Promoting Gender Equality through Gender Mainstreaming and by irues2342

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									            Promoting Gender Equality through
Gender Mainstreaming and Investing in Women’s Empowerment


               A Report to the Board of Executive Directors
    on the Implementation of the Bank’s Women in Development Policy
                                2002-2005




                                DRAFT
                              March 2007




                    Inter-American Development Bank
                   Sustainable Development Department
                   Gender Equality in Development Unit
                                             Contents
Executive Summary                                                                          i

Introduction                                                                               1

Investing in Gender Equality and Mainstreaming in Bank’s Operations                         3
    Gender in Country Strategies                                                            3
    Gender in IDB Lending and Technical Cooperation                                         5
        Gender in the Social Development Investments                                        5
        Gender in Investments that Promote Economic Opportunities and Competitiveness       9
        Gender in Modernization of the State and Civil Society Investments                 13
        Gender in New Lending Instruments                                                  15
    Factors Affecting Gender Mainstreaming                                                 16
    Summary                                                                                17

Mechanisms to Support Gender Mainstreaming                                                 18
   Incorporating Gender in Country Strategies and the Project Cycle                        18
   Technical Support and Knowledge Contributions                                           21
   Innovation and New Initiatives                                                          22
   Institutional Mechanisms and Strengthening                                              23
   Summary                                                                                 25

Challenges and Recommendations                                                             27



Annexes
Annex 1. Rating Criteria for Gender Mainstreaming in IDB Loans and Country Strategies
Annex 2. IDB Lending Operations that Mainstream Gender (2002-2005)
Annex 3. Technical Cooperation Projects that Address Gender Issues (2002-2005)
Annex 4. Gender Mainstreaming in Country Strategies (2002-2005)
Annex 5. Lending Operations that Incorporate Gender Flagship Themes (2002-2005)
Annex 6. Priority Projects in Execution
Annex 7. Selected IDB Publications on Gender Equality
Annex 8. Selected IDB Conferences and Seminars on Gender Issues
Annex 9. Report from the 15th Meeting of the External Advisory Council on WID

List of Boxes, Tables and Graphs
Box 1:   Gender Inclusion in Haiti’s Transition Country Strategy
Box 2:   Honduras Comprehensive Social Safety Net (HO-0222)
Box 3:   Uruguay Children, Adolescents and Families at Risk Program (UR-0134)
Box 4:   Peru Youth Labor Training Program (PE-0241)
Box 5:   Nicaragua Rural Production Revitalization Program (NI-0159)
Box 6:   Peru Rural Transportation Infrastructure II (PROVIAS) – 1328/OC
Box 7:   Mainstreaming Social Inclusion and Gender into Public Programs (ATN/NO-8212-HO)
Box 8:   Best Project Design Awards

Table 1: Country Strategies that Integrated a Gender Focus, 2002-2005
Table 2: Social Sector Lending that Mainstreams Gender, 2002-2005
Table 3:   Social Development TC that Incorporates Gender, 2002-2005
Table 4:   Economic Growth/Competitiveness Lending that Mainstreams Gender, 2002-2005
Table 5:   Economic Opportunities/Competitiveness TC that Incorporates Gender, 2002-2005
Table 6:   Modernization of State Lending that Mainstreams Gender, 2002-2005
Table 7:   Modernization of the State TC that Incorporate Gender, 2002-2005
Table 8:   Summary of Progress and Challenges: Strategies and Financial Operations
Table 9:   Summary of Progress: Innovation and Institutional Mechanisms

Graph 1: Gender Mainstreaming Rating: All Lending Operations vs GAP Priority Projects (2003-2005)
                                        Executive Summary
This report reviews the state of gender mainstreaming at the Inter-American Development Bank. It
assesses the progress and challenges in the implementation of the Bank’s Women in Development
Policy between 2002 and 2005 and provides recommendations for the Bank to expand its support to
gender equality and women’s empowerment in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Progress in Gender Mainstreaming at the Bank, 2002-2005

Gains in gender mainstreaming in the social sectors, declines in other areas. Social sector projects
increased their attention to gender issues at the project design stage during the period reviewed. These
advances, however, were offset by a drop in other parts of the Bank’s portfolio that resulted in a small
overall decline in the share of projects that incorporate gender—from 29% in the previous reporting
period, 1998-2001, to 26% in 2002-2005.

Improved quality of project design from a gender perspective. The quality of gender-specific design
features improved, and these features were more frequently integrated into the overall design rather
than being included as “add-ons.” Features included analysis of pertinent gender issues; targets for
women beneficiaries; participatory planning with a gender focus; institutional strengthening
components to build capacity to implement gender-specific actions; and, in some cases, information
systems with gender-disaggregated data and baseline indicators to monitor and evaluate gender-
specific results.

Increased attention to gender issues in country strategies. For the first time, the Bank made measurable
progress in mainstreaming gender issues into its country strategies. This is an important step forward
since it facilitates dialogue with member countries on issues of gender equality as well as greater
attention to gender issues in the lending portfolio.

Innovation: Priority gender issues were mainstreamed into the lending portfolio, primarily in the areas
of domestic violence prevention, reproductive health, technical training to improve women’s labor
market participation, and actions that specifically address issues afflicting afro-descendant and
indigenous women. Promising new themes that began to be addressed in the period under review
include prevention of trafficking of persons, addressing the obstacles created by the lack of identity
documents, which disproportionately affect women, and actions to address gender issues for boys and
men in the areas of education, social protection and violence prevention.

Increased number of IDB departments and units addressing gender equality: A sense of shared
responsibility for promoting gender equality appears to be taking hold in the Bank. For example, most
relevant divisions and departments conducted actions that are intended to contribute to gender
equality, although the time and human resources devoted to the topic varied. The Gender Equality in
Development Unit (GED) in the Sustainable Development Department played a central role in
facilitating gender mainstreaming in the Bank.

Key Challenges

The key challenges to be addressed in gender mainstreaming going forward, according to the analysis
presented in this report, are: consolidating and sustaining gains; expanding gender mainstreaming at
the design stage in operations in the non-social areas (state modernization, growth and
competitiveness); strengthening the implementation of gender features throughout the project cycle;
expanding evaluation to generate information about results; reinforcing knowledge management,



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learning and innovation; and ensuring capacity for dealing with gender issues in line ministries and
official institutions of women’s/gender affairs in borrowing countries, as well as in the Bank.

On capacity inside the Bank, during 2002-2005, the number of full time gender experts in the Bank
was small in relation to the size of the task of conducting policy in this area, monitoring the Bank’s
Gender Action Plan, providing technical support for the inclusion of the dimension in country
strategies and operations, and consolidating institutional learning from the documentation of good
practice, lessons learned and evaluation of results in this area.

Recommendations

The following recommendations attempt to take up the challenges of consolidation of gains and
expansion of gender mainstreaming in underserved sectors, results orientation and evaluation,
knowledge management, and building capacity in borrowing countries and the Bank. Where possible
and applicable, targets to be achieved over the next four years are specified:

1. Renew the Bank’s resolve to consolidate, sustain progress and achieve consistency in
   mainstreaming gender in the lending portfolio. Specifically:

        a. Expand to at least 75% the share of country strategies that integrate gender issues and
           actions. (The current level is 50%.)
        b. Expand to at least 75% the loans in the social areas that mainstream gender issues. (The
           current level is 55%.)
        c. Expand to at least 30% the loans in the non-social sectors (infrastructure, modernization of
           the state, economic opportunities and competitiveness) that mainstream gender issues. (The
           current level is 14%.)
        d. Introduce gender issues in programmatic lending instruments such as policy-based loans and
           sector-wide approaches.

2. Adopt a culture of management for results in gender mainstreaming. Specifically, in operations where
   gender is an element of design:

        a. Integrate gender-specific indicators and targets into the corresponding logical frameworks,
           project covenants, operating manuals and terms of reference that guide project
           implementation.
        b. Track and report on progress on these indicators and targets in the Project Performance
           Monitoring Reports as projects are implemented.
        c. Report on results in the Project Completion Reports.

3. Asses differential impacts on women and men in prioritized evaluations of sector strategies and
   country strategies by OVE and, carry out other studies dedicated to measuring gender-specific results
   on a sample basis, focusing in particular on those projects that have successfully incorporated a
   gender focus in their design.

4. Reinforce the Bank’s leadership in knowledge management, learning and innovation to produce
   sustainable gains in gender equality. Specifically:

        a. In the Bank’s research agenda, enhance the focus on gender gaps and mechanisms that
           reinforce gender inequality.
        b. Reinforce the consolidation of institutional learning from the documentation of good practice,
           lessons learned and evaluation of results in this area.


                                                     ii
        c. Report on progress in gender mainstreaming and results achieved in institutional reports on
           development effectiveness, in particular the annual Development Effectiveness Overview.

5. Strengthen institutional capacity within the IDB as well as line ministries and public institutions of
   women’s and gender affairs in borrowing countries. Specifically:

        a. Strengthen the capacity of the region’s stakeholders that promote gender equality.
        b. Engage relevant government officials in a dialogue on gender equality to share experience
           and promising practices in the region and beyond.
        c. Involve governmental women/family/gender ministries and agencies at the negotiating table
           for country strategy and program development.
        d. Develop and implement a gender mainstreaming learning plan for Bank staff, covering all
           phases of the project cycle.

Perspective on Implementation

The implementation of these recommendations will require cooperation across operational divisions,
country offices, the Development Effectiveness Group, the Gender Equality in Development Unit, and
others. The process will need to be staffed and resourced. In addition to other technical cooperation
resources, the new Gender Mainstreaming Fund will play a role as it is designed to provide seed money for
technical support, training and analytical work, and creative partnerships to support pilot initiatives and
innovation.




                                                     iii
                                             1. Introduction
1.1     Women and men, as the IDB recognizes, may benefit differently and unevenly from development
        processes, policies and investments that are intended to enhance opportunities and country
        performance. Redressing gender inequality and ensuring balanced capabilities, access to services,
        productive assets and resources, participation in decision-making, and enjoyment of civil, legal
        and political rights are objectives of development in themselves. They are also critical to the
        pursuit of sustainable economic growth and the reduction of poverty. The IDB’s Operational
        Policy on Women in Development (1987) states that the Bank will assist its borrowing member
        countries in their efforts to bring about the full integration of women in all aspects of
        development and foster improvements in their socioeconomic situation. The Policy calls for
        periodic progress reports to update the Board of Executive Directors on its implementation. This
        document covers the period 2002 to 2005.

1.2     In implementing the Policy, the Bank has gradually broadened its focus from a primary emphasis
        on women to a commitment to gender equality and women’s empowerment, reflecting conceptual
        advances in the LAC countries and multilateral and international institutions working in the
        region. Accordingly, the Bank has been following a dual approach, i.e.: (i) a mainstreaming
        approach, aimed at integrating an analysis of the implications of IDB actions on women and
        men, and addressing women’s and men’s differential interests and needs in Bank financed
        programs and projects; and (ii) an innovation approach, geared to expanding and renewing the
        Bank’s scope of action in areas that are critical to addressing women’s and men’s priority needs
        and reducing gender inequalities.1 The two approaches are interdependent and mutually
        reinforcing in a cycle of innovation that often begins with technical cooperation activity that
        supports research and pilot initiatives in the Bank and culminates in the integration of new
        themes (“flagships”) in the lending portfolio.

1.3     The purpose of this report is to document the Bank’s progress along these lines. The report is a
        “stock-taking” by the Sustainable Development Department that shows that the Bank has
        advanced in the pursuit and the achievement of the Policy’s objectives. In so doing, the Bank is
        progressively honoring its commitments under the Beijing Platform for Action,2 the Millennium
        Development Goals, and different IDB policy and strategic statements that incorporate a focus on
        gender equality, including several of the Bank’s approved sector strategies. The report provides
        an overview of Bank-wide efforts and thus reflects the shared responsibility for gender issues
        across the institution and the contributions from specialists and their managers in the regional
        operations departments, the country offices and the central departments.

1.4     The methodology followed to assess the Bank’s efforts to promote gender equality through
        country programming and project design is straightforward. The different components of the
        country strategies and operations (loans and technical cooperation) approved during the period
        under review were analyzed to ascertain whether and, in the affirmative case, to what extent and
        in what fashion they addressed gender issues in ways that could be considered to satisfy the dual
        approach (mainstreaming and innovation) defined above. Country strategies and loans that are
        considered to mainstream gender and integrate gender flagship themes achieved a rating of “best
        practice,” “significant,” or “partial” in the SDS Gender Mainstreaming Rating System (rating
        criteria in Annex 1). The technical cooperation projects and projects under the Social
        Entrepreneurship (SEP) program and the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) were declared to

1
  The name of the Unit in charge of providing policy guidance and technical assistance in these issues changed in
2005 from Women in Development Unit to Gender Equality in Development Unit.
2
  Agreed at the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995.


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      have a gender perspective if they incorporated one or more of the following characteristics in
      their design: (1) specific measures that promote gender equality or reduce existing inequalities,
      (2) identification of women as a significant part of the target beneficiary population, and/or (3)
      explicit attention to priority issues for women.

1.5   The analysis in this report is focused largely on the Bank’s intent with respect to gender issues at
      the stage of approval and on public sector investments. Implementation and results are also
      discussed, but receive less attention in the absence of systematic data on these dimensions.
      However, the presence or absence of a monitoring system and results framework for gender-
      specific design features was verified for all lending operations. Indeed, to qualify as “best
      practice” or “significant” in terms of their gender perspective, lending operations had to include
      measures to facilitate the proper execution of the gender elements and indicators to monitor and
      evaluate gender-specific results.

1.6   Following this introduction, the second chapter of this report reviews the Bank’s advances in
      promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment through its country strategies and
      financial operations approved between 2002 and 2005. The third chapter focuses on the Bank’s
      instruments for advancing gender mainstreaming throughout the project cycle and “non-
      financial” areas of work, with particular emphasis on the results achieved under the four areas of
      action of the IDB’s Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan (GAP); i.e., incorporating gender
      throughout the project cycle, technical analysis and support, innovation, and strengthening
      institutional mechanisms. The conclusions of an external evaluation of the GAP are presented in
      this chapter. The final chapter summarizes the key challenges for mainstreaming gender issues at
      the IDB and provides recommendations to address them.




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          2. Investing in Gender Equality and Mainstreaming in Bank Operations

2.1       This chapter reports on the Bank’s efforts to mainstream gender into its country programming
          and financial activities during the four-year period 2002-2005. The chapter specifically reviews
          how gender issues are addressed and what gender-specific interventions are proposed in country
          strategies, lending operations and technical cooperation.

2.2       Overall, this chapter illustrates that the Bank made measurable progress mainstreaming gender
          into country strategy documents and that it generated a rich inventory of new investments that
          include measures to promote gender equality and women’s empowerment. The areas of greatest
          investment included social protection, social investment, education, citizen security and violence
          prevention, labor market training, as well as rural development and natural resources
          management. However, the Bank continued to face challenges advancing gender mainstreaming
          in many of the “non-social” sectors, particularly in the areas of competitiveness and
          modernization of the state.

2.3       The analysis of this chapter is organized as follows: (1) country strategies, (2) lending and
          technical cooperation in the areas of social development, promoting economic opportunities and
          competitiveness, and modernization of the state, (3) new lending instruments, and (4) factors
          affecting gender mainstreaming in both strategies and operations.

          Gender in Country Strategies

2.4       The identification of gender issues at the country level and their integration into country
          strategies are important starting points to promote gender equality and women’s empowerment.
          The 1998-2001 progress report to the Board emphasized the need to address gender issues
          upstream (beginning with country strategies) to engage the dimension programmatically, foster
          dialogue, and accelerate mainstreaming. Both the 2002 Country Paper Guidelines3 and the 2003
          Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan called for the inclusion of gender issues in country strategies.

2.5       While gender received minimal or no attention in IDB country strategies between 1998 and 2001,
          in 2002-2005, 10 of the 20 strategies approved included an analysis of country-specific gender
          issues and proposed interventions to address them. Two of the 10 strategies mainstreamed gender
          significantly and 8 partially (Table 1; see Annex 1 for rating criteria). Of the remaining 10
          strategies, 9 included a minimal gender focus, while one did not mention gender at all (Annex 4).
          The overall 2002-2005 results, therefore, compare favorably with those of the previous period,
          but there remains much to be done.

2.6       The 10 strategies with relatively good gender integration recognized specific vulnerabilities of
          women in poor, rural or female-headed households. Six of them identified gender inequalities in
          the labor market and employment issues as a priority concern. Women’s limited access to
          productive assets was also highlighted as a problem, including title to land and other property
          (Bolivia and Paraguay), and credit (Honduras). Five made reference to women’s health issues,
          with emphasis on maternal and child health as well as the growing HIV/AIDS infection rate
          among women (Haiti) and the high fertility rates among adolescents (Honduras). Gender-based
          violence, both domestic and societal, was emphasized in the Mexico, Haiti and Colombia
          strategies. In addition, two strategies included a focus on human trafficking, which
          disproportionately affects women and children (Bolivia and Paraguay), while two others focused

3
    GN-2020-4, 2002, paragraph 3.22.


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         on girls’ education (Haiti and Guatemala). Other gender issues identified in strategy documents
         included: gender inequalities in the pension system (Argentina), the exclusion of undocumented
         women and children from social programs and other opportunities (Dominican Republic), under-
         representation of women in public and civic life (Guatemala), and equal opportunities for women
         and men in the areas of science and technology (Costa Rica).


                      Table 1. Country Strategies that Integrated a Gender Focus, 2002-2005
                        Region 1                  Approval Date             Rating
                        Argentina                 November 2004             Partial
                        Bolivia                      July 2004              Partial
                        Paraguay                     July 2004              Partial
                        Region 2
                        Costa Rica                   June 2003              Partial
                        Dominican Republic          August 2005             Partial
                        Guatemala                    May 2005             Significant
                        Haiti                       March 2005            Significant
                        Honduras                   February 2003            Partial
                        Mexico                      March 2002              Partial
                        Region 34
                        Colombia                  September 2003            Partial

2.7      In most cases, the problems identified in the strategies were accompanied by proposals for action.
         Six of the strategies with relatively good gender integration proposed the crosscutting inclusion
         of gender issues in lending operations in multiple sectors. Specifically, the need to foster
         women’s participation was frequently highlighted with reference to social protection and poverty
         reduction programs. Other proposed actions included: (i) health interventions to improve
         maternal health; (ii) promoting women’s access to technical training and their insertion in the
         labor market under more equitable conditions; (iii) promoting the full exercise of women’s rights
         to own land and other property; (iv) increasing women’s access to credit; and (v) promoting
         assistance for the victims of domestic violence. Five of the strategies also prioritized action at the
         institutional or policy level to assist governments to strengthen their gender mainstreaming
         capacity, including support for the women’s ministry (Haiti) and the implementation of national
         plans for equal opportunities for women (Paraguay).

2.8      While all of the Bank’s regional operational departments advanced in the integration of gender in
         country strategies during 2002-2005, Region 2 performed particularly well, as suggested by
         Table 1 (for an illustration, refer to Box 1).

2.9      The mainstreaming of gender in country strategies helps determine the degree of inclusion of this
         dimension in the financial portfolio of the IDB. A review of the country strategies and subsequent
         lending to those countries indicates that in the case of the 10 strategies with relatively good
         gender integration, 33% of the subsequently approved lending operations mainstreamed gender
         into their designs. Where the country strategies paid minimal or no attention to gender, the
         corresponding figure was 22%.5 The more “gender-conscious” country strategies were also
         associated with a larger share of TC programs that explicitly addressed gender issues.

4
  In 2005, Region 3 initiated country gender assessments to support the integration of gender into its new country strategies.
These strategies were not approved during the period of analysis of this report, but will be reflected in the next report.
5
  This analysis includes all strategies except three approved in the second semester of 2005 since their effect on lending in the
2002-2005 period cannot be determined. The assessment of corresponding lending operations included those approved during the
semester of the year in which the strategy was approved and thereafter during the life of the strategy.


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                         Box 1. Gender Inclusion in Haiti’s Transition Country Strategy (March 2005)
             The Transition Strategy for Haiti seeks to support critical areas for the country’s reconciliation and
             reconstruction. The assessment of the situation in the country emphasizes that it has the lowest Gender
             Development Index and the highest material mortality rate in the region, high fertility rates, important
             HIV/AIDS prevalence for women, and elevated rates of underemployment and unemployment for
             women. The economic, civic and physical security of women and children is affected by the notorious
             unrest and violence in the country. Therefore, the Strategy proposes support for the development of a
             strategy to respond to gender-based violence at the local, departmental and national level and to help the
             government foster the gender mainstreaming capacity of its line ministries (through the Ministry of
             Women’s Affairs). The prevention and management of malnutrition among women and children and the
             strengthening of programs to reduce maternal mortality are identified as key elements to be considered in
             the Bank’s support to the country.

            Gender in IDB Lending and Technical Cooperation

2.10        Between 2002 and 2005, 71 lending operations6 or 26% of all loans approved by the Bank
            incorporated specific actions to promote equal opportunities, capabilities or participation for
            women and men. These operations represent an overall investment of US$ 8.4 billion7 on the part
            of the Bank or 37% of Bank lending in those years. The Bank also committed $21 million in non-
            reimbursable technical cooperation funds to initiatives that address gender issues (Annex 3), and
            approved $41.2 million through the Social Entrepreneurship Program (SEP) and $16 million
            through the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) for projects that benefit women.

2.11        While total Bank lending with support for gender equality compares favorably to the 1998-2001
            period when it amounted to $7.8 billion, the share of projects that mainstream gender in their
            design declined from 29% to 26%. Analyzed separately, social sector projects improved their
            incorporation of gender issues from 51% in 1998-2001 to 55% in 2002-2005, while “non-social”
            projects with a gender dimension declined from 18% to 14% (the decline was particularly
            pronounced for modernization of the state operations). However, the improvement in the social
            sectors was offset by the relative decline in the share of social sectors in total Bank lending from
            28% to 26% between the two periods, thus rendering the overall decline in the Bank’s
            performance in mainstreaming gender issues in its lending portfolio.

2.12        Overall, 63% of lending operations that mainstreamed gender into their designs were in the social
            sectors, 31% were in the area of “economic opportunities” and competitiveness, and 6% in
            modernization of the state.

2.13        Gender issues were more frequently mainstreamed in operations approved in Region 2, which
            contributed to 58% of all operations that incorporated specific actions to promote gender equality
            (Annex 2).

            Gender in social development investments

2.14        Access to quality social services and social protection for women and men is key to poverty
            reduction and the creation of conditions for sustainable and widely shared economic growth. In
            2002-2005, 55% of the lending operations and 59% of the total investment in the social
            development sectors listed in Table 2 incorporated gender analysis and gender-specific actions
            into their design (see also Annex 2). Seventy-two technical cooperation programs worth US$11.7

6
    See Annex 2 for a list of 2002-05 lending operations that mainstream gender (excludes PRI, MIF3, and PPEF loans).
7
    Unless otherwise indicated, all currencies are presented in US Dollars ($).


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        million also included actions that promote gender equality or women’s empowerment (Table 3
        and Annex 3).


                      Table 2. Social Sector Lending that Mainstreams Gender, 2002-2005
                                                                   Operations with
                                                   # of operations                       Total overall     % of total IDB
                                  # of operations                   gender focus /
              Area                                that incorporate                  investment of “gender” investment in
                                     approved                      total operations
                                                       gender                        operations (1000 US$)   the sector
                                                                          (%)

  Social Protection/ Investment        36                26                     72               6,569,500      63
  Health                               8                  5                     63                80,950        12
  Education                            12                 4                     33                328,400       50
  Citizen Security/ Violence            5                5                  100                   128,110       100
  Prevention
  Urban Dev/Housing                    21                 5                     24                375,700       44
  TOTAL                                82                45                55%                   7,482,660     59%



                     Table 3: Social Development TC that Incorporates Gender, 2002- 2005
                  Area                                        # of operations        Total amount (US$)
                  Social Protection/Investment                      20                   2,688,180
                  Health                                            14                   3,034,940
                  Education                                          5                   1,105,520
                  Citizen Security/Violence Prevention              18                   2,970,050
                  Trafficking in Persons                             6                     734,000
                  Social Inclusion                                   9                    1,148,680
                  TOTAL                                             72                   11,681,400



2.15    The following describes some of the most promising program components and features included
        in social development lending operations and technical cooperation to promote gender equality
        and women’s empowerment.

2.16    Social Protection. The Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) model—applied in programs such as
        the Social Safety Net Program in Nicaragua (NI-0161), Plan Familias in Argentina (AR-L1006),
        Mexico’s Oportunidades I and II (ME-0244 and ME-L1007) and the Honduras Social Safety Net
        Program (HO-0222)—benefits poor children by entrusting their mothers (or fathers where there
        are no mothers) with monetary subsidies that are contingent on behavioral changes, such as
        sending the children to school or enrolling in health programs. CCTs empower women by giving
        them control over resources and involving them in networks of program participants. In Mexico it
        was found that women’s involvement in health, nutrition and hygiene education and the
        collection of program benefits produced positive impacts on their children’s wellbeing while also
        increasing their opportunities to seek shared solutions and strengthen their communities and
        themselves. The Honduras project includes additional direct benefits for women by specifically
        targeting pregnant and nursing women and addressing the issue of domestic violence (Box 2).

2.17    Social investment. Many Bank-financed social investment programs that aim to provide poor
        households with greater access to basic infrastructure and social services identify women as a key
        target population, including the PROPAIS II Program in Paraguay (PR-0125) and the Local
        Development Program of Haiti (HA-0079), which includes a 30% quota for women beneficiaries



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       in productive projects and criteria for assessing the effect of the projects on women’s livelihoods.
       In the Urban Poverty Reduction Program in Mexico (ME-0255), priority investments that
       promote women’s empowerment include childcare services, after-school activities for children,
       and domestic violence prevention. In Guatemala (GU-0175), local women, including indigenous
       women, are trained to assume proactive roles working with health centers to improve the
       nutrition and health of their children and communities. The Integrated Development for
       Indigenous Peoples Program in Honduras (HO-0197) promotes the participation of indigenous
       and afro-Honduran women in all program activities, including local capacity building and
       leadership development, and addresses issues of domestic violence and HIV/AIDS for both
       women and men. Several of the Bank’s social investment programs also support community
       development plans that facilitate greater participation of traditionally excluded groups, and
       women’s involvement in community decision-making. In Haiti, separate meetings with women
       beneficiaries have been carried out to better enable them to articulate their priorities. Other
       programs support the training of technical staff to consolidate a culture of gender equity within
       the executing agencies (e.g. FONCODES III, PE-0193).

                          Box 2. The Honduras Comprehensive Social Safety Net (HO-0222)
       Honduras’ Social Safety Net program provides CCTs to facilitate: (i) greater use of health services, (ii)
       consumption of more nutritious foods, and (iii) higher primary school enrollment and completion rates for
       girls and boys. These transfers are delivered directly to the women heads of household, recognizing their
       responsibility for family development and the well documented fact that resources controlled by women
       are more likely to be dedicated to children’s health, nutrition and education. The delivery of the transfers
       to women also contributes to their empowerment by giving them control over resources and thereby
       increasing their bargaining power. The program also provides cash transfers and capacity building for
       local parent-teacher associations to strengthen their capacity to improve quality and better maintain social
       services and infrastructure. And it provides education for both mothers and fathers in family planning,
       HIV/AIDS prevention, child health, parenting skills, and domestic violence prevention.

2.18   The hybrid program Children, Adolescents and Families at Risk Program in Uruguay (UR-0134)
       includes an array of social services that emphasize equal opportunities for both boys and girls and
       promotes shared responsibility for childrearing between mothers and fathers (see Box 3).
       Brazil’s Culture and Citizenship for Social Inclusion Program (BR-0373), one of the projects
       rated as a best practice in this area, integrates attention to both gender equality and social
       inclusion. The program promotes the equitable participation of boys and girls from the most
       vulnerable districts of Sao Paulo in artistic and cultural activities to enhance their development
       and integration into the family and society, as well as to reduce domestic and social violence,
       teen pregnancy and school dropout.

                   Box 3. Uruguay: Children, Adolescents and Families at Risk Program (UR-0134)
        The program seeks to improve the living conditions and social integration of at-risk children and
        adolescents under 18, by improving the accessibility and quality of existing social services and ensuring
        comprehensive care. Early childhood development activities promote equal participation for girls and
        boys, including equal access to food provision, stimulation and health care. Specific attention will be
        given to preventing gender biases in activities for children ages 4-12 to promote cognitive, emotional and
        social development. Education activities for parents encourages equitable participation in child rearing,
        highlighting the role of fathers, the fair distribution of domestic chores, and the provision of equal
        educational opportunities to children of both sexes. In the activities for adolescents, special emphasis is
        placed on strengthening leadership and reducing sex segregation in job training. In addition, the teenage
        pregnancy program helps girls to continue their education and encourages childrearing responsibility on
        the part of the fathers. Finally, at the institutional level, training materials for public officials as well as the
        instruments for planning and monitoring programs include a focus on gender equality.




                                                           7
2.19   Health. Several IDB-financed health programs approved in 2002-2005 address women-specific
       diseases and risk factors, reproductive and sexual health, and/or maternal and child mortality. The
       Costa Rican Health Sector Program (CR-0144), for example, addresses risk factors associated
       with poor nutrition and unhealthy habits of poor women and indigenous peoples. The
       Improvement of Maternal and Child Health in Nicaragua (NI-L1001) and the Health
       Improvement Program in Honduras (HO-L1002) include actions to reduce maternal and child
       mortality and adolescent pregnancies, and to improve the monitoring of women's access to
       prenatal health services and use of family planning.

2.20   Gender-specific needs have also been incorporated into seven health sector TC programs. The
       HIV/AIDS Prevention and Mitigation Program in Jamaica (ATN/NI-9007-JA), for example,
       supports capacity building to improve services for women in poor, inner-city communities. The
       Promotion and Consolidation of Sexual and Reproductive Health Program in Chile (ATN/JO-
       9402-CH) trains public health workers and raises awareness of local communities about sexual
       and reproductive health, helping to empower poor women in their private lives and when they
       seek public services. Other initiatives designed to address women’s health issues include the
       Cervical Cancer Prevention for Extreme Poverty Areas in Mexico (ATN/JO-9339-ME), and the
       Breast Cancer Assessment in Peru (ATN/SC-9584-PE).

2.21   Education. Education is an area of particular importance for addressing gender issues for both
       women and men. All basic education projects approved during the period under analysis aim to
       boost the graduation rates of both boys and girls. The Basic Education for All Program in El
       Salvador (ES-0159) addresses the gender differentiated causes of school drop out of boys and
       girls, promotes conflict resolution primarily amongst boys, and raises awareness to prevent drug
       use, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy. The Community Education Program in Mexico (ME-0238)
       supports the revision of curriculum and the design of teaching materials that incorporate a
       balanced gender perspective, as well as the training of teacher to recognize the different ways that
       boys and girls learn. This program and the Pre-School and Early Education Program in Paraguay
       (PR-0124) encourage fathers to participate in child rearing, reinforcing their role in their
       children’s development and education. The Basic Education for Youth and Adults in Nicaragua
       (NI-0171) also promotes increased women’s participation in adult education programs.

2.22   Citizen security and violence prevention. Violence in the home is associated with social
       violence and is particularly damaging to the emotional, physical and economic wellbeing of
       women and children. The project with the most comprehensive integration of gender issues and
       measures to facilitate good implementation and evaluation of results in this area is the Sula
       Valley Citizenship Security Project in Honduras (HO-0205). This project supports training and
       sensitization for teachers and parents on peaceful conflict resolution, domestic violence
       prevention, increasing the reporting of abuse, integrated services for women, children and youth
       affected by violence, and a telephone hotline for victims. Another similar program in Nicaragua
       (NI-0168) strengthens institutional capacity to address juvenile and domestic violence, including
       training of staff in the legal and penitentiary systems, city governments, community and national
       police. The Safer Chile Program (CH-0178) supports opportunities for the successful
       reintegration of individuals previously incarcerated back into their families and society, including
       women heads of household that had engaged in drug trafficking.

2.23   Several technical cooperation programs specifically address issues of domestic and gender-based
       violence. Some support the strengthening of existing mechanisms for violence prevention and
       victim support and preventing violence in schools (for example, Violence Prevention in School
       Curriculum, ATN/EA-7794-RS). Particular attention is also given to the Caribbean region these
       forms of violence are escalating problems. A Response to Gender-Based Violence in Haiti


                                                    8
       (ATN/FW-9196-HA) offers a multidimensional approach to identify barriers that affect women’s
       access to care and legal assistance, and to improve mechanisms for prevention and control. In
       addition, a pilot project in Trinidad & Tobago (ATN/FF-8279-TT) developed a training tool on
       domestic and gender-based violence specifically tailored to the unique needs of magistrates and
       other legal personnel in the English-speaking Caribbean. Similar training was then carried out for
       magistrates in the Bahamas, Jamaica, Barbados and Guyana (ATN/SF-8500-RG).

2.24   Urban development and housing. Increasingly, urban development programs that aim to
       improve the living conditions of the urban poor are identifying women and children among their
       target population, establishing in some cases specific quotas for their participation. Guatemala’s
       Urban Poverty Program (GU-0155) actively promotes the participation of women and men,
       including those from indigenous communities, in local planning processes. The program also
       provides support for school enrichment activities for boys and girls and non-formal childcare for
       working parents. The provision of childcare is also a feature of the Reactivation of the Center of
       La Paz Program (BO-0216), which helps to reduce women’s work burdens and enables them to
       participate more effectively in income generating activities. In addition, the Urban Rehabilitation
       Program in Haiti (HA-L1002) finances training for market vendors, 90% of whom are women, as
       well as a shelter for vulnerable girls, including unpaid domestic workers, street children and
       sexually exploited teens.

2.25   Affordable housing is a critical consideration for low-income households, including women-
       headed households that tend to face the greatest challenges meeting lending requirements. The
       Social Housing Program of Colombia (CO-0241) directly addresses this issue by establishing a
       point system and quotas for housing subsidies that favor women headed households, thus
       increasing their access to homeownership. The program further promotes gender equity by
       fostering joint titling of property in the name of both partners.

       Gender in Investments that Promote Economic Opportunities and Competitiveness

2.26   Investments in women’s and men’s productive potential, strengthening their competitiveness, and
       improving their ability to better manage economic and natural resources are essential components
       of sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction. Recognizing and strengthening the roles
       of women as producers, entrepreneurs and resource managers makes good economic sense for
       their families, communities, and national economies.

2.27   Women’s economic opportunities are currently being promoted through several types of Bank-
       financed operations in the areas of labor markets/technical training, science and technology, rural
       development, sustainable natural resources management, and in one case, private sector
       development. These areas (Table 4), however, represent a subset of the Bank’s overall investment
       in economic growth and competitiveness. The review carried out for this report found minimal or
       no integration of gender issues in loans in other key economic investment areas such as
       infrastructure (transportation, energy, sanitation), tourism, trade and industry. Thus, the Bank is
       so far not taking advantage of the opportunities in these key areas for advancing gender equality
       and women’s empowerment by, for example (i) fostering gender-equitable access to public
       services and markets, (ii) alleviating women’s work burdens and enhancing productivity, (iii)
       generating temporary and long-term employment opportunities, and (iv) facilitating more
       equitable labor standards and conditions. In the case of many infrastructure projects, women’s
       participation throughout all stages of the project could help to ensure that the design takes local
       needs into account and is “sustainable” since women play active roles in the maintenance of local
       infrastructure.



                                                   9
2.28     Overall, 17% of the lending operations promoting economic opportunities and competitiveness
         mainstreamed gender into their designs. These operations represent 9% of the total amount of
         Bank investment in these areas (Table 4 and Annex 2).

2.29     During the period under review, the Bank also continued its longstanding tradition of supporting
         women in the micro-enterprise sector, particularly through the Social Entrepreneurship Program.
         All of the SEP projects and 2 small projects (59 projects in total)8 approved between 2002 and
         2005 for a commitment of $41.2 million were designed to ensure the provision of benefits and
         services for women (details below). In addition, 18 (9%) of the projects financed by the MIF,
         totaling $16 million, include women as an important segment of their beneficiaries or promote
         equal opportunities in the areas of micro-credit or small business development.

2.30     Finally, thirteen technical cooperation programs included actions aimed at promoting gender
         equality or women’s economic empowerment (Table 5). These TC programs should help the
         Bank broaden the scope of gender issues addressed in future lending, for example, by raising the
         understanding of the Bank’s staff and borrowing countries of gender issues in applicable areas.


          Table 4. Economic Growth/Competitiveness Lending that Mainstreams Gender, 2002-2005
                                                                     Operations with
                                    # of         # of operations                      Total overall investment % of total IDB
                                                                      gender focus /
             Area                operations     that incorporate                      of “gender” operations   investment in
                                                                     total operations
                                 approved            gender                                  (1000 US$)          the sector
                                                                           (%)
Labor Market/Training                 5                 4                  80%                 58,400               54%
Science and Technology                5                 2                    40%                23,500              35%

Rural Dev./Agriculture                20                7                    35%                286,600             51%

Natural Resources Mgt.                28                8                    29%                132,600             31%

Private Sector Development            13                1                     8%                70,000              4%
Other Sectors*                        60                0                     0                    0                 0

Total                                131               22                    17%                585,500             9%
*Transport, Energy, Urban Sanitation, Multisector Credit, Tourism, Infrastructure, Industry and Trade


     Table 5. Economic Opportunities/Competitiveness Technical Cooperation that Incorporates Gender,
                                               2002-2005
                                    Area                           # of operations   Total amount in US$
                    Labor Market and Training                             8                1,870,900
                    Science and Technology                               2                  220,000
                    Rural Development                                    1                  130,000
                    Water and Sanitation                                 2                  153,220
                    TOTAL                                                13                2,374,120

2.31     The following describes some of the most promising program components and features included
         in lending operations and technical cooperation programs in support economic opportunities and
         competitiveness.
8
  Most SEP projects involve lending and technical cooperation components, while small projects are exclusively
technical cooperation resources.


                                                              10
2.32   Labor Markets and Technical Training. Modernization of labor markets and technical training
       programs intend to reduce the discrimination and barriers women often face in the labor market.
       In Panama, for example, the Training and Employment System Program (PN-0125) includes
       special measures for unemployed young women, female entrepreneurs and working women,
       including career counseling, training, and efforts to raise employer awareness of gender issues
       and encourage equitable hiring practices. A similar program in Haiti (Vocational Training, HA-
       0017) makes specific efforts to steer young women into non-traditional, better-paying jobs by
       making this issue a central element in the social marketing campaign, including it as a criteria in
       the process of accreditation of training providers, financing internships for women, and giving
       funding priority to this type of training. In Guatemala, the Labor Market Program (GU-0158)
       considers the gender and ethnic makeup of prospective pools of trainees a key factor in selecting
       training proposals for funding, in order to ensure the participation of urban and rural women,
       youth and indigenous peoples in job training and labor intermediation. The Labor Market
       Program in the Dominican Republic (DR-L1006) provides support for an innovative social
       marketing campaign that aims to break down gender stereotypes that lead to gender-based
       occupational segregation. All of these programs also help to facilitate access to childcare for
       women attending training courses. The Youth Labor Training Program in Peru is a best practice
       operation that builds on Bank experience and the previous government program to address factors
       affecting women’s income earning potential in the labor market (Box 4).


                                    Box 4. Youth Labor Training Program (PE-0241)
       This program provides support to economically disadvantaged youth to increase their access to the formal
       labor market by providing vocational training and work experience in conjunction with labor
       intermediation, job-search coaching and information services. The program actively recruits both young
       women and men to facilitate gender balance across all of the services it provides. Mothers who participate
       in training activities receive additional subsidies to help defray childcare costs. It is anticipated that women
       who are either unemployed or working in what are typically lower paying “women’s occupations” at the
       outset of the program will find employment in less segregated occupational categories. Baseline information
       collected at the beginning of the program is disaggregated by sex so that evaluations will be able to clearly
       determine the differential impact of the program on male and female beneficiaries. In addition, an indicator
       of occupational segregation by gender will determine if the program contributes to reducing gender
       inequalities in the labor market.

2.33   Science and Technology. The IDB’s support for innovation and advancement in Science and
       Technology provides opportunities for promoting greater gender equality, including: the
       promotion of equal opportunities in fields of science and technology; inclusion of a focus on both
       women and men’s priority needs in research and development agendas; reduction of the digital
       divide for women and men; and increased access for women to technologies that can reduce work
       burdens and increase productivity. The IDB integrated gender issues into a few projects that can
       open the path for further progress in gender equality in this area. The Jamaica Information and
       Communication Technology Project (JA-0116) includes gender as a crosscutting issue to ensure
       that both men and women have access to ICT training and to Community Access Points. Two
       technical cooperation programs in Costa Rica (ATN/NC-8205-CR and ATN/NS-8339-CR)
       specifically promoted women's access to ICT, primarily through training. In addition, the science
       and technology sub-program of the jumbo loan for competitiveness in Costa Rica (CR-0156)
       includes several innovative activities for promoting gender equality, including scholarships for
       women in science and technology careers and a “gender equality stamp” to certify science and
       technology enterprises that offer equal opportunities in the workplace.




                                                        11
2.34   Rural Development. Several of the IDB operations in 2002-2005 that targeted small producers
       and poor rural populations incorporated actions to address the needs of rural women and promote
       their active participation in productive activities. In Costa Rica, the Food and Agriculture Sector
       Program (CR-0142) includes guidelines to ensure equal opportunities for women farmers in each
       local project. Women promoters are also integrated in the Agricultural Services Agencies and
       Program Coordination Unit, and gender-specific technical assistance is offered during project
       preparation and execution. The National Irrigation Development Program of Jamaica (JA-0106)
       includes as part of its support services technical training for women to promote their participation
       in agricultural activities. The Nicaragua Rural Production Revitalization Program is rated as the
       only “best practice” project in this sector (Box 5).


                          Box 5. Nicaragua Rural Production Revitalization Program (NI-0159)
       The program’s objective is to increase the income of low-income rural families by improving the
       productivity of agricultural activities. This program promotes active community participation throughout
       the entire project and includes specific measures to ensure the inclusion of women farmers as participants
       and beneficiaries in these processes. In order to be eligible for financing, projects must demonstrate
       women’s participation across project activities. The program also supports greater representation of
       women in local decision-making bodies, and in the training offered to improve the management of
       agribusinesses and to strengthen the production, transformation and marketing of local products. Gender
       equality is also included as part of the institutional capacity building activities provided to the project
       execution units. Finally, the program evaluation will consider the differential impact of the program on
       women and men, in terms of employment and income.

2.35   Another means for promoting gender equality has been the promotion of women’s access to land
       titles. In Bolivia, the Land Regularization and Legal Cadastre (BO-0221) gives special attention
       to women’s property rights in campaigns that promote land registration. The program promotes
       the registration of both members of couples on land title deeds irrespective of marital status.
       Similar programs in Brazil and Panama (BR-0392 and PN-0148) promote women’s property
       rights.

2.36   In the area of rural water and sanitation, the Sustainable Potable Water and Sanitation in Rural
       Communities Program II in Mexico (ME-0212) builds on the experience of the program’s first
       phase to increase community participation in local projects. The program establishes targets for
       women’s participation in diagnostic studies, water committees and training to improve water use,
       organizational capacity, operation and maintenance of water systems.

2.37   Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. Several Bank-financed projects support
       women and men in their efforts to more sustainably manage local natural resources, fostering
       women’s participation in decision-making and facilitating equitable access to technical
       assistance. The Sustainable Development Program for the Northern Amazon Border Zone of
       Ecuador (EC-0201), for example, ensures the active involvement of women in crop management
       and community leadership bodies. The program also established a 50% quota for women
       beneficiaries in its training programs. The Multiphase Program for Sustainable Development of
       Bocas del Toro Panama (PN-0149) includes technical assistance to improve local organizations
       and community participation, with a focus on gender equality.

2.38   As a result of the evaluation of the program’s first phase, the Coastal Resources Management II
       Program in Ecuador (EC-0193) includes specific activities to boost the participation of women
       and the Afro-Ecuadorian population in its integrated resource management projects. The
       Community Based Tourism Development Program in Chile (CH-0172) identified during project
       preparation that women run guesthouses and other home-based establishments for rural tourism


                                                       12
       since the demand for male labor intensifies during the peak tourist season. The program,
       therefore, includes measures to ensure that women directly benefit from the assistance and
       training provided to low-income households involved in tourism services.

2.39   Other natural resource management programs give priority to increasing the institutional capacity
       of their executing agencies to address gender issues during project implementation. The
       PROBOSQUE Project in Honduras (HO-0218), for example, introduces gender expertise into its
       central executing unit, and the Natural Resource Management Program (GU-0133) provides
       gender and community participation training to coordination offices at the departmental level.

2.40   Micro and Small Enterprises. The IDB recognizes the special role of women as micro-
       entrepreneurs in the projects it finances in that area. All of the IDB’s Social Entrepreneurship
       Program projects benefit women, eleven of which stand out for either focusing exclusively on
       women or including explicit measures to promote gender equality. Two examples from Bolivia
       include the Expansion of Credit Facilities and Training Services to Women (BO-S1001) and
       PROMUJER (BO-S1002). Other noteworthy projects include the Strengthening of the Fisheries
       Production in Chocó, Colombia (ATN/ST-8363-CO), which assures the participation of Afro-
       Colombian women; and the Improving the Quality of Life of Garbage Recyclers in Asunción
       Project (ATN/SF-8782-PR), where women working in landfills receive training to operate a
       childcare center adjacent to a recyclables collection center. The project also contains a provision
       for the collection center to hire men and women in numbers that represent the gender
       composition in the zone.

       Gender in Modernization of the State and Civil Society Investments

2.41   The achievement of sustainable and equitable growth is directly affected by the level of good
       governance, political stability, effective political institutions, and political inclusiveness that
       facilitate the participation of all population groups, including the traditionally underrepresented
       group of women. However, in 2002-2005, only 6% of modernization of the state lending
       incorporated a focus on gender equality (Table 6).

2.42   The low level of gender mainstreaming in this sector deserves scrutiny. Forty-one percent of the
       modernization of the state lending operations that did not address gender issues can be considered
       missed opportunities, for example: operations in the areas of national statistics modernization,
       justice, decentralization, as well as legislative and executive reform. These are key areas for
       advancing gender equality and women’s empowerment, for example, by enabling, respectively,
       the creation of sex-disaggregated data and gender-specific analyses on a national scale; reduction
       in discriminatory judicial practices; greater equality in the exercise of citizenship and civil and
       legal rights; and increased participation of women in legislative affairs. Another 46% of the
       projects that did not address gender issues are in areas where gender is not readily identifiable or
       where “gender know-how” may not yet have been adequately developed, such as financial or
       banking system reform, fiscal administration and reform, modernization of governmental offices
       and reforms to improve competitiveness. This situation reinforces the need for empirical
       analytical work to expand knowledge on gender issues in these areas.

2.43   In addition to the lending operations listed above, the Bank supported 27 technical cooperation
       programs that promote knowledge development and actions to promote gender equality and
       women’s empowerment in the areas of democratic governance, women’s leadership, civil society
       participation, and municipal development (Table 7).




                                                   13
                  Table 6. Modernization of State Lending that Mainstreams Gender, 2002-2005
                        # of operations # of operations   Operations with Total overall investment      % of total IDB
                           approved     that incorporate gender focus / total of “gender” operations   investment in the
                                             gender        operations (%)           (1000 US$)              sectors
Reform and Public
                             24                 2               8%                   20,100                  2%
Sector Support
Fiscal Reform                13                 1               8%                  300,000                  58%
Decentralization/
                             10                 1               10%                  13,000                  6%
Mun. Development
Other areas*                 16                 0                   0                  0                      0
Total                        63                 4               6%                  333,100                  10%
 * Financial management, administration of justice and parliamentary reform

        Table 7. Modernization of the State Technical Cooperation that Incorporates Gender, 2002-2005
                Area                                     # of operations            Total amount
                Reform/Modernization of State                   4                     757,820
                Democratic Governance                           9                     1,941,730
                Judicial Reform                                 1                      100,000
                Municipal Development                           2                      205,000
                Women’s Leadership                              7                     2,977,270
                Civil Society                                   4                     1,000,000
                Total                                           27                    6,881,817

 2.44    Public Sector Reform and Modernization. The IDB supported two loans and four technical
         cooperation programs that mainstream gender-specific actions and criteria into public sector
         information systems, planning processes, and programs. The two lending operations aim to better
         integrate gender criteria and sex-disaggregated data into Nicaragua’s and El Salvador’s national
         statistics systems (NI-0180 and ES-L1003), thus tackling one of the key issues associated with
         public accountability: access to quality information.

 2.45    In addition, Mainstreaming Social Inclusion and Gender in Public Sector Programs in Honduras
         (ATN/NO-8212-HO) devoted special attention to improving institutional mechanisms and
         capacity for addressing gender issues in public policies and programs by providing of technical
         assistance and training for the executing units of IDB-financed operations. In Haiti, the Bank
         supported the strengthening of National Women’s Affairs Institute (ATN/FT-8943-HA) by
         assisting in clarifying its goals, strengthening its institutional structure, and increasing its capacity
         to coordinate with key sector ministries and partners. Other important contributions to more
         gender equitable governance include efforts to modernize the Ombudsman of Guatemala to better
         address human and women’s rights (ATN/SF-9107-GU); and actions to increase the focus on
         boys’ and girls’ rights in public policies in Nicaragua (ATN/FW-8879-NI).

 2.46    Fiscal and Judicial Reform. The Fiscal Reform Program of Peru (PE-0221) integrates a focus
         on women and indigenous populations into its activities to strengthen public institutional
         capacity, efficiency and accountability in budgetary processes. In addition, the Institutional
         Strengthening in Gender for the Ministry of Finance Program in Honduras (ATN/SF-7653-HO)
         was the first operation supported by the IDB that directly promotes gender-sensitive budgets. The
         program assisted the Ministry of Finance in their efforts to integrate gender criteria into the
         annual budgetary planning processes and the country’s Integrated Financial Administration
         System, through technical assistance, training and the development of gender-sensitive indicators.
         As for judicial reform, only one technical cooperation program with a gender focus was approved


                                                           14
           in this area in 2002-2005: the Support for Legal Aid in the Caribbean Program (ATN/CT-8499-
           RS) aims to increase women’s access to legal information and services, particularly related to
           family law and child protection.

2.47       Municipal Development and Decentralization. The Bank has made several efforts to integrate
           gender issues into municipal development programs. The Public Investment System Program in
           Bolivia (BO-L1006), for example, supports the inclusion of gender equality criteria and the
           evaluation of the impact of public investments on women in its effort to decentralize and increase
           the transparency of the country’s National Public Investment System. In addition, Nicaragua’s
           Gender and Municipal Development Program (ATN/KB-8486-NI) specifically supported the
           development of a methodology and training modules to help increase the responsiveness of
           municipal governments to their female constituency and women’s participation in municipal
           planning processes. The other municipal development projects that address gender issues are not
           categorized as modernization of the state investments. They include several social development
           loans that actively involve and strengthen municipal governments, including a Costa Rica health
           program, a Honduras citizen security program, the Haiti Local Development Program, and the
           Nicaragua Municipal Social Investment Program. The Bank also financed two sub-national
           sustainable development projects in Costa Rica that include local governments as key actors.
           Both programs are strengthening women’s associations at the local level to facilitate their
           participation in local development and program activities.

2.48       Women’s Leadership. The Bank has been an active promoter of women’s participation in public
           life. The Program for the Support of Women's Leadership and Representation (PROLEAD) is the
           Bank’s signature program for promoting women's leadership in Latin America and the
           Caribbean. Between 2002 and 2005, it secured more than $3 million from the
           Norwegian, Dutch and Canadian governments. PROLEAD actions range from grant-making and
           capacity building to the development and dissemination of knowledge on leadership, and the
           mainstreaming of gender issues into Bank lending operations. During the period, the Program
           focused its grant-making activities in the Andean region and provided technical assistance to
           support the integration of gender issues into the design of three modernization of the state
           projects in Paraguay, Guatemala, and Brazil (scheduled for approval in 2006 and 2007). It
           published two studies (Dimensions of Political Inclusion and Exclusion in Brazil: Gender and
           Race, and Politics and Democratic Prospects with Latin America) and worked to promote the
           leadership of indigenous women. In collaboration with the IDB’s Indigenous Peoples Unit, it
           supported the First Summit of Indigenous Women of the Americas in 2002. The Summit
           generated a Declaration and Action Plan for the full incorporation of indigenous women in the
           development processes of their communities and countries. A PROLEAD project for the Andean
           region currently in execution seeks to build the capacity of indigenous women and implement the
           commitments made at the Summit.

2.49       In Guatemala, the Rural and Indigenous Women in Consolidation of Democracy Program
           (ATN/NO-7774-GU) supported the participation of women in the consolidation of the peace
           process by increasing women’s participation in general elections, promoting women leaders’
           networks, and creating municipal women’s offices.

           Gender in the New Lending Instruments

2.50       During the period under analysis, 23% of approved operations that used new lending instruments
           considered in the New Lending Framework (NLF)9 mainstreamed attention to gender equality.

9
    GN-2200-13 April, 2005


                                                      15
         Over 80% were social sector operations, primarily social investment and health. The best
         performers appear to be performance-driven loans and multiphase lending programs, which are
         largely project or program-oriented. On the other hand, the new instruments that employ a policy
         or broader sector-wide focus, such as policy-based loans and SWAps, were much less successful.
         Since the Bank intends to increase the share of loans in these categories, it is important to
         develop appropriate measures and design elements to support the promotion of gender equality
         through these instruments. Features that could be considered include: (i) institutional capacity
         building for national agencies in charge of advancing gender equality; (ii) support for gender-
         responsive budgeting; (iii) mechanisms to promote broad-based participation to help incorporate
         women’s voices in national policy formation; and, (iv) performance and impact indicators that
         assess contributions to gender equality and ensure accountability. A review of the new lending
         instruments could encompass an analysis of funding flows to programs that specifically address
         men and women’s needs.

         Factors Affecting Gender Mainstreaming in Strategies and Operations

2.51     The main factors identified that contribute to gender mainstreaming in country strategies include:
         (i) the new annual exercise, initiated with the Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan in 2003, to
         prioritize country strategies for gender mainstreaming; (ii) the technical analysis and assistance
         provided to country coordinators by IDB gender specialists; (iii) country divisions’ efforts to
         integrate gender into country strategy documents; and (iv) increased receptivity of some member
         countries to address gender-specific issues. On the other hand, the factors seen as limiting greater
         progress to date include: (i) the lack of full-time gender experts in all three regional operations
         departments; (ii) the tendency to eliminate aspects of detail related to gender and other cross-
         cutting issues from the country papers to meet document page limits; and (iii) the as yet
         insufficient levels of involvement of in-country stakeholders who could be advocates for gender
         equality in programming and policy dialogues.10

2.52     With regard to IDB lending operations, some of the enabling factors favoring gender
         mainstreaming in design include: (i) technical support from gender specialists (mainly from
         SDS/GED and Region 2); (ii) inclusion of gender criteria in studies or evaluations that inform
         project design; (iii) active support of senior management or division chiefs of their staff’s work in
         this area; (iv) prior project team experience with operations where a gender focus was seen as
         having added value; and (v) identification of gender considerations by the Committee for
         Environmental and Social Impacts (CESI). Additional factors that appear to explain the
         relatively high level of attention paid to gender issues in Region 2 include the high concentration
         of poverty targeted and social sector programs in that region and a longer history of support for
         gender issues by international cooperation agencies. On the other hand, the detracting factors
         that seem to limit additional progress in the lending portfolio include: (i) insufficient internal
         capacity and technical support to address gender, primarily in non-social sectors; (ii) inconsistent
         management-level support within the Bank; and (iii) mixed levels of interest in gender issues on
         the part of Bank staff and governmental counterparts.11




10
   Tornqvist, Annika, Evaluation of the Implementation of the IDB Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan, March 2005-June 2005.
SDS/GED Consultant Report, Washington DC, 2006.
11
   Ibid.


                                                           16
       Summary

2.53   Table 8 provides a summary of the level of gender mainstreaming between the 1998-2001 and the
       2002-2005 periods of analysis across in the principles areas discussed in this chapter – country
       strategies, the lending portfolio, PES projects, and technical cooperation.

              Table 8. Summary of Progress and Challenges: Strategies and Financial Operations

        Areas                                   1998-2001                       2002-2005
        Mainstreaming Gender into Country Strategies
        • Integration of Gender Issues into     Country strategies had          50% of country
           New Country Strategies               minimal or no gender focus.     strategies integrated
                                                                                gender partially or
                                                                                significantly
        Gender Mainstreaming in Lending Portfolio
        • % of lending operations that          29%                             26%
           incorporate gender (into their
           designs)
        • % of total IDB investment             24%                             37%
           represented by the lending
           operations that incorporate gender
        Gender Mainstreaming in Micro and Small Enterprise Projects
        • # of PES and Small Projects that      53                              76
           benefit women (% of total)           (100%)                           (100%)

        •   Total investment of the PES/Small    US$ 18 million                 US$ 41.2 million
            Projects that benefit women

        Technical Cooperation Projects that Address Gender Issues
        • # of technical cooperation projects    95                             114
           that address gender (% of total       (6.4%)                         (7.9%)
           TCs)
        • Total investment through TCs that      US$ 24 million                 US$ 21 million
           address gender issues (% of total     (7.2%)                         (7.6%)
           TC investment)
        • Source of funding for TCs that         54% FSO; 46% Trust Funds       19% FSO; 81% Trust
           address gender issues                                                Funds




                                                  17
                   3. Mechanisms to Support Gender Mainstreaming

3.1    During the 2002-2005 reporting period, the Bank developed new mechanisms for enhancing the
       level of gender mainstreaming in lending and non-financial instruments, among them the Gender
       Mainstreaming Action Plan (GAP) for the period March 2003-June 2005. The purpose of this
       chapter is to assess progress under the GAP, other efforts to strengthen the Bank’s capacity and
       knowledge base for addressing gender, and the Bank’s coordination with regional constituencies
       and other multi-lateral financial institutions.

3.2    The Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan was prepared in 2002 to respond to several of the
       challenges identified in the 1998-2001 report to the Board on progress in gender mainstreaming
       at the Bank. Its purpose was to promote action on gender as a crosscutting issue in all areas of
       Bank activity, giving priority to: (i) incorporating gender analysis and actions throughout the IDB
       project cycle; (ii) improving the availability and quality of technical support and analysis for
       gender mainstreaming; (iii) mainstreaming gender flagship themes and integrating gender into
       new areas of Bank innovation; and (iv) strengthening the institutional mechanisms for creating
       accountability and monitoring results. In order to better coordinate Bank efforts in gender
       mainstreaming, the GAP provided for the establishment of annual priorities for country strategies
       and projects in the pipeline, and the selection of a number of projects in execution that would be
       monitored during the GAP period. The regional operational departments and country offices
       established these priorities in coordination with SDS/GED. The results are discussed below.

       Incorporating Gender in Country Strategies and the Project Cycle

       Country Strategies

3.3    The incorporation of gender in country strategies progressed significantly since the launching of
       the GAP, as shown by the data presented in the previous chapter. During the GAP
       implementation period, 10 country strategies were identified as priorities for gender
       mainstreaming and rated for their level of gender mainstreaming. These priority strategies
       attained higher gender ratings than the overall portfolio of strategies approved in the 2002-2005
       period, in which 50% rated “partial” or “significant” compared to 70% amongst the priority
       strategies.12

       The Project Cycle: Design, Implementation and Evaluation

3.4    Design. During the GAP period, a total of 78 projects were identified as priorities for gender
       mainstreaming, 53% from social divisions of the regional operational departments, 27%, 12%
       and 8%, respectively, from the environment, modernization of the state, and
       finance/infrastructure divisions. Forty-four of these prioritized projects were approved and rated
       with the GED Gender Mainstreaming Rating Criteria (see Annex 1). The mainstreaming results
       for the priority projects are much better than those in the overall Bank portfolio in the same years
       (Graph 1). However, even amongst project prioritized by the operations division there is much
       room for improvement, since still 32% were rated with minimal or no gender focus in their
       designs.


12
   For a detailed discussion, see Tornqvist, Annika, Evaluation of the Implementation of the IDB Gender
Mainstreaming Action Plan, March 2005-June 2005. SDS/GED Consultant Report, Washington DC, 2006. Data
presented on country strategies has been updated to the end of 2005.


                                                   18
                             Graph 1. Gender Mainstreaming Rating:
             All Lending Operations versus GAP Priority Projects Approved (2003-2005)
                             60                                                     56

                             50

                             40                                                               All
                Percentage                                                                    Approved
                                                    30
                             30                                 27                            Project
                                                                          19             18   Priority
                             20
                                      11       10          12                  14             Projects
                             10
                                  3
                              0
                                  Best Prac.        Sign    Partial       Minimal    None



3.5   Implementation. The gaps between gender mainstreaming in project design and project
      execution continues to persist. This is an area that requires much greater attention, including
      greater support and incentives for country office staff, capacity building, and negotiation with
      governmental executing agencies.

3.6   Gender-sensitive indicators and sex-disaggregated data are infrequently included in the Bank’s
      twice-yearly Project Performance Monitoring Reports (PPMRs). This limits the scope to track
      gender components in project execution. However, during the GAP implementation period, 9
      country offices prioritized a total of 17 projects in execution to track and report gender-specific
      actions and results (see Annex 6). In 60% of these projects, the gender-related activities included
      at the design stage were found to be implementing satisfactorily and gender-specific reporting in
      PPMRs improved: the inclusion of gender-specific indicators in the PPMRs of these priority
      project arose from 25% to 55% by the end of the GAP period. Efforts to improve the execution in
      some projects included capacity building for project staff and the development of an
      implementation manual with a focus on gender issues and women’s participation (e.g. Bolivia’s
      ProAguas). The prioritized projects with successful execution tended to benefit from the presence
      of a gender specialist supporting the integration of gender in project activities, as in the case of
      the Peru PROVIAS and the Honduran PROBOSQUE projects).

3.7   The project execution stage provides opportunities to promote gender equality or improve
      women’s benefits even when a gender focus was not part of the project’s design. Two examples
      include the Peru PROVIAS project (Box 6 under Evaluation below) and the Honduras Water and
      sanitation Program in Choloma. During the execution of the Honduras project, time schedules of
      water distribution to households were modified to better fit the schedules of women working in
      the maquilas, who represent a large portion of the beneficiary population in the target area, and a
      target of 35% for women’s representation on local water committees was established. Neither of
      these actions was contemplated at the design stage, but both are producing desirable results. This
      project, as well as the other priority projects in Honduras (Annex 6) benefited from technical
      support through a noteworthy pilot initiative of the Bank’s Country Office in Honduras , which
      was specifically designed to increase a gender mainstreaming in project execution (Box 5). The
      effects and impact of these achievements deserve to be monitored over time and opportunities for
      replication should be identified.




                                                                     19
                     Box 6. Mainstreaming Social Inclusion & Gender into Public Programs (ATN/NO-8212-HO)
            This initiative of the Bank’s Country Office in Honduras was carried out in collaboration with the National
            Women’s Institute and the Technical Support Unit of the Ministry of the Presidency, in collaboration with
            specialists from the IDB. The initiative provided technical support to 5 projects in execution and 2 in
            design; it strengthened institutional capacity in executing agencies and other public institutions and
            improved IDB coordination with other international agencies and civil society organizations interested in
            gender equality and social inclusion in the country. Specific results included: (i) 129 women and 99 men
            from the executing agencies trained to integrate gender into their projects; (ii) 75 people trained to
            replicate the training course for other executing agencies; (iii) action plans prepared for gender
            mainstreaming in the execution of 5 projects; (iv) internship program for 9 indigenous and afro-Honduran
            women implemented in the IDB country office; and (v) electronic database for indigenous and black
            professionals from 9 ethnic groups (1478 women and 1625 men) established. Source: Aparicio, Teresa.
            2005. “Transversalización de Inclusión Social y Género: Aprendizajes y Experiencias,” IDB: Tegucigalpa, Honduras.


3.8        Evaluation. To date, there has limited reporting on gender-specific results or impacts in IDB-
           financed evaluations, including project level and impact evaluations. Although the evaluation of
           differential results for women and men in development projects is essential, only 8% of the
           lending operations approved between 2002 and 2005 included gender-specific indicators in their
           logical frameworks and only 17% explicitly stated that sex-disaggregated data would be gathered
           to permit monitoring and evaluation. Of the GAP priority projects approved between 2003 and
           2005 (see above), 30% included gender-specific indicators in their logical framework, mostly at
           the “output” level. Clearly, “evaluability” and evaluation need to be attended to more
           systematically if one is to know the results and impacts of the Bank’s efforts to promote gender
           equality and women’s empowerment.13

3.9        During the period under analysis, the regional operational departments made efforts to
           incorporate gender in a limited number of project evaluations . For example, according to the
           GAP evaluation, the Honduras Poverty and Local Development Project (HO-0220), the Peru
           Youth Training Program (PE-0241), the Peru PROVIAS project (Box 6) and the Mexico Rural
           Water and Sanitation Project (ME-0212) included gender in their respective first-phase
           evaluations and, as a result, enabled project teams to identify concrete issues and benchmarks for
           gender-specific action in the design of the second phase of the projects. However, for every such
           effort there is more than one missed opportunity, and, as a result, formal knowledge regarding the
           gender-specific development effectiveness of the Banks efforts remains rudimentary.

                          Box 7: Peru Rural Transportation Infrastructure II (PROVIAS) – 1328/OC
            The Evaluation of the first phase of the program reported that 70% of women surveyed from the
            beneficiary population found that the program had helped to improve their living condition through greater
            access to health services, increased local trade, and improvements in small livestock through access to
            transport services and road safety. It was also found, however, that women very actively participated in
            volunteer activities related to road construction and maintenance, but had almost no access to the income
            generating opportunities or training associated with the program.
            Although these aspects were not integrated into the design of the second phase of the project,
            they did inform project execution: a gender specialist was hired and specific targets were established to
            increase the level of women’s participation in the road maintenance micro-enterprises. In addition,
            participation in voluntary work was established as a condition for paid-work. As a result, the number of
            women-run micro-enterprises rose from 4% in the first phase to 23% of a total of 455 micro enterprises in
            the second phase, and the number of male volunteers increased.



13
     The OVE sector and country program evaluations carried out in 2002-2005 do no incorporate gender.


                                                             20
       Technical Support and Knowledge Contributions

3.10   Technical support for gender mainstreaming, with particular emphasis on implementing the
       targets of the GAP, was provided by the Gender Equality in Development Unit at SDS, gender
       specialists in regional operations departments including Country Offices and consultants hired by
       the Bank throughout the period covered in this report. While technical support is demand-driven,
       the annual identification of priority strategies and projects under the GAP helped to improve the
       targeting of internal technical assistance to a priority group of activities. The Committee on
       Environmental and Social Impact (CESI) during the period under review continued to serve as a
       mechanism to channel technical advice on gender mainstreaming to the operational divisions.
       The contracting of a gender specialist as staff in 2004 with a mandate to mainstream gender in
       Region 2 was an important step forward in the provision of more consistent internal technical
       support. The “missed opportunities” identified in this report suggest a need for additional gender
       specialists and other resources to build gender capacity in the Bank.

3.11   One such resource is the Gender Mainstreaming Trust Fund established in July 2005 as a multi-
       donor fund with an initial contribution from the government of Norway to increase the provision
       of technical support in gender mainstreaming for IDB staff and counterpart organizations in Bank
       member countries. The Fund supports activities that enhance gender mainstreaming throughout
       the project cycle and aims both to improve the availability and quality of technical support and
       analysis and to strengthen institutional mechanisms for gender issues. The Fund, which allocates
       its resources on a competitive basis, is also meant to support the development of a new IDB
       Strategic Framework on Gender.

3.12   Technical studies on gender issues during the period under review focused on gender equality in
       the labor market as exemplified by the Bank’s 2004 Economic and Social Progress Report Good
       Jobs Wanted and the book Women at Work: Challenges for Latin America published by SDS in
       2005. Other topics pursued as part of the Bank’s gender research agenda included girls’
       education, women’s leadership and political participation, domestic violence and social inclusion,
       and work reflecting on the Millennium Development Goals (Annex 7). In 2005, SDS initiated a
       series called Ideas en Marcha with its first edition on the topic of gender equality and corporate
       social responsibility. In coordination with country divisions in Regions 1, 2 and 3, SDS also
       helped prepare several technical briefs to support the preparation of country strategies. In 2005,
       the IDB and the World Bank agreed to work together to prepare joint country gender assessments
       in Chile and Nicaragua.

       Innovation and New Initiatives (Flagship Themes)

3.13   An important part of gender mainstreaming involves the expansion of the scope of Bank
       activities into areas that are deemed critical to the development of equal opportunities for women
       and men. The Bank thus develops gender flagship themes through research and pilot initiatives,
       and then works to mainstream them in its lending operations.

3.14   The GAP continued to emphasize the mainstreaming of four of the Bank’s longstanding flagship
       themes, initially developed with technical cooperation resources, into the regular lending
       portfolio, i.e., the prevention of domestic violence, labor market/technical training for women,
       reproductive and maternal health, and women’s participation in decision-making and leadership.
       Twenty-six lending operations between 2002 and 2005 addressed these issues (Annex 5), which
       is similar to the number reported in for the 1998-2001 period (see Table 8 below).




                                                  21
3.15   At the same time, new flagship themes are being taken on board: (i) gender issues and
       vulnerabilities affecting boys and men; (ii) the multiple dimensions of exclusion based on gender,
       race and ethnicity; (iii) identity rights; and (iv) human trafficking. These themes are being
       addressed through technical cooperation programs, with the first two gradually entering the
       lending portfolio, particularly in the social sectors.

3.16   Men in Development. A focus on men and men’s roles can be essential to efforts in gender
       equality. The Bank and its member countries are recognizing and addressing gender-specific
       issues for boys and men, particularly in the areas of education, social protection, and citizen
       security and the prevention of violence. Examples include the Honduras Social Safety Net
       Program (HO-0222; Box 1), the Culture and Citizenship Program in Brazil (BR-0373; Box 2);
       and the Basic Education Project in El Salvador (ES-L0159) that promotes continued schooling
       for boys and addresses issues of street gangs, violence and migration as cross-cutting themes. The
       Bank has begun to support sensitization and training, including a training workshop on
       masculinity for executing agencies of IDB-financed projects in Honduras (2004); a Dialogue on
       Masculinity with Caribbean Educators (2004); and the inclusion of issues of men and masculinity
       in the INDES Social Management Course for the English-speaking Caribbean in 2003 and 2004.

3.17   Gender Equality and Social Inclusion. The IDB has continued over the past four years to
       address gender issues in conjunction with other social inclusion issues, particularly the inclusion
       of indigenous peoples and afro-descendent communities. Initiatives that address multiple
       dimensions of social inclusion help to improve targeting, develop more culturally and socially
       appropriate development interventions, and better meet the specific needs of women and men
       from populations groups that have been historically excluded.

3.18   Reviews of loans between 2002 and 2005 identified 19 lending operations (compared to 17 in the
       previous period of analysis, 1998-2001) that included a focus on gender equality and support for
       indigenous or afro-descendent communities (see Annex 5). In addition, new Strategy for
       Indigenous Development (GN-2387-5) and the Operational Policy on Indigenous Peoples (GN-
       2386-8) integrates an explicit focus on gender equality and women’s leadership.

3.19   The IDB has also supported several technical cooperation initiatives that specifically aim to
       promote opportunities for indigenous women and Latin American women of African descent. In
       addition to the efforts to support women indigenous leaders (described in the women’s leadership
       section in II. Investments in Gender Equality), the gender-specific actions in these initiatives
       include, among others: (1) the strengthening of organizations that promote the inclusion of
       women and persons with disabilities in Brazil (ATN/NI-8710-BR); (2) collection of sex-
       disaggregated data in order to better understand the situation of Afro-Ecuadorian women
       (ATN/NI-9100-EC); (3) analysis of social services and their use by women of different ethnic
       backgrounds (ATN/KE-9207-ES); and (4) development of a “Guide of Good Practices for the
       Political and Social Inclusion of Afro-Descendant Women in Central America” (ATN/NS-8241-
       RS). In addition, the Honduras Country Office implemented an internship program for
       indigenous and afro-Honduran women leaders (ATN/NS-8662-HO).

3.20   Trafficking in persons. The IDB also started to address this emerging form of social violence
       and exploitation that specifically affects women and children. The Bank created a Task Force in
       2004 to initiate its work in this area. Six technical country and regional cooperation programs
       currently support the fight against trafficking in persons in Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador,
       Jamaica, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago and Central
       America. These include support to: (1) strengthen justice systems to improve citizen protection or
       legal instruments to prosecute traffickers, (2) prevent people from becoming victims, (3)


                                                   22
       implement public education and awareness campaigns, (4) train public defenders, prosecutors and
       judges; and (5) broaden the regional debate on trafficking to reflect it in human rights, security
       and justice agendas, and to establish national strategies and appropriate public policies to combat
       this crime.

3.21   Right to Identity. Basic identity documents, including birth certificates and national ID cards,
       are necessary for the exercise of full citizenship and rights and are also critical for including Latin
       America’s poor and traditionally marginalized population groups in economic, social and
       political development. The lack of identity documents varies widely across countries, but
       overall, it prevents access to basic health and education services, formal sector jobs, credit, social
       protection, and the justice system. It also restricts voting rights and access to decision-making
       structures at all levels. The most affected populations include women with low levels of
       education, indigenous peoples and displaced or geographically isolated people. The Bank started
       to address this issue by supporting research to determine the real scope of problem and to identify
       actions to redress the exclusion that it causes. The regional study “Assessing Implications of
       Under Registration at Birth" (ATN/NS-8915) launched in 2004, is a collaborative effort across all
       three regional operations departments and RES. The final results of 7 country studies will be
       published in 2007. In addition, the Plan Familias Program (AR-L1006), approved in 2005,
       includes support for obtaining identity documents for potential beneficiaries of the program.
       Finally, RE1, RES and SDS/GED organized several seminars in 2005 to raise greater awareness
       of the issue and its implications for Bank operations across sectors. This is a growing area of
       emphasis for the IDB, and has been included as one of the six priorities in the IDB’s new
       Building Opportunities for the Majority Initiative.

       Institutional Mechanisms and Strengthening

3.22   SDS/GED and the Strategic Framework on Gender Equality. In May of 2005, the Women in
       Development Unit (SDS/WID) changed its name to Gender Equality in Development
       (SDS/GED) to reflect a better understanding of the role of gender relations in the development
       process and to promote equal opportunities for women and men. This change will be reflected in
       the new Strategic Framework on Gender Equality that is being prepared in response to a mandate
       from the Bank’s Board of Directors.

3.23   IDB Gender Network. The IDB established its first formal gender network in 2003 with a total
       of 52 gender focal points from all divisions in regional operations departments, 16 country offices
       and several central divisions. This group has played a key role in GAP implementation and
       monitoring, and is important to expand the institutional capacity for gender mainstreaming. To
       reach its potential, however, there should be more institutional support and recognition of the
       focal points’ efforts to provide technical support and monitor Bank progress in gender
       mainstreaming.

3.24   Recognition and Dissemination of Best Practices. The recognition of the best practices in
       mainstreaming gender into project design within the IDB provides positive incentives for staff
       and promotes institutional learning. To this end, the Bank published two brochures that highlight
       53 loans from social and non-social sectors approved between 1998 and 2003 that present
       innovative and effective mechanisms for addressing gender considerations in their designs.
       During this period, the Bank also issued two awards for best project design that included
       verification of positive advances during project execution (See Box 8).




                                                    23
                                           Box 8. Best Project Design Awards
   In 2002, first prize was awarded to the Program for Citizen Security: Crime and Violence Prevention, a $17.5
   million loan to Uruguay approved in 1998. This project includes a component that address domestic violence
   through increased interagency coordination, technical assistance and specialized training for service providers
   and public officials. In addition to financing specific interventions for victims of domestic violence, the program
   supports public information campaigns to raise awareness and understanding about the issue.

   In 2004, the award went to the Labor Market Policy Program, a $300 million loan to Mexico approved in 2001.
   This program includes activities and incentives to benefit women and high-risk groups. Through a targeted
   communications campaign, the program seeks to attract women owned enterprises as well as those that employ
   mainly women. Special support, such as childcare services, is provided at training and placement facilities. In
   addition, additional support is provided to employment offices that successfully increase the participation of
   women in their programs.

3.25   The Bank also established a Public Programs that Promote Gender Equality in Latin America
       Award announced during Social Development Week in November 2005. The first prize went to
       the Gender Focus in the Management Improvement Program in Chile, while the second and third
       prizes went to the Gender Mainstreaming Strategy in Nicaragua’s National Police and to
       Bolivia’s Program to Strengthen Technical and Technological Training.

3.26   Capacity Building. Addressing one of the key factors that limit gender mainstreaming in IDB-
       financed initiatives, the IDB continued to support institutional capacity building both within the
       Bank and outside for policy makers and project executing agencies in its member countries. At
       IDB headquarters, SDS collaborated with regional operations departments and HRD/LRN to
       conduct a series of gender mainstreaming learning events, including: sector-specific sessions on
       transportation and modernization of the state, the Bank’s first “Gender Week” in 2005 to
       commemorate the ten years since the UN Conference on Women in Beijing, and gender-specific
       learning events in the Bank’s two Social Development Weeks in 2003 and 2005.

3.27   In 2005, Region 2, in collaboration with SDS, organized several learning events, including one
       on gender and municipal development, gender in national budgets, and best practices for the
       inclusion of Afro-descendent women in Central America. They also carried out the first
       Dialogue on Gender Equality in the Plan Puebla Panama (PPP) in Nicaragua, with participants
       from 8 countries involved in PPP initiatives.

3.28   To support capacity building efforts in the IDB’s member countries, SDS/GED published the
       training manual “Incorporating Gender Considerations into Development Programs and
       Projects,” using the methodology of the training courses it carried out in IDB member countries
       between 1998 and 2001. SDS/GED distributed 450 copies within IDB member countries, offered
       the course to all Mexico country office staff and provided technical assistance to trainers to
       replicate the course in their countries. Through the Program for Mainstreaming Social Inclusion
       and Gender (PISYG) in Honduras, an adapted version of the IDB gender course was offered to
       230 professionals working with IDB-financed projects.

3.29   Finally, SDS/GED and INDES collaborated to integrate gender equality into its courses on social
       management and policy. In 2005, INDES offered its first Social Management for Gender
       Equality to representatives from government women’s bureaus/ministries and civil society
       organizations from 15 countries in the region, and the “Training of Trainers Course on
       Leadership for Gender Equality.” (See Annex 8 for a list of conferences and seminars.)




                                                       24
3.30   External Advisory Council on Women in Development. SDS continued to consult
       consistently with the IDB External Advisory Council on Women in Development, a group of
       prominent leaders in politics, academia and civil society in the region that has been operating
       since 1995. During this period there was a member rotation of the Council and a change in
       leadership. Dr. Ruth Cardoso, president of the NGO Comunidade Solidaria and former First Lady
       of Brazil, assumed the position of chairperson from the Honorable Billy Miller from Barbados.

3.31   Between 2002 and 2005, the Council met three times at IDB headquarters and two times in the
       region (Guatemala in 2002 and Argentina in 2004). This offered members the opportunity to
       interact with country office staff, program beneficiaries, executing agencies of programs financed
       by the IDB, as well as Bank’s upper management including the Bank President and EVP. The
       External Advisory Council meetings generate recommendations for areas in which the Bank
       could work more effectively for gender mainstreaming (see Annex 9).

3.32   Inter-Agency Coordination and Harmonization. Finally, the Bank participates in the
       Multilateral Development Bank’s Working Group on Gender to improve their efficiency in
       promoting gender equality, both at the operational and institutional levels. This collaboration has
       produced several concrete results including: (1) a joint international conference on Gender
       Equality and the Millennium Development Goals in 2003; (2) joint MDB and IMF statements on
       the importance of gender equality and empowering women for achieving the MDGs, and
       reaffirming their institutional commitment to the Beijing Platform for Action (see Annex 10);
       and, (3) the preparation of joint IDB and World Bank Country Gender Assessments.

3.33   Since 2002, the Bank has also participated in the Regional Inter-Agency Taskforce for the
       Reduction of Maternal Mortality, which led to the approval of the Interagency Strategic
       Consensus for Latin America and the Caribbean in 2003. In addition, the Bank actively
       participated in the 49th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) in March
       2005, marking the 10th anniversary of the UN Beijing Conference on Women. It also played an
       active role in the 9th Regional Conference on Women in LAC (organized by CEPAL), which
       generated the Mexico Consensus as the LAC regional input for the CSW Session.

       Summary

3.34   The Bank actively pursued all four of the action areas of the GAP, meeting 83% of its established
       targets (Tornqvist, 2006). As this chapter indicates, the new exercise introduced by the GAP to
       prioritize country strategies, projects in the pipeline and projects in execution for gender
       mainstreaming proved effective. While the GAP did not have a broad effect on the level of
       attention to gender in project execution, it did achieve all of the modest targets that it established
       in that area. This was not the case, however, in the area of project evaluation.

3.35   Table 9 provides a comparison between the 1998-2001 and the 2002-2005 periods of analysis for
       the areas of innovation and institutional mechanisms for which comparative data is available.




                                                    25
                    Table 9. Summary of Progress: Innovation and Institutional Mechanisms
      Areas                                1998-2001                         2002-2005
      Innovation and Gender Flagship Themes
      • # of lending operations that       29                                2614
          integrate key gender flagship
          themes
      • # of lending operations that       17                                19
          address both gender equality
          and social inclusion
      •    New gender issues addressed  Reproductive Health;                               Women’s access to ICT; Gender
           in the IDB TC portfolio.     Inclusion of Indigenous                            Budgets; Gender and HIV/AIDS;
                                        Women; Gender and Natural                          Trafficking in Persons; Inclusion
                                        Disasters                                          of Afro-Latin Women
      Institutional Framework and Mechanisms
      •    IDB Gender Network                      - Staff with full time                  - First expert with full time
           expanded                                  mandate to support gender               gender mainstreaming mandate
                                                     mainstreaming located in                hired in RE2.
                                                     SDS/WID. Gender                       - First formal gender focal point
                                                     consultants in RE1 and                  network established at the Bank
                                                     RE2.                                    (52 at headquarters and in
                                                   - Loose network of staff with             country offices.)
                                                     experience and interest, but
                                                     no formal duties assigned.
      •    Institutional commitments to            IDB pledged support to the              - First Bank-wide Gender
           promoting gender equality               Millennium Development                    Mainstreaming Action Plan
           strengthened                            Goals that include specific               designed and implemented
                                                   targets for gender equality.            - New sector strategies approved
                                                                                             that address gender issues
                                                                                             (poverty reduction, social dev.,
                                                                                             mod. of the state & environ.)
                                                                                           - Background analysis carried out
                                                                                             for the Bank’s first Strategy for
                                                                                             Gender Equality




14
  This number does not necessarily represent a decline in the Bank’s focus on these flagship themes. The drop can largely be
explained by much lower number of approved projects in two relevant sectors in the lending portfolio, justice sector and health.


                                                               26
                          4. Challenges and Recommendations
4.1   The Bank has contributed to gender equality through its programs, projects and knowledge-
      based contributions. It made advances in addressing the issue in 2002-2005, but the share of
      lending operations that mainstreamed gender did not increase with respect to the 1998-2001
      period. The Bank continues to face challenges in gender mainstreaming, especially in the
      design of non-social sector loans, the execution of projects with gender-specific objectives,
      and the evaluation of results.

4.2   The following recommendations stress the specific areas that need to be addressed: (i)
      consolidating and expanding gains in the integration of gender issues throughout the project
      cycle, particularly in non-social sectors; (ii) strengthening the execution of gender features
      included in project design; (iii) expanding evaluation to generate information about results;
      (iv) reinforcing the IDB’s contribution to knowledge management and innovation; and (v)
      strengthening institutional capacity in the IDB and line ministries and institutions of
      women’s/gender affairs in borrowing countries.

4.3   Consolidating and expanding progress in gender mainstreaming. The Bank in not always
      consistent in applying accumulated operational learning (as relevant to the gender dimension) in
      the design of operations, including in social sectors where learning has occurred. The Bank faces
      the challenge of broadening its attention to equal opportunities particularly in non-social areas
      such as modernization of the state, competitiveness, finance and infrastructure, which are critical
      for achieving equal economic opportunities and rights for women and men. Also, the New
      Lending Framework, that intends to move IDB’s business model from a project-based to a policy
      and program-based approach, have the potential to improve the country policy, normative and
      programmatic environments in favor of gender equality.

      Recommendations: Renew the resolve to achieve consistency in the attention paid to gender
      issues, sustain gains and expand the focus on gender in non-social areas critical for achieving
      equality. Specifically (targets to be achieved over the next four years are specified):

      a. Expand to at least 75% the share of country strategies that integrate gender issues and
         actions. (The current level is 50%.).

      b. Expand to at least 75% the loans in the social areas that mainstream gender issues. (The
         current level is 55%.).

      c. Expand to at least 30% the loans in the non-social sectors (infrastructure, modernization of
         the state, economic opportunities and competitiveness) that mainstream gender issues. (The
         current level is 14%.).

      d. Introduce gender issues in programmatic lending instruments such as policy-based loans and
         sector-wide approaches.

4.4   Strengthening project execution of gender features and monitoring for results. Successful
      execution begins at the design stage and requires that the project team and executing units
      understand and commit to project objectives and activities that promote gender equality, capacity,
      coordination between headquarters and country offices. It also requires the alignment of
      monitoring instruments to facilitate tracking of gender-specific results.




                                                  27
      Recommendations: Translate good designs into practice. Adopt a culture of management for
      results in gender mainstreaming. Specifically, in operations where gender is an element of design:

      a. Integrate gender-specific indicators and targets into the corresponding logical frameworks,
         project covenants, operating manuals and terms of reference that guide project
         implementation.

      b. Track and report on progress on these indicators and targets in the Project Performance
         Monitoring Reports as projects are implemented.

      c. Report on results in the Project Completion Reports.

4.5   Strengthening evaluation of project outcomes and impacts. The Bank has made limited
      progress evaluating gender differential results and determining if development programs are
      promoting a gender-equitable distribution of benefits.

      Recommendation: Asses differential impacts on women and men in prioritized evaluations of
      sector strategies and country strategies by OVE and, carry out other studies dedicated to
      measuring gender-specific results on a sample basis, focusing in particular on those projects that
      have successfully incorporated a gender focus in their design.

4.6   Supporting innovation and knowledge management. The Bank has made good use of non-
      reimbursable TC funds to expand the scope of the gender issues it addresses through knowledge
      generation, pilot testing, documenting and disseminating interventions that work. This effort
      could be sustained. A critical dimension to moving forward in gender issues is to research the
      mechanisms and consequences of gender disparities; identify good practices and lessons from
      development efforts, and learn from successes and challenges in gender mainstreaming.

      Recommendation: Reinforce the Bank’s leadership in knowledge management, learning and
      innovation to produce sustainable gains in gender equality. Specifically:

      a. In the Bank’s research agenda, enhance the focus on gender gaps and mechanisms that
         reinforce gender inequality.

      b. Reinforce the consolidation of institutional learning from the documentation of good practice,
         lessons learned and evaluation of results in this area.

      c. Report on progress in gender mainstreaming and results achieved in institutional reports on
         development effectiveness, in particular the annual Development Effectiveness Overview.

4.7   Strengthen institutional capacity within the IDB as well as public institutions of women’s
      and gender affairs in borrowing countries. The challenges of gender mainstreaming cannot be
      overcome without additional support and capacity, including professional and financial resources
      within the IDB. Equally, national counterpart institutions with knowledge of or the mandate to
      address national gender issues are synergistic to Bank efforts on gender equality. Specifically:

      Recommendations:

      a. Strengthen the capacity of the region’s stakeholders that promote gender equality.




                                                 28
      b. Engage relevant government officials in a dialogue on gender equality to share experience
         and promising practices in the region and beyond.

      c. Involve governmental women/family/gender ministries and agencies at the negotiating table
         for country strategy and program development.

      d. Develop and implement a gender mainstreaming learning plan for Bank staff, covering all
         phases of the project cycle

4.8   Perspective on Implementation. The implementation of these recommendations will require
      cooperation across operational divisions, country offices, the Development Effectiveness Group,
      the Gender Equality in Development Unit, and others. The process will need to be staffed and
      resourced. In addition to other technical cooperation resources, the new Gender Mainstreaming
      Fund will play a role as it is designed to provide seed money for technical support, training and
      analytical work, and creative partnerships to support pilot initiatives and innovation.




                                                 29
                                                 Annex 1

    RATING CRITERIA FOR GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN IDB LOANS AND
                       COUNTRY STRATEGIES

I. Rating Criteria for Loan Documents (Design)

     A. Rating Matrix

                                Not              0           1            2             3           Score
Gender Focus in:
                             applicable*
Problem                                                                                          (Maximize
Identification/Social                                                                            possible
Assessment                                                                                       total, 3)
Program Objectives/                                                                              X 21
Components                                                                                       (Maximum
                                                                                                 total, 6)
Measures for Project                                                                             (Maximum
Execution                                                                                        total, 3)

Monitoring and                                                                                   (Maximum
Evaluation                                                                                       total, 3)


Total Score                                                                                      __/15


     B. Rating categories:

     None2 = 0-1; Minimal = 2-5; Partial = 6-9; Significant = 10-13; Best practice = 14-15

     C. Guiding Questions:
     1.
2.   1. Problem Identification/Social Assessment
        Were gender issues identified/assessed?

     •    Was a gender analysis conducted and relevant gender issues identified as part of project
          preparation?
               (e.g. differential roles, needs, constraints or opportunities of women/girls as
               compared to men/boys, and/or between women from different social, ethnic,
               economic and age groups as they relate to the problem or sector under analysis.)
     •    Are relevant data disaggregated by sex?
     •    Are anticipated benefits/impacts of the proposed operation for both women and men
          (girls and boys, when relevant) referenced?


1
  The Project Objectives and Components score is doubled since this section should describe in greatest
detail the gender-specific actions of the operation.
2
  A secondary assessment of operations rating “None” will be carried out to verify if (1) gender issues are
not considered applicable, or (2) it constitutes a missed opportunity.


                                                      i
(NOTE: If it is determined that there are no relevant gender issues, the Project will be
considered “not applicable”.)

2. Project Objectives/Components
   Do project objectives/components contribute to promoting greater gender equality
   and to addressing women or men’s priority needs?

•   Will expected project outcomes contribute to greater equality between women and men?
•   Will expected project outputs contribute to women’s empowerment, including
    strengthening opportunities, capabilities and/or security?
    (Note: If specific gender issues are identified for men or boys, also consider if expected
    project outputs will contribute to increasing boys’ or men’s opportunities, capabilities
    and/or security.)
•   Are specific measures included to promote the active participation of women and men in
    decision-making processes?

    Examples of positive outcomes or outputs
    - Increased access to quality services (responsive to women’s and men’s needs.)
    - Increased and greater equality of access to information
    - Increased and greater equality of access to resources or assets (including credit,
       technical inputs, and property).
    - Increased and greater equality of access to employment or other income-generating
       opportunities, with equal wages, benefits, etc.
    - Increased participation and greater equality in decision-making processes and
       leadership.
    - Reduced gender-based biases in public policies, laws, institutions, or programs.
    - Reduced gender gaps identified for boys or men.

3. Measures for Project Execution
• Have institutional mechanisms and/or capacity building activities been incorporated into
   project design to facilitate quality execution of gender elements:
   Examples:
   - Hiring gender experts or assigning responsibility for gender-specific actions within
       the executing agency.
   - Gender training, technical assistance, or studies for the counterpart or other agencies
       involved in execution.
   - Involvement of ministries/institutes of women’s and/or NGOs, CBOs representing
       local women.
• Are gender-specific actions considered in program promotion, communication or social
   marketing strategies?
• Has budget been assigned to ensure the implementation of gender-specific
   components/actions?
• Have gender dimensions of the design been incorporated into the operations manual (e.g.
   gender-specific eligibility or selection criteria for subcomponents or beneficiaries, etc…)

4. Monitoring and Evaluation:
• Are gender-specific output and/or outcome indicators included in the logical framework?
   (Note: If both output and outcome indicators are included, give the highest rating.)
• Have targets been established for women versus men’s benefits and participation?




                                            ii
    •   Is the collection of sex-disaggregated data required in the monitoring and evaluation of
        the project?
    •   Have baseline data been collected to enable the measurement of project outcomes/outputs
        for women versus men?


II. Rating Criteria for Country Strategy Documents

None = no reference to gender or women;

Minimal = a) brief mention of gender or women in the diagnostic/development challenges, and/or
b) general reference to incorporating a "gender perspective" or "gender equality"

Partial = 1) gender issues identified in the diagnostic/development challenges, and 2) specific
actions/interventions proposed in at least one strategic focus areas;

Significant = 1) multiple gender issues identified in diagnostic/development challenges, and 2)
specific actions incorporated into two or more strategic focus areas and the lending program.

Best Practice = 1) multiple gender issues identified in the diagnostic/development challenges, 2)
specific actions incorporated into two or more strategic focus areas, 3) proposals for addressing
gender issues in the lending program, and 4) gender-specific indicators.




                                                iii
                                                  Annex 2

         IDB LENDING OPERATIONS THAT MAINSTREAM GENDER ISSUES3
                                (2002-2005)

  SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
                                Amount
      Project #     Year       (millions of                             Name                            Rating
                                 dollars)
      Education
                                              Comprehensive Community Education Program,
      ME-0238       2003         $210.0                                                              Partial
                                              Phase I
                                              Preschool and Early Education Improvement
      PR-0124       2003          $23.4                                                              Significant
                                              Program
       NI-0171      2004          $10.0       Youth and adult basic education program                Significant

       ES0159       2005          $85.0       Basic education for all                                Significant
       Health
      GY-0068       2002          $5.0        Basic Nutrition Program                                Significant

      CR-0144       2003          $6.4        Innovation Loan for Health Sector Development          Significant
      GY-0077       2004          $23.0       Health sector program                                  Partial
      NI-L1001      2004          $30.0       Improving Maternal and Child Health                    Significant
                                              Improvement of Health Conditions in Honduras
      HO-L1002      2005          $16.6                                                              Significant
                                              Performance Driven Loan
Social Investment
    NI-0161       2002            $20.0       Social Safety Net, Phase II                            Significant
                                              Stage Three of the National Program to Support
      PE-0193       2002         $150.0       Operations of the Compensation and Social              Best Practice
                                              Development Fund (FONCODES III)
      PR-0125       2002          $28.4       Social Investment Program PROPAIS II                   Significant
                                              Comprehensive Program for At-Risk Children,
      UR-0134       2002          $40.0                                                              Best Practice
                                              Adolescents and Families
                                              Multiphase Consolidation and Expansion Project
      ME-0244       2002        $1,000.0      for the Education, Health ad Nutrition Program         Significant
                                              (PROGRESA/OPORTUNIDADES). Phase I
                                              Social Protection and reduction of the impact of the
      AR-0295       2003        $1,500.0                                                             Partial
                                              crisis
                                              Social Inclusion through Culture and "Citizenship":
      BR-0373       2003          $20.0                                                              Best Practice
                                              Cultural Factories
      EC-0216       2003         $200.0       Social Sector Reform Program                           Partial
      HA-0079       2003          $65.0       Local Development Program                              Best Practice
                                              Poverty Reduction and Local Development
      HO-0220       2003          $35.0                                                              Significant
                                              Program Phase II



  3
   These project represent 35.5% of all approved lending operations, except projects from the Private Sector
  Department (PRI), MIF3 or PPEF that supported project preparation.


                                                      iv
                                      Protection and sustainability of social reforms
   DR-0159        2004     $200.0                                                       Partial
                                      programs
   EC-0101        2004      $5.0      Strengthening of rural social insurance           Partial
                                      Program for improving the quality of social
   GU-0175        2004     $100.0                                                       Significant
                                      expenditure
   HO-0212        2004      $30.0     Poverty reduction support program                 Partial
   HO-0222        2004      $20.0     Comprehensive social safety net program           Best Practice

                                      Multiphase program: Addressing urban poverty -
   ME-0255        2004     $350.0                                                       Significant
                                      phase I
   NI-L1004       2004      $3.0      Family Ministry strengthening                     Significant
                                      Reform of poverty alleviation and human capital
    PE-0247       2004     $300.0                                                       Partial
                                      development programs
   AR-L1006       2005     $700.0     Support for Plan Familias Program                 Best Practice
                                      Social Investment Program for Buenos Aires
   AR-L1007       2005     $230.0                                                       Partial
                                      Province

   DR-L1006       2005      $10.0     Labor markets and social transfers, Phase I       Significant

   ES-L1002       2005      $57.0     Support for Solidarity Network Program.           Partial

    HO0197        2005      $11.1     Integrated development of indigenous peoples      Significant

                                      Multiphase Program for the Consolidation and
   ME-L1007       2005     $1,200.0   Expansion of the Oportunidades Human              Partial
                                      Development Program, Phase II
   NI-L1008       2005     $45.0      Municipal social investment program               Significant
   UR-L1003       2005     $250.0     Social sector program                             Partial
Violence Prevention
                                      Social Infrastructure and Community Management
   CO-0234        2002      $63.0                                                       Partial
                                      for Peace
   ES-0116        2002      $27.9     Support for Social Peace Program                  Best Practice
   CH-0178        2003      $10.0     A Safer Chile Program                             Significant
                                      Peace and Citizen Coexistence Project for the
   HO-0205        2003      $20.0                                                       Best Practice
                                      Municipalities of the Sula Valley
   NI-0168       2004        $7.2     Citizen security program                          Significant
Urban Development and Housing
   GU-0155       2002       $46.8     Urban Poverty Reduction Program                   Significant
                                      Sao Paulo downtown renewal program
   BR-0391        2003     $100.4                                                       Partial
                                      (PROCENTRO)
   CO-0241        2003     $150.0     Urban social housing program                      Partial
                                      Program for the revitilization and urban
   BO-0216        2004      $28.5                                                       Significant
                                      development of La Paz
  HA-L1002        2005      $50.0     Urban rehabilitation program                      Best Practice
 SUBTOTAL                  $7,482.7




                                               v
 MODERNIZATION OF THE STATE

   Project #      Year        Amount                               Name                            Rating
                             (millions of
                               dollars)
 Fiscal Reform
    PE-0211       2002         $300.00      Fiscal Reform Program                                  Partial
 Decentralization

   BO-L1006       2005         $13.00       Support for the national public investment system      Partial

 Reform and public sector support
                                            Strengthening the national statistics system and
    NI-0180       2004          $6.55                                                              Partial
                                            national population and housing census 2005

   ES-L1003       2005         $13.50       National Statistics System improvement program         Partial

 SUBTOTAL                 $333.05

 ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITES/COMPETITIVENESS
                           Amount
   Project #     Year     (millions of                        Name                                Rating
                            dollars)
Labor market and training
   GU-0158       2002       $10.00     Labor market program                                      Significant
                                       Assistance Program for the Building of a Training
   PN-0125       2002        $8.40                                                               Significant
                                       and Employment System in Panama
   PE-0241       2004       $18.00     Youth labor training program                              Significant
   HA-0017       2005       $22.00     Vocational Training                                       Significant
Science and technology
    JA-0116      2002       $17.00     Information and communications technology                   Partial
                                       Program to support the development of science,
    PR0126       2005        $6.50                                                                 Partial
                                       technology, and innovation
Rural development (productive projects and land titling)
                                         Program to develop sustainable agriculture
  CR-0142       2002        $14.40                                                               Significant
                                         production
                                                                                                    Best
   NI-0159       2002         $60.00        Rural Production Revitalization Program
                                                                                                  Practice
   PN-0148       2002         $27.00        Land Administration and Regularization Project         Partial
   BO-0221       2003         $22.00        Land regularization and legal cadastre program       Significant
   JA-0106       2004         $16.80        National irrigation development program (NIDP)         Partial
   BR-0392       2005         $10.80        Land Regularization and Cadastre Program               Partial
                                            Program for the sustainability of water supply and
   ME0212        2005         $150.00                                                            Significant
                                            sanitation services in rural communities II
Sustainable management of natural resources (ecotourism, nat resources and protected areas)
                                        Sustainable Development Program for the Northern
   EC-0201      2002        $10.00                                                          Partial
                                        Amazon Border Zone of Ecuador
                                        Program for Natural Resource Management in
   GU-0133      2002        $40.00                                                          Partial
                                        Upper Watersheds



                                                    vi
                                      Multiphase Program for Sustainable Development
   PN-0149       2002        $15.20                                                     Partial
                                      of Bocas del Toro
                                      Multiphase sustainable forest development
  HO-0218        2003        $17.50                                                     Partial
                                      program (PRO-BOSQUE)
                                      Sustainable community-based tourism development
   CH-0172       2003        $10.50                                                     Partial
                                      in Chiloe and Palena
                                      Sustainable development program for the Sixaola
   CR-0150       2004        $11.00                                                     Partial
                                      River binational watershed

   EC-0193       2004        $12.40   Coastal resources management project, phase II    Partial

                                      Multiphase Program for Sustainable Development
   CR-0157       2005        $16.00                                                     Partial
                                      of the Atlantic Huetar Region
Private sector development
                                      Productive-sector development and
  AR-L1003       2005        $70.00                                                     Partial
                                      competitiveness in the Province of Mendoza

SUBTOTAL                $585.50



 TOTAL INVESTMENT OF LOANS THAT MAINSTREAM
                                                                            $ 8,401,200,000
 GENDER




                                             vii
                                                   Annex 3
                         TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROJECTS THAT ADDRESS GENDER (2002-2005)


                                                                    SUMMARY TABLE:

                                # of TCs that           % of TCs that                                     Total investment of         % of total TC
             Total # of                                                        Total TC investment
                               address gender           address gender                                     TCs that address          investment that
            TCs approved                                                         (US $, millions)
                                    issues                  issues                                               gender             addresses gender

                1430                 114                     7.9%                      278.3                   21,215,710                  7.6%



    LIST OF TECHNICAL COOPERATION PROGRAMS THAT INCORPOARTE A FOCUS ON GENDER EQUALITY OR
                                WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT4 (2002-2005)

1) Technical Cooperation Programs in Social Development

                                                                                                                           Amount
                                                                                                              Year
      Country                              Project Name                            Project Number                           (US$ in            Funding Source
                                                                                                            Approved
                                                                                                                          thousands)
Education
Guatemala              Support for the Implementation of 'Growing Well'       ATN/JO-9490-GU               2005                308.00    Japan Special Fund Poverty
                       Program                                                                                                           Reduction (JPO)
Nicaragua              Initial Education for Children with Special Needs      ATN/CT-9493-NI               2005                100.00    Canadian Technical
                                                                                                                                         Assistance CANTAP-3
Regional               Girls' Education in Latin America                      ATN/JF-7967-RG               2002                600.00    Japan Special Fund
Regional Support       Consultant for Training Module Preparation             ATN/EA-7919-RS               2002                 41.52    EC Special Fund for

4
 The technical cooperation programs included in this list incorporated one or more of the following in their design: (1) specific measures that promote gender
equality or aim to reduce existing inequalities, (2) identify women as an important part of the target population; or (3) explicitly address priority issues for
women.




                                                                               viii
                                                                                                          Technical Cooperation
Regional Support   Social Exclusion in Education in Latin America        ATN/NI-8624-RS   2004    56.00   Social Inclusion Trust Fund
                   and the Caribbean
Health
Chile              Promotion and Consolidation of Rights-Based           ATN/JO-9402-CH   2005   120.00   Japan Special Fund Poverty
                   Sexual and Reproductive Health through Piloting                                        Reduction (JPO)
                   Community and Local Participation Experiences
Colombia           Diagnosis on Situation of HIV/AIDS in Colombia's      ATN/NI-9066-CO   2005    55.00   Social Inclusion Trust Fund
                   Atlantic Department
Ecuador            Enhancing Ecuador’s Demographic and Mother-           ATN/JF-8754-EC   2004   270.00   Japan Special Fund
                   Child Health Information
Guyana             Support for the Basic Nutrition Program               ATN/CT-8253-GY   2003   100.00   Canadian Technical
                                                                                                          Assistance CANTAP 3
Guyana             Increasing Access to Primary Health Care for          ATN/JO-9247-GY   2005   750.00   Japan Special Fund Poverty
                   Amerindian Communities                                                                 Reduction (JPO)
Jamaica            Gender Sensitization in HIV/AIDS Prevention and       ATN/NI-9007-JA   2004    44.00   Social Inclusion Trust Fund
                   Mitigation
Mexico             Cervical Cancer Prevention Program for Extreme        ATN/JO-9339-ME   2005   150.00   Japan Special Fund Poverty
                   Poverty Areas                                                                          Reduction (JPO)
Peru               Breast Cancer Assessment in Peru                      ATN/SC-9584-PE   2005   149.40   Swedish Fund Services &
                                                                                                          Training
Regional           HIV/AIDS Initiative Within the Puebla Panama          ATN/SF-7922-RG   2002   300.00   Fund for Special Operations
                   Plan
Regional           Capacity Building for an Improved Financial           ATN/SF-9103-RG   2005   150.00   Fund for Special Operations
                   Response to HIV/AIDS
Regional           Reproductive Health Accounts in LAC:                  ATN/SF-9495-RG   2005   150.00   Fund for Special Operations
                   Methodology and Pilot Applications
Regional Support   Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Projects                      ATN/FS-7879-RS   2002   101.54   Framework Sweden-
                                                                                                          COFAB
Regional Support   Reproductive Health Consultant                        ATN/NO-8277-RS   2003   130.00   Norwegian Fund for
                                                                                                          Women In Development
Regional Support   Caribbean Education Sector HIV/AIDS Response          ATN/JF-8627-RS   2004   565.00   Japan Special Fund
                   Capacity Building Program
Social Inclusion
Brazil             Strengthening of social inclusion organizations for   ATN/NI-8710-BR   2004    51.60   Social Inclusion Trust Fund




                                                                          ix
                      Afro descendents, women and persons with
                      disabilities.
Brazil                Apoyo al Programa de Cultura y Ciudadanía para         ATN/JF-8327-BR   2003   450.08   Japan Special Fund
                      la Inclusión Social
Ecuador               Integrated System of Social Indicators for             ATN/NI-9100-EC   2005    40.00   Social Inclusion Trust Fund
                      Afroecuadorians
El Salvador           Social Inclusion in the Social Protection Net          ATN/KE-9207-ES   2005   130.00   DFID-IDB ENLACE Trust
                                                                                                              Fund for Social Inclusion
Regional              Second Phase of the Social Equity forum                ATN/FS-8176-RG   2002   250.00   Framework Sweden-
                                                                                                              COFAB
Regional Support      Workshop to Promote Social, Political and              ATN/NS-8227-RS   2003    25.00   Norwegian Fund for
                      Economic Inclusion                                                                      Innovation in Social
                                                                                                              Programs
Regional Support      Best Practices for Social and Political Inclusion of   ATN/NS-8241-RS   2003    90.00   Norwegian Fund for
                      Afro-descendent Women in Central America                                                Innovation in Social
                                                                                                              Programs
Regional Support      Mainstreaming Ethics, Social Capital and               ATN/CT-8921-RS   2004    32.00   Canadian Technical
                      Development into the IDB’s Agenda                                                       Assistance CANTAP 3
Regional Support      Design and Development of the IDB Social               ATN/NI-8663-RS   2004    80.00   Social Inclusion Trust Fund
                      Inclusion Awareness Campaign
Social Protection and Social Investment
Argentina             Conditional Income Transfers                           ATN/SF-8932-AR   2004    15.00   Fund for Special Operations
Bolivia               Policy, Plan and Consultation about Integrated         ATN/SF-9270-BO   2005    39.70   Fund for Special Operations
                      Childhood Development
Chile                 Poverty Reduction                                      ATN/JO-9191-CH   2005   130.93   Japan Special Fund Poverty
                                                                                                              Reduction (JPO)
Colombia              Social Effects of Population Displacement in           ATN/CK-8509-CO   2003   200.00   Korean Trust Fund for
                      Colombia                                                                                Technical Cooperation
Colombia              Support for the Development of the Poverty and         ATN/SC-9063-CO   2005   115.76   Swedish Trust Fund for
                      Inequality Reduction Strategy                                                           Consultancy Services
Dominican Republic    Support to the Dominican Republic Poverty              ATN/KE-9088-DR   2005    95.00   DFID-IDB ENLACE Trust
                      Assessment                                                                              Fund for Social Inclusion
El Salvador           Development of Policy Dialogue Document                ATN/FW-8412-ES   2003   143.00   SIDA IDB Partnership
Guatemala             Strengthening the Hogares Comunitarios Program         ATN/SF-8039-GU   2002   136.50   Fund for Special Operations
Guyana                Poverty Assessment in Vulnerable Populations           ATN/NI-9125-GY   2005    70.00   Social Inclusion Trust Fund




                                                                              x
Haiti                 Feasibility Assessment of Social Protection          ATN/SF-9528-HA   2005   138.00   Fund for Special Operations
                      Programs
Honduras              Targeting Vulnerable Children, Adolescents, and      ATN/JO-8366-HO   2003   625.00   Japan Special Fund Poverty
                      Women in Urban Areas                                                                  Reduction (JPO)
Peru                  Support Vulnerable Population through Social         ATN/JO-9443-PE   2005   110.10   Japan Special Fund Poverty
                      Services and Economic Inclusion                                                       Reduction (JPO)
Regional              Income Distribution and Social Assistance            ATN/SF-9136-RG   2005   150.00   Fund for Special Operations
                      Network
Regional Support      Indigenous Women Perspective in Latin America        ATN/CP-8086-RS   2002    63.79   Canadian Project
                                                                                                            Preparation Fund
Regional Support      Social Development in Indigenous Communities in      ATN/CT-7941-RS   2002   100.00   Canadian Technical
                      RE3 Countries                                                                         Assistance - CANTAP 3
Regional Support      Emerging Regional Priority Areas in the Social       ATN/NS-8236-RS   2003    86.40   Norwegian Fund for
                      Sector                                                                                Innovation in Social
                                                                                                            Programs
Regional Support      Evaluating Effects of Poverty Reduction Programs     ATN/FT-8748-RS   2004    70.00   Finish Technical Assistance
                      & Disseminating Lessons Learned                                                       Program
Regional Support      Assessing Implications of Under Registration at      ATN/NS-8915-RS   2004   150.00   Norwegian Fund for
                      Birth                                                                                 Innovation in Social
                                                                                                            Programs
Regional Support      Operative Tools and Innovative Strategies for        ATN/CT-9439-RS   2005   100.00   Canadian Technical
                      Youth Development Interventions                                                       Assistance - CANTAP-3
Suriname              Youth Empowerment and Development                    ATN/SF-8056-SU   2002   149.00   Fund for Special Operations
Trafficking in Persons
Bolivia               Support for the Fight against Persons Trafficking    ATN/SF-9372-BO   2005   150.00   Fund for Special Operations
Jamaica               Citizen Security and Justice- Focusing on            ATN/JF-9453-JA   2005   120.00   Japan Special Fund
                      Trafficking in Persons
Paraguay              Public Policies Against Trafficking in Persons       ATN/SF-8905-PR   2004    14.00   Fund for Special Operations
Paraguay              Support for Combat Human Trafficking                 ATN/SF-9027-PR   2004   150.00   Fund for Special Operations
Regional              Campaign: Trafficking in Persons                     ATN/SF-9012-RG   2004   150.00   Fund for Special Operations
Regional              Prevention of Trafficking in Persons and Health      ATN/SF-9420-RG   2005   150.00   Fund for Special Operations
                      Related Issues
Violence Prevention
Ecuador               Domestic Violence Prevention Program                 ATN/JO-9134-EC   2005   149.50   Japan Special Fund Poverty
                                                                                                            Reduction (JPO)
Guatemala             Preparation of the Integrated Program for Citizens   ATN/JF-8122-GU   2002   380.00   Japan Special Fund




                                                                            xi
                   Security
Haiti              A Response to Gender Based Violence in Haiti          ATN/FW-9196-HA   2005        150.00   SIDA-IDB Swedish
                                                                                                               Partnership
Honduras           Strengthening of Local Capacity for Prevention &      ATN/NS-8680-HO   2004         30.00   Norwegian Fund for
                   Fighting Domestic Violence                                                                  Innovation in Social
                                                                                                               Programs
Nicaragua          Base Line Construction for the Citizens Security      ATN/FW-8805-NI   2004         27.00   FSW-SIDA-IDB
                   Program (NI-0168)                                                                           Partnership
Panama             Local Plans for Violence Prevention                   ATN/KB-7811-PN   2002        150.00   United Kingdom Cabilica
                                                                                                               Fund
Panama             Support for the preparation of the Citizen Security   ATN/JF-9327-PN   2005        250.19   Japan Special Fund
                   Program in Panama
Peru               Citizen Security Program                              ATN/SF-8201-PE   2003         10.04   Fund for Special Operations
Regional           Mainstreaming Violence Prevention in Schools          ATN/JF-7929-RG   2002        750.00   Japan Special Fund
Regional           Violence Prevention: Analysis of Progress Made        ATN/SF-8451-RG   2003         72.00   Fund for Special Operations
                   and Challenges Ahead in Latin America
Regional           Judicial Sensitization on the Issues of Domestic      ATN/SF-8500-RG   2003         50.00   Fund for Special Operations
                   and Gender Based Violence
Regional           Childhood Protection Rights: Prevention against       ATN/SF-9498-RG   2005        150.00   Fund for Special Operations
                   Violence and Birth Registration.
Regional           Reviewing Experience and Exploring New                ATN/SF-9277-RG   2005        150.00   Fund for Special Operations
                   Approaches in Citizen Security
Regional Support   Violence Prevention in School Curriculum              ATN/EA-7794-RS   2002         87.32   EC Special Fund for
                                                                                                               Technical Cooperation
Regional Support   Domestic Violence Interventions                       ATN/FF-8337-RS   2003        150.00   Finnish Consultancy Fund
Regional Support   Distance Learning on Violence Prevention at a         ATN/KT-9241-RS   2005        250.00   Korean Trust Fund for
                   Local Level                                                                                 Technical Cooperation
Suriname           Judicial Education for Domestic Violence              ATN/SF-7920-SU   2002         48.00   Fund for Special Operations
Trinidad and       Judicial Education and Sensitization: Domestic and    ATN/FF-8279-TT   2003        116.00   Finnish Consultancy Fund
Tobago             Gender Based Violence

TOTAL INVESMENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT TC’S THAT INCLUDE GENDER                                   11681.4




                                                                          xii
2) Technical Cooperation Programs that Promote Economic Opportunities or Competitiveness

  Country                            Project Name                        Project Number     Year      Amount               Funding Source
                                                                                          Approved     (US$ in
                                                                                                     thousands)

Labor Market and Training
                                                                         ATN/CK-8020-                               Korean Trust Fund for Technical
Colombia        Low Income Women's Entrepreneurship                      CO                   2002         190.00   Cooperation
                Strengthening of the Artisanal Fisheries Production      ATN/ST-8363-                               Swedish Trust Fund for the
Colombia        Chain in Chocó                                           CO                   2003         250.00   Financing of Small Projects
                                                                         ATN/SF-8569-
Guyana          Entrepreneurial Development of Youth at Risk             GU                   2003         237.00   Fund for Special Operations
                                                                         ATN/JO-8118-                               Japan Special Fund Poverty
Mexico          Opportunities for Women in Rural Areas                   ME                   2002         749.00   Reduction Program (JPO)
                Advancing Inclusion in Labor Market Intermediation       ATN/KE-9309-                               DFID-IDB Enlace Trust Fund
Mexico          Services                                                 ME                   2005          66.00   for Social Inclusion
                Pilot Project for Supporting Disabled Women's Labor      ATN/JO-9646-                               Japan Special Fund Poverty
Nicaragua       Insertion                                                NI                   2005         113.90   Reduction Program (JPO)
                Design and Implementation of Work Policies in Latin      ATN/SF-9074-
Regional        America                                                  RG                   2005         250.00   Fund for Special Operations
Regional                                                                 ATN/ND-8306-                               Norwegian Fund for
Support       Fair Labor Practices for Gender Equality                   RS                   2003          15.00   Microenterprise Development
Rural Development
                                                                         ATN/JO-9365-                               Japan Special Fund Poverty
El Salvador    Overcoming Barriers In Family Micro-Ranching              ES                   2005         130.00   Reduction (JPO)
Science and Technology

                                                                         ATN/NC-8205-                               Norwegian Fund for Consulting
Costa Rica      ICT Training for Women Entrepreneurs in Costa Rica       CR                   2003         150.00   Services
                                                                         ATN/NS-8339-                               Norwegian Fund for Innovation
Costa Rica     Women in Science and Technology                           CR                   2003          70.00   in Social Programs
Water and Santiation
Haiti          Community Development to Support the Water and         ATN/FC-9477-HA          2005         146.22   French Technical Cooperation




                                                                          xiii
                Sanitation Program                                                                                        Trust Fund
Regional                                                                                                                  Netherlands-IDB Water
Support         Mainstreaming Gender in Water Management            ATN/WP-9189-RS            2005                 7.00   Partnership
TOTAL INVESMENT OF ECONOMIC/COMPETIVENESS TC’S THAT INCLUDE GENDER                                   2374.12


3) Technical Cooperation Programs in Modernization of the State

  Country                         Project Name                      Project Number     Year           Amount                  Funding Source
                                                                                     Approved           (US$
                                                                                                     thousands)

Civil Society
                Rural and Indigenous Women in Consolidation                                                          Norwegian Fund for Women in
Guatemala       Democracy                                           ATN/NO-7774-GU     2002               750.00     Development
                                                                                                                     Norwegian Trust Fund for
Honduras      Support Strengthening of Civil Society of Honduras    ATN/NC-8296-HO     2003               150.00     Consulting Services
              Strengthening of Volunteer Work in Latin America
Regional      and the Caribbean                                     ATN/SF-8622-RG     2004                30.00     Fund for Special Operations
Regional      Civil Society Participation in Banks Environmental                                                     Netherlands-IDB Partnership
Support       and Social Supervision Projects                       ATN/NP-9374-RS     2005                70.00     Program in Environment
Democratic Governance
              Participatory Process to Develop Inclusion Policies
Bahamas       in Bahamas                                            ATN/NI-9126-BH     2005                67.27     Social Inclusion Trust Fund
              Program to Improve the Efficiency of the
Guatemala     Ombudsman of Guatemala                                ATN/SF-9107-GU     2005               149.00     Fund for Special Operations
              Disseminate a Children's Rights Focus in Public                                                        ESW-SIDA IDB Partnership
Nicaragua     Policies                                              ATN/FW-8879-NI     2004                30.00     Program
                                                                                                                     Norwegian Fund for Women in
Regional        Social Capital, Ethics and Development Initiative   ATN/NO-7809-RG     2002               845.46     Development
                Reaching the Millennium Development Goals:
Regional        Searching for Political Consensus                   ATN/SF-8828-RG     2004               500.00     Fund for Special Operations
Regional        Regional Fora on Non-Discrimination                 ATN/SF-8829-RG     2004                90.00     Fund for Special Operations
                Migration and Development: The Latin American
Regional        Case                                                ATN/SF-9157-RG     2005               200.00     Fund for Special Operations




                                                                        xiv
Regional       Affirmative and Positive Actions in LAC: Case
Support        Studies Equity and Social Inclusion                 ATN/NI-9143-RS   2005          42.00   Social Inclusion Trust Fund
Regional       Women and Democratic Governance in Latin                                                   Norwegian Fund for Women in
Support        America and the Caribbean                           ATN/NO-9302-RS   2005          18.00   Development
Reform and Modernization of the State
               Institutional Strengthening of the Ministry of                                             Finish Technical Assistance
Haiti          Women’s Affairs and Rights                          ATN/FT-8943-HA   2004         100.00   Program
               Social Inclusion and Gender in Public Sector                                               Norwegian Fund for Women in
Honduras       Programs                                            ATN/NO-8212-HO   2003         407.82   Devel0pment
Regional       National & Local Policies for Social Inclusion      ATN/SF-7997-RG   2002         150.00   Fund for Special Operations
Regional                                                                                                  Canadian Technical Assistance
Support        Support for Legal Aid in the Caribbean              ATN/CT-8499-RS   2003         100.00   Program. CANTAP 3
Municipal Development
               Monitoring of Millennium Development Goals and                                             Finnish Technical Assistance
El Salvador    Local Development                                   ATN/FT-9208-ES   2005          65.00   Program
Nicaragua      Gender and Municipal Development                    ATN/KB-8486-NI   2003         140.00   United Kingdom Cabilica Fund
Women’s Leadership
               Internship Program in the Bank for Indigenous and                                          Norwegian Fund for Innovation in
Honduras       Black Women Leaders                                 ATN/NS-8662-HO   2004          15.00   Social Programs
               Women Leaders: Towards Good Governance in
Regional       Latin America                                       ATN/C1-8066-RG   2002          98.00   The Netherlands Cofinancing
               Women Leaders: Towards Good Governance in                                                  Norwegian Fund for Women in
Regional       Latin America                                       ATN/NO-8065-RG   2002         949.94   Development
                                                                                                          Norwegian Fund for Women in
Regional        Women in Government: Impact on Governability       ATN/NO-8434-RG   2003          25.00   Development
                Leadership in the Andean Region: Promote                                                  Norwegian Fund for Women in
Regional        Indigenous women's Leadership                      ATN/NO-8592-RG   2003         274.33   Development
Regional        Democratic Governance for Young Women Leaders                                             Norwegian Fund for Women in
Support         of the Southern Cone                               ATN/NO-8739-RS   2004          15.00   Development
Regional        Women, Democratic Governance and Reform of the
Support         State in LAC                                       ATN/GM-9444-RS   2005        1600.00   Gender Mainstreaming Trust Fund
TOTAL INVESMENT OF ECONOMIC/COMPETIVENESS TCS THAT INCLUDE GENDER                          6881.817




                                                                       xv
4) Gender Mainstreaming Trust Fund

  Country                      Project Name                  Project Number     Year         Amount               Funding Source
                                                                              Approved    (US$ thousands)

Regional                                                                                                    Norwegian Fund for Women in
Support      Gender Fund Coordination                        ATN/NO-9132-RS     2005            30.00       Development
Regional     Gender Mainstreaming Fund Coordination and                                                     Gender Mainstreaming Trust
Support      Dissemination                                   ATN/GM-9384-RS     2005           143.40       Fund
Regional     Gender Mainstreaming Trust Fund Institutional                                                  Gender Mainstreaming Trust
Support      Strengthening Component                            RS-X1041        2005           105.00       Fund
TOTAL INVESTMENT THROUGH THE GENDER MAINSTREAMING FUND                                    278.40



TOTAL INVESTMENT OF ALL TCS HAT ADDRESS GENDER                                           $ 21,215,710




                                                                 xvi
                                   Annex 4

          Gender Mainstreaming in Country Strategies
                         (2002-2005)

                             Country Strategies
       Country                 Approval Date                   Rating
  Region 1
       Argentina                    Nov 2004                  Partial
        Bolivia                     Jul 2004                  Partial
         Brazil                     Nov 2004                  Minimal
       Paraguay                     Jul 2004                  Partial
  Region 2
         Belize                     Sep 2004                  Minimal
      Costa Rica                    Jun 2003                   Partial
  Dominican Republic                Aug 2005                   Partial
      El Salvador                   Nov 2005                  Minimal
      Guatemala                     May 2005                 Significant
         Haiti                      Mar 2005                 Significant
       Honduras                     Feb 2003                   Partial
        Mexico                      Mar 2002                   Partial
       Nicaragua                    Feb 2003                  Minimal
        Panama                      Oct 2005                  Minimal
         Region 3
       Bahamas                      Mar 2004                  Minimal
       Colombia                     Sep 2003                  Partial
       Ecuador                      Nov 2004                  Minimal
        Guyana                      Dec 2002                  Minimal
          Peru                      Oct 2002                   None
  Trinidad & Tobago                 Nov 2004                  Minimal

* Countries in bold were identified as “priority strategies” by country divisions.




                                      xvii
         Annex 5

              LENDING OPEATIONS THAT INCORPORATE GENDER FLAGSHIP THEMES
                                        2002- 2005
Country        Number     Projects                                        Theme                      GED Rating
Argentina      AR-L1006   Support for Plan Familias Program               All four flagship themes   Best Practice

Chile          CH-0178    A Safer Chile                                   Domestic Violence          Significant
                                                                          Domestic Violence,
El Salvador    ES-0159    Basic Education for all                                                    Significant
                                                                          Reproductive Health
                                                                          Domestic Violence,
Haiti          HA-L1002   Urban Rehabilitation Program                                               Best Practice
                                                                          Reproductive Health
                                                                          Domestic Violence,
                                                                          Reproductive Health,
Honduras       HO-0197    Integrated Development of Indigenous People                                Significant
                                                                          Women’s participation in
                                                                          decision-making
                          Peace and Citizen Coexistence Project for the
Honduras       HO-0205                                                    Domestic Violence          Best Practice
                          Municipalities of the Sula Valley

Nicaragua      NI-0168    Citizen Security Program                        Domestic Violence          Significant

                          Multiphase Program: Addressing Urban
Mexico         ME-0255                                                    Domestic Violence          Significant
                          Poverty I
                                                                          Technical Training for
Haiti          HA-0017    Vocational Training                                                        Significant
                                                                          Women
                                                                          Technical Training for
Guatemala      GU-0158    Labor market program                                                       Significant
                                                                          Women
                          Assistance Program for the Building of a        Technical Training for
Panama         PN-0125                                                                               Significant
                          Training and Employment System in Panama        Women
                                                                          Technical Training for
Peru           PE-0241    Youth labor training program                                               Significant
                                                                          Women
                          Social Investment Program for Buenos Aires      Reproductive Health
Argentina      AR-L1007                                                                              Partial
                          Province                                        (Maternal Mortality)
                          Innovation Loan for Health Sector
Cost Rica      CR-0144                                                    Reproductive Health        Significant
                          Development
El Salvador    ES-L1002   Support for Solidarity Network Program          Reproductive Health        Partial
                                                                          Reproductive Health
Guyana         GY-0077    Health Sector Program                                                      Partial
                                                                          (Maternal Mortality)
Honduras       HO-0222    Comprehensive Social Safety Net Program         Reproductive Health        Best Practice
Uruguay        UR-0134    Children, Adolescents and Families at Risk      Reproductive Health        Best Practice
                                                                          Women’s participation in
                          Poverty Reduction and Local Development
Honduras       HO-0220                                                    community decision-        Significant
                          Program Phase II
                                                                          making
                                                                          Women’s participation in
Haiti
               HA-0079    Local Development Program                       community decision-        Best Practice
                                                                          making
                                                                          Women’s participation in
                          Sustainability of Water Supply and Sanitation
Mexico         ME-0212                                                    community decision-        Significant
                          Services in Rural Communities II
                                                                          making




                                                         xviii
LENDING OPERATIONS THAT ADDRESS GENDER EQUALITY AND INCLUSION
    OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OR PEOPLES OF AFRICAN DESCENDENT
                           (2002-2005)

Country       Number     Projects                                              GED Rating

Brazil        BR-0373    Social Inclusion through Culture and Citizenship      Best Practice

              PR-0124    Pre-School and Early Education Improvement Program     Significant
Paraguay
              PR-0125    Social Investment Program II                           Significant

              CR-0144    Innovation Loan for Health Sector Development          Significant
Costa Rica
              CR-0142    Sustainable Agricultural Production                    Significant

              GU-0158    Labor Market Program                                   Significant
Guatemala
              GU-0155    Urban Poverty Reduction                                Significant

Haiti         HA-0079    Local Development Program                             Best Practice

              HO-0197    Integrated Development of Indigenous Peoples           Significant

Honduras      HO-0220    Poverty Reduction and Local Development Program II     Significant
                         Multiphase Sustainable Forest Development Program -
              HO-0218                                                             Partial
                         PROBOSQUE
              ME-0238    Comprehensive Community Education Program, Phase I       Partial
Mexico
              ME-0212    Water and Sanitation Project                           Significant

Nicaragua     NI-0159    Revitalization of Rural Production                    Best Practice

Colombia      CO-0234    Social Infrastructure and Municipal Management           Partial
                         Sustainable Development for the Northern Amazon
Ecuador       EC-0201                                                             Partial
                         Border Zone
Perú          PE-0193    FONCODES III                                          Best Practice

              ES-0159    Basic Education for All                                Significant
El Salvador
              ES-L1003   Support for Solidarity Network Program                   Partial




                                                xix
                                     Annex 6

                  PRIORITY PROJECTS IN EXECUTION


Project Name                                        Number             Approval
                                                                         Date
                                     Argentina
Federal Program for Women,                   AR-0231 (1133/OC-AR)        1998
                                       Bolívia
PROAGUAS                                      BO-0175 (1050/SF-BO)       1999
Programa de Apoyo al Desarrollo Turístico      BO-0174 (109/SF-BO)       1999
Sostenible
                                        Brazil
Programa Nova Baixada                        BR-0242 (1037/OC –BR)       1997

Programa Favela Bairro                         BR-0250 (1241/OC-BR)      2000
                                       Costa Rica
Modernización de la Administración de          CR-0141 (1377-OC/CR)      2001
Justicia
                                         Haiti
Basic Education Program                        HA-0038 (1016/SF-HA)      1998
Local Development Program                      HA-0079 (1491/SF-HA)      2003
                                       Honduras
Investment in Water and Sanitation             HO-0072 (1148/SF-HO)      2000
PAPIN: Indigenous and Black                    HO-0193 (1090/SF-HO)      2001
Communities Support
Bay Islands Envrionmental Management           HO-0198 (1113/SF-HO)      2002
Program II
Programa Pro-Bosque                            HO-218 (1506/SF-HO)       2003
Poverty Alleviation Project II                 HO-0220 (1478/SF-HO)      2003
Expanding Technical Capabilities of Poor       HO-0203 (1092/SF/HO)      2001
Communities
                                       Nicaragua
Municipal Strengthening and Development         NI-0156 (1086/SF-NI)     2001
Program
                                        Panama
Municipal Development and                      PN-0143 (1522/OC-PN)      2003
Decentralization Support Program
                                         Peru
Infraestructura Rural de Transporte II         PE-0140 (1328/OC-PE)      2001
(PROVIAS)




                                        xx
                                            Annex 7

            SELECTED IDB PUBLICATIONS ON GENDER EQUALITY

Books:

IDB. 2004. “Promoting Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women,” The Millennium
Development Goals in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges, Actions and Commitments.
SDS. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

IDB. 2005. The Millennium Development Goals in Latin America and the Caribbean: Progress,
Priorities and IDB Support for their Implementation. SDS. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American
Development Bank.

Piras, C. (ed.). 2004. Women at Work. SDS/GED. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American
Development Bank.

Technical Papers:

         Labor Market

Auerbach, P., E. Genoni, and C. Pagés. 2004. “Por qué es la afiliación a la seguridad social tan
baja y desigual en America Latina?” Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Bocáz, P. 2003. La promoción de la equidad de género como herramienta de competitividad
empresarial: los casos de la Clínica Los Coihues y de Marine Harvest Chile. Working Paper,
SDS/WID. Washington, D.C.: Inter.-American Development Bank.

Cox-Edwards, A., M. Ureta, and S. Duryea (eds.). 2003. Decisiones críticas a una edad crítica:
adolescentes y adultos jóvenes en América Latina. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American
Development Bank.

Deutsch, R., A. Morrison, C. Piras, and H. Ñopo. 2002. Working Within Confines. Occupational
Segregation by Gender in Three Latin American Countries. SDS Technical Papers Series. SOC-
126. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Duryea, S., and E. Genoni. 2004. “Etnicidad, raza y genero en el mercado de trabajo en América
Latina”. Inclusión Social y Desarrollo Económico en América Latina. Johns Hopkins University
RPRess/Inter-American Development Bank.

Duryea, S. and M.A. Kuening. 2003. “Asistencia escolar, trabajo infantil y fluctuaciones en el
mercado laboral local en Brasil urbano,” World Development, Vol. 31 No 7.

IDB. 2004. Se buscan buenos empleos: los mercados laborales en América Latina, Informe de
Progreso Económico y Social 2004. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Piras, C. and P. Bocaz. 2005. “Igualdad de Género y Responsabilidad Empresarial.” Ideas en
Marcha. No. 1. IDB. SDS/GED. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.




                                               xxi
Martínez, J. 2005. “La seguridad social en Costa Rica: percepciones y experiencias de quiénes
menos tienen y más la necesitan.” IDB. SDS Technical Papers Series. GED-108. Washington,
D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Ñopo, H., J. Saavedra, M. Torero, and M. Moreno. 2004. “Discriminación étnica y de genero en
el proceso de contratación en el mercado de trabajo de Lima Metropolitana.” SDS Technical
Papers Series. WID-107. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Pena, X. and A. Glassman. 2004. “Demanda por servicios de guardería y empleo femenina en
Colombia.” Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Piras, C. and L. Ripani. 2005. Los costos de la maternidad en los salarios y en la participación
laboral: evidencia de Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador y Perú”. SDS Technical Papers Series. SDS/GED.
Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

        Women’s Leadership

Brasileiro, A. M. and V. Roza. August 2003. PROLEAD Triennial Report: March 2000 - March
2003. SDS/WID. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Buvinic, M. and V. Roza. 2004. Women, Politics and Democratic Prospects in Latin America.
SDS/WID. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Htun, M. May 2004. Dimensions of Political Inclusion and Exclusion in Brazil: Gender and
Race. SDS/WID. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Iturbe, E. 2004. Las mujeres latinoamericanas en la alta gestión publica: logros y desafíos.
SDS/SGC. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Guidelines and Manuals:

Aparicio, T. 2005. Transversalización de inclusión social y género: Aprendizajes y experiencias.
Programa de Inclusión Social y Género (ATN/NO-8212-HO). Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Inter-
American Development Bank.

Harbitz, M. and E. Naslund-Hadley (eds). 2004. Guía Sobre Buenas Prácticas para la inclusión
política y social de las mujeres afro descendientes en Centro América. Washington, D.C.: Inter-
American Development Bank.

IDB. 2003. IDB Gender Mainstreaming Action Plan. March 2003 – June 2005. SDS/GED.
Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Urban, A, R. Bernal and M. C. Charlot, 2002. Manual de Capacitación, Enfoque de género en
programas y proyectos de desarrollo. SDS/WID. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American
Development Bank.

Other Publications:

Esim, S., N. Duvvury and D. Luciano. 2003. How to make the Law work? Budgetary Implications
of Domestic Violence Policies in Latin America. Synthesis paper. Washington, DC: ICRW, IDB,
PAHO, UNFPA, UNIFEM.


                                              xxii
IDB. December 2003. Gender Mainstreaming at the IDB. A Report to the Board of Executive
Directors on the Implementation of the WID Action Plan 1998-2001. SDS Technical Papers
Series. WID-106. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

IDB. 2002. Investing in Women, 1999-2001. SDS/GED. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American
Development Bank.

IDB. November 2004. Investing in Gender Equality 2002-2003. SDS/GED. Washington, D.C.:
Inter-American Development Bank.




                                           xxiii
                                        Annex 8

 SELECTED IDB CONFERENCES AND SEMINARS ON GENDER ISSUES
                        (2002-2005)


2002
   Twelfth Meeting of the External Advisory Council on Women in Development, Guatemala
   (April)
   Democratic Governance for Young Women Leaders in Central America, Nicaragua (May)
   Thirteenth Meeting of the External Advisory Council on Women in Development,
   Washington, DC (October)
   First Summit of Indigenous Women of the Americas, Mexico (December)

2003
   Annual Meeting of the MDBs/IMF Gender Group, Washington, DC (February)
   INDES Social Policy Formation and Management for the English-Speaking Caribbean,
   Washington, DC (June)
   Democratic Governance for Young Women Leaders in the Andean Region,
   Ecuador (August)
   Women Ministers: The Impact of Women in Power, Washington, DC (September)
   Poverty, Gender and Race in Brazil: Advancements and Challenges, Washington,
   DC (September)
   Gender Implications of the Millennium Development Goals, Washington, DC (September)
   Fourteenth Meeting of the External Advisory Council on Women in Development,
   Washington, DC (September)
   Integrating Gender Considerations in Programs and Projects, Training Seminar, Mexico
   (October)

2004
   Consultation and Roundtable Discussion with Indigenous Women, Washington, DC
   (February)
   Dialogue on Masculinity with Caribbean Educators, Washington, DC (April)
   Fifteenth Meeting of the External Advisory Council on Women in Development, Argentina
   (April)
   Gender in Transportation Operations, Washington, DC (May)
   Dialogue with Colombian Women Peace Builders, Washington, DC (June)
   INDES Social Policy Formation and Management for the English-Speaking Caribbean
   course, Washington, DC (June)
   Gender Considerations in the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Washington,
   DC (October)
   Democratic Governance for Young Women Leaders of the Southern Cone, Brazil
   (November)
   Gender Equality and the Administration of Justice Reforms in Latin America and the
   Caribbean, Washington, DC (November)
   Sixteenth Meeting of the External Advisory Council on Women in Development,
   Washington, DC (November)
   Gender and Social Inclusion Seminar, Honduras (November)
   Women’s Political Inclusion and Gender Equality in the Political Reforms in Latin America
   and the Caribbean, Washington, DC (December)



                                            xxiv
   PROLEAD’s Andean Region Grantees Meeting, Washington, DC (December)


2005
   Gender Week at the IDB. A Decade after Beijing: Gender Equality in the Americas in the 21st
   Century, Washington, DC (March)
   Gender Equality and Women’s Inclusion in Legislative Reforms, Washington, DC (April)
   National Forum, Mainstreaming Social Inclusion and Gender: Lessons Learned and
   Experiences, Honduras (April)
   Social Management Course on Gender Equality, Washington, DC (May)
   Incorporating Gender and Social Inclusion into Public Programs and National Budget,
   Washington, DC (June)
   Guide of Good Practices for the Social and Political Inclusion of Afro-descendent Women in
   Central America, Washington, DC (June)
   Training of Trainers Course on Leadership and Social Management, Washington,
   DC (September)
   Dialogue on Gender Equality in the Plan Puebla Panama, Nicaragua (September)
   Gender and Municipal Development, Washington, DC (November)
   Panel on Gender Equality during the IDB’s 2nd Social Development Week, Washington, DC
   (October)
   Women Participation in the Latin American and Caribbean Context, Washington, DC
   (December)




                                             xxv
                                              Annex 9

      REPORT FROM THE 15th MEETING OF THE WID EXTERNAL ADVISORY
             COUNCIL: GENDER ISSUES IN PROJECT EXECUTION

The IDB’s External WID Advisory Council held its Fifteenth Meeting in Buenos Aires,
Argentina, April 25 to 28, 2004. Using the Bank’s Action Plan for Improving the Execution of
Social Projects (2003) as a framework, we learned about the IDB’s portfolio in the country,
visited IDB funded projects in Buenos Aires and La Plata, and met with social sector specialists
from the IDB Brazil and Chile Country Offices. Below are observations and recommendations to
the Bank from this visit. They are preceded by a brief statement of the principles guiding our
observations, as well as a listing of the projects visited. Due to the brevity of our visit, we would
like to underscore that project observations are used here to underline more general, well-
documented gender issues in project design and execution. In addition, most of our observations
are related to specific project features and should not be generalized to the performance of the
project as a whole.

Principles

Although they are well known and accepted in the economic development literature, it seems
useful to remind ourselves and the Bank of the reasons for incorporating a gender perspective in
development projects. This perspective involves analysis of the specific roles, responsibilities,
needs and opportunities of women and men of different socioeconomic or cultural groups. It also
requires the identification of specific actions that both acknowledge and address the results of this
analysis5. This framework of analysis shapes the observations and recommendations in this
report. There are at least three main reasons for incorporating a gender perspective in IDB funded
projects:

1. The pervasiveness of gender differentials and inequalities. The pervasiveness of gender
   differentials and inequalities in societies and economies means that most development
   interventions, however well intentioned, are not gender neutral. They can reinforce unequal
   patterns of access, participation and control between men and women. Therefore,
   development interventions need to take into account gender differentials if they are to
   maximize benefits and reduce costs. It is both inefficient and ineffective to ignore gender as
   well as racial and ethnic differentials and inequalities in the design, execution, monitoring
   and evaluation of development projects.

2. The instrumental value of empowering women. Empowering women, by designing and
   implementing actions that seek to increase women’s assets and opportunities, should increase
   the effectiveness of development interventions. There is ample evidence in the development
   literature that increasing women’s assets increases both private and social returns,
   multiplying the positive effects of investments. Perhaps the case that illustrates this best is the
   spending on girls’ schooling—this spending produces multiple benefits not only on
   increasing women’s earnings and empowerment but also has positive effects on reducing
   fertility and child and maternal mortality. Another is the case of cash transfers to mothers in
   poor households to increase theirs’ and their children’s welfare benefits. Evaluations of these
   types of projects, like PROGRESA in Mexico, show that making women the recipients of

5
 Adapted from Anne-Marie Urban, et.al. 2002. Enfoque de género en programas y proyectos de desarrollo.
Women in Development Unit. Inter-American Development Bank and Social Analysis Source Book:
Incorporating Social Dimensions into Bank-Supported Projects. The World Bank. 2003.


                                                xxvi
    cash transfers empowers them, increasing the family’s overall acquisition of food and
    improving dietary quality over caloric intake6. The Program for the Assistance to Vulnerable
    Groups in Argentina is an example of this type of development intervention.

3. The fulfillment of international commitments. The governments of the region have
   committed themselves to fulfilling the Beijing Declaration adopted by Fourth World
   Conference on Women and achieving the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. None of
   these major commitments of governments and the international community will be met unless
   greater benefits accrue to women and development projects mainstream a gender perspective.
   In particular, it is worth underlining that, given the specific nature of women’s poverty
   (which is different from, and perhaps greater than, men’s poverty), the MDG goal of reducing
   extreme poverty by half by the year 2015 will not be achieved if poverty reducing
   interventions do not incorporate a gender perspective.

Projects Visited

Council Members visited three IDB loans in execution: REMEDIAR, the Reform of the Primary
Attention Health Care Program (US$234 million), The Care of Vulnerable Groups (US$207
million), and the Federal Program for Women (US$7.5 million). In addition, we visited the
following technical cooperation programs: the Group of Older Adults of the City of La Plata
(US$167, 000), the Judicial Education Project: Towards a Jurisprudence of Equality
(US$250,000), the Social Monitor (US$90,000), and the Component of Attention to the
Indigenous Population (US$5 million).

As mentioned above, the IDB’s Action Plan for Improving the Execution of Social Projects was
presented and served as a general framework to guide the Council’s project observations. In
addition, social sectors specialists from IDB Country Offices in Brazil and Chile presented and
discussed with the Council relevant projects in those countries, and the Council also discussed the
impact of Argentina’s economic crisis on women and gender relations.

Observations and Recommendations

It is worth noting that all the observations and recommendations made below are germane to
gender issues, although some may have more general applications.

1. A conducive atmosphere. This Council finds that there advancement in IDB operations
   regarding gender mainstreaming, which is reflected in the IDB portfolio for Argentina as well
   as in the projects presented for Chile and Brazil. Projects that include the full participation of
   women and civil society are growing in number in the loan portfolio and we commend the
   IDB for its role in innovating in the region. Clearly, though, this is work in progress and
   there are many challenges ahead for the IDB and the borrowing member countries. A major
   challenge is to insure additional resources to translate successful pilot activities (such as the
   project training judges in international women’s rights conventions we visited in Buenos
   Aires) into operations with larger impacts. This Council noticed the importance of non-


6
  Source: Adato, M., B. de la Brière, D. Mindek, and A. Quisumbing. 2000. Final Report: The Impact of
PROGRESA on Women’s Status and Intrahousehold Relations. International Food Policy Research
Institute, Washington, D.C. and Rubalcava, L., Teruel, G. and Thomas, D. 2002. Welfare Design,
Women’s Empowerment and Income Pooling. Draft.




                                               xxvii
    reimbursable funds to develop innovative approaches to including women’s and gender issues
    in Bank lending.

2. Project design: differences between women and gender. Projects where women are the
   primary or main beneficiaries, such as REMEDIAR or the Older Adults Project, are desirable
   and, by increasing women’s access to services, should contribute to improving women’s well
   being. Nevertheless, we observed missed opportunities in some of the projects we visited
   because, although they benefited women, they did not include a gender perspective. This was
   evident, for instance, in the Older Adult technical cooperation, where a gender perspective
   would have raised, among others, the question of the low project participation of older adult
   males and addressed their specific needs and concerns. A gender perspective would have
   increased focus on women’s voices and needs in the Attention to Indigenous Populations
   Project. The Council would like to stress the importance of both including a gender
   perspective in project design and implementing projects that will benefit women (such as
   REMEDIAR), and suggests that the Bank devote more resources to training Bank staff and
   national counterparts on integrating a gender perspective in development projects. The WID
   Unit has done a number of in-country training exercises with Bank staff and project executing
   agencies as part of C and D country initiatives; these training efforts should be extended to all
   Bank Country Offices and repeated at certain intervals. The Bank should also look into
   including a gender perspective in project team building exercises.

3. Project execution: the importance of design flexibility and domestic ownership. We saw a
   sharp contrast between successful and unsuccessful project execution that could be attributed
   to policy and institutional factors leading to domestic project ownership or the lack of it. The
   most obvious contrast was between REMEDIAR and the Federal Women’s Program.
   REMEDIAR, a health reform program, initially responded to a crisis situation altering the
   design of a sector reform loan using a well-established network of primary health centers to
   meet critical needs for medicines. The Federal Women’s Program, an IDB loan in existence
   since 1997, encountered problems in execution (only half the loan is disbursed) as a result of
   political changes (several changes in management along the life of the project and lately, the
   executing agency’s loss of privileged status in the government) and weak institutional
   capacity. Domestic ownership is tied to the country’s policy priorities. In the case of the
   Federal Women’s Program, changing policy priorities translated into lack of counterpart
   government funding and a hold on IDB loan disbursements. A related observation is the
   importance of simplified disbursement procedures and flexible designs in helping guarantee
   successful project execution. The Bank’s restructured portfolio in Argentina is a good
   example that flexibility in Bank designs is both desirable and possible. These issues are
   especially important for gender mainstreaming because the institutional capacity on gender
   issues is small and not well established and complex procedures act in their detriment. In
   addition, because gender is a relatively new topic, there is substantial learning to be done, and
   flexible designs allow for corrections more easily midway.

4. Partnering for project sustainability. The Council observed the importance of partnering with
   NGO and private sector firms, as well as government executing agencies, to ensure the
   continuity and sustainability of project interventions. Partnership with NGOs and the Church
   increased the effectiveness of the distribution of medicines in REMEDIAR and helped in
   controlling corruption, ensuring continuity and sustainability. The Social Monitor, a unique
   donor funded civil society initiative to track the performance of Argentina’s emergency social
   sector operations financed through multilateral funding, is another example of a fruitful
   partnership with civil society ensuring project continuity as well as increasing accountability.
   Within this initiative, an innovative free phone line allows for direct reporting from the


                                              xxviii
    public. However, special care should be taken to avoid intentional misreporting that could
    undermine the power of accountability innovations. Partnership with civil society is
    particularly important in the case of gender mainstreaming because the institutional capacity
    to execute gender-informed interventions often lies with civil society organizations. In
    addition, women advocacy groups in civil society are critical to underwrite the continuing
    priority of gender concerns in government policies.

5. Monitoring and evaluation. The Council observed the importance of close monitoring of
   projects that seek to mainstream gender issues using social indicators, administration
   missions and technical expertise on gender issues that is available in Latin America and the
   Caribbean. We observed that closer monitoring and greater technical assistance could have
   helped the Federal Women’s Program confront its current execution problems. More
   generally, we wish to underline the importance of monitoring and evaluation, and the
   collection and use of gender disaggregated data and indicators in the project design stage and
   during execution, in order to assess project impacts on women and development
   effectiveness.

6. Institutional strengthening. While the issues of institutional capacity and ownership affect
   project execution across the board, they are especially relevant for gender mainstreaming
   since this is a relatively new topic and lacks established institutions. The institutional
   newness and fragility that is implied in the execution of gender components should be taken
   into account as a risk factor in project design and followed with strong administration and
   project monitoring systems. This Council encourages the Bank in using local and regional
   technical expertise on gender issues to help monitor and supervise project execution. It also
   recommends the Bank to invest in the institutional strengthening of the national
   women’s/gender bureaus. The Bank could suggest to its government counterparts to invite
   them at the negotiating table for country strategies and key projects. Finally, the issue of
   weak public institutions is not confined to women’s networks. The Council noticed that
   investing in strong public institutions and in the quality of their human resources is
   paramount to program sustainability, strong execution capacity and the ability to translate
   learning into future action.




                                              xxix
                                              Annex 10




                        STATEMENT FROM MDB/IMF HEADS
                  ON INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S DAY (March 8, 2003)



        We, the Heads of the Multilateral Development Banks/International Monetary Fund,
affirm the importance of promoting gender equality and empowering women for achieving the
Millennium Development Goals.

        Gender equality is not only a goal in its own right, but is important for reducing poverty
and hunger, ensuring education for all, reducing child mortality, promoting maternal health,
combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, and ensuring environmental sustainability.
Research and on-the-ground experience show that providing females and males with equal access
to capacity, resources, opportunities and voice increases productivity, accelerates economic
growth, makes poverty reduction more achievable, and improves the well-being of children,
women and men. It also supports international conventions and treaties, including the
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).

         Gender equality in our organizations is not only an issue of fairness; it strengthens our
work. Organizational research and experience show that a more balanced workplace contributes
to a diversity of approaches to the complex problems of development.

        In light of this, we affirm our continued commitment to promoting gender equality in our
organizations and in the work of our organizations to assist member countries.




      Omar Kabbaj                      Tadao Chino                         Jean Lemierre
  African Development            Asian Development Bank                  European Bank for
          Bank                                                           Reconstruction and
                                                                           Development



        Host Kohler                    Enrique Iglesias                  James Wolfensohn
  International Monetary        Inter-American Development                  World Bank
           Fund                             Bank




                                               xxx
     STATEMENT BY THE MDB/IMF HEADS ON THE OCCASION OF THE 10TH
      ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN


         This year marks the tenth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held
in Beijing in September, 1995. At that Conference, the UN member states unanimously endorsed
a Platform for Action to promote gender equality and empower women. This past decade has seen
much progress in improving the status of women worldwide, but disparities in equality and
human rights remain. Full implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action is pivotal to the
development agenda of poverty reduction, good governance and enhanced human well-being.

        On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the Beijing Conference, we, the undersigned
Heads of the Multilateral Development Banks and International Monetary Fund, reaffirm our
commitment to support member states in implementing the Beijing Platform for Action. We
recognize that promoting gender equality and empowering women are vital for achieving social
and economic development and enhancing the dignity and well-being of all members of the
human community.

         We also believe that this work needs to continue in our own institutions to build staff
diversity and commitment to promoting gender equality. We therefore reaffirm our determination
to ensuring workplaces that are diverse, inclusive and work-life friendly. We believe that
organizations that value both female and male staff and ensure equality of opportunity become
more effective in assisting member countries.

        We call on all other international development and financial institutions to join with us in
reaffirming the global commitment to implement the Beijing Platform for Action and work
toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals.


      Omar Kabbaj                     Haruhiko Kuroda                      Jean Lemierre
  African Development             Asian Development Bank                 European Bank for
          Bank                                                           Reconstruction and
                                                                           Development



     Rodrigo de Rato                   Enrique Iglesias                  James Wolfensohn
  International Monetary        Inter-American Development                  World Bank
           Fund                             Bank


                    Released on March 8, 2005 (International Women’s Day)




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