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BATS

VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 11

  • pg 1
									INTRODUCTION There are an innumerous amount of animal species in the world. They all have adapted and evolved to survive in their surroundings. Some have grown fins, others legs, and still others wings. One of the animals that has grown wings is the bat. The bat is a truly great creature. It has all the characteristics of mammals while also possessing the skill in flight of a bird. There are more than 800 species of bats in the world. They are of many different sizes, shapes, and lifestyles. They live all over the world and have drawn the curiosity of millions. Bats also have the unique quality of echolocation that it uses to catch insects. Though other mammals, like the flying squirrel seem to fly but actually glide the bat is the only mammal that can truly fly (Lauber 1).

A Bat's Body Due to the great variety of species of bats some characteristics vary greatly but the Little Brown Bat is a good example of a bat. It has fur on its body, large naked ears, its rear legs have claws, it has a tail membrane, and it has the most distinguishing feature of a bat, wings (Lauber 9). The upper arm of the bat is short while the forearm is very long. The wrist is very small and from it comes the thumb and the four longer fingers. The thumb is short and used for climbing or walking. The fingers are long and thin. Interlocking the fingers is the wing. This set up of having the fingers in the wing gives the bat amazing flight maneuverability (Honders 22). These bones look similar to a human hand. They are connected by rubbery skin to the bat's body enveloping all the fingers but the thumb (Bats in CT 1). Echolocation Bats have a "sixth sense" called echolocation. This was first proved by Donald Griffin. Bats produce ultrasonic sound waves and then use the echo of the returning sound to sense the world around them and in particularly to catch insects. These sounds are usually out of the humans range of hearing (Fellman 42). This system is similar to that of dolphins. The sound is in the form of clicks that increase as the bat gets closer to the insect or whatever it is tracking (Bats in CT). Unlike humans most insects can hear the bat's echolocation sounds. David D. Yager of the University of Maryland has found that the praying mantis has used this to its advantage. When being pursued by a bat the mantis can hear the clicks of the bat behind it and to avoid being eaten goes into a series of evasive maneuvers. First they extend their fore limbs and then extend their abdomens that stops them. Then they go into a dive going twice their usual speed and if still being pursued will crash into the ground to avoid being eaten. This and other insects also use hearing to their advantage (Amato 781). Moths also do amazing

maneuvers in attempts of escape similar to the mantis. Tiger moths even make their own ultrasonic clicks. It is not known whether these are to startle the bat or to warn it that the moth is distasteful. Despite the insects great efforts to foil the bat's sonar the bat still catches its prey more than 50% of the time (Fellman 93). Some bats even have different frequencies than insects can hear. The competition between insects and bats will go on forever because they will counter each others counter measures of how an animal can evolve to how amazing abilities. Bats have evolved to fly, use echolocation, hibernate, sleep in the day, hang by their feet, and many other things that individual species have developed. Some large bats, called megabats, are even thought by some scientists to be closely related to primates because of their similar brain tissue. Bats are highly evolved animals that have amazing characteristics. 8 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § (Gibbons 1992, Bailey et al. 1992) 2 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § of a bird À!y evolving new strategies, and as James Fullard said "Evolution never stops."

HIBERNATION AND MIGRATION

The food of bat usually becomes scarce during winter months so some bats hibernate while others migrate (Honders 75, Bourliere 95). When bats migrate they usually move from the south to far north during the summer and they return during the fall. Bats that hibernate prepare for the winter by getting fat in autumn. Then they fall into a sleep more extreme than their normal daily sleep. As in most animals, when hibernating their major bodily functions, such as heart-rate and breathing, are suppressed greatly. Bats are known to interrupt their hibernation because they have been seen in the winter. Disturbing bats during hibernation can be very destructive (Pistorius 94). This is because the bats have a limited supply of energy. The energy used when the bat is awake is huge compared to that when it is hibernating. Bats arise on occasion anyway to groom, or sometimes take a flight outside, and even to move to colder places, where they can survive with lower metabolism and save energy. Repeated awakenings can result in starvation in the late winter from lack of energy stores. In an extreme case in Kentucky, during the 1960's where a cave was a tourist attraction ,the population of 100,000 bats starved to death after being awakened so many times. REPRODUCTION Bats have internal fertilization and give birth to highly matured young like humans (Lauber, Honders 75, Ezzel 92). Most bats only have one baby a year. The bats mate in the roost and have little or no courtship. The pregnant mothers form separate nursing colonies from the others. Some species like the Mexican free-tailed bat, who migrate immediately after mating, produce a secretion that preserves the male's sperm until they reach their new roost.

When their baby is being born the mother hangs by her thumbs to a tree branch. Its tail membrane acts as a cradle and the baby is born into it tail first. Then the mother hangs by one wing and cleans the baby with the other. IT is then attached to the mother's teat where it will hold on during flight. In some species the baby is left at the roost when the mother is hunting, in others the baby is taken along. In the species that carry their young eventually the baby grows to big for the mother and is left in the roost. The bat then learns to fly and hunt its prey by itself (Lauber). SPECIALIZED BATS Some bats have developed special ways of adapting to their surroundings. Though most bats eat insects some feed on fruit, nectar, small vertebrates, fish, and blood (Bourliere 95). The bats that eat fruit help disperse seeds by eating fruit and then dropping the seeds in their droppings during flight. Those that drink nectar act like hummingbirds pollinating flowers (Warning from Bat Conservation International 91). Bats that eat small vertebrates along with insects and fruit are often called false vampires. These bats eat lizards, tree frogs, birds, rodents, and smaller bats. They kill their prey by using thier strong jaws and teeth to break their neck. These bats have only about a two foot wingspan so thier prey tends to be small. Bats that catch fish fly just above the water and catch the fish with its hind feet and use its sharp claws to hold it. It then maneuvers the fish to kill it by biting it (Novick 73). The most famous of bats is probably the vampire. The vampire bat drinks the blood of large vertebrates, to do this they have developed large incisors, a specialized tongue, and specialized saliva to prevent blood from clotting, and they are able to move quickly on the ground in the case of its prey waking up and it is too full to fly away (Honders 75).

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6is they 'Southings can result in starvation during Ittoo, ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÞ2 ß2 ä2 ê2 ò2 ó2 ô2 -3 L3 S3 `3 c3 e3 h3 l3 r3 §3 ¨3 (c)3 º3 Ã3 Ä3 Æ3 È3 Ð3 Ø3 Ú3 Ü3 Ý3 Þ3 ß3 ð3 ò3 ó3 ú3 6 6 6 16 [6 p6 t6 u6 v6 w6 |6 6 š6 £6 ¤6 §6 ¨6 (c)6 º6 "6 1/26 ¿6 Á6 Â6 Ä6 Ò6 Ô6 Ö6 ä6 è6 ê6 ì6 î6 ò6 ô6 ö6 ù6 û6 7 7 7 7 7 -7 7 #7 )7 *7 ,7 .7 07 97 <7 >7 H7 J7 N7 O7 P7 Q7 S7 d7 e7 ýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýý ûùýýýýýýýýý ûùýýýùýýýýýýýýýýýýýýý ûù ûýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýý û ûöý ^ c u P c abat. It has fur on thethein attempts of escape, l catches its prey more than fifty percent when they are asleepand . Talso on the ground in case of theirof blood ,ave 8 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § 101919175Anonymous 19901993Anonymous 19901991191919 and1919 1968, Honders 1975, and Ezzel 1992 196819Anonymous 191919Anonymous 1919Anonymous 19 and 5 10LITERATURE CITED Anonymous. 1988. Bats. Health. pp 1-2. Anonymous. 1990. d7 e7 f7 Ã7 Ä7 ; ; j; k; Â; Ã; &> g> h> j> u> À!K þ À!K þ À!K À!K þ À!K þ À!K À!K þ À!K þ À!K Pamphlet distributed by Missouri Department of < á z { •"6 O7 Q7

Bats In Connecticut ; Q: R: Å: Æ: < þ <

S< T< Ã< é< ê< := ;= Š= ‹= Ø= Ö= %> þ û À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ õ À!K õ À!K õ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ þ þ $. Pamphlet from Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. pp 1-8. Anonymous. 1991. Warning From Bat Conservation International. Pamphlet from Animal Welfare Institution. pp 1. Amato, I. 1991. "Praying Mantises Play Top Gun". Science 252: 781

Bailey, W. et al. 1992. Science 256: 86-89 Bourliere, F. 1995. pp 190-196 Ezzel, C. 1992. 1993.

"Rejection Of The Flying Primate Hypothesis". Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Mammals of The World.

"Cave Creatures".

Science News 141: 88-90 National Wildlife

Fellman, B. 31: 42-45

"Guess Who's Coming to Dinner".

Gibbons, A. 1992. "Is Flying Primate Hypothesis Headed for a Crash Landing?". Science 256: 34 Honders, J. 1975. 22-23. The World of Mammals. Peebles Press, New York. pp

Lauber, P. 1-15 Novick, A. 627.

1968. 1973.

Bats Wings in the Night. "Bats Aren't All Bad".

Random House, New York.

pp

National Geographic 143: 615-

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• ´ Ø ü D h  Œ ȳtIìDújD×ñÝOþíÕ{êE µ-d‹ó•oi¿Ÿi C:\WINWORD\TEMPLATE\NORMAL.DOT ABSTRACT Kathy Squillanti Kathy Squillanti @ †% -Ü¥e =À ô e " e_ ö( ( ¬ ( ¬ D D D D D ÚG ÊD ÚG ÚG ÚG êG " H ÚG ¤^ 1 (H ,H " NH NH NH NH NH NH tH vH vH vH ' •H À ]I À J Õ^ T )_ < ;J i D NH NH NH NH NH ;J NH D D NH (H NH NH NH NH D NH D NH tH D D XD r D D D D NH tH NH & NH IN TRODUCTION There are an innumerous amount of animal species in the world. They all have adapted and evolved to survive in their surroundings. Some have grown fins, others legs, and still others wings. One of the animals that has grown wings is the bat. The bat is a truly great creature. It has all the characteristics of mammals while also possessing the skill in flight of a bird. There are more than 800 species of bats in the world. They are of many different sizes, shapes, and lifestyles. They live all over the world and have drawn the curiosity of millions. Bats also have the unique quality of echolocation that it uses to catch insects. Though other mammals, like the flying squirrel seem to fly but actually glide the bat is the only mammal that can truly fly (Lauber 1).

A Bat's Body Due to the great variety of species of bats some characteristics vary greatly but the Little Brown Bat is a good example of a bat. It has fur on its body, large naked ears, its rear legs have claws, it has a tail membrane, and it has the most distinguishing feature of a bat, wings (Lauber 9). The upper arm of the bat is short while the forearm is very long. The wrist is very small and from it comes the thumb and the four longer fingers. The thumb is short and used for climbing or walking. The fingers are long and thin. Interlocking the fingers is the wing. This set up of having the fingers in the wing gives the bat amazing flight maneuverability (Honders 22). These bones look similar to a human hand. They are connected by rubbery skin to the bat's body enveloping all the fingers but the thumb (Bats in CT 1). Echolocation Bats have a "sixth sense" called echolocation. This was first proved by Donald Griffin. Bats produce ultrasonic sound waves and then

use the echo of the returning sound to sense the world around them and in particularly to catch insects. These sounds are usually out of the humans range of hearing (Fellman 42). This system is similar to that of dolphins. The sound is in the form of clicks that increase as the bat gets closer to the insect or whatever it is tracking (Bats in CT). Unlike humans most insects can hear the bat's echolocation sounds. David D. Yager of the University of Maryland has found that the praying mantis has used this to its advantage. When being pursued by a bat the mantis can hear the clicks of the bat behind it and to avoid being eaten goes into a series of evasive maneuvers. First they extend their fore limbs and then extend their abdomens that stops them. Then they go into a dive going twice their usual speed and if still being pursued will crash into the ground to avoid being eaten. This and other insects also use hearing to their advantage (Amato 781). Moths also do amazing maneuvers in attempts of escape similar to the mantis. Tiger moths even make their own ultrasonic clicks. It is not known whether these are to startle the bat or to warn it that the moth is distasteful. Despite the insects great efforts to foil the bat's sonar the bat still catches its prey more than 50% of the time (Fellman 93). Some bats even have different frequencies than insects can hear. The competition between insects and bats will go on forever because they will counter each others counter measures b % 2 { ‰ Q j Å Ò ô  _ x y z € ‚ " ... ‹ Œ  Ţ  ' " ¤ ¬ ± ¶ · ¸ " À Á Æ ê ë ì ð ñ ¬( È( É( Ñ( Ô( Õ( ô( ù( ú( û( ü( ý( þ( ) 8) H) R) n) -) ¯) *) ¹) ¿) Ù) ß) ð) ñ) * \* ¶* 1/4* 1/2* å* ò* ó* ö* ø* + + /+ S+ d+ h+ {+ Ţ+ •+ ¯+ ²+ ³+ Ç+ ú+ , D, üúüúüúüúüúüúüúôòôò ôòôòôò úðúúú òúúúúúúúúúðúúúúúúüüüú òðúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúúú u P u D P c ^ c _   ‹ " # $ % 2 3 4 y { Š Œ w Ç N O P Q ‰ (c) ƍ ȍ + č ō ƍ ԍ Ս ţ ó ° ! " # ý À!K û À!K û À!K ö À!- ö À!- û À!K û À!K û À!K ý À!K û À!K û À!K ö À!- ö À!- ð À!- û À!K ö ö À!- ö À!- û û À!K û À!K ý À!K û À!K ê ê À!- ê À!- ê À!- ö À!- ð ð À!- û À!K ö ö À!- ö À!- ý À!K û À!K ö À!- ö À!- û û À!K û À!K û À!K pÿ à à à *# $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K -P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a y ‚ ƒ " • • ' ' " · ú( û( ý( 1/2* •, . . +. 6. 8. Ò/ ¨3 Þ3 ¨6 "6 þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ ÷ ó þ ÷ ó þ þ þ þ ð À!K þ À!K þ ë À!- ë À!- ë À!- þ ë À!- ë À!- þ

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K @ñÿ Normal ] a c " A@òÿ¡ " Default Paragraph Font @ ò Header à À! )@¢ Page Number ood of large vertebrates. Thelp in ing fly away (Honders 75). MYTHS 7 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § There are many misconceptions about bats (Bats in CT 90). People think they are all dangerous because they carry rabies. Less than one percent of all bats is carrying rabies. Some people think they become caught in people's hair but this is also untrue. Other people think lots of bats drink blood but this is also untrue, only three species of bats drink blood and they prefer cattle blood and only live in Latin America. Bats are actual quite helpful to humans (Van Dyke 94). Bats are important to many plants in the United States because they help pollinate flowers. Most bats eat insects, this is extremely helpful to humans. They help keep bug populations low. Some bats, such as the little brown bat, can consume about 600 mosquitoes in an hour. Bats also keep the population down of other potential pests such as leafhoppers, cucumber beetles, and June bugs. Despite bats being helpful they are still can still be dangerous under certain conditions (Bats 88). Bat droppings, or guano, are known to have spores and fungus in them that cause Histoplasmosis, a lung infection, and other diseases. Rabid bats can also be a threat because if one attacks the person can easily be infected with rabies. Whenever handling bats always wear gloves to prevent bites. 8 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § Bats are

2 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § feature, that can truly fly (Lauber 68,common 68.arrangement ight maneuverability (Honders 9rubbery skin to the bat's body ,,extend their abdomens whichachieving a pace (Fellman 93) to far N This is because the bats have to death after being awakened on several occasions p disperse seeds by eatingisors, a specialized tongue, infected with. These victimIf anyone ever has to handle a bat 2 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § stopa good example û- D, P, ~, •, €, •, Ì, Ù, Ú, ä, ÿ, - $- -- 7- X- n- o- t- ±- Èù. . . . . . . . *. +. 2. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. J. Q. R. p. q. w. x. y. {. |. ‡. ˆ. ţ. ¤. ¥. §. Æ. Æ. È. ã. ï. ô. / / )/ G/ [/ \/ v/ '/ / ¡/ ¢/ §/ ¨/ (r)/ ¶/ ·/ Ð/ Ñ/ Ò/ Ó/ ä/ è/ î/ ñ/ ó/ ÷/ 2 -2 42 ~2 ‡2 '2 Ë2 Ó2 Ø2 Þ2 ýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýý ûùýýýýý ûùýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýý ûùýýýýýùýýýýýýýýý u P c bof how an animal can evolve to how amazing abilities. Bats have evolved to fly, use echolocation, hibernate, sleep in the day, hang by their feet, and many other things that individual species have developed. Some large bats, called megabats, are even thought by some scientists to be closely related to primates because of their similar brain tissue. Bats are highly evolved animals that have amazing characteristics.

8 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § (Gibbons 1992, Bailey et al. 1992) 2 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § of a bird À!Þ2 ß2 ä2 ê2 ò2 ó2 ô2 -3 L3 S3 `3 c3 e3 h3 l3 r3 §3 ¨3 (c)3 º3 Ã3 Ä3 Æ3 È3 Ð3 Ø3 Ú3 Ü3 Ý3 Þ3 ß3 ð3 ò3 ó3 ú3 6 6 6 16 [6 p6 t6 u6 v6 w6 |6 6 š6 £6 ¤6 §6 ¨6 (c)6 º6 "6 1/26 ¿6 Á6 Â6 Ä6 Õ6 Ô6 Ö6 ä6 è6 ê6 ì6 î6 ò6 ô6 ö6 ù6 û6 7 7 7 7 7 -7 7 #7 )7 *7 ,7 .7 07 97 <7 >7 H7 J7 N7 O7 P7 Q7 S7 d7 e7 ýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýý ûùýýýýýýýýý ûùýýýùýýýýýýýýýýýýýýý ûù ûýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýýý û ûöý ^ c u P c abat. It has fur on thethein attempts of escape, l catches its prey more than fifty percent when they are asleepand . Talso on the ground in case of theirof blood ,ave 8 • ¡ - (tm) ¦p § 101919175Anonymous 19901993Anonymous 19901991191919 and1919 1968, Honders 1975, and Ezzel 1992 196819Anonymous 191919Anonymous 1919Anonymous 19 and 5 10LITERATURE CITED Anonymous. 1988. Bats. Health. pp 1-2. Anonymous. 1990. d7 e7 f7 Ã7 Ä7 ; ; j; k; Â; Ã; &> g> h> j> u> À!K þ À!K þ À!K À!K þ À!K þ À!K À!K þ À!K þ À!K Pamphlet distributed by Missouri Department of < á z { •"6 O7 Q7 Ö= þ þ þ %>

Bats In Connecticut ; Q: R: Å: Æ:

< < S< T< Ã< é< ê< := ;= Š= ‹= Ø= w> þ þ û À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K õ À!K õ À!K õ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ À!K þ þ þ %. Pamphlet from Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. pp 1-8. Anonymous. 1991. Warning From Bat Conservation International. Pamphlet from Animal Welfare Institution. pp 1. Amato, I. 1991. "Praying Mantises Play Top Gun".

Science 252: 781

Bailey, W. et al. 1992. Science 256: 86-89 Bourliere, F. 1995. pp 190-196 Ezzel, C. 1992. 1993.

"Rejection Of The Flying Primate Hypothesis". Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

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Science News 141: 88-90 National Wildlife

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"Guess Who's Coming to Dinner".

Gibbons, A. 1992. "Is Flying Primate Hypothesis Headed for a Crash Landing?". Science 256: 34 Honders, J. 1975. 22-23. The World of Mammals. Peebles Press, New York. pp

Lauber, P. 1-15 Novick, A. 627. Pistoris, A. 35. Van Dyke, L. 9 7 (Fig. 1) 2

1968. 1973.

Bats Wings in the Night. "Bats Aren't All Bad". "Forever Protected". "Batting Down Bugs".

Random House, New York.

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National Geographic 143: 615Harrowsmith Country Life 28Sierra Magazine 36-68

1994. 1994.


								
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