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					Privacy
A Brief Introduction to the Policy Issues

Privacy Has Multiple Dimensions
 Annoyance  Actuarial information  Willingness to pay  Personal character  Commercial exploitation of your
The economic factor is obvious in some of these, but not necessarily in all of them.

personal image

Alternate view: specific aspects
 Exposure of non-public, non-obvious facts

 Intrusion into one’s lifestyle & decision-

making

 Appropriation of likeness for commercial

purposes

Special Areas
 Medical


HIPAA Law enforcement Credit Bureaus [Private vs. state action]

 Legal
  

 Political (including voting)

 Willingness to pay (again)

Background
 Some agreement that people in advanced  Privacy is culturally based  Privacy is linked to democratic values  Open nature of the Internet seems to be

industrialized countries want more privacy

raising public concern over privacy and security  Reminder: they are not the same thing

Two Very Different Approaches
 Government agency with enforcement

powers  Western Europe


 Private enforcement

U.S.A.

A major question: Do you need to show (monetary) damages?

Five (?) waves in U.S. history
1.

Bill of Rights – protection from search and seizure; home-based response by Brandeis

2. 1890s – Photography and newspapers; 3. 1930s – wiretapping; court orders needed

4. 1960-70s – computer databases
5. 1990s – Internet and linked files 6. (?) Post-9/11/2001 national security /

privacy trade-offs

Main Principles
 Maximize fairness

 Minimize intrusiveness
 Create expectation of confidentiality

 Reasonable mechanisms to authenticate,

enact, enforce, and (even) revise

Good Practices: The Specifics
 No secret record-keeping  An individual should have access to records

about him/her records

 Reasonable methods for correcting errors in

 Information should be used ONLY for the

purpose originally collected time, use & purpose

 Disclosures of information should specify the

Problem Areas
 Often no direct relationship between records

organization & individual subjects

 Wireless communications, VoIP, etc. change

the nature of electronic communications  and (maybe) the expectation of privacy


 Portability of files

The “laptop problem” at UCB

 Weak inherent security in … (your choice)


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma MS
About work for China Compulsory Certification. Some of the documents come from Internet, if you hold the copyright please contact me by huangcaijin@sohu.com