Social Studies SOL Review Shirley Wilborne Resource for Review Questions from United Streaming Video Lesson Resource for Study Guide Pages Teacher's Resource Guide DOE A Distance Scale helps to measure how far it is from one place to another on a map. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What are maps? [Maps are diagrams or plans, usually of the earth's surface or some part of it.] 2. Are maps only of large areas, such as a continent or country? [No. Maps can show small areas, too. You can make a map of a room, for example.] 3. What are the advantages of globes over flat maps. [Globes are round, just as the earth is round. Because they are round, globes are the most accurate models of the earth. They show the continents and oceans in their 4. What is a major disadvantage of globes? [Globes cannot show much detail, especially for small areas of the earth's surface.] 5. What are some of the advantages of flat maps? [Flat maps can show more detail and useful information for small areas of the earth's surface. They can also be folded and stored easily.] 6. What are some disadvantages of flat maps? [In order to make a flat map of the earth's round surface, itis necessary to distort sizes, shapes, and distances.] 8. How do maps use symbols to convey information? [The symbols for rain, snow and sun on a weather map and the use of color symbols in political, population, and physical maps.] 9. Where are the directions "north" and "south"? [North is always towards the North Pole, and south is towards the South Pole.] 10. What are the four cardinal directions? [North, south, east, and west.] 11. How are the cardinal directions usually shown on a map? [With a compass rose.] 12. How can you use a compass to determine direction? [A compass has a needle that acts like a magnet and always points roughly towards the North Pole. Once you know where north is and face in that direction, south is directly 13. Why is it important to know distances on a map? [Different maps can be the same size but show areas that are much different in terms of size. For example, a map of Pennsylvania may be as big as a map of the United States.] 14. How do maps show distance? [With a bar scale.] 15. How can you use a bar scale to determine the actual distance between two places shown on a map? [You can place the edge of a piece of paper on the 16. What is one way of locating places in the world?[With longitude and latitude.] 17. What are parallels? [Parallels are lines of latitude that run east and west around the world.] 18. What are meridians? [Meridians are lines of longitude that run north and south between the North and South Poles.] 19. What is the equator? [The equator is a parallel that divides the world into halves. It is halfway between the North Pole and the SouthPole.] 20. What is the Prime Meridian? [The Prime Meridian is a meridian that divides the world into halves. The Prime Meridian is also referred to as the Greenwich Meridian.] 21. What are hemispheres? [Hemispheres are half spheres. The earth can be divided into hemispheres in different ways. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. A meridian divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.] Kindergarten Review Study and Learn Kindergarten SOLs Booker T. Washington was born a slave in Virginia and later started a college called the Tuskegee Institute. Betsy Ross was believed to have sewn one of the first flags for our country. George Washington was the first president of the United States and is called the Father of our Country. Harriet Tubman helped other slaves to get to freedom by the Underground Railroad. Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States and helped to free slaves. Columbus Day is the day we remember that Columbus discovered America. The Pilgrims shared their first harvest with the Indians at a Thanksgiving feast. The United States of America celebrates its birthday on July 4 or Independence Day. Lincoln's and Washington's birthdays are celebrated on President's Day in February. Lee/Jackson/King Day is a holiday in January to remember two generals and a Civil Rights' Leader. Kindergarten SOLs The cardinal directions on a map are North, South, East, and West. A Map is a drawing that shows what a place looks like from above. A Globe is a round model of the Earth. The Map Key or Map legend shows a list of the symbols used on the map. Long ago soldiers and sheriffs did the job that police officers do today. Food, clothing, and shelter are Basic Needs. Things that people would like to have are Wants. Goods are things that people make or grow. Coins and paper bills are kinds of money called currency. People save money for the future by putting it in a Kindergarten SOLs Honesty means telling the truth. Abraham Lincoln was an honest man. Harriet Tubman showed courage when she put herself in danger to help other slaves get to freedom. George Washington served his country by being the first president. He showed patriotism. The United States flag has 50 stars and 13 stripes. It is red, white, and blue. The bald eagle is the national bird. The Washington Monument which is in Washington D.C. was built to honor George Washington. The state bird of Virginia is the cardinal, and the state flower is the dogwood. The pledge to the United States flag is the Pledge of Allegiance. The Star Spangled Banner is our national song. First Grade Review Study and Learn First Grade SOLs The place where people live, work, and play is called a community. A group of people who care for one another is called family. Change is something that happens to make people and things different. A biography is the story of a person's life. When we honor another person, we show that person respect. Benjamin Franklin was a wise leader in developing the beginning of the American government. He also proved that electricity was present in lightning with his kite experiment. George Washington Carver was a famous black scientist. He discovered many uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans. The Pilgrims celebrated their first harvest by sharing with the American Indians who helped them survive their first winter in the New World. We celebrate Thanksgiving in November. America's birthday is celebrated on Independence Day or the Fourth of July. Flag Day celebrates the Stars and Stripes as America's first flag in June. Americans who served in the Armed forces are honored on Veterans Day. Americans who died in wars are honored on Memorial Day. A time line shows the order of events over a period of time. Be able to locate Roanoke on a Virginia map. Be able to locate Richmond on a Virginia map. Be able to locate Virginia on a United States map. Name and locate the 7 continents on a globe or world map. Name and locate the 4 oceans on a globe or world map. A Distance Scale helps to measure how far it is from one place to another on a map. A symbol stands for something real on a map or graph. The seasons of the year are spring, summer, winter and fall. Climate deals with weather and seasons. First Grade SOLs When people work to produce goods and services, they are called human resources. Resources (water, soil, wood, minerals, air) that come from nature are called Natural Resources. Goods made by people and used to produce other goods and services are called Capital Resources. Examples of these are trucks, computers, lawn mowers and hammers. Services are activities that satisfy people's wants. People who use goods and services are called Consumers. People who use resources to make goods and provide services are called Producers. People are both consumers and producers. Interdependence is when people need one another. Resources are limited or scarce. When resources are used up or consumed, they cannot be used to produce other goods or services. Money is a medium of exchange or trade. People save their money when they put it away to spend later. A Direct Democracy is when people vote to make their own rules. A Representative Democracy is when people elect a smaller group to make rules for everyone. A school’s student government is a representative democracy. Boards of Supervisors in the county and City Council in the city make laws for our local community. The General Assembly makes laws for the state of Virginia. Congress makes laws for the United States of America. A tradition is a custom or belief that happens over a long period of time. The State Fair is a tradition in the state of Virginia. The president of the United States is Second Grade Study and Learn Second Grade SOLs The writing of Ancient Egypt was called Hieroglyphics. Pharaohs handed the laws down. The Egyptian calendar was based on the sun. Egyptians built huge monuments called Pyramids. Ancient China wrote with characters and symbols. Laws were handed down by wise men within the families. The Chinese calendar was based on the moon. A famous Chinese monument is the Great Wall. Rural areas have agriculture or farming and few people. There is lots of land and the people live far apart. People drive to the stores. Urban areas have lots of people who live close together. They live in apartments and houses. People walk to stores. Suburban areas have houses grouped together, but they drive into the city. Second Grade SOLs The Powhatan Indians lived in the Eastern Woodland Region. They lived in Longhouses and were hunters. They traveled by walking or canoe. The Sioux Indians lived on the Plains. They lived in Teepees or Lodges, and they hunted, farmed, kept horses, and were warriors. They traveled by walking or on horses. The Pueblo Indians lived in the Southwest in multi-story terraced buildings. They traveled by walking. The United States has 50 states. Locate Washington D.C. Locate and name the states surrounding Virginia. (North Carolina, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, & Tennessee. Locate the Great Lakes, the Ohio River, the Mississippi River, the Potomac River, the Rocky Mountains, and the Appalachian Mountains on a United States Map. The Compass Rose tells the directions on a map. Second Grade SOLs Demand is what people are willing and able to buy. Economic Choice happens when people choose or decide among several things. Barter is when people exchange goods and services without using money. Checks give written permission telling a bank to pay money as instructed. When people buy a good or service and pay for it later, they purchase on credit. A Savings Account is when money is deposited in a bank and the money earns interest. Interest is the money paid by banks on savings accounts. People make investments by buying stock, bonds, and real estate in hope that their value will rise. Value is the worth of something. Citizenship has duties, rights, and privileges. (vote, obey laws, freedom) Second Grade SOLs Abraham Lincoln as president of the United States helped to free slaves. Susan B. Anthony worked so that women would have the right to vote. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a famous African-American who worked for the same rights for all people. He led peaceful marches and gave speeches. Laws are rules that people live by. In the local government, the City Council or Board of Supervisors make the laws. The police see that the laws are carried out and the courts determine if laws are broken. The State Legislature makes the laws for the state. State Police carry out the laws. State Courts determine if the laws are broken. In the national government, Congress makes the laws. The FBI carries out the law, and Federal Courts determine if the law has been broken. Third Grade Study and Learn Third Grade SOLs A civilization is a group of people who come together to share their culture, to develop and use written language, to make advances in the arts and sciences, and form a government. Greece is located next to the Mediterranean Sea. It was the birthplace for democracy. The people of Greece grew olives and grapes. They had small farms where they terraced the hillsides and irrigated. The Parthenon was a famous building in Greece. The Greeks had many gods and goddesses. They began the Olympics. Only men could vote. Women took care of the home. Democracy means a government by the people. Third Grade SOLs Rome was located next to the Mediterranean Sea, also. Rome had a Republican form of government where the people chose representatives to make laws for them. Romans raised olives and grapes and farmed small farms with terraced hillsides and irrigation systems. The Coliseum and Aqueducts were famous architecture in Rome. Romans made music on the lyre, and they had beautiful mosaics, pottery, and sculpture. They believed in many gods and goddesses. Only men were citizens, only men were allowed to vote. Columbus explored for Spain. He wanted to find a water route to Asia. He was the first European to discover the New World. His ships were small, and his men endured disease and bad weather. Ponce de Leon explored for Spain. He wanted to find riches and conquer lands. He landed at St. Augustine, Florida. His men did not have good maps, and the weather was bad. The Indians were not friendly. Indentured Servants were people who agreed to work for seven years without pay in exchange for passage to America. A slave is a person who is owned by another person and can be sold at the owner's will. King James I sponsored the Jamestown settlement. John Smith was the leader of the Jamestown settlement. Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in America. Reasons people came to America to make a better life for themselves to make money freedom of religion John Rolfe discovered a better tasting tobacco which became the cash crop of the colony. People use tobacco as money. Slaves and indentured servants were needed to harvest the tobacco. The King of England appointed a Royal Governor to rule the colony. The colonist elected citizens to help the royal governor rule. Third Grade SOLs Third Grade SOLs Meridians of Longitude are imaginary lines that go from north to south on a map or globe. Parallels of Latitude are imaginary lines that are drawn from east to west on a map or globe. The Prime Meridian is an imaginary line that divides the globe into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Locate Ancient Greece and Rome on a map or globe. Locate England, Spain, and France on a map. Locate Jamestown on a map. The United States is divided into regions. The East Coast Region has woodlands. The Midwest has grasslands. The Southwest has deserts. TheWest Coast has mountains and valleys. Third Grade SOLs Economic Specialization occurs when individuals or groups of people concentrate on one product or service. Ancient Greece and Rome specialized in building ships, farming, and pottery. Interdependence means depending on others for providing goods and services. When Greeks and Romans traded with Egypt, they were interdependentwith the other countries. Opportunity Cost is when the next best choice is given up because something else was chosen. I have $1.00. I want to buy an ice cream cone and a soda, but I do not have enough money to buy both. I decide to buy an ice cream cone. The soda becomes the Opportunity Cost. Price is the amount paid for a good, service, or resource. Taxation is the money paid to the government to provide services. Taxes pay for schools, police, libraries, roads, parks, etc. Third Grade SOLs The changing modes of transportation and communication has impacted the distribution of goods and services in the following ways: speed, safety, convenience, cost. Inalienable Rights privileges that people are born with and cannot be taken away. (life, liberty, pursuit of happiness) Justice and Equality Under the Law says all people are treated the same. Laws are made to protect the people. The duties, rights, and privileges of being a member of a nation is called Citizenship. Responsibilities are our duty to take care of our self, respect the rights of others, and to obey rules and laws. Susan B. Anthony worked to allow women to have the right to vote. Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr. worked in peaceful ways to get all Americans to be treated equally.