Essentials of Marketing Research William G. Zikmund Chapter7: Survey Research Surveys Surveys ask respondents for information using verbal or written questioning Respondents Respondents are a representative sample of people Gathering Information via Surveys • Quick • Inexpensive • Efficient • Accurate • Flexible Problems • Poor Design • Improper Execution Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Random sampling error Total error Systematic error (bias) Random Sampling Error • A statistical fluctuation that occurs because of change variation in the elements selected for the sample Systematic Error • Systematic error results from some imperfect aspect of the research design or from a mistake in the execution of the research Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Administrative error Systematic error (bias) Respondent error Sample Bias • Sample bias - when the results of a sample show a persistent tendency to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Nonresponse error Respondent error Response bias Respondent Error • A classification of sample bias resulting from some respondent action or inaction • Nonresponse bias • Response bias Nonresponse Error • Nonrespondents - people who refuse to cooperate • Not-at-homes • Self-selection bias • Over-represents extreme positions • Under-represents indifference Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Deliberate falsification Response bias Unconscious misrepresentation Response Bias • A bias that occurs when respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that consciously or unconsciously misrepresents the truth Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Acquiescence bias Extremity bias Interviewer bias Auspices bias Social desirability bias Acquiescence Bias • A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to agree with all questions or to concur with a particular position. Extremity Bias • A category of response bias that results because response styles vary from person to person; some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions. Interviewer Bias • A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences answers. Auspices Bias • Bias in the responses of subjects caused by the respondents being influenced by the organization conducting the study. Social Desirability Bias • Bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role. Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Administrative error Systematic error (bias) Respondent error Administrative Error • Improper administration of the research task • Blunders • Confusion • Neglect • Omission Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error Interviewer cheating Administrative Error • Interviewer cheating - filling in fake answers or falsifying interviewers • Data processing error - incorrect data entry, computer programming, or other procedural errors during the analysis stage. • Sample selection error -improper sample design or sampling procedure execution. • Interviewer error - field mistakes CLASSIFYING SURVEY RESEARCH METHODS METHOD STRUCTURED TEMPORAL OF AND DISQUISED CLASSIFICATIONS COMMUNICATION QUESTIONS Time Period for Surveys • Cross-sectional • Longitudinal Communicating with Respondents • Personal interviews • Door-to-door • Shopping mall intercepts • Telephone interviews • Self-administered questionnaires Personal Interviews Good Afternoon, my name is _________. I am with _________ survey research company. We are conducting a survey on_________ Door-to-Door Personal Interview • Speed of data collection – Moderate to fast • Geographical flexibility – Limited to moderate • Respondent cooperation – Excellent • Versatility of questioning – Quite versatile Door-to-Door Personal Interview • Questionnaire length – Long • Item nonresponse – Low • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding – Lowest Door-to-Door Personal Interview • Degree of interviewer influence of answer – High • Supervision of interviewers – Moderate • Anonymity of respondent – Low Door-to-Door Personal Interview • Ease of call back or follow-up – Difficult • Cost – Highest • Special features – Visual materials may be shown or demonstrated; extended probing possible Mall Intercept Personal Interview • Speed of data collection – Fast • Geographical flexibility – Confined, urban bias • Respondent cooperation – Moderate to low – Versatility of questioning • Extremely versatile Mall Intercept Personal Interview • Speed of Data Collection – Fast • Geographical Flexibility – Confined, urban bias • Respondent Cooperation – Moderate to low – Versatility of Questioning – Extremely versatile Mall Intercept Personal Interview • Questionnaire length – Moderate to long • Item nonresponse – Medium • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding – Lowest Mall Intercept Personal Interview • Degree of interviewer influence of answers – Highest • Supervision of interviewers – Moderate to high • Anonymity of respondent – Low Mall Intercept Personal Interview • Ease of call back or follow-up – Difficult • Cost – Moderate to high • Special features – Taste test, viewing of TV commercials possible Telephone Surveys Telephone Surveys • Speed of Data Collection – Very fast • Geographical Flexibility – High • Respondent Cooperation – Good • Versatility of Questioning – Moderate Telephone Surveys • Questionnaire Length – Moderate • Item Nonresponse – Medium • Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding – Average • Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer – Moderate Telephone Surveys • Supervision of interviewers – High, especially with central location WATS interviewing • Anonymity of respondent – Moderate • Ease of call back or follow-up – Easy Telephone Surveys • Cost – Low to moderate • Special features – Fieldwork and supervision of data collection are simplified; quite adaptable to computer technology Telephone Surveys • Central location interviewing • Computer-assisted telephone interviewing • Computerized voice-activated interviews Most Unlisted Markets • Sacramento, CA • Oakland, CA • Fresno, CA • Los Angles/Long Beach, CA The Frame, November 2001 Published by Survey Sampling, Inc. Self-Administered Questionnaires SELF-ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIRES PAPER ELECTRONIC QUESTIONNAIRES QUESTIONNAIRES MAIL IN-PERSON INSERTS FAX E-MAIL INTERNET KIOSK DROP-OFF WEB SITE Mail Surveys Mail Surveys • Speed of data collection – Researcher has no control over return of questionnaire; slow • Geographical flexibility – High • Respondent cooperation – Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will have low response rate Mail Surveys • Versatility of questioning – Highly standardized format • Questionnaire length – Varies depending on incentive • Item nonresponse – High Mail Surveys • Possibility of respondent misunderstanding – Highest--no interviewer present for clarification • Degree of interviewer influence of answer – None--interviewer absent • Supervision of interviewers – Not applicable Mail Surveys • Anonymity of respondent – High • Ease of call back or follow-up – Easy, but takes time • Cost – Lowest How to Increase Response Rates for Mail Surveys • Write a “sales oriented” cover letter • Money helps - As a token of appreciation - For a charity • Stimulate respondents’ interest with interesting questions • Follow Up - Keying questionnaires with codes • Advanced notification • Sponsorship by a well-known and prestigious institution Increasing Response Rates • Effective cover letter • Money helps • Interesting questions • Follow-ups • Advanced notification • Survey sponsorship • Keying questionnaires E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys • Speed of data collection – Instantaneous • Geographic flexibility – worldwide • Cheaper distribution and processing costs E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys • Flexible, but – Extensive differences in the capabilities of respondents’ computers and e-mail software limit the types of questions and the layout • E-mails are not secure and “eavesdropping” can possibly occur • Respondent cooperation – Varies depending if e-mail is seen as “spam” Internet Surveys • A self-administered questionnaire posted on a Web site. • Respondents provide answers to questions displayed online by highlighting a phrase, clicking an icon, or keying in an answer. Internet Surveys • Speed of data collection – Instantaneous • Cost effective • Geographic flexibility – worldwide • Visual and interactive Internet Surveys • Respondent cooperation – Varies depending on web site – Varies depending on type of sample – When user does not opt-in or expect a voluntary survey cooperation is low. – Self-selection problems in web site visitation surveys - participants tend to be more deeply involved than the average person. Internet Surveys • Versatility of questioning – Extremely versatile • Questionnaire length – Individualized base on respondent answers – Longer questionnaires with panel samples • Item nonresponse – Software can assure none Internet Surveys • Representative samples • The quality of internet samples may vary substantially. • A sample of those who visit a web page and voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can have self-selection error. Internet Surveys • 1) not all individuals in the general public have internet access • 2) many respondents lack powerful computers with high-speed connections to the internet • 3) many respondents computer skills will be relatively unsophisticated. Internet Surveys • Possibility for respondent misunderstanding – High • Interviewer influence of answers – None • Supervision of interviewers not required Internet Surveys • Anonymity of Respondent – Respondent can be anonymous or known • Ease of Callback or Follow-up – difficult unless e-mail address is known • Special Features – allows graphics and streaming media Welcome Screen • Welcome Screen like a cover letter • It contains the name of the research company and how to contact the organization if there is a problem or concern. • "If you have any concerns or questions about this survey, or if you experience any technical difficulties, please contact (NAME OF RESEARCH ORGANIZATION). Welcome Screen should ask for password and give instructions • Please enter your personal password from your invitation.Then, press the "enter" key to begin the survey or simply click on the right arrow at the bottom of the page to begin the survey (after you have read the remaining instructions): • During the survey, please do not use your browser's FORWARD and BACK buttons. • Use the arrows on the lower right to move backward and forward through the survey. There is no best form of survey; each has advantages and disadvantages. Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique • Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary? • Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated? • Will cooperation be easily attained? Selected Questions to Determine the Appropriate Technique • How quickly is the information needed? • Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire? • How large is the budget? Cross-Sectional Study • A study in which various segments of a population are sampled • Data are collected at a single moment in time. Longitudinal Study • A survey of respondents at different times, thus allowing analysis of changes over time. • Tracking study - compare trends and identify changes – consumer satisfaction Consumer Panel • A longitudinal survey of the same sample of individuals or households to record (in a diary) their attitudes, behavior, or purchasing habits over time.
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