Chapter 7 - Essentials of Marketing Research by dlas32

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									  Essentials of
Marketing Research

  William G. Zikmund


      Chapter7:
   Survey Research
               Surveys

Surveys ask respondents for information
using verbal or written questioning
           Respondents
Respondents are a
representative
sample of people
      Gathering Information via
              Surveys
•   Quick
•   Inexpensive
•   Efficient
•   Accurate
•   Flexible
               Problems

• Poor Design
• Improper Execution
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error
                    Random sampling
                    error


 Total
 error



                    Systematic
                    error (bias)
      Random Sampling Error

• A statistical fluctuation that occurs because
  of change variation in the elements selected
  for the sample
           Systematic Error

• Systematic error results from some
  imperfect aspect of the research design or
  from a mistake in the execution of the
  research
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

                       Administrative
                       error



Systematic
error (bias)


                        Respondent
                        error
              Sample Bias


• Sample bias - when the results of a sample
  show a persistent tendency to deviate in one
  direction from the true value of the
  population parameter
  Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

                      Nonresponse
                      error


Respondent
error

                       Response
                       bias
           Respondent Error

• A classification of sample bias resulting
  from some respondent action or inaction
     • Nonresponse bias
     • Response bias
          Nonresponse Error

• Nonrespondents - people who refuse to
  cooperate
• Not-at-homes
• Self-selection bias
     • Over-represents extreme positions
     • Under-represents indifference
 Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error


                    Deliberate
                    falsification
Response
bias

                    Unconscious
                    misrepresentation
           Response Bias

• A bias that occurs when respondents
  tend to answer questions with a certain
  slant that consciously or unconsciously
  misrepresents the truth
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

         Acquiescence bias


           Extremity bias


          Interviewer bias


           Auspices bias


       Social desirability bias
          Acquiescence Bias

• A category of response bias that results
  because some individuals tend to agree with
  all questions or to concur with a particular
  position.
            Extremity Bias

• A category of response bias that results
  because response styles vary from person to
  person; some individuals tend to use
  extremes when responding to questions.
           Interviewer Bias

• A response bias that occurs because the
  presence of the interviewer influences
  answers.
             Auspices Bias
• Bias in the responses of subjects caused by
  the respondents being influenced by the
  organization conducting the study.
       Social Desirability Bias

• Bias in responses caused by respondents’
  desire, either conscious or unconscious, to
  gain prestige or appear in a different social
  role.
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

                       Administrative
                       error



Systematic
error (bias)


                        Respondent
                        error
        Administrative Error

• Improper administration of the research task
• Blunders
     • Confusion
     • Neglect
     • Omission
Tree Diagram of Total Survey Error

          Data processing error


          Sample selection error


            Interviewer error


           Interviewer cheating
         Administrative Error
• Interviewer cheating - filling in fake
  answers or falsifying interviewers
• Data processing error - incorrect data entry,
  computer programming, or other procedural
  errors during the analysis stage.
• Sample selection error -improper sample
  design or sampling procedure execution.
• Interviewer error - field mistakes
                 CLASSIFYING
                   SURVEY
                  RESEARCH
                  METHODS


   METHOD        STRUCTURED        TEMPORAL
     OF         AND DISQUISED   CLASSIFICATIONS
COMMUNICATION     QUESTIONS
      Time Period for Surveys

• Cross-sectional
• Longitudinal
         Communicating with
            Respondents
• Personal interviews
     • Door-to-door
     • Shopping mall intercepts
• Telephone interviews
• Self-administered questionnaires
Personal Interviews
   Good Afternoon, my name is
 _________. I am with _________
survey research company. We are
conducting a survey on_________
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
• Speed of data collection
  – Moderate to fast
• Geographical flexibility
  – Limited to moderate
• Respondent cooperation
  – Excellent
• Versatility of questioning
  – Quite versatile
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
• Questionnaire length
  – Long
• Item nonresponse
  – Low
• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
  – Lowest
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
• Degree of interviewer influence of answer
  – High
• Supervision of interviewers
  – Moderate
• Anonymity of respondent
  – Low
Door-to-Door Personal Interview
• Ease of call back or follow-up
  – Difficult
• Cost
  – Highest
• Special features
  – Visual materials may be shown or
    demonstrated; extended probing possible
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
• Speed of data collection
  – Fast
• Geographical flexibility
  – Confined, urban bias
• Respondent cooperation
  – Moderate to low
  – Versatility of questioning
     • Extremely versatile
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
• Speed of Data Collection
  – Fast
• Geographical Flexibility
  – Confined, urban bias
• Respondent Cooperation
  – Moderate to low
  – Versatility of Questioning
  – Extremely versatile
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
• Questionnaire length
  – Moderate to long
• Item nonresponse
  – Medium
• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
  – Lowest
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
• Degree of interviewer influence of answers
  – Highest
• Supervision of interviewers
  – Moderate to high
• Anonymity of respondent
  – Low
Mall Intercept Personal Interview
• Ease of call back or follow-up
  – Difficult
• Cost
  – Moderate to high
• Special features
  – Taste test, viewing of TV commercials
    possible
Telephone Surveys
           Telephone Surveys
• Speed of Data Collection
  – Very fast
• Geographical Flexibility
  – High
• Respondent Cooperation
  – Good
• Versatility of Questioning
  – Moderate
         Telephone Surveys
• Questionnaire Length
  – Moderate
• Item Nonresponse
  – Medium
• Possibility of Respondent Misunderstanding
  – Average
• Degree of Interviewer Influence of Answer
  – Moderate
           Telephone Surveys
• Supervision of interviewers
  – High, especially with central location WATS
    interviewing
• Anonymity of respondent
  – Moderate
• Ease of call back or follow-up
  – Easy
          Telephone Surveys

• Cost
  – Low to moderate
• Special features
  – Fieldwork and supervision of data collection
    are simplified; quite adaptable to computer
    technology
         Telephone Surveys
• Central location interviewing
• Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
• Computerized voice-activated interviews
        Most Unlisted Markets
•   Sacramento, CA
•   Oakland, CA
•   Fresno, CA
•   Los Angles/Long Beach, CA
The Frame, November 2001 Published by Survey Sampling, Inc.
               Self-Administered
                Questionnaires
                          SELF-ADMINISTERED
                           QUESTIONNAIRES


             PAPER                                       ELECTRONIC
         QUESTIONNAIRES                                QUESTIONNAIRES


MAIL   IN-PERSON   INSERTS      FAX           E-MAIL      INTERNET      KIOSK
        DROP-OFF                                          WEB SITE
Mail Surveys
              Mail Surveys
• Speed of data collection
  – Researcher has no control over return of
    questionnaire; slow
• Geographical flexibility
  – High
• Respondent cooperation
  – Moderate--poorly designed questionnaire will
    have low response rate
              Mail Surveys
• Versatility of questioning
  – Highly standardized format
• Questionnaire length
  – Varies depending on incentive
• Item nonresponse
  – High
               Mail Surveys
• Possibility of respondent misunderstanding
  – Highest--no interviewer present for clarification
• Degree of interviewer influence of answer
  – None--interviewer absent
• Supervision of interviewers
  – Not applicable
              Mail Surveys
• Anonymity of respondent
  – High
• Ease of call back or follow-up
  – Easy, but takes time
• Cost
  – Lowest
   How to Increase Response Rates
          for Mail Surveys
• Write a “sales oriented” cover letter
• Money helps
      - As a token of appreciation
      - For a charity
• Stimulate respondents’ interest with interesting questions
• Follow Up
      - Keying questionnaires with codes
• Advanced notification
• Sponsorship by a well-known and prestigious institution
      Increasing Response Rates
•   Effective cover letter
•   Money helps
•   Interesting questions
•   Follow-ups
•   Advanced notification
•   Survey sponsorship
•   Keying questionnaires
  E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys
• Speed of data collection
  – Instantaneous
• Geographic flexibility
  – worldwide
• Cheaper distribution and processing costs
  E-Mail Questionnaire Surveys
• Flexible, but
  – Extensive differences in the capabilities of
    respondents’ computers and e-mail software
    limit the types of questions and the layout
• E-mails are not secure and “eavesdropping”
  can possibly occur
• Respondent cooperation
  – Varies depending if e-mail is seen as “spam”
           Internet Surveys

• A self-administered questionnaire posted on
  a Web site.
• Respondents provide answers to questions
  displayed online by highlighting a phrase,
  clicking an icon, or keying in an answer.
            Internet Surveys

• Speed of data collection
  – Instantaneous
• Cost effective
• Geographic flexibility
  – worldwide
• Visual and interactive
            Internet Surveys

• Respondent cooperation
  – Varies depending on web site
  – Varies depending on type of sample
  – When user does not opt-in or expect a
    voluntary survey cooperation is low.
  – Self-selection problems in web site visitation
    surveys - participants tend to be more deeply
    involved than the average person.
            Internet Surveys

• Versatility of questioning
  – Extremely versatile
• Questionnaire length
  – Individualized base on respondent answers
  – Longer questionnaires with panel samples
• Item nonresponse
  – Software can assure none
           Internet Surveys
• Representative samples
• The quality of internet samples may vary
  substantially.
• A sample of those who visit a web page and
  voluntarily fill out a questionnaires can
  have self-selection error.
            Internet Surveys
• 1) not all individuals in the general public
  have internet access
• 2) many respondents lack powerful
  computers with high-speed connections to
  the internet
• 3) many respondents computer skills will
  be relatively unsophisticated.
           Internet Surveys

• Possibility for respondent misunderstanding
  – High
• Interviewer influence of answers
  – None
• Supervision of interviewers
    not required
            Internet Surveys

• Anonymity of Respondent
  – Respondent can be anonymous or known
• Ease of Callback or Follow-up
  – difficult unless e-mail address is known
• Special Features
  – allows graphics and streaming media
             Welcome Screen
• Welcome Screen like a cover letter
• It contains the name of the research company and
  how to contact the organization if there is a
  problem or concern.
• "If you have any concerns or questions about this
  survey, or if you experience any technical
  difficulties, please contact (NAME OF
  RESEARCH ORGANIZATION).
 Welcome Screen should ask for
 password and give instructions
• Please enter your personal password from your
  invitation.Then, press the "enter" key to begin the
  survey or simply click on the right arrow at the
  bottom of the page to begin the survey (after you
  have read the remaining instructions):
• During the survey, please do not use your
  browser's FORWARD and BACK buttons.
• Use the arrows on the lower right to move
  backward and forward through the survey.
There is no best form
 of survey; each has
    advantages and
   disadvantages.
Selected Questions to Determine
   the Appropriate Technique
• Is the assistance of an interviewer
  necessary?
• Are respondents interested in the issues
  being investigated?
• Will cooperation be easily attained?
Selected Questions to Determine
   the Appropriate Technique
• How quickly is the information needed?
• Will the study require a long and complex
  questionnaire?
• How large is the budget?
       Cross-Sectional Study
• A study in which various segments of a
  population are sampled
• Data are collected at a single moment in
  time.
         Longitudinal Study
• A survey of respondents at different times,
  thus allowing analysis of changes over time.
• Tracking study - compare trends and
  identify changes
  – consumer satisfaction
           Consumer Panel
• A longitudinal survey of the same sample of
  individuals or households to record (in a
  diary) their attitudes, behavior, or
  purchasing habits over time.

								
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