Maximising plant proteins and oils in Atlantic salmon diets by Perendale


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									Digital re-print - January | February 2009
Feature: Proteins & oils Feature title: Maximising plant proteins and oils in Atlantic salmon diets
International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058


Proteins & oils
(control group), 35 percent vegetable oils aquafeed one of their most recent marand 80 percent plant proteins, 70 percent ket developments; in fact over the past vegetable oils and 40 percent plant proteins two years. Despite this being such a new or 70 percent vegetable oils and 80 percent area for Biomin, they have developed plant proteins. some truly innovative products. Biomin The fish were fed for 12 months until plans to make aquafeed a focal point they reached 3.9kg. The salmon which had for 2009, and will be increasing trials for received feed containing the highest mixboth new and existing products. ture of plant raw material - 70 percent Biomin’s vision is expressed in their vegetable oils and 80 percent plant proteins slogan ‘We care for health in animal nutri- experienced a 12 percent lower growth tion’, and their vision is now active in over during the first three months compared to 100 different countries worldwide. Biomin the control group. only use natural products, and believe this There was no corresponding weight is the way forward as the ban of antibiotics reduction in the other groups during the in many European countries is unlikely to first three months. Over the entire period be reversed. The quality of their products of the study, the fish fed the highest proporis the key priority and they are proud to tion of plant raw material experienced a tell their customers 17 products labelled weight reduction of that percent compared Biomin, only contain The weight reduction to the control group.Biomin. wasBiomin have put a lower amount of largely due to a huge feed intake resources first three months of the study. during the into researching and developingA nutritional products,70 percent plant fish diet comprising and recently opened 80 new research centre in oils and a percent vegetable proteins Bangkok, Thailand. This centre is dedimeans that two kilos of salmon protein are produced for every kilo of fishmeal protein

EuroTier Proteins & oils
in the feed. In other words, a good net production of high quality fish protein is obtained from plant proteins.

Less than a kg wild fish is required to produce a kg Atlantic salmon

based diet, 3.4kg of wild fish was required to produce 1kg Atlantic salmon. Hence, 2.5kg of wild fish was saved by replacing high levels of fish oil and fishmeal with high levels of plant raw materials. In experimen-

Maximising plant proteins and oils
in Atlantic salmon diets
alternative plant proteins and oils in aquafeeds. The use of fishmeal and oil, representing 3-5kg fresh fish per kg farmed fish have been criticised both for exploitation of the global fishery resources and the misuse of high quality marine protein and lipid sources that could be directly used for human consumption. In this respect, vegetable oils (VO) have been proposed as sustainable alternatives to fish oil. VOs are, however, devoid of n-3 PUFAs (EPA, DPA and DHA) while the levels of 18:2n-6 and monoene fatty acids are usually high, resulting in low dietary n-3/n-6 ratios. Likewise, sustainable alternatives to fishmeal have included various plant protein sources, such as vegetable meals with crude protein content of 20 to 50 percent (Hertrampf and Piedad-Pascual, 2000). However, the indispensable amino acid (IAA) profile in plant proteins differs from fishmeal. Sensible blending of different protein sources are necessary to balance the IAA composition, while low levels of certain crystalline AAs may have to be added to fulfil AA requirements (NRC, 1993; Halver and Hardy, 2002).

When producing fishmeal and fish oil from wild fish, the recovery of fishmeal is about 23 percent whereas as the recovery of fish oil varies between 5-12 percent cated exclusively to aquaculture, dependent on fish species and offering specific season. solutions to the industry. “The demand for requires That means that it more sustainable solutions fish to produce fish oil as aqua more wild is continually increasing feed producers seek safer and more than fishmeal. economical the levels of fish oil Florian Based on alternatives,” said Zehner. Its used in the is recognised and fishmealresearch centredifferent diets as feed efficiency and producing 1kg and astate-of-the-art of 1.1,internationally ofacknowledged and certified. Atlantic salmon requires 0.9kg wild fish Biomin has also the fish oil and 80 when 70 percent of recently introduced the B.R.A.I.N. fishmeal was replaced by percent of the program (Biomin Research And Innovation Network); which has plant raw materials. When the fish were

"The steady increase in production volumes in aquaculture of 8-10% a year has resulted in increasing been report upon in our magazine previuse ously.alternative plant proteins of The program has been designed to support the scientific education of and oils in aquafeeds" today’s young talents who will become
tomorrow’s animal health nutritionists. It is vital to support individuals studying tal animal amount of wild fish required forhave diet the nutrition to insure they fish oil the knowledge what was requiredhowthe was higher than and the know for to better fishmeal the diets. amount of productsinfor animal health in the future, and save program offers excellent Hence, to this even more wild fish the grounds oil should this industry. level of fish to supportbe decreased further Biomin concentrating on products rather than manufactures many replacing
more fishmeal.

fed the 100 percent fish oil and fishmeal

by Dr Bente E Torstensen


or the first time, a study has examined how feeding Atlantic salmon high levels of both plant proteins and vegetable oils affect the fish.

EU-funded project Aquamax investigates the maximum replacement of fish oil and fishmeal
Studies have shown that Atlantic salmon can be given a feed containing 100 percent vegetable oils without any reduction in fish growth when the source of protein in the feed is fishmeal (EU-project RAFOA Q5RS-2000-30058). Espe and co-workers (2006) has previously shown that 90 percent of the fishmeal in the feed can be replaced by plant proteins without affecting the growth of the salmon as long as the source of fat in the fish diet is fish oil. One of the aims of the IP-EU project ‘Aquamax’ (016249-2) is to find out how much of the fish oil and fishmeal that can be replaced with plant ingredients simultaneously in Atlantic salmon diets without compromising fish growth, performance, health or product quality.

The natural way.

The event that

This experiment resulted in two kilos of salmon protein generated per kilo of fishmeal protein in the feed. The study showed a slight reduction in salmon growth, even though all known nutrient requirements of the fish were covered by the feed. Farmed Atlantic salmon have traditionally been fed diets containing fish oil and fishmeal. The steady increase in production volumes in aquaculture of eight-to-10 percent a year (Tacon, 2004; Tacon et al., 2006) has resulted in increasing use of


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Reduced feed intake and growth in the first period
Atlantic salmon in seawater weighing 0.35kg was fed feed containing either 100 percent fishmeal and 100 percent fish oil

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Proteins & oils
"Replacing dietary fish oil and fishmeal with plant raw materials had very few significant effects on nutrient digestibility and nutrient utilisation including total protein, lipid, energy, fatty acid and amino acid digestibility as well as protein and lipid utilisation"
reduction in growth of approximately nine percent was observed during the production phase in sea. The growth retardation was related to the reduced feed intake during the early feeding stages, due to an interaction effect of high plant protein and VO replacement. Possible metabolic interactions between dietary lipid and protein will be addressed in future scientific papers.

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Espe, M., Lemme, A., Petri, A., El-Mowafi, A. 2006. Can Atlantic salmon grow on diets devoid of fish meal? Aquaculture 255, 255-262. Halver, J.E., Hardy, R.W. 2002. Fish Nutrition. Elsevier Science, San Diego, 824 pp. Hertrampf, J.W., Piedad-Pascual, F., 2000. Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 573 pp. Krogdahl, Å., Hemre, G.-I., Mommsen T.P., 2005. Carbohydrates in fish nutrition: digestion and absorption in postlarval stages. Aquacult. Nutr., 11, 103-122. Tacon, A.G.J., 2004. Use of fish meal and fish oil in aquaculture: a global perspective. Aquatic Res. Cult. Dev. 1, 3-14. Tacon, A.G.J., Hasan, M.R., Subasinghe, R.P., 2006. Use of fishery resources as feed inputs for aquaculture development: trends and policy implications. FAO Fish. Circ. 1018, 99 pp. N.R.C, Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1993.

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No significant effects on nutrient digestibility and retention
Replacing dietary fish oil and fishmeal with plant raw materials had very few significant effects on nutrient digestibility and nutrient utilisation including total protein, lipid, energy, fatty acid and amino acid digestibility as well as protein and lipid utilisation. Starch digestibility, however, was significantly lower in the high plant protein dietary groups. Starch digestibility studies have identified a correlation between the presence of indigestible matter and reduced digestibility of starch and lipids (Krogdahl et al. 2005). And the high

plant protein diets will contain higher levels of indigestible matter. This did however, not influence the protein, lipid or energy digestibility of the high plant

About the author
Dr Bente E Torstensen achieved the Bachelor of Science (Cand mag.) in 1994, and the Master of Science (Cand scient) in Nutrition biology in 1996, at the University of Bergen (Norway). Her PhD studies at the Institute of Nutrition, Directorate of Fisheries, (achieved at the University of Bergen, 2000) focused on transport and metabolism of lipids in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). For more information email:

And finally
In conclusion, the results demonstrate net production of Atlantic salmon from wild fish with 1kg farmed Atlantic salmon produced per 0.9kg wild fish, as well as a net production of protein with 2kg of fish protein produced per 1kg fish meal protein used. However, by replacing 80 percent of fishmeal with plant proteins and 70 percent of the fish oil replaced with a VO blend, a
24 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 09

The solution behind the solution.

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plant proteins and oils in Atlantic salmon diets


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