Document Sample

PURPOSE: To teach Resumix users reasons and proper techniques for proper Job

DURATION: This module is designed to last 4 hours.

MATERIALS: Resumix accounts and computers for each student; a copy of the
Resumix SOP

Prepared by CHRA, TMD and modified on January 28, 2005

Job Analysis is a critical part of the MERIT System. The way to determine if proper Job
Analysis is done correctly is if the right candidates are referred and are qualified for the

In a study conducted by the Army psychologist, Mr. Murray Mack, the numbers have
consistently risen in regard to Management’s opinion on the item “The personnel office
refers high quality candidates for vacancies”. In 1997, 32% of respondents rated this
item “Favorable”; it went up to 41% in 2003.

In the second category “The quality of candidates referred to me is high”, the “Favorable”
response in 1997 was at 35% and 2003 it was at 45%.

The trend is moving in the right direction but by contrast 55% of respondents feel referral
quality is less than “high”. This should be of concern to the HR community and a
challenge we need to overcome.


State objectives.


There is a legal requirement for job analysis under Federal law and under Title VII.
Legal cases such as the Griggs vs. Duke Power (1971) and the Albemarle Paper vs.
Moody (1975) changed requirements for insuring that all job-related criteria were based
upon a Job Analysis.

Griggs vs. Duke Power – A this case rose when Willie Griggs applied for coal handler
position with the Duke Power Company. His request was denied because he was not a
high school graduate – a requirement of the job. Griggs claimed that the job
requirement was discriminatory because it did not relate to job success and had a
negative impact on protected classes. This case recognized adverse impact
discrimination and established two points. First, the employment need not be overt or
intentional to be present. Employment practices can be illegal even when applied to all
employees. For example, a law requiring all police officers to be five feet, ten inches, tall
may limit employment opportunities for Asians and women. Second, the burden of proof
lies with the employer to show that any employment requirement is directly job-related.

Albemarle Paper vs. Moody – The Albemarle Paper Company required job applicants to
pass different employment tests, some of which were believed to be poor predictors of
job success. The Court ruled that items used to validate employment requirements must
themselves be job-related. Any test used for promotion or selection of employees
(including performance appraisals) must be a valid predictor for a particular job. This
ruling strengthened the principles in Griggs and placed great importance on the Uniform

Ask the students to turn to Handout 1 and go over the highlights of the Uniform


CFR 300.103 requires employment practices be based on a job analysis. It states that
employment practices of the Federal government shall be based on a job analysis based

•     The basic duties and responsibilities
•     The Knowledge, Skills and Abilities required to perform duties and
•     Factors that are important in evaluating candidates

The job analysis must demonstrate a rational relationship between the job performance
or the target position in the case of an entry-level position and the employment practice

EEO and employment practice shall not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion,
sex, age, national origin, and etc. or other non-merit factors. Employee selection
procedures shall meet the standards established by the Uniform Guidelines.

Slides 6 – 9           RESUMIX GUIDELINES

These next few slides describe what is needed and what documentation is used for skill
extractions from Resumix. Key phrases from the job description are used which include:
defining programs, systems used, technical knowledge and demands of the job. The
classification standards are an invaluable source of information in determining job skills.
Reading the classification standard associated with the series of the job being filled
provides insight into expectations of the levels and types of work being performed.

Management may send in skills and/or paragraph of duties when they submit the
Request for Personnel Action. The Staffing Specialist may request a skills list or
paragraph of duties when the job description does not adequately provide them. An
example of this situation would be the description of duties from Interdisciplinary position
with a very generic description of duties. It is important to contact the manager or the
Subject Matter Expert (SME). The manager may have skills from a previously
announced position, a similar position or need to create them. The emphasis is on
making contact with the manager and verifying/requesting information such as the
manager’s expectations on the recruitment efforts. Good communications lead to the
development of desired/required candidate qualities, examples of duties to be
highlighted in the vacancy announcement and so on. The effective staffer stays in
contact with his/her manager and discusses skills before and after skills extraction. This
is a part of good customer service.

There must be a nexus between the job analysis processes performed using Resumix
and the job duties listed on the vacancy announcement. 5 CFR 330 stipulates what
information must be included on all federal vacancy announcements. Applicants must
be informed of the basis for how they will be evaluated. In the past prior to Resumix,
specific Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSAs) were listed on the announcement,
informing applicants of the important areas under which they would be evaluated
against. Today narrative KSAs are not used, therefore Staffing Specialist in the Army do
not list the specific skills on the vacancy announcement. To meet regulatory
requirements, Army vacancy announcements inform applicants that they will be
evaluated against the skills necessary to perform the duties as listed on the vacancy
announcement. For this to happen, the information listed under duties in the vacancy
announcement has to be the starting point when entering and extracting skills from

The entire position description should not be copied in Resumix to extract skills, in fact,
most position description can not be copied in toto in the vacancy announcement
because of a character limitation within the vacancy announcement builder. The better
method is to analyze the requirements of the job, incorporate information provided by the
manager either telephonically or via the Gatekeeper, determine the truly important
information and then extract skills - ensuring a nexus between which skills will be used
to evaluate candidates and what is placed under duties in the vacancy announcement.


Use of generic or inaccurate PD -it is extremely important to have the input of a manager
and/or SME in this case. Job-related information should be supplied by the SME.
Inaccurate position descriptions should be resolved or documented in the notes section
of Resumix. Customer satisfaction starts and ends with good customer service.
However this does NOT mean that you accept information blindly. Good judgment is
critical to successful job analysis. If something does not feel right or sound right, ask

Using skills not referenced in the PD - It’s OK to use skills not spelled out under the
duties section in the position description provided they are job-related, merit based and
can be documented (in the notes section) and verified. One example would be using
“demo” position descriptions. Sometimes these job descriptions must be supplemented
by other means to ensure that a proper analysis is being conducted.

Modifying skills after the MPA closes - There should not be many situations, which
require that skills be modified, and you cannot add or delete skills that would violate
merit principles. However, if, after you run your initial resume search, you cannot
determine a "clear or natural" break in the number of skill matches to determine the short
list, you may modify the skills IAW manager's input such as taking the manager's most
important desired skill, changing it to a required skill and re-running the resume search
again. Caution must be taken to ensure applicants are not screened out if they shouldn't
be. Make sure you spot test. It can be done if the reasons are merit based,
documented and there is no violation of merit principles or prohibited personnel
practices. Document all modifications in the notes section.

Modification of search plan after PPP clearance – Modification can be made after PPP is
cleared, however you must re-screen your PPP matches using the modified factors and
skills. PPP procedures need to be followed. If you do not have skills by time you have a
match, contact the registering activity and let them know that they are on the way. Use
the notes section of Resumix to clearly document any modifications.

Needed skills not in grammar base - Unique occupations sometimes require local
grammar to be identified, developed and added to the Grammar Database. Each CPOC
has a person responsible for leading local grammar building efforts. Keep in mind that
grammar development is time consuming and labor intensive. It ends up being a time
saver in the long run but it does not happen overnight. An important task for a staffer is
to keep track of and report skills not found in the grammar base. When the call comes
out to update the grammar base, the information will be available.

Minimum/Maximum number of skills used - Rule of Thumb is between 10 and 20 skills.
The answer depends on the potential applicant pool - the larger the pool the more skills
you will need to make meaningful distinctions between candidates i.e. determining a
“clear break”. If a manager is sent 200+ resumes, proper job analysis was probably not

Number of skills SME receives - Between 5 and 20 skills. Do not send the “raw” skills
from the initial extract. You must analyze the skills ensuring job-relatedness and utility
before submitting to the SME.

Defining “soft skills” - Examples of soft skills include written or oral communication,
analytical ability, team building, leadership, etc. Soft skills (such as oral communication)
are typically very difficult to measure using a skills extraction method of candidate
evaluation. These types of skills would be easier to measure during the interview
process. However, if the position’s main requirement is a soft skill “public speaking” for
a Public Affairs Specialist, then obviously it needs to be used.


Agency specific skills – The use of agency specific skills are appropriate if the area of
consideration limits the applicant pool to the DA. Common sense needs to be used. For
instance, it would not be appropriate to use an Army specific skill when filling a clerical
position. If the Army specific skill were essential to successful job performance, then it
would be acceptable to use. However, this would typically be a desired, not a required

Measurable - When Staffer is performing job analysis they must determine that the skills
are based on duties contained in the job description, cannot be so restrictive that only
Army applicants would possess those skills and must be “measurable” in a resume.
Measurable is defined as whether or not the criterion can be appraised by the skill. If it
can not be measured through the use of a grammar matching system, it should not be
used. Good judgment is the key to success.


Required/Desired - Applicants who do not possess the required skill will not appear on a
short list. If a large number of applicants exist it is not unusual to add required skill(s) to
aid in the determination of “best qualified”. The Resumix SOP states that they are used
to determine who will be referred to the selecting official when no natural break in scores
exists otherwise. This turns these skills into a “screen out” element. Candidates
matching the highest number or overall skills can be quickly eliminated from
consideration if the only skill they don’t match is the “required” skill. When such skills
are used, it should be tested and validated to make sure that it is distinguishing
candidates properly.

Skills not applicable - There are certain lower-graded wage positions where skills are not
required such as lower graded food service workers. Other jobs include worker-trainee
jobs and simple support jobs. In these instances, specific skills applicable to the trade
should not be used since they are not required to meet the minimum level screen-out in
order to do the job. Very generic skills such as sorting, checking, counting, neatness,
etc should be used as they are applicable to the job but do not require any specific trade

Knowledge Base Category - Specialist should always ensure that the skills sent to
Management are from the right category. This is where the skills associated with that
particular category reside (e.g. “engineer” falls into nine different categories, if your are
recruiting for a Civil Engineer you would want to make sure the skills you will be
selecting and sending forward come from the Civil Engineer skill-base or one closely

Recently a user uncovered a situation concerning the use of Resumix skills that are
found listed under several different categories. It was discovered that upon saving such
a skill in the Resume Search, the "default" category that was originally associated with
the skill is saved. This led to uncertainty as to whether appropriate skills matching
would occur when the Resume Search was run.

Checking the appropriate category in the Resumix Knowledge Base is a critical step in
the Resumix Job Analysis process. It is vital that only appropriate skills are used. With
the discovery of this issue, staffers should not automatically dismiss the skill if found
under a questionable category. If a skill falls into more than one category, staffers
should check to see if one of the categories is related to your job. If at least one of the
categories is appropriate, the skill may be used. A skill should only be dismissed if
none of the categories it is listed under is appropriate.

Full Text Search is used when a “required skill” has been used. There is an exercise a
little later on.

Grammar – One element of an effective skill search. There are two different types of
grammar – Core and Local Grammar.


Note: Although under WG, various job elements may be used, the “Screen-out” element
or the “Ability to do the work of the position without more than normal supervision” is
mandatory and is the basis for extracting skills during the Resumix job analysis process.


For the WG system there is a manual which provides an explanation of the job
qualification system for WG position and lists skills by families (e.g. by occupational
groupings). This book, previously called the X118C, identifies appropriate shop
practices, materials, equipment, definition of the job element and work examples and
levels of complexity that are essential in deciding the importance of the various tasks
and the relative weights that should be assigned to them. This manual is called the “Job
Qualification System for Trades and Labor Occupations”. It can be located at the
following website:
 http://www.opm.gov/qualifications/x-118C/ If the students wish/need more information
on evaluating wage grade positions, go to the website and describe how the qualification
system works.

This manual requires that all decisions, modifications, or interpretations made prior to or
during the rating process are recorded in the crediting plan in the notes section. This is
especially important for kinds of experience and training that are considered to be non-
qualifying for the screen-out element, whether described in the announcement or
decided in the course of rating applications.

SLIDE 16         EXTRACTING SKILLS (con’t)

The Resumix screen shot depicts the job analysis for a WG-4706-9, Carpenter, position.
On the left of the screen are the desired skills that were extracted from the following.

“Plan and complete work involving the construction of building additions, put up
frameworks, rafters, bearings, frame windows and doors; install dry walls; complete trim
work. Uses woodworking equipment and precision layout and measuring devices such
as levels, plumb lines.”

This is from an actual merit promotion case. Twenty-two people qualified for this


Recognizing “BAD” skill is covered in the Recognize Bad Skills Exercise. One example
of a “bad” skill is using “filing” for a secretarial position. It is possible that you will end up
under the Trades and Labor with “metal filing”. Another possibility is searching for a
statistician who does computer “modeling” and you end up with a runway high-fashion

SLIDES 18 – 19           FULL TEXT SEARCH

The full text search is used to test and validate required skills. It is used to differentiate
phrases that mean the same as the RESUMIX skill. Part of the testing process is to use
different skills to determine if someone would be improperly excluded due to “grammar”
deficiencies. Examples on slide 19.

The pipe symbol “|” is located on the keyboard on the upper case of the back slash “\”. It
separates skills. You can use more than one word by using quote marks. Use all lower
case letters and use pipe symbol to separate phrases “|”


This will match candidates that have the required skill, but only if they do not have the
excluded skill. Reverse skills & run again.

The intent/goal of the workshop and exercise is to pull up an actual, real requisition,
resume search plan and match results. Students will be asked to assess the quality of
candidate resumes as indicated by the skill match results. Students will then attempt to
improve the job analysis performed for this job by applying the advanced techniques
learned to test skills using full text searches, required/excluded searches, validating
skills against employee skills already at journeymen grade, series, etc. After refining the
job analysis and modifying the actual skills, perform another resume search against the
same group of candidates and assess the quality of candidate resumes again.