PMS – MICE by forrests

VIEWS: 120 PAGES: 15



Objective The objective of this PMS is to look at the MICE industry in Singapore and recommend strategies for Malaysia to adopt in comparison to what Singapore does.


MICE venues in Singapore In Singapore, the main MICE venues and their total space are as listed below: Name of venue meters) Total Exhibition Space (square

Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre Singapore Expo Raffles City Convention Centre Singapore’s rating for MICE internationally


100,000 6,720


Singapore remained as a popular MICE venue in the international arena. It has also gained some outstanding awards internationally. For example,  Singapore was voted the world’s third busiest convention hub in 2004 by the International Congress and Convention Association. The other 2 destination leading in this endeavor are Vienna, Austria and Barcelona, Spain. Singapore was also rated as Asia’s Top Convention City for 21 consecutive years and rated as the world’s fifth best convention city by the Union of International Association, Brussels.



Market Size & Revenue   The total spending of visitor arrivals in Singapore in 2005 reached S$10 billion, surpassing 2004’s revenue of S$9.6 billion. In 2005, the number of visitor arrival to Singapore totaled 8.9 million. 1


In 2004, out of the 8.3 million visitor arrival in Singapore, 2 million accounted for business visitors. This, represent about 26% of total visitors. Total hotel room revenue in 2004 reached about S$1 billion. This represents 33.6% increase over 2003, and 1% increase over 2002. Singapore posted S$9.6 billion in tourism receipts in 2004, about 10% above the Singapore Tourism Board’s target of S$8.7 billion for the year. The S$9.6 billion in receipts is 38% more than the S$6.9 billion received in 2003, and 8.7% more than the S$8.8 billion received in 2002. Several 5 star business hotels in Singapore revealed that they have been hosting between 5 – 10 MICE events on an average per day. It is also said that the business of hosting meetings is so lucrative that it can account for approximately 25% of a hotel’s annual revenue. It is also found that the first quarter of the year is when a lot of MICE events take place. During this period, some hotels had even turned down bookings as their rooms are completely sold. According to the Singapore Tourism Board, the number of corporate meetings grew at an annual rate of 81% between 1999 and 2003. Other data provided by them are as listed below:  An average visitor to Singapore spends S$705 per trip (RM 1621.00 )  A business visitor spends an average of S$900 to S$1000 per trip (RM 2070.00 – 2300.00 )  A MICE visitor spends about S$1500 – S$1800 per trip (RM3450.00- 4140.00)

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On an average, each MICE visitor spends about 3 – 4 days in Singapore. Their expenses in Singapore include accommodation, food and beverages, visit to attractions of Singapore and registration fee for conventions and meetings.


According to the Minister of Trade & Industry, Singapore earns S$12 in revenue for every S$1 spent in attracting tourist including MICE visitors. This is based on a study done by a local university.


What Singapore offers to MICE visitors Singapore boasts of offering the following to her visitors.




With over 3,700 weekly flights offered by about 74 international airlines in Singapore, the award-winning Changi Airport connects Singapore to over 170 cities around the world. Singapore is about 6 hours from most cities in Asia and about 3.5 hours or less from all ASEAN capitals. Singapore’s compact geography coupled with an advanced, efficient transport infrastructure makes getting around locally easy. (ii) More choice in venues

Singapore offers an excellent range of state-of-the-art convention centres, exhibition halls and meeting venues to suit a variety of needs and budgets. The Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre and the Singapore Expo are suitable for large scale international exhibitions and conferences. Together with the Raffles City Convention Centre and Waterfront Conference Centre, these venues not only offer state-of-the-art conference and meeting facilities, but also the convenience of nearby accommodation and dining. (iii) Hotel Accommodation

With over 100 hotels housing about 30,000 rooms, Singapore gives the business traveler an extensive choice of accommodation. There’s an answer to every budget and preference too: from no-frills hotels to luxury beach resorts, from grand historic hotels to modern business ones. Most hotels offer fully-equipped business centers, meeting facilities, broadband internet access and other conveniences for business travelers. (iv) Professional Supporting services

Singapore has consistently been Asia’s favourite meeting place. With this, some of the region’s most experienced MICE organizers as stated below are stationed in Singapore       (v) exhibition organizers convention organizers destination management companies event organizers advertising agencies shipping agents specially for exhibition cargo


The Singapore government is committed to security in every sense of the word. In fact, Singapore remains one of Asia’s safest cities, which provides a safe destination for both organizers and visitors. (vi) Places to see

Singapore also offers a wide and exciting range of shopping, dining and entertainment around the clock, to occupy visitors both day and 3

night. Apart from this, Singapore also offers many fascinating sights and sounds for the visitor. Nature lovers can get close to the animals at the award-winning Singapore Zoological Gardens and Night Safari, or simply the lush greenery of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, while for the kids there is the exciting resort island of Sentosa, where they can experience the Underwater World, a 19th century fortress, a butterfly park and many other attractions. And for a taste of culture, the Chinatown Heritage Centre provides a glimpse into Singapore's vibrant past. A variety of outdoor activities is offered by Singapore wakeboarding, rock climbing or golf, and everything is under an hour away via an efficient public transport system. (vii) Cuisine

Singapore offers a very wide range of cuisine with health authorities monitoring all the restaurants and food outlets very closely for cleanliness. Many of their food outlets are also halal certified. (viii) Shopping Singapore stresses a lot on retail trade making it a shopping paradise. (ix) Art, shows and museums

Arts, shows and museums also constitute as a very much “in” thing in a daily life of a visitor to Singapore. The Esplanade – Theatres on the bay is a world-class venue that has hosted numerous international performances, including Cats, Oliver and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. There is something in performance arts happening daily in Singapore.


What Singapore offers to MICE organizers? The Singapore Exhibition & Conference Bureau (SECB), an organization under the Singapore Tourism Board provides assistance to organizers who bid for conferences and events in Singapore. Their assistance takes the following form: (i) Assistance in Bidding

In this context of assistance in bidding, SECB will provide advise as to suitable date for an event, provide information on what needs to be included in a bid (such information would typically be contained within a bid specification) and assist bidders in the compilation of a bid document. (ii) Site Inspection

SECB provides assistance for site inspections by decision makers of an event to determine if Singapore is a suitable destination. Sometimes, they host such visits and provide complimentary packages bearing some of the expenses. 4


Promotional Assistance

When a particular event is confirmed in Singapore, SECB would assist the organizers in attendance-building for the event. The aims of the SECB’s promotional assistance are to:  increase awareness of the conference scheduled in Singapore,  help the organizer reach the targeted number of delegates for the conference,  value add by exceeding the number of targeted participants for the conference, and  draw in more foreign delegates to Singapore. Their assistance also include setting up promotional booths and providing information both locally and internationally in big events and further marketing the events through the Singapore Tourism Board overseas offices (iv) Publicity

The SECB also provides blank shells in posters and other publicity materials, to enable organizers to overprint their conference announcements and to disseminate them as promotional flyers. These publicity materials are pre-printed with pictures and information on Singapore, thus allowing organizers to defray their printing costs. Organizers are also allowed to personalize these posters by inserting the name and date of their conference.


What Singapore offers as incentives for MICE events in Singapore? Singapore offers a host of incentives for both local and international MICE organizers located in Singapore. The form of assistance, its eligibility criteria and other pertinent information are as follows: (i) For Corporate Meetings & Incentive Travel Groups Eligibility Criteria     Minimum 150 visitor nights ( calculated by nights in Singapore X overseas visitors) Minimum 2 nights’ consecutive stay in Singapore No minimum nights criteria for International Board Meetings Event to be held in Singapore by 31 December 2007

Incentives Offered


For Site Inspection  2 complimentary rooms for up to 3 nights each for decision makers.


For Confirmed Events  1 complimentary room for every 25 rooms confirmed, up to a maximum of 5 rooms for the duration of the event.  Room upgrades for VIPs (up to 3 rooms)  Late check-out (based on availability)  Venues 

Discount of food bill for welcome or opening reception at the official hotel / venue where main event is being held and / or Special Rates for set-up and teardown days

 Airlines

Mutually beneficial commercial arrangements based on nett flown revenue generated by organizers. The incentive will be in the form of which organizers can draw upon for the marketing of their future event.

(ii) For Conventions Eligibility Criteria    Minimum 400 visitor nights (calculated by nights in Singapore X overseas visitors) Minimum 2 nights’ consecutive stay in Singapore Event to be held in Singapore by 31 December 2007

Incentives offered

Financial Support  Financial support for bidding cost to secure new events in Singapore  Up to 30% financial support to organizers for: Singapore Tourism Board  Management fee of Professional Conference Organisers  Overseas Marketing Course  Speaker Support Non-Financial Support  Facilitation to secure Guest of Honour  Welcome message at Changi Airport  Facilitation to secure exclusive venues 6

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Facilitation to immigration clearances Publicity

For Site Inspection  2 complimentary rooms for up to 3 nights each for decision-makers Hotels For Confirmed Events  1 complimentary room for every 25 rooms confirmed, up to a maximum of 5 rooms for the duration of the event.  Room upgrades for VIPs (up to 3 rooms)  Late check-out (based on availability)  Venues   Airlines Discount of food bill for welcome or opening reception at the official hotel / venue where main event is being held and / or Special Rates for set-up and tear-down days Offer mutually beneficial commercial arrangements based on nett flown revenue generated by organizers. The incentive will be in the form of which organizers can draw upon for the marketing of their future event.

(iii)For Exhibitions Eligibility Criteria       Minimum 1,000 foreign exhibition visitors Minimum 1,000 sqm of nett exhibition space Minimum 50% foreign exhibitors Event to be confirmed for Singapore before 31 December 2005 Event to be held in Singapore by 31 December 2007 Exhibition held in Singapore for the first time

Incentives offered

Singapore Tourism Board

Financial Support  Up to 30% financial support to organizers for:  Overseas Exhibitor and visitor promotion  Buyer or speaker support  Foreign journalist support 7

Non-Financial Support  Facilitation to secure Guest of Honour  Welcome message at Changi Airport  Facilitation to secure exclusive venues  Facilitation of immigration clearances  Publicity


For Site Inspection 2 complimentary rooms for up to 3 nights each for decision-makers 

Venues 

Discount of food bill for welcome or opening reception at the official hotel / venue where main event is being held and / or Special Rates for set-up and tear-down days

(iv)The Tourism Development Assistance Scheme (TDAS) The Tourism Development Assistance Scheme (TDAS) is a financial assistance program which aims to:       Provide Incentives to companies to develop new and innovative world-class tourism products so as to enhance Singapore's tourism product offerings and supporting services; Develop the event management sector's capabilities through the staging of world-class events so as to significantly raise the profile of Singapore; Encourage the creation of new, innovative and exciting tours and tour packages to enhance the Singapore branding; Encourage companies to upgrade their business processes and functions so as to realize greater revenue, cost efficiencies or skills; Upgrade the industry through assisting associations to engage approved Professional Conference Organizers to organize international association meeting; Encourage collaboration among different tourism entities to bring about synergy through collective efforts.

Eligibility Criteria


All applicants should be Singapore-registered entities. Qualifying Costs TDAS provides assistance to cover a percentage of the qualifying cost of a project. This includes professional services, equipment & materials, production and test-marketing costs. Disbursement of Grants The grant is disbursed to the company on a reimbursement basis. The final claim shall be made within six months of the end of the qualifying period. (v) The Double Tax Deduction (DTD) scheme The Double Tax Deduction (DTD) scheme allows approved companies to deduct against their taxable income, twice the eligible expenses incurred for approved projects. Eligibility Criteria To qualify, a company should meet the following requirements:    Must be a resident company or has a permanent establishment in Singapore; Is currently not enjoying any tax relief under the Economic Expansion Incentives (Relief from Income Tax) Act; Is exhibiting in approved local trade fairs

Qualifying Expenses Expenses eligible for consideration include:      Costs of space/stand rental and stand construction/decoration; Publicity costs (e.g corporate brochures, advertising etc); Insurance for exhibits; Cost of economy airfares and accommodation incurred for inviting up to 2 overseas buyers to visit Singapore during the duration of the exhibition; Other incidental expenses as approved by STB

Objective The incentive aims to encourage event organizers to bring in or stage mega events. Scope of Assistance A 10% concessionary income tax rate will be given to event organizers who bring in or stage approved mega events. The concessionary rate is applied to the income accruing from the approved mega tourism events but not to its other income. 9

Effective Date The 10% concessionary tax rate for approved mega tourism events will take effect for projects approved from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2010. 6.0 Visitor Arrival Total visitor arrival into Singapore for the period Jan - Nov 2005 amounted to 8,112,798 persons. This excludes:     All Malaysian citizens arriving by land. Returning Singapore citizens residing abroad. Non-resident air and sea crew (except for sea crew flying in to join a ship). All visitors arriving and leaving Singapore on the same ship/vessel, staying in Singapore for less than 24 hours and who are not required to complete the Disembarkation/Embarkation Card, if a passenger manifest is submitted. All organized tour groups leaving Singapore for Johor Bahru, Batam and Bintan that are returning on the same day and are not required to fill up another Disembarkation / Embarkation card, if a passenger manifest is submitted. Air transit passengers.



The top 10 countries from which the visitors arrived (Jan – Nov 2005) and their market share are as outlined below: Country Indonesia China Australia Japan India Malaysia U.K. Thailand USA S. Korea Others  % 20.03 9.58 6.91 6.62 6.52 6.37 5.24 4.30 4.15 4.08 26.20 100.00 Number of visitors 1,625,640 777,838 561,078 537,521 529,459 517,414 425,103 349,271 337,069 331,398 2,121,007 8,112,798

In 2004, Singapore recorded 8.3 million visitors, close to 10% over their target of 7.6 million visitors for the year. The 8.3 million visitors in 2004 represent a 36% growth over 2003 and a 10% increase over 2002. Visitors from Asia accounted for about 73% of total visitors.


The top five visitor-generating markets in 2004 were Indonesia (1,765,000), China (880,000), Japan (599,000), Australia (561,000) and Malaysia (531,000). These markets accounted for 52% of total 10

visitor arrivals in 2004. Arrivals from China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines and Australia in 2004 are the highest in record.  When compared with 2003, the top five markets with strongest growth in visitor arrivals were China (+55%), India (+52%), Thailand (+45%), Australia (+43%) and the Philippines (+39%). When compared with 2002, the top five markets with strongest growth in visitor arrivals were China (+31%), Thailand (+30%), Indonesia (+27%), the Philippines (+26%) and India (+25%). The visitor arrival growth registered by Thailand and the Philippines in 2004, over 2002, is the highest year-on-year growth recorded by the two markets to date.



Singapore Hotels - Average Occupancy Rate & Average Room Rates 


In 2004, the Average Occupancy Rate (AOR) of hotels in Singapore was 80.7% increasing by 13.5% over 2003 and 6.3% above 2002. The Average Room Rate (ARR) in 2004 was S$121.00 increasing by 4.9% over 2003 and decreasing by 3.8% 2002. The total available room nights for the period Jan – Dec 2004 amounted to 10,246,042



According to some MICE organizers in Singapore, many countries had suddenly realized the potentials of MICE and are attracting organizers aggressively. Some of these countries are:      China UAE (Dubai) India The Philippines Sri Lanka


Strategies to adopt by Malaysia in luring MICE

MICE can be a very lucrative business for Malaysia, looking at what Singapore does. However, it is imperative that certain measures are undertaken to consolidate our position in this. Some of the strategies that Malaysia can adopt are


Joining force with Singapore


There are avenues for Malaysia to join force with Singapore in organizing some mega events. The modus operandi in this aspect is having part of a program in Singapore and continuing the other part in Malaysia. The advantages of doing this which is a win - win situation for both countries are     Cost - the overall cost will reduce as it is cheaper to organize part of an event in Malaysia compares to holding it entirely in Singapore. Experience for participants which will cover 2 countries- a very valuable element Joint Marketing Initiatives for MICE on a cost sharing basis for both countries. Singapore can ease out their full bookings of venues and hotel in certain period. Instead of turning down clients, they can outsource to Malaysia, the most appropriate alternative for them.

Perhaps IE Singapore / Singapore Tourism Board and MATRADE can initiate some program in this aspect. (Note: I have written to CEO of IE Singapore on this and am awaiting a response) (ii) Incentives

Malaysia should offer a more attractive package of incentives for MICE organizers. It is also imperative that the incentives focus on marketing aspects and also schemes to undertake some expenses for principal MICE event owners from abroad to visit Malaysia and make appropriate decision. (iii) Government Deliver System for holding MICE in Malaysia.

Some elements which are important for MICE are speed in approval which can involve government agencies like Town Councils, Immigration Department, Customs & Excise Department and a host of other agencies. According to some MICE organizers in Singapore, they have been frustrated by some red tapes and other problems in Malaysia. Hence it is also imperative that the government delivery system is upgraded and made precise and clear in terms of policies and regulations. (iv) Collaboration by all and supplier. MICE venue owners, hotels, contractors

Malaysia should enforce better collaboration of all parties involved in MICE eg. Venue owners, hotels, contractors, suppliers etc particularly in the context of planning, implementation, coordination and promotion. (v) Service standards

It is also important for Malaysia to increase the service standards of all the activities involved in MICE. Singapore stresses importance on this right from the time an organizer / participants arrive at the airport right through to departure. 12



Perhaps MATRADE should form a unit specifically for MICE. This unit can not only look into the promotion, organizing and implementation of all MICE related works, it can also be a conduit to coordinate all the other agencies involved. Though Tourism Malaysia is involved in this right now, perhaps MATRADE would more appropriate as a big portion of MICE activities are trade related. Further more, MATRADE is also taking a lot of mega projects like MIHAS, EABEX etc which need a unit by itself to work more efficiently. Major events booked to be held in Singapore for the year 2006 – 2009


A list of events scheduled to be held in Singapore as of 31/12/05 are as follows:
Start Date 4 Jan 2006 10 Jan 2006 21 Jan 2006 16 Feb 2006 17 Feb 2006 21 Feb 2006 24 Feb 2006 27 Feb 2006 28 Feb 2006 28 Feb 2006 28 Feb 2006 1 Mar 2006 1 Mar 2006 14 Mar 2006 22 Mar 2006 24 Mar 2006 28 Mar 2006 1 Apr 2006 7 Apr 2006 9 Apr 2006 13 Apr 2006 20 Apr 2006 21 Apr 2006 25 Apr 2006 9 May 2006 End Date 7 Jan 2006 13 Jan 2006 22 Jan 2006 19 Feb 2006 17 Feb 2006 26 Feb 2006 26 Feb 2006 1 Mar 2006 3 Mar 2006 3 Mar 2006 3 Mar 2006 5 Mar 2006 3 Mar 2006 17 Mar 2006 24 Mar 2006 26 Mar 2006 31 Mar 2006 2 Apr 2006 9 Apr 2006 12 Apr 2006 16 Apr 2006 23 Apr 2006 23 Apr 2006 28 Apr 2006 11 May 2006 Event Name 4th Asia Pacific Evidence-Based Medicine Workshop and Conference NanoSingapore 2006: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technology - Nanoelectronics Course on The Total Management of Hearing Loss in Children and Adults Urology Fair 2006 New Challenges in Aerospace Technology & Maintenance Conference 2006 Asian Aerospace 2006 Dermatology Update 2006 15th Singapore LIVE (Live Interventions in Vascular Endotherapy) Asia Automation Expo + Conference Asia Logistics Expo + Conference 17th International Zurich Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility in Singapore International Furniture Fair S'pore/Asean Furniture Show 2006 CASE Conference 2006 - An International Conference for Advancement and Support of Education Asia Power 2006 Asia Pacific Maritime 2006 German Expo 2006 Asia Mining Congress 2006 International College of Surgeons Singapore Congress 2006 IDEM Singapore 2006 The 10th Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining Global Endovascular Therapeutics 2006 Boat Asia 2006 Asia Dive Expo (ADEX) 2006 FHA2006 SEMICON Singapore 2006


15 May 2006 16 May 2006 19 May 2006 21 May 2006 21 May 2006 24 May 2006 29 May 2006 30 May 2006 10 Jun 2006 20 Jun 2006 20 Jun 2006 20 Jun 2006 27 Jun 2006 Jul 2006 3 Jul 2006 4 Jul 2006

17 May 2006 19 May 2006 20 May 2006 24 May 2006 26 May 2006 26 May 2006 1 Jun 2006 1 Jun 2006 14 Jun 2006 23 Jun 2006 23 Jun 2006 23 Jun 2006 30 Jun 2006 Jul 2006 5 Jul 2006 7 Jul 2006

4 Jul 2006

7 Jul 2006

4 Jul 2006 9 Jul 2006 14 Jul 2006 26 Jul 2006 26 Jul 2006 28 Jul 2006 16 Aug 2006 Sep 2006 18 Sep 2006 27 Sep 2006 4 Oct 2006 4 Oct 2006 10 Oct 2006 28 Oct 2006 Nov 2006 Nov 2006 Nov 2006 Nov 2006 6 Nov 2006

7 Jul 2006 14 Jul 2006 16 Jul 2006 28 Jul 2006 28 Jul 2006 31 Jul 2006 18 Aug 2006 Sep 2006 20 Sep 2006 29 Sep 2006 6 Oct 2006 6 Oct 2006 13 Oct 2006 31 Oct 2006 Nov 2006 Nov 2006 Nov 2006 Nov 2006 10 Nov 2006

First WAVO World Valuation Congress Oceans 2006 The 3rd National Disease Management Conference 10th Pacific Association of Quantity Surveyors Congress 32nd International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) Annual Conference 1st IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA 2006) 11th World HR Congress Singapore 2006 11th World HR Congress Singapore 2006 Business Connect Expo The 21st Congress of the Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology 2006 (APAO Congress 2006) Enterprise IT 2006 Broadcast Asia 2006 Communic Asia 2006 Asia Pacific Student Services Association (APSSA) Conference 2006 Career Choice 2006 14th Asean Valuers Association (AVA) Congress Infrastructure Facilities Asia 2006 - International Exhibition and Conference on Infrastructure and Facilities Development in Asia HVAC Asia 2006 - South East Asia's Largest International Exhibition on Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, Refrigeration, Air Filtration & Purification and Building Automation & Controls PSA 2006 - Asia's Largest International Exhibition on Rotating Equipment, Fluid, Gas & Air Handling Systems 10th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications The Inaugural Biennial Symposium of Aesthetic Dentistry Society (Singapore) & The 9th Biennial Meeting of Asian Academy of Aesthetic Dentistry Stationery & OfficeLink 2006 Singapore Gifts & Premiums Fair 2006 Singapore Menopause Congress 2006 11th International Myopia Conference Women Expo 2006 Global Franchising & Licensing2006 World Roads Conference OS+H Asia 2006 - The 5th Occupational Safety+Health Exhibition for Asia HOSPIMedica ASIA 2006 - 6th International Exhibition on Hospital, Pharmaceutical, Medical & Rehabilitation Equipment & Supplies GlobalTRONICS 2006 Regional Conference on Cost-effective Healthcare 2006 Asia Fashion Week 2006 Asian Children's Expo 2006 Big Boyz Toyz 2006 Celebrating Knowledge 2006 - The Power and Potential 12th Asian Australian Congress of


7 Nov 2006 9 Nov 2006 Dec 2006 Dec 2006 4 Dec 2006 4 Dec 2006 5 Dec 2006 6 Dec 2006 6 Feb 2007 20 Mar 2007 24 May 2007 26 Jun 2007 Oct 2008 Nov 2009

10 Nov 2006 11 Nov 2006 Dec 2006 Dec 2006 7 Dec 2006 8 Dec 2006 8 Dec 2006 8 Dec 2006 8 Feb 2007 23 Mar 2007 27 May 2007 29 Jun 2007 Oct 2008 Nov 2009

Anaesthesiologists 4th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS 2006) Wine For Asia 2006 NephroNursing Asia 2006 3rd NephroAsia 2006 2006 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems 4th Asia Pacific Congress on Catalysis & Regional Symposium on Chemical Engineering 2006 OSEA2006 15th International Conference on Mechanics in Medicine and Biology Asian Shipping And Work Boat 2007 7th AAMA-TEX 2007 (Asia Apparel Machinery & Accessories Exhibition) AQUARAMA 2007 15th World Conference on Cooperative Education IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 2009 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC'09)



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