4      0.53
Denmark             1.1      -8.3         28.1   19      89.6   1.36   21.9      0.46
Sweden             -0.3      -2.9         28     21.2    83.8   1.36   21.9      0.45
Netherlands         1.1      -17.5        25     18.1    78.9   1.23   16.3      0.43
Austria             1.3      -16.5        27.2   20.3    78.9   1.18   13.1      0.43
France              3.4      -14.1        26.6   17.4    89.2   1.34   21.2      0.41
Luxembourg          0.7      -23.9        26.8   19.6    83.8   1.26   16.4      0.41
Finland             1.1      -5.5         29.6   21.9    83.8   1.36   21.9      0.41
Italy               5.6      -27.5        21.9   15.2    91.4   1.3    18.8      0.38
Ireland            -0.2      -21.4        26.8   20.7    80.2   1.36   21.9      0.35
Germany             0.4      -13.7        27     18.2    80.6   1.53   29.5      0.33
UK                 -1.1      -13.3        26.7   18.8    75.7   1.47   27.4      0.31
Greece              8.6      -29.8        21.7   15.5    86.8   1.29   19.4      0.30
Spain                8       -28.9        24.9   19.3    85.7   1.41   22.6      0.23
1 numbers in italic refer to EU average
Source: Joint Employment Report 2002 (compendium-JER2002-updated-1121.xls)




                                                    57
D      Selection of the indicators


This appendix elaborates on methodological issues with respect to the composition of the
gender equality index. In particular the selection of indicators will be discussed.


D.1    Equal sharing of paid work


Labour force participation
The equal sharing of paid labour can be measured by several indicators. The absolute
employment gender gap is used as a sub-dimension in the EU equality index. This indicator is
related to the European EO2 indicator, which refers to the absolute employment gender gap.
This EO-indicator, however, has a number of inherent problems as highlighted by Rubery et
al. (2001). One of these problems is that the absolute gender gap does not take into account
gender inequality in the number of hours worked. Rubery et al. (2001) propose a number of
other employment indicators to measure gender inequality, taking validity and availability
into account. Table D.1 gives an overview of these indicators and the respective rankings of
the countries on the basis of these indicators. Overall, the different rankings show large
similarities, although classifying the countries on the two FTE variables leads to a slightly
different rank order than on the other three. This can also be concluded from table D.2, which
summarises the correlations between the different indicators. In addition, the impact on the
‘total’ index is rather low, as participation counts for only one tenth. Against this background
it was decided to stay in line with the EO indicators and to include the absolute employment
gender gap.




                                             58
Table D.1 Country scores and ranking on the sub-dimension participation
                                                                                                         Ranking
                   Employ-            Standar-            FTE      FTE stan-    25-55          A    B       C       D    E
                   ment rate,       dized gender        absolute   dardized    absolute
                   absolute          gap 2001        gender gap     gender     gender
                  gender gap            (B)             2001 (C)   gap 2001      gap
                   2001 (A)                                          (D)         (E)
Sweden                -3.4              -4.5              -10.3      -14.0       -4.1          1    1       2       2    1
Finland               -5.4              -7.6              -8.0       -11.5       -6.6          2    2       1       1    2
Denmark               -8.2             -10.2              -13.9      -18.1       -7.6          3    3       3       3    3
UK                   -13.3             -17.0              -24.6      -32.9       -14           4    4       7       6    4
France               -13.7             -19.7              -20.3      -28.9       -17           5    6       5       5    8
Germany              -14.0             -19.2              -24.4      -34.4      -15.1          6    5       6       8    5
Austria              -15.7             -20.5              -25.1      -33.0      -15.4          7    7       8       7    6
Portugal             -15.7             -20.5              -19.7      -25.5      -15.6          8    8       4       4    7
Netherlands          -17.5             -21.1              -33.4      -44.5      -20.2          9    9      15       14   10
Belgium              -17.8             -25.9              -25.6      -37.3       -20           10   10      9       9    9
Ireland              -21.5             -28.1              -29.9      -39.6      -24.4          11   11     12       10   11
Luxembourg           -24.1             -32.1              -29.8      -39.8      -29.3          12   12     11       11   12
Italy                -27.5             -40.1              -29.5      -43.6      -32.7          13   13     10       12   13
Spain                -29.4             -40.6              -33.0      -46.0      -33.1          14   14     14       15   14
Greece               -29.9             -42.2              -31.2      -43.8      -35.8          15   15     13       13   15
Source: Employment in Europe 2003



Table D.2 Correlation table of labour market participation indicators (see table D.1)
                              A                     B                 C                   D                  E
A                             -                    0.99              0.88               0.90                0.99
B                            0.99                   -                0.84               0.88                0.99
C                            0.88                  0.84                -                0.99                0.86
D                            0.90                  0.88              0.99                 -                 0.89
E                            0.99                  0.99              0.86               0.89                    -
All correlations are significant at the 0.01 level


Unemployment
The indicator used within the context of the European Employment Strategy is based on the
absolute unemployment gender gap. This indicator has a number of inherent problems as
highlighted by Rubery et al. (2001). In order to compensate for the weaknesses of the
indicator Rubery et al. (2001) propose the standardized unemployment gender gap in addition


                                                            59
to other indicators to measure unemployment such as long-term and youth unemployment.
Although the long-term and youth unemployment gender gap are important indicators, the
high correlations between these two indicators and the absolute unemployment gender gap
make them rather redundant. Table D.3 gives an overview of standardized and absolute
unemployment gap, plus the addition of long-term unemployment and youth unemployment
for the year 2000. Overall, the different indicators show large similarities. Moreover, all
correlations between the different indicators are significant (see table D.4; p < 0.01 level).
Given this situation, the indicator used in this report is the same as EO1, which is included
within the EES: the difference in unemployment rates between women and men in percentage
points.


Table D.3 Country scores and ranking on the sub-dimension unemployment
                                                                               Ranking
                    Unemploy-    Standardized    Long term         Youth       A     B    C      D
                    ment rate,   gender gap     unemployment    unemployment
                     absolute     2000 (B)       gender gap      15-24 years
                    gender gap                       2000 (C)    gender gap
                     2000 (A)                                     2000 (D)
UK                      1.1          3.1               0.9           0.2       1     1     1     1
Sweden                  0.3          2.7               0.3           0.1       2     2     4     2
Ireland                 0.2          0.6               0.8           0.1       3     5     2     2
Germany                -0.4          2.6               -0.3         -0.1       4     3     8     4
Luxembourg             -0.7          2.3               -0.0         -0.7       5     4     5     11
Denmark                -1.1          -1.9              -0.3         -0.3       6     9     8     7
Finland                -1.1          -1.8              0.4          -0.1       6     8     3     4
Netherlands            -1.1          -0.3              -0.2         -0.6       8     7     7     10
Austria                -1.3          0.4               -0.1         -0.4       9     6     6     8
Belgium                -1.4          -2.3              -0.4         -0.2       10    10   10     6
Portugal               -1.9          -5.5              -0.8         -0.6       11    12   11     12
France                 -3.4          -4.5              -1.2         -0.5       12    11   12     9
Italy                  -5.6          -6.8              -3.5         -0.8       13    13   13     13
Spain                  -8.0         -12.3              -5.0         -1.1       14    14   14     14
Greece                 -8.6         -14.7              -5.5         -1.3       15    15   15     15
Source: Rubery et al., 2001




                                                60
Table D.4 Correlation table on unemployment indicators (see table D.3)
                                  A                    B            C                   D
A                                  -                 0.96          0.99                0.89
B                                0.96                     -        0.93                0.84
C                                0.99                 0.93           -                 0.87
D                                0.89                 0.84         0.87                 -
All correlations are significant at the 0.01 level




D.2      Equal sharing of money


Pay
For the sub-dimension pay, country scores are based on the gender pay gap as defined by the
ratio of women's gross hourly earnings to men's for paid employees working at least 15 hours.
This corresponds to the European EO5 indicator and as such is in line with the European
Employment Strategy.
         Measuring gender differences in earnings proves to be very difficult (see Barry et al.,
2001). Different data sources and definitions of the gender pay gap lead to very dissimilar
outcomes. Two important data sets on pay are the European Structure of Earnings Survey
(ESES) and the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). The ESES data set sterns
from 1995 and contains data on "mean gross hourly earnings including manufacturing and
services but excluding public administration". This database has obvious shortcomings as
women in many countries are for a large part employed in the public sector, and wage
differences in the public sector are generally smaller than in the private sector. The ECHP
data source has the advantage of covering both the public and private sector. However, for a
long time this source provided only data on net earnings. The problem with net earnings is
that the fiscal structure of countries differs. Since December 2001, this problem has been
solved as the ECHP now also has data on average gross earnings of both the private and
public sector. Since it covers more sectors, the ECHP data is preferred above the ESES.
Moreover, for the calculation of the gender pay gap – as key indicator of EES – the EU also
makes use of ECHP data. Table D.5 summarises the relevant data for 2000.




                                                     61
Table D.5 Country scores and ranking on the sub-dimension pay1
                                                Gender pay ratio2                   Gender pay gap
Italy                                                 94.2                                5.8
Portugal                                              91.9                                8.1
Belgium                                               87.5                               12.5
France                                                87.4                               12.6
Denmark                                               86.6                               13.4
Spain                                                 85.9                               14.1
Sweden                                                85.5                               14.5
Luxembourg                                            85.5                               14.5
Greece                                                85.4                               14.6
Ireland                                               84.1                               15.9
Finland                                               82.8                               17.2
Netherlands                                           82.1                               17.9
Austria                                               80.4                               19.6
Germany                                               78.7                               21.3
UK                                                    78.3                               21.7
1 Numbers in italic refer to European average
2 Ratio of women’s gross hourly earnings to men’s for paid employees who work at least 15 hours
Source: ECHP (wave 7), UMIST calculations; Germany: data from SOEP; Luxembourg: data on poverty from
PSELL; UK: data from BHPS


Income
This sub-dimension measures the gender equality of net annual income on the basis of the
absolute poverty gender gap for single households. This gap is defined as the proportion of
female headed single households under the low-income threshold minus the proportion of
male headed single households under the low-income threshold (Eurostat 2000). The income
poverty line, or low-income threshold, is set at 60% of the median equivalised income per
person in each member state. The equivalised income takes differences in household size and
composition into account. Income figures are given per ‘equivalent adult’: the household
income is divided by its equivalent size using the so-called ‘modified OECD’ equivalence
scale (Eurostat 2003 – Poverty and social exclusion in the EU after Laeken –part 1).
           It is well-known that households differ with respect to poverty. Single households,
especially female headed, seem to be a vulnerable group. Moreover, calculating a gender
poverty gap for all households presumes an equal sharing of income between men and
women. This technique may result in ‘hidden’ gender differences due to an unequal
distribution within families. Therefore, the poverty gender gap for single adult households is


                                                    62
used as indicator for the sub-dimension income. Single households include one person
households and single parent households with one or more children. Within this category
different age-limits can be applied. Table D.6 gives an overview of different indicators in this
respect. For the sake of comparision, also figures for all households are provided (E). The
ranking of the indicators based on single households with persons aged 15 or older (A) and
those aged 25 or older (B) are very similar. The similarities with the ranking of households
with persons aged 60 and older (D) occur mainly at the top and bottom of this distribution.
The ranking of the indicator based on households with persons aged 25-59 years (C) shows
hardly any similarities with the others. This is also illustrated in table D.7, which shows that
all indicators are correlated, with the exception of indicator C. Against this background it is
decided to apply the age limit of 15 years and older.


Table D.6 Country scores and ranking on the sub-dimension income, 20001
                Gender poverty gap in single headed      Gender                Ranking
                           households                    poverty
                15+     25+ (B)     25-59       60+     gap in all   A    B       C      D    E
                (A)                  (C)        (D)      house-
                                                        holds (E)
Netherlands      1.0        2.3           8.6   0.5        1.0       1    1       11     3    2
Germany          3.0        2.6           4.3   -2.7       3.0       2    2       5      2    7
Sweden           5.2        3.9       -1.2      11.8       2.0       3    3       1      11   3
Luxembourg       5.2        7.1           6.1   10.3       0.0       4    4       7      10   1
France           6.7        8.7           8.8   5.6        2.0       5    6       12     5    4
Greece           7.9        9.4           8.5   1.1        2.0       6    7      10      4    5
Italy            8.2        9.6           9.2   5.7        2.0       7    9      13      6    6
Finland          9.2        8.2           0.3   14.3       5.0       8    5       3      12   13
Portugal        11.1        9.4           6.7   -2.8       3.0       9    8       8      1    8
Denmark         11.5       13.1           1.3   7.0        4.0       10   12      4      7    11
Belgium         11.7       11.2       11.2      8.1        3.0       11   10     14      8    9
Ireland         12.3       13.1           0.3   17.8       4.0       12   13      2      14   12
Spain           12.6       12.5           7.9   15.7       3.0       13   11      9      13   10
UK              15.2       16.2       19.9      8.5        6.0       14   14      15     9    14
Austria         19.3       19.9           5.3   35.9       6.0       15   15      6      15   15
1 Numbers in italic refer to EU average
Source: ECHP (wave 7), UMIST calculations; Germany: data from SOEP; Luxembourg: data on poverty from
PSELL; UK: data from BHPS; France: data refer to gross income




                                                   63
Table D.7 Correlation table of income indicators (see table D.6)
                       A            B              C               D                E
A                      -          0.97**          0.20           0.67**         0.80**
B                   0.97**          -             0.27           0.67**         0.72**
C                    0.20          0.27             -            -0.22           0.08
D                   0.67**        0.67**          -0.22            -             0.52*
E                   0.80**        0.72**          0.08           0.52*              -
**     significant at p < 0.01
*      significant at p < 0.05



D.3    Equal sharing of decision-making power

Political power
For this sub-dimension, the share of women in parliament (lower house) is used as an
indicator. Only nine of 15 European countries have an upper house, as a result, the share of
women in parliament is based on the share of women in the lower house. The data on the
share of women in parliament are availabe on a yearly basis, provided by IPU (Inter
Parliamentary Union). The Union is the focal point for worldwide parliamentary dialogue and
works for peace and co-operation among peoples and for the firm establishment of
representative democracy. It collects data on the share of women in parliaments worldwide.
Precise numbers are available for all countries for the years 2002, 2001 and 2000. Data for
1980 and 1990 are also available but are missing for some countries. For EU gender equality
index data are used that refer to the situation in December of the relevant year.
       Another plausible indicator of political power is the share of women in government.
This measure, as readily available from the European Database Women in Decision Making,
could be interpreted as the extent to which women break into the highest levels of political
decision. If measured against the one that relate to the share of women in parliament, this
measure could have the added value of measuring the existence of a ‘ceiling’ at the political
level. However, this indicator does have a weakness as the share of women in government can
change rather drastically with a change of government, without reflecting a serious change in
women’s opportunities of accessing the higher levels of political power. This is especially a
problem for countries with smaller governments. Moreover, the data are provided by states
based on their definition of national executives and may therefore include women serving as
ministers and vice ministers and those holding other ministerial positions. Also, the
correlation of this indicator with the share of women in parliament is high, as illustrated in


                                             64
graph D.1. For data referring to 2001 the correlation is 0.79. Table D.8 presents the ranking
on the sub-dimension political power, using the share of women in the lower house of
parliaments as indicator.


Graph D.1 EU member states by share of women in parliament (lower house) and share of women in the
government, 2001

                                   .5

                                                                                                SE

                                   .4                                                      DK
                                                                                  NL FI

                                                                                    DE
                                   .3                   ES
                                                                         AT
                                                                  BE

                                   .2         PT                             UK
                                                                  LU

                                                                  IRL
                                                                        FR
                                              IT
                                   .1              GR
                         PARLOW




                                  0.0
                                    0.0       .1             .2         .3            .4        .5   .6


                                        GOV

Sources: IPU and WDM ED (2001)




                                                        65
Table D.8 Country scores and ranking on the sub-dimension political power, 2001
Country             Elections        Occupied seats in lower house   Number of women   % of women
Sweden               09 1998                     349                      149             42.7
Denmark              11 2001                     179                       68             38.0
Finland              03 1999                     200                       73             36.5
Netherlands          05 1998                     150                       54             36.0
Germany              09 1998                     666                      207             31.1
Spain                03 2000                     350                       99             28.3
Austria              10 1999                     183                       49             26.8
Belgium              06 1999                     150                       35             23.3
Portugal             10 1999                     230                       43             18.7
UK                   06 2001                     659                      118             17.9
Luxembourg           06 1999                      60                       10             16.7
Ireland              06 1997                     166                       20             12.0
France               05 1997                     577                       63             10.9
Italy                05 2001                     630                       62             9.8
Greece              04 2002                      300                       26             8.7
Source: IPU women in politics 2001


Socio-economic power
With regard to the sub-dimension socio-economic power, the following indicator has been
used: the share of women among legislators, senior officials and managers (ISCO1). This
indicator is comprised of category 1 of the International Standard Classification of
Occupations 88 (ISCO) and refers to top (supervisory) occupations and provides information
on the "ceiling" at the socio-economic level. The figures are summarised in table D.9.




                                                    66
Table D.9 Country scores and ranking on the sub-dimension socio-economic power, 2001
Country                     Men               Women                Total                % women
Ireland                     132                   74                206                  35.9
France                      1131                623                1754                  35.5
Spain                       777                 386                1163                  33.2
Belgium                     306                 150                 456                  32.9
Portugal                    228                 104                 332                  31.3
Sweden                      134                   59                193                  30.6
Austria                     216                   93                309                  30.1
UK                          2651               1141                3792                  30.1
Luxembourg                    7                   3                 10                   30.0
Finland                     156                   60                216                  27.8
Germany                     1552                572                2124                  26.9
Netherlands                 745                 264                1009                  26.2
Greece                      279                   94                373                  25.2
Denmark                     149                   39                188                  20.7
Italy                       556                 128                 684                  18.7
Source: ELFS, UMIST calculations


A problem with using sole ISCO-categories is that cross-national differences in occupational
coding seem to occur. One could include other higher occupations such as ISCO category 2
and 3 (professionals and technical professionals) to reduce cross-national variation. However,
these occupations are less influential. In addition, one could argue to include self-
employment. However, this includes a high share of (very) small companies, which are less
relevant when it comes to socio-economic power.


D.4        Equal sharing of knowledge


Participation in education and training
For equal sharing of knowledge, different indicators may be used. An obvious indicator refers
to education. According to the UNDP education is as a basic dimension of human
development. In the Human Development Index adult literacy rates and combined primary,
secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio’s are used as indicators. Given the very high
literacy rates and enrolment ratio among the European member states, more specific indicators
are needed. The first sub-dimension is the gender gap in participation in education and
training. This sub-dimension corresponds to the European key indicator LLL2. An important
policy goal of the EU is to increase the participation of working age population in education


                                             67
and training in order to avoid skill gaps in the labour market. Given the importance of this
goal, the gender gap in educational participation is included in the index. Table D.10
summarises the relevant data.


Table D.10 Country scores and ranking on the dimension participation in education and
training, 2001
                              Share of the working age population participating in education and training
Country                             Men                        Women                      Gender gap
UK                                  18.0                         25.6                         7.6
Finland                             17.1                         21.4                         4.3
Sweden                              15.4                         19.7                         4.3
Denmark                             16.4                         19.1                         2.7
Luxembourg                           5.9                         4.7                          1.2
Spain                                4.1                         5.2                          1.1
Portugal                             3.0                         3.7                          0.7
France                               2.5                         3.0                          0.5
Italy                                4.9                         5.2                          0.3
Ireland                              5.2                         5.3                          0.1
Greece                               1.5                         1.2                          -0.3
Belgium                              7.7                         6.9                          -0.8
Germany                              5.7                         4.8                          -0.9
Netherlands                         17.0                         15.5                         -1.5
Austria                              9.0                         6.7                          -2.3
Source: Joint Employment Report 2002: 113-114


Educational attainment
The second indicator for gender equality with respect to knowledge is the absolute gender gap
in medium (upper secondary) and higher (tertiary) education. It provides information on the
basic competence level of the population. As such it is used by the EU as a context indicator
in the field of lifelong learning to monitor upskilling of the population. Data are available
from Eurostat from the European Labour Force Survey and are summarised in table D.11.




                                                 68
Table D.11 Country scores and ranking on the sub-dimension educational attainment, 2001
                          Share of the population 15-64 having achieved at least upper secondary education
                          (ISCED level 3)
Country                             Men                        Women                      Gender gap
Ireland                             56.7                         61.8                         5.1
Finland                             66.9                         71.0                         4.1
Portugal                            19.5                         23.4                         3.9
Sweden                              72.0                         75.4                         3.4
Italy                               42.8                         43.0                         0.2
Spain                               41.2                         41.2                         0.0
Belgium                             57.8                         57.5                        -0.3
Greece                              52.7                         51.4                        -1.3
Denmark                             73.7                         71.6                        -2.1
France                              62.7                         59.2                        -3.5
UK                                  83.8                         79.6                        -4.2
Netherlands                         65.8                         61.0                        -4.8
Germany                             78.9                         71.8                        -7.1
Luxembourg                          60.8                         52.5                        -8.3
Austria                             77.8                         67.8                        -10.0
Source: Employment in Europe 2003



D.5        Equal sharing of time


A major problem with respect to time as indicator is the lack of reliable, harmonised data (e.g.
Juster & Stafford 1991). Available research on time use often differs in the method of
research and the sample, which hampers comparability. At the same time, these studies often
show gender-specific time patterns that indicate the importance of including ‘time-indicators’
in the index (e.g. Aliaga & Winqvist, 2003; SCP, 2000). The development of a European
framework of design and administration for Time Use Studies by Eurostat should allow more
comparable results to be presented in the future. Given the limited availability of data, the
following two indicators are included: the gender gap in care intensity and the gender gap
(ratio) in leisure.


Care activities
ECHP provides data for two alternative indicators that refer to care activities; the gender gap
(absolute difference) between women and men aged 20-49 providing care for children or
others, and the gender gap in unpaid time spent looking after children and others.


                                                 69
        Scores on the first alternative, the gender gap (absolute difference) between women
and men aged 20-49 providing care for children or others, are based on a positive or negative
answer to the following question from the ECHP questionnaire: "Do your daily activities
include, without pay, looking after children or other persons?" The numbers are then
calculated on the basis of who answers 1 (yes, looking after children), 2 (yes, looking after a
person other (elderly, disability or illness) than a child), 3 (yes, looking after a child and a
person other than a child) or 4 (not looking after any person). This indicates that there is no
threshold in the number of caring hours that has to be taken into account in order to give a
positive reply to questions 1-3. As a result, this indicator could be considered as a measure of
headcounts. The second alternative provides information on the unpaid time spent looking
after children. This indicator has the advantage that it compensates for gender differences in
actual caring time. Table D.12 provides a ranking of the EU member states on both indicators.
The rankings appear to be quite similar. Denmark has the smalles gender gap in involvement
in care and the smalles gender gap in caring time. In order to compensate for gender
differences in actual caring time, we have decided include the absolute gender gap in unpaid
time providing care for children. The age category included is limited to 20-49 years old. This
age category corresponds to that of EO6 and EO7 and is based on the assumption that,
particularly during these years, care activities are most severe.




                                               70
Table D.12 Country scores and ranking on the sub-dimension care activities, 1996
Country                       Gender gap in          Gender gap in caring           Ranking
                          involvement in care (A)          time (B)
                                                                              A                B
Denmark                            -9.8                      2.1              1                1
Finland                            -12.1                     2.8              2                2
Netherlands                        -13.7                     3.9              3                5
France                             -17.2                     4.2              4                6
Luxembourg                         -21.6                     3.8              5                4
UK                                 -25.9                     4.5              6                8
Germany                            -26.5                     4.3              7                7
Belgium                            -26.6                     3.7              8                3
Spain                              -29.5                     5.7              9                11
Italy                              -30.2                     4.6              10               9
Portugal                           -32.1                     7.0              11               12
Ireland                            -34.5                     7.0              12               13
Greece                             -38.6                     5.6              14               10
Austria                            -35.1                     7.0              13               14
Sweden                             n.a.                      n.a.
Source: ECHP, UMIST calculations


Leisure
The second sub-dimension refers to leisure. Leisure is a broad category and in a recent
Eurostat concept of ‘free time’ it is used as a main activity which includes socializing
(participatory activities, social life, entertainment and culture), leisure time (sports, hobbies,
resting and unspecified leisure), watching TV/video and listening to radio or music and
reading. As table D.13 shows, the amount of free time varies from four hours for women in
France to almost six hours for men in Finland. In addition, there is a clear gender gap in free
time: men have on average more free time per day than women. In five countries this gap is
about half an hour, with the largest gap in France (36 minutes). The smallest gap is found in
Sweden (16 minutes). In all six countries women spend more time on socialising than men,
though the gap is rather small. Men spend more time on leisure and watching TV/video than
women and the gap is bigger. With respect to listening to the radio/music and reading,
countries differ, though the gaps are small (Aliaga & Winqvist, 2003). Unfortunately,
harmonised data are only available for six countries. The ECHP, often used as a ‘second best’
data source on income and time, does not contain data on the amount of leisure time as such,
but only the satisfaction with the amount of leisure. Table D.14 provides figures on the


                                                71
average level of satisfaction with amount of leisure and the share of persons fully satisfied
with amount of leisure. The average level of satisfaction hardly differs between men and
women. The gaps fluctuate around zero. It seems that both men and women are equally
satisfied with the current state of affairs. The share of persons fully satisfied with amount of
leisure shows more variation. In most countries more women are fully satisfied with the
amount of leisure than men, with the biggest gap in Denmark. In the Netherlands, France,
Spain and Italy, women are less often fully satisfied with the amount of leisure compared with
men, however, the differences are small. These figures seem contradictory to results of time
use studies, which mainly show that women have less leisure than men.


Given this outcome, and given the fact that the EU index, if possible, be based on statistical
facts and not on opinions or preferences, data from the time use studies are included as
indicators. The six countries are used to estimate an (weighted) EU average for the countries
for which data on leisure are lacking. Improvements in the comparative methodology of time
use studies should improve this data in the future (see above).




                                              72
Table D.13 Average time per day spent on free time by men and women and gender gap (in minutes)
                         Socialising                Leisure time               TV video            Radio, music reading            Total
                    m         f        ratio   M          f      ratio    m       F       ratio   m         f        ratio    m       f    ratio
Belgium, 1998-      59       65         1.1    78        68      0.87    144     132      0.92    44       34        0.77    325    299     0.92
2000
Population:
12-95 years
Denmark, 2001      76         86       1.1     71       51       0.72    126     111      0.88    33        34        1.0    306    282    0.92
Population:
16-74 years
France, 1988-      54         55       1.0     66       41       0.62    132     122      0.92    30        28       0.93    282    246    0.87
1999
Population:
15 – years
Finland, 1999-     60         68       1.1     96       72       0.75    146     128      0.88    56        60        1.1    358    328    0.92
2000
Population:
10 – years
Sweden, 2000-      64         75       1.2     87       73       0.84    122     105      0.86    41        45        1.1    314    298    0.95
2001
Population:
20-84 years
UK, 2000-2001      62         73       1.2     75       57       0.76    157     136      0.87    33        33        1.0    327    299    0.91
Population:
8 – years
Source: Aliaga & Winqvist, 2003




                                                                         73
Table D.14 Average level of satisfaction with amount of leisure and share of persons
fully satisfied with amount of leisure, 19991
Country           Average level of satisfaction with amount of    Fully satisfied with amount of
                                    leisure                                  leisure
                      M                F              Gap         %m           %f           gap
Denmark               4.6             4.8             0.2         30.6        38.4          7.8
Finland               4.4             4.5             0.1         25.8        30.8          5.0
Austria               4.7             4.8             0.1         35.0        39.7          4.7
Belgium               4.3             4.4             0.1         25.7        27.9          2.2
Germany               4.2             4.3             0.1         17.9        20.1          2.2
Ireland               4.5             4.5             0.0         28.7        30.2          1.5
Portugal              3.8             3.8             0.0         4.9          5.8          0.9
UK                    4.7             4.7             0.0         39.7        40.3          0.6
Greece                3.8             3.8             0.0         11.4        11.8          0.4
Luxembourg            4.6             4.6             0.0         29.3        29.4          0.1
Netherlands           4.4             4.5             0.1         22.4        22.2         -0.2
France                4.2             4.3             0.1         10.4         9.2         -1.2
Spain                 4.0             3.9             -0.1        15.5        13.6         -1.9
Italy                 3.9             3.7             -0.2        13.4        11.3         -2.1
1 Data of Germany and Luxembourg refer to 1996; data of UK are from the national data-base BHPS
Source: ECHP, Eurostat; UMIST calculations




                                              74
E          Monitoring progress: indicator values 1996, 1999, 2001


Table E.1 Employment rates and gender gaps in the EU member states, 1996, 1999
and 2001
                         Men                   Women                   Gap
                 1996    1999    2001   1996    1999   2001    1996    1999    2001
Belgium          66.9    68.1    68.8   45.4    50.4    51.0   -21.5   -17.7   -17.8
Denmark          80.1    80.8    80.2   67.4    71.1    72.0   -12.7   -9.7    -8.2
Germany          72.6    72.8    72.8   55.3    57.4    58.8   -17.3   -15.4   -14.0
Greece           72.7    70.9    70.8   38.7    40.6    40.9   -34.0   -30.3   -29.9
Spain            63.2    69.2    72.4   32.9    38.4    43.0   -30.3   -30.8   -29.4
France           67.0    68.0    69.7   52.2    54.0    56.0   -14.8   -14.0   -13.7
Ireland          67.5    74.5    76.4   43.2    52.0    54.9   -24.3   -22.5   -21.5
Italy            66.7    67.3    68.6   36.0    38.3    41.1   -30.7   -29.0   -27.5
Luxembourg       74.3    74.5    75.0   43.8    48.6    50.9   -30.5   -25.9   -24.1
Netherlands      76.5    80.9    82.8   55.8    62.3    65.3   -20.7   -18.6   -17.5
Austria          77.3    77.6    76.4   58.4    59.6    60.7   -18.9   -18.0   -15.7
Portugal         73.8    75.9    76.7   54.9    59.6    61.0   -18.9   -16.3   -15.7
Finland          65.4    69.2    70.8   59.4    63.4    65.4    -6.0   -5.8    -5.4
Sweden           72.6    74.0    75.7   68.1    69.4    72.3    -4.5   -4.6    -3.4
UK               75.5    77.7    78.3   62.5    64.2    65.0   -13.0   -13.5   -13.3
Source: Employment in Europe, 2003




                                         75
Table E.2 Unemployment rates and gender gaps in the EU member states, 1996, 1999
and 2001
                        Men                       Women                 Gap
               1996     1999     2001      1996   1999    2001   1996   1999   2001
Belgium         7.4      7.3         6.0   12.5    10.3   7.6    5.1    3.0    1.6
Denmark         5.3      4.4         3.9   7.5     5.4    4.9    2.2    1.0    1.0
Germany         8.1      8.1         7.8   9.5     8.9    7.9    1.4    0.8    0.1
Greece          6.1      7.8         6.9   15.2    17.8   15.5   9.1    10.0   8.6
Spain          14.4      9.0         7.5   24.4    18.7   15.4   10.0   9.7    7.9
France         10.2      9.1         7.0   13.9    12.7   10.3   3.7    3.6    3.3
Ireland        11.5      5.7         4.0   11.8    5.5    3.8    0.3    -0.2   -0.2
Italy           8.9      8.6         7.3   15.9    15.5   12.9   7.0    6.9    5.6
Luxembourg      2.2      1.8         1.7   4.2     3.3    2.7    2.0    1.5    1.0
Netherlands     4.8      2.3         2.0   7.7     4.4    2.9    2.9    2.1    0.9
Austria         3.7      3.4         3.2   5.2     4.7    4.2    1.5    1.3    1.0
Portugal        6.5      3.9         3.2   8.2     5.2    5.1    1.7    1.3    1.9
Finland        14.3      9.8         8.6   14.9    10.7   9.7    0.6    0.9    1.1
Sweden         10.1      6.6         5.2   9.0     6.8    4.5    -1.1   0.2    -0.7
UK              9.3      6.5         5.5   6.3     5.1    4.4    -3.0   -1.4   -1.1
Source: Employment in Europe, 2003




                                           76
Table E.3 Gender pay ratio and gender gaps in the EU member states, 1996, 1999 and
20001
                             Gender pay ratio                      Gender pay gap
                    1996           1999              2000   1996       1999         2000
Belgium             90.5           89.0              87.5   9.5         11.0        12.5
Denmark             85.3           87.6              86.6   14.7        12.4        13.4
Germany             77.9           81.1              78.7   22.1        18.9        21.3
Greece              87.0           87.8              85.4   13.0        12.2        14.6
Spain               88.0           88.0              85.9   12.0        12.0        14.1
France              86.6           88.2              87.4   13.4        11.8        12.6
Ireland             81.8           81.1              84.1   18.2        18.9        15.9
Italy               92.6           92.3              94.2   7.4         7.7         5.8
Luxembourg          81.8           86.0              85.5   18.2        14.0        14.5
Netherlands         80.2           80.2              82.1   19.8        19.8        17.9
Austria             81.9           79.8              80.4   18.1        20.2        19.6
Portugal            94.7           96.4              91.9   5.3         3.6         8.1
Finland             83.3           81.4              82.8   16.7        18.6        17.2
Sweden              85.9           86.0              85.5   14.1        14.0        14.5
UK                  75.0           76.8              78.3   25.0        23.2        21.7
1 Numbers in italic refer to EU average
Source: ECHP (wave 3, 6 and 7), UMIST calculations




                                                77
Table E.4 Poverty rates among single households and gender gaps in the EU member
states, 1996, 1999 and 2000
                         Men                         Women                 Gap
               1996      1999     2000     1996      1999    2000   1996   1999   2000
Belgium         13.7     13.7     11.0     26.7       25.0   22.7   13.1   11.3   11.7
Denmark         17.0     21.7     24.3     27.9       38.6   35.8   10.8   16.8   11.5
Germany         18.4     20.6     20.4     28.5       23.0   23.4   10.1   2.5    3.0
Greece          18.2     19.3     18.0     27.3       27.8   25.9   9.1    8.6    7.9
Spain           14.8     14.1     13.6     15.9       18.6   26.2   1.1    4.5    12.6
France          22.2     19.0     17.0     26.4       24.9   23.7   4.2    6.0    6.7
Ireland         27.8     27.3     29.0     37.2       40.7   41.3   9.4    13.3   12.3
Italy           15.3     15.5     13.8     25.2       21.4   22.2   9.9    5.9    8.4
Luxembourg      8.0      9.8       8.7     18.8       17.9   13.9   10.8   8.0    5.2
Netherlands     22.0     17.8     16.0     23.4       21.1   17.0   1.4    3.3    1.0
Austria         14.4     11.4     10.8     31.0       31.6   30.1   16.7   20.1   19.3
Portugal        33.5     22.7     21.8     37.7       35.4   33.0   4.2    12.6   11.1
Finland         19.6     23.7     22.4     20.1       29.2   31.6   0.5    5.5    9.2
Sweden          19.4     20.1     19.8     27.1       20.5   25.0   7.7    0.4    5.2
UK              23.3     23.2     23.2     36.3       35.9   38.5   13.1   12.7   15.2
Source: ECHP (wave 3,6, and 7), UMIST calculations




                                            78
Table E.5 Shares in parliament and gender gaps in the EU member states, 1996, 1999 and
2001
                          Men                         Women                     Gap
                1996      1999      2001     1996         1999   2001   1996    1999    2001
Belgium         88.0      76.7      76.7      12.0        23.3   23.3   -76.0   -53.4   -53.4
Denmark         67.0      62.6      62.0      33.0        37.4   38.0   -34.0   -25.2   -24.0
Germany         73.8      69.1      69.1      26.2        30.9   30.9   -47.6   -38.2   -38.2
Greece          93.7      93.7      93.7      6.3         6.3    6.3    -87.4   -87.4   -87.4
Spain           75.4      78.4      71.8      24.6        21.6   28.2   -50.8   -56.8   -43.6
France          93.6      89.1      87.7      6.4         10.9   12.3   -87.2   -78.2   -75.4
Ireland         86.1      88.0      88.6      13.9        12.0   11.4   -72.2   -76.0   -77.2
Italy           88.9      88.9      86.8      11.1        11.1   13.2   -77.8   -77.8   -73.6
Luxembourg      80.0      83.3      83.3      20.0        16.7   16.7   -60.0   -66.6   -66.6
Netherlands     68.7      64.0       66       31.3        36.0   34.0   -37.4   -28.0   -32.0
Austria         73.2      73.2      73.2      26.8        26.8   26.8   -46.4   -46.4   -46.4
Portugal        87.0      81.3      79.9      13.0        18.7   20.1   -74.0   -62.6   -59.8
Finland         66.5      63.0      63.5      33.5        37.0   36.5   -33.0   -26.0   -27.0
Sweden          59.6      57.3      56.4      40.4        42.7   43.6   -19.2   -14.6   -12.8
UK              90.5      81.6      81.6      9.5         18.4   18.4   -81.0   -63.2   -63.2
Source: Inter-parliamentary Union, Women in Parliaments




                                               79
Table E.6 Shares in ISCO 1 and gender gaps in the EU member states, 1996, 1999 and
2001
                           Men                      Women                  Gap
                 1996      1999       2001   1996   1999    2001   1996    1999    2001
Belgium          71.1      68.3       67.1   28.9    31.7   32.9   -42.2   -36.6   -34.2
Denmark          77.3      78.0       79.3   22.7    22.0   20.7   -54.6   -56.0   -58.5
Germany1         73.2      73.7       73.1   26.8    26.3   26.9   -46.3   -47.4   -46.1
Greece           77.0      75.9       74.8   23.0    24.1   25.2   -53.9   -51.9   -49.6
Spain            67.4      68.7       66.8   32.6    31.3   33.2   -34.9   -37.5   -33.6
France           64.4      66.3       64.5   35.6    33.7   35.5   -28.9   -32.7   -29.0
Ireland          71.8      67.8       64.1   28.2    32.2   35.9   -43.6   -35.5   -28.2
Italy            80.2      81.9       81.3   19.8    18.1   18.7   -60.4   -63.8   -62.6
Luxembourg       80.0      72.7       70.0   20.0    27.3   30.0   -60.0   -45.5   -40.0
Netherlands      78.6      76.4       73.8   21.4    23.6   26.2   -57.1   -52.9   -47.7
Austria          74.2      72.0       69.9   25.8    28.0   30.1   -48.4   -43.9   -39.8
Portugal         67.9      69.1       68.7   32.1    30.9   31.3   -35.8   -38.2   -37.3
Finland2         69.5      71.9       72.2   30.5    28.1   27.8   -39.1   -43.7   -44.4
          2
Sweden           69.5      72.0       69.4   30.5    28.0   30.6   -39.1   -44.0   -38.9
UK               66.3      66.1       69.9   33.7    33.9   30.1   -32.6   -32.3   -39.8
1 Data of 1996 refer to West Germany
2 Numbers in italic refer to EU average
Source: ELFS, UMIST calculations




                                             80
F        Sources and availability of data used for the EU gender equality index

Subdimensions/indicators                            Source          Data used in final EU    Availability
                                                                    gender equality index
                                                                    based on year
1. Participation:                                   ELFS            2001                     Annual
a. the absolute employment gap, measured by                         Included for
the difference in employment rates between                          monitoring change:
women and men in percentage points.                                 1996 and 1999
2. Unemployment:                                    ELFS            2001                     Annual
the absolute unemployment gap, measured by                          Included for
the difference in unemployment rates between                        monitoring change:
women and men in percentage points.                                 1996 and 1999
3. Pay:                                             ECHP            2000 (wave 7)            Annual since
the gender pay gap, measured by the ratio of                        Included for onitoring   1994,
women’s gross hourly earnings to men’s for                          change: 1996 (wave 3)    continuation
paid employees at work at least 15 hours.                           and 1999 (wave 6)        uncertain
4. Income:                                          ECHP            2000 (wave 7)            Annual since
the absolute gender poverty gap, measured by                        Included for             1994,
the proportion of single women (aged 15 years                       monitoring change:       continuation
and older) under the low income threshold set at                    1996 (wave 3) and        uncertain
60% of the median net annual equivalised                            1999 (wave 6)
income, minus the proportion of single men
under the low income threshold.
5. Political power:                                 Inter           2001                     Continuous
the gender gap in political power, measured by      Parliamentary   Included for             update
the share of women in parliament (lower             Union           monitoring change:
house).                                                             1996 and 1999
6. Socio-economic power:                            ELFS            2001                     Annual
gender gap in socio-economic power, measured                        Included for
by the share of women among legislators,                            monitoring change:
senior officials and managers (as covered by                        1996 and 1999
ISCO category 1).
7. Participation in education and training:         ELFS            2001                     Annual
the gender gap in educational participation,
measured by the difference between the share
of women and men of working-age population
participating in education and training.
8. Educational attainment:                          ELFS            2001                     Annual
the gender gap in educational attainment,
measured by the difference between the share of
women and men of working age population
having achieved at least upper secondary
education (ISCED level 3).
9. Care activities:                                 ECHP            2000 (wave 7)            Annual since
the gender gap in caring time, measured by the                                               1994,
difference in average time of men and women                                                  continuation
aged 20-49 spent on providing care for children.                                             uncertain
10. Leisure time:                                   European        Different years          Unknown
 the gender gap in leisure time, measured by the    time use
ratio of women’s leisure time to the leisure time   surveys as
of men.                                             published by
                                                    Aliaga &
                                                    Winqvist
                                                    (2003)



                                                    81
82