Preparation for the TAKS Test: Revising and Editing But I Stink at Grammar! Grammar Review Commas Capitalizations Run-ons and Fragments Apostrophes Spelling Misplaced modifiers Commas Use commas: - to separate dates, cities and states, person addressed in dialogue, introductory words - before a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) - series of words or phrases - a direct quotation - introductory phrase in a sentence - appositives, nonessential phrases “Gotta keep „em separated!” The president lives at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington D. C. May 3, 1992, is her birth date. Whatever, I don‟t really care! FANBOYS (For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) You need to take out the garbage before you go to your friend‟s house and, Sam, don‟t forget to take the cans to the street since tomorrow is Wednesday, trash day! “They keep going and going…” Her chores at home include washing the dishes, making the bed, and walking the dog. Her favorite colors are blue, orange, and yellow. He hates veggies, dogs, and sports. “What he said!” Bob asked, “Is Sue home?” The girl shouted across the room, “Does anyone have a pencil I can borrow?” The bus driver whispered under his breath, “Only 14 more stops.” “I‟m proud to introduce…” Because she is my friend, I asked her first. With no expectations and only hope in her heart, she gave her valentine to him. With hands in pockets, he walked away. “That was not necessary” My friend, Sally Sue, is always interrupting. The little boy, Georgie Porgie, is bad. The teacher, with lots of papers to grade, is teaching the class. Capitalization Proper Names Titles (first, middle important words, last) First word of sentence Direction as a location ALL CAPS The young lady, Sandra, and her boyfriend, Brett, set out on a trip to the South to visit her favorite author‟s home town and the same location as her favorite story New Orleans. Run-ons and Fragments Run-on sentence a sentence that continues without any defined breaks using a comma and conjunction or ending punctuation Fragment a part of a sentence lacking either the subject or a verb “Stop that run-on!” Rewrite the following sentence. The teacher stood up to walk to the front of the room and a student placed his bag where the teacher was to stand and the teacher tripped on the bag and fell on her face and the class laughed and the boy felt silly. “Hmmm…it needs something.” Add to the fragment to make it a complete sentence: Which was found on the floor. When it was near the end of the day. As the students were packing to leave. Apostrophes To show possession Contractions To add „s‟ to numbers or letters “That‟s mine!” Make the following scenarios into possessions 1. The dog belongs to Brenda. 2. That homework belongs to Jim. 3. That IPOD belongs to Mr. Foust since you brought it to school. “Should a, Could a, Would a” Make the following words into contractions: 1. Should have 2. Could have 3. Would have 4. Did not 5. Will not 6. Is not 7. Could not 8. Have not “I love the 80‟s!” Answer the following questions using „s: 1. What is your favorite decade? 2. What grade do you hate making? 3. What letters of the alphabet do you despise? Spelling YOU CANNOT USE THE DICTIONARY ON THE TEST! YOU WILL HAVE TO GUESS ON SPELLING IF YOU ARE NOT SURE. Commonly Wrong Accept, except Effect, affect Principle, principal Then, than Receive, deceive Conscious, conscience Write, right There, their, they‟re To, too, two Misplaced Modifiers Putting the descriptive phrase in the wrong place. How to check: Ask yourself – “Who is being described?” “Now that‟s just crazy!” Correct the sentences below to make sense. 1. Running into the room, the typewriter fell over. 2. The lady got on the bus wearing a red dress. 3. Blown across the room by the fan, we picked up the papers. Wait! It‟s not just grammar! Sentence combining Transitions Adding sentences for clarification Rearranging sentences Who and Whom Good and Well Sentence Combining Combine the following sentences: The robber was masked. The robber carried a loaded gun and a black bag. The clerk stared at the robber. The robber shouted, “Everyone down! Now!” Transitions Why use transitions? To make sentences or paragraphs make a smoother change from one idea to another or to continue an idea over to another How do I know which to use? The purpose of the sentence: opposition, clarifying, explanation, example, additional information List all of the transition words that you know. Needed: Clarification Write a sentence or sentences to clarify the situation. The teacher sat down with the student. A look of disappoint was on her face. She couldn‟t believe it was happening. The teacher took a tissue. The paper was nothing like she expected. Movers: $20 an hour Rearrange the sentences for clarity. The girl sat on the couch. She was hungry. She made herself a sandwich. She had forgotten to eat lunch because she was so busy with her little brother. She also got a drink and chips. Her favorite show was on television. She wiped her mouth in satisfaction. Who or Whom? Who – the subject of a sentence. Who is standing at the door? Whom – the object of the preposition (if you can add to or from in front of who then it should be whom) To whom do I give the gift? Who or whom? ______ may I say is calling? ______ are you calling? Good and Well Good – an adjective Well – an adverb The boy/girl said, “You look good!” Ms. Robinson said that I did well on my paper. I did ____ on my exam. I will do ____ on the TAKS test.