Deviance Deviance Chapter 7

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					Deviance Chapter 7
By Dr. John Brenner

• This chapter focuses on the changing definition of deviance • Keep in mind that almost any type of behavior can be called deviant • Definitions of deviance change across time and place

• Cultural Revolution from 1966-1976
– During this period people were punished for having positions of authority, leaning towards foreigners, academic interests and working to earn a profit – Suspected people were scientists, teachers, athletes, performers, artists, writers and private business people

• During the Cultural Revolution profit was condemned now it is acceptable • 220,000 foreign-investment enterprises in China— only 70,000 in 1993 • Beijing has luxury hotels and China is seen as the potential for the world’s largest market • People are ―jumping into the sea‖ (being capitalistic)

• China will be the site of the 2008 Summer Olympics • Since 1976 about 700,000 students from China have studied in foreign universities • Chinese factories provide about half of the world’s DVD players, 1/3 of the personal computers and 25% of cell phones, televisions and car stereos

• Any behavior or physical appearance that is socially challenged or condemned • Conformity--behavior and appearances that follow and maintain standards of the group • Social control--methods used to teach, persuade, or force members to comply

• Almost any behavior or appearance can qualify as deviant under the right circumstances
– Wearing makeup is no longer deviant in China – Cocaine was once legal in the US

• Consider who makes something deviant, some behaviors are deviant depending on personal characteristics

Chinese History and Context
• 1949--Mao Zedong declares the Peoples Republic of China • 1959-Great Leap Forward
– Attempt to catch up with the world – Overworked the peasants and was a failure in making more steel for China—building dams – Some Communist Party leaders were displeased with him—failed—30-50 million die

Chinese History and Context
• Cultural Revolution
– Mao’s attempt to reassert his power in China – He wanted everyone to be equal and he condemned many simple acts – Unleashed the youth through the Red Guards who terrorized people – This caused a 10 year lag in Chinese development

Chinese History and Context
• Mao wanted to get rid of the four olds— ideas, culture, customs and habits • Red Guards degraded teachers and caused physical abuse to people • The Cultural Revolution reduced people in China to not even dare to think in case their thoughts came out involuntarily

Chinese History and Context
• The Cultural Revolution ended in 1976 after Mao’s death • The ―Ten Lost Years‖ effected the entire society of China • To make up for the 10 lost years China sent students abroad and created Special Economic Zones which were capitalistic • Deng Xiaoping was the leader after Mao who sought to modernize China

Role of Context in Deviance
• During Cultural Revolution the society was out of control • A state of panic existed among the people that they were afraid to even think • Chinese people were humiliated because of being humiliated in front of others • Now over 700,000 Chinese are international students • China has a trade surplus with U.S. ($162 billion in 2004

• Folkways--customary ways of doing things • Mores--norms that define what is right or wrong--harder to break
– US--individual property, personal freedom, and privacy – China--conformity, collectivism, and obedience to authority (need to have approval to get married, have a baby, or get housing from the Communist Party)

• Note the Chinese bathroom scene for children
• Chinese children are disciplined before they misbehave; American afterwards

• They are highly structured and socially minded-must suppress individual feelings
• We seem too carefree: they seem too structured

• Americans are disturbed by the bathroom scene and Chinese do not understand our system • Ideally conformity should be voluntary

Mechanisms of Social Control
• Sanctions--reactions of approval or disapproval • Positive sanction--approval or reward • Negative sanction--disapproval • Informal sanction--spontaneous or unofficial • Formal sanctions--rules, policies or laws with punishments

Functionalist Perspective
• Durkheim stated that deviance is normal
– Even in a society of saints there will be deviance – Crime is normal as long it is not excessive

• Deviance is functional
– 1. ritual of defining and punishing someone binds the group – 2. it makes people ready for change and the future

Labeling Theory
• Becker states that rules are socially constructed and they are not enforced consistently • People must decide what is deviant • Some people escape detection and some are treated as deviants when they are not • An act is deviant whether it is noticed by people

Labeling Theory
• Four categories of people
– Conformists--people who do not break the rules
– Most people in a society

– Pure deviants--broken the rules and are labeled (assume a master status--identified as a deviant)
– Which cars to stop by police/ teenagers?

– Secret deviants--people who have broken the rules but are unnoticed
– Of the 28.2 million crimes in 2001—62.4% of the victims did not report the crime

Falsely Accused
Falsely accused-not broken the rules but are treated as if they are (Kai Erikson’s study) • When the well being of the country or group is threatened – The need to blame someone for the problem – Witch-hunt--looking for the cause of a problem
• Cultural Revolution—capitalists/makeup/eye glasses • WWII-Japanese Americans were internment • Muslims in U.S. after 9/11/01

White Collar Crime
• Crimes committed by persons of respectability and high social status • Corporate Crime--committed by a corporation as it competes with other companies for a share of the market – Offenders are a part of the system – USX steel company discharged waste illegally and has to pay for the clean up – Crimes are carried out by everyone in the corporation

Obedience to Authority
• Stanley Milgram’s study of how people in authority get people to do things
– Volunteers participated while one person was a confederate (worked with the researcher) – The learner was the confederate who was strapped to a chair – The teacher was told to shock the learner for incorrect answers

Obedience to Authority
• The learner who was shocked pleaded for mercy but the teacher would continue to shock them if the authority figure told them to do it • Obedience was simply followed because of a firm command of a person of status

Constructionist Approach
• Focuses on the process in which certain groups, activities, conditions, or artifacts are defined as problems • It is done by claims makers • Soldiers at Tiananmen Square were not allowed to watch TV or read newspapers about the students • AIDS seen as a moral problem keeps people from assisting them—sexually promiscuous people • AIDS seen as innocent victims like hemophiliacs

Constructionist Approach
• Claims Makers
– In China at Tiananmen Square—government controlled information the troops received and replacement soldiers could not speak dialect of students – This theory focuses on who makes the claims, whose claims are heard and how audiences respond

Structural Strain Theory
• Merton’s theory that valued goods have unclear limits, people are unsure about getting them and legitimate opportunities remain closed to some people • It exists in the US because too few legitimate opportunities are available to achieve the desired goal

Structural Strain Theory
• People can respond to strain by
– Conformity--accept goals and means – Innovation--accept goals but reject the legitimate means to attain it--criminal – Ritualism--reject goal but accept means-bureaucrat ―Don’t aim high and you won’t be disappointed‖ – Retreatism--reject goals and means--hobos

Structural Strain Theory
• In China each couple can have only one child but there is a cultural preference for boys who will care for the parents when old • Obtain permission to have a baby, accept the sex of it, report the birth and practice birth control • Major source of strain is the limited opportunities to have children

Differential Association
• Sutherland and Cressey--deviance and deviant behavior is learned • Deviant subcultures--learn the deviance techniques here--‖bad‖ education and associations make a criminal association • Chinese use ―reeducation‖ and labor for the deviant as a formal sanction

Differential Association
• Williams says that in New York City some youth are recruited as drug suppliers
• Little chance of getting high paying jobs • Perceive drug dealing as a way to make money

• Chinese government needs students prepared for the global environment
• Associate with people and ideas that may challenge Communism • Respond by making them study Marx and keeping tight campus security

Systems of Social Control
• Chinese rigid system of social control is due to the size of the population of the country (1.27 Billion people) • China’s habitable land is about half of that of the United States • Chinese must ―make work‖ for all the people • United States—a nation of immigrants, abundant resources, people can live where they want and can manage their own lives

Systems of Social Control
• China has the longest continuing civilization with 3,700 years of history
– A Confucian system of ethics with respect for tradition and order – System of family responsibility – An imperial tradition with rulers having supreme authority over the people

Systems of Social Control
• China has experience war and revolution in the 20th century • The U.S. has not a civil for 150 years • Chinese have a political philosophy of Communism and the U.S. has capitalism • These make for many differences in each society