According to anthropologists, the differences among humans resulted from their A. original genetic diversity. B. migration from Africa. C. inter-marriages. D. competition.
The evolutionary process by which nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environmental niches is called A. evolutionary adaptation. B. evolutionary psychology. C. natural adaptation. D. natural selection.
According to natural selection, those with genes best suited to an environment are likely to A. struggle and then perish. B. perish. C. survive yet struggle. D. survive and reproduce.
______ is the study of the evolution of behavior using principles of natural selection. A. Evolutionary adaptation B. Evolutionary psychology C. Natural adaptation D. Natural selection
Evolutionary psychologists study A. physical traits. B. psychological traits. C. both physical and psychological traits. D. neither physical nor psychological traits.
Given the logic of evolutionary psychology, we can assume our distant ancestors preferred _______ foods. A. sweet B. bitter and sour C. nutritious and energy-providing D. vegetarian
The implications of evolutionary psychology suggest that human success is defined by A. acquiring wealth. B. maintaining health. C. exceeding average life expectancy. D. having grandchildren.
According to Baumeister, a "huge and powerful advantage of culture" is A. genetic diversity. B. the division of labor. C. evolution. D. genetic similarity.
One of the most important similarities in humans is our capacity A. for self-destruction. B. for altruism. C. to dominate other species. D. to learn and adapt.
10. Compared to other species, humans are _______ restricted by their genetics. A. less B. more C. similarly D. not 11. The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next are called A. beliefs. B. norms. C. cultures. D. values. 12. Which of the following is shaped by where and when we live? A. how we define beauty B. how we define social justice C. whether we tend to be expressive or reserved D. All of the choices are correct 13. Human kinship is to the _______ perspective as social diversity is to the _______ perspective. A. evolutionary; cultural B. cognitive; psychoanalytical C. humanistic; cultural D. biological; humanistic
14. The evolutionary perspective is to the cultural perspective as _______ is to _______. A. gender role; social role B. coevolution; empathy C. role; norm D. human kinship; human diversity 15. According to a recent World Gallup survey, which of the following countries is most opposed to an unmarried couple bearing children? A. Iceland B. Germany C. United States D. India 16. Zoe has lived in the United States all of her life, yet her Greek grandmother made sure that Zoe was fluent in the Greek language, so she would understand the Greek way of life. What has Zoe's grandmother passed on to her? A. a belief B. a norm C. a culture D. a value 17. As an exchange student, you notice that standards of beauty are much different in the country you are visiting. Billboards and advertisements display women that are not as thin as in the United States. You conclude that this difference in standards of beauty is the result of different A. norms. B. languages. C. climates. D. cultures. 18. Rules for accepted and expected behaviors are called A. values. B. norms. C. attitudes. D. both norms and attitudes 19. Norms _____ behavior. A. describe B. prescribe C. change D. are the result of
20. Seven-year-old Mary says "Thank you" after opening each birthday present she receives because her family considers it to be proper behavior. This best illustrates the influence of a A. norm. B. schema. C. role. D. stereotype. 21. Which statement about social norms is FALSE? A. Social norms make social interactions run more smoothly. B. Social norms cause us to feel uncomfortable when they are violated. C. Social norms control us so successfully that we hardly sense their presence. D. Social norms are not affected by culture. 22. Punctuality is one of the _______ of North American businesspeople. A. attitudes B. norms C. values D. characteristics 23. The buffer space we like to maintain around our bodies is called our personal A. zone. B. space. C. place. D. distance. 24. According to Myers, most Americans maintain a personal space between themselves and strangers of approximately A. 4 feet or less. B. 4 feet or more. C. 2 feet or less. D. 2 feet or more. 25. According to Myers, personal space between friends in the U.S. is usually a distance of approximately A. 6-7 feet. B. 4-5 feet. C. 2-3 feet. D. 0-1 feet. 26. Those living _______ prefer more personal distance space than those living _______. A. closer to the equator; farther away from the equator B. in Central America; in Iceland C. in Latin America; in North America D. farther away from the equator; closer to the equator
27. Your family is anticipating the arrival of an exchange student from Latin America. Being a student of social psychology, you are aware that the student's preference for personal space will likely A. be greater than your family's. B. be less than your family's. C. be the same as your family's. D. depend on the situation. 28. What cultural differences or similarities were found in the research on pedestrian interaction in the U.S. and Japan? A. Americans were more likely to greet the research confederate who greeted them. B. Japanese were more likely to greet the research confederate who greeted them. C. Both Japanese and Americans did not smile back when the confederates smiled at them. D. Both Japanese and Americans failed to respond to the confederates. 29. Although there are many unoccupied tables in the restaurant, Rudolph decides to sit at the same table in the chair right next to James. James feels uncomfortable because Rudolph has violated A. his social role. B. his personal space. C. Brown's universal norm. D. the personal rights taboo. 30. Which of the following is a universal norm according to the textbook? A. cannibalism B. incest C. female genital mutilation D. public nudity 31. Leung and Bond (2004) reported that there were five universal dimensions of social beliefs. Which of the following is NOT one of those five? A. justice B. social complexity C. reward for application D. cynicism 32. According to research conducted by Leung and Bond (2004), those people who espouse ______ express lower life satisfaction as well as right-wing politics. A. justice B. social complexity C. reward for application D. cynicism
33. Brown (1987) reported that in many languages forms of address, such as the distinction between formal and informal varieties of "you", communicate not only social distance, but also A. social complexity. B. social status. C. personal space. D. fate control. 34. In general, who is more likely to initiate intimacy? A. the higher-status person B. the lower-status person C. the male D. the female 35. Research on the Big 5 personality traits indicates that A. culture determines these traits. B. differences among these traits in different countries is quite small. C. national stereotypes about these traits are valid. D. there are no cultural differences among these traits. 36. The _______ perspective highlights the kinship that results from our shared human nature. A. evolutionary B. cultural C. normative D. diversity 37. Some norms are culture-specific, while others are universal. The universality of some norms is accounted for by A. the force of culture. B. genetic diversity. C. cultural similarities. D. genetic predispositions. 38. Universal norms are to _______ as culture-specific norms are to _______. A. nurture; nature B. evolution; biology C. nature; nurture D. biology; evolution 39. In psychology, the characteristics by which people define male and female, whether biologically or socially influenced, is referred to as A. sex. B. gender. C. orientation. D. culture.
40. Maccoby (2002) found that girls tend to _______ compared to boys. A. be less nurturing B. talk more intimately C. play more aggressively D. be more active 41. Smoreda and Licoppe (2000) reported that when on the telephone, women's conversations with A. friends are shorter than are men's. B. friends are longer than are men's. C. family members are shorter than are men's. D. family members are longer than are men's. 42. Pratto and his colleagues (1997) reported that _______ tend to gravitate toward jobs that reduce inequalities, such as a public defender. A. the young B. the elderly C. men D. women 43. Pratto and colleagues (1997) reported that _______ tend to gravitate toward jobs that enhance inequalities, such as a prosecuting attorney. A. the young B. the elderly C. men D. women 44. Being a student of social psychology, you can predict with reasonable accuracy that _______ are more likely to contribute to charitable organizations. A. the young B. the elderly C. men D. women 45. When faced with stress, women are more likely than men to A. flee. B. fight. C. befriend. D. collapse. 46. According to the text, _______ are more likely to describe themselves as having empathy. A. the young B. the elderly C. men D. women
47. According to a 2003 Gallup poll, ___ % of American men and ___ % of American women reported having cried as a result of the war in Iraq. A. 10; 0 B. 0; 10 C. 12; 43 D. 43; 12 48. Research has found that _______ are generally superior at decoding others' emotional messages. A. the young B. the elderly C. men D. women 49. When men and women want empathy and understanding, they are most likely to turn to a A. spouse. B. woman. C. man. D. coworker. 50. _______ are more likely to favor conservative political candidates. A. The young B. The elderly C. Men D. Women 51. Women's wages in industrial nations are ___ % of men's. A. 90 B. 77 C. 59 D. 50 52. During a conversation, men are more likely than women to do all of the following EXCEPT A. talk assertively. B. interrupt intrusively. C. stare more. D. smile more. 53. Much of the style we attribute to men is A. based on genetics. B. viewed as submissive in nature. C. typical of people of both sexes of higher status and power. D. typical of people in lower status and power.
54. The male-to-female arrest ratio for murder in the United States is A. 80 to 1. B. 50 to 1. C. 8 to 1. D. 2 to 1. 55. You read about an unsolved murder in the newspaper. Given what you have learned in social psychology, you can reasonably predict a(n) _______ committed the murder. A. man B. woman C. provoked individual D. innocent bystander 56. In physiological and subjective responses to sexual stimuli, A. men are more aroused than women. B. women are more aroused than men. C. men and women are more different than similar. D. men and women are more similar than different. 57. According to Schmitt (2003), an international survey indicated that more _______ than _______ wanted more than one sexual partner in the next month. A. women; men B. men; women C. lesbians; gay men D. older men; younger men 58. When a 1990 Gallup survey asked respondents whether upbringing or biology accounted for gender differences, A. most said "upbringing." B. most said "biology." C. nearly equal numbers said "upbringing" and "biology." D. most men said "biology," and most women said "upbringing." 59. Evolutionary psychologists suggest that males are sexually assertive while females are more selective of sexual partners because A. males outnumber females. B. each strategy is likely to promote gene survival. C. males and females are socialized differently. D. of differences in brain chemistry.
60. Consistent with evolutionary psychology's explanation of gender differences, Roney (2003) found that teen males reported _______ as most important if left alone in a room with a teen female. A. being witty B. earning good grades C. having lots of money D. showing one's sensitive side 61. Evolutionary psychology would explain the male tendency to display their "abs and assets" as an example of their striving to offer what women desire, which is A. charm. B. generosity. C. a sensitive and emotional nature. D. external resources and physical protection. 62. Both men and women desire _______ in their relationships. A. youth B. beauty C. kindness and love D. resources and protection 63. According to the text, women of all ages tend to prefer men _______ themselves. A. slightly older than B. slightly younger than C. the same age as D. less dominant than 64. In the U.S., only ___ % of adults believe that "human beings developed from earlier species." A. 10 B. 38 C. 82 D. 95 65. Higher than normal levels of testosterone have been found in A. violent male criminals. B. male lawyers. C. gay men. D. married men. 66. Research on possible hormonal influences on aggression has indicated that A. testosterone levels influence animal aggression but not human aggression. B. violent male criminals have higher than normal testosterone levels. C. gender differences in aggression are clearly unrelated to hormonal differences. D. administering testosterone reduces aggression in most animals.
67. As people mature to middle age and beyond, A. gender differences in interpersonal behavior decrease. B. gender differences in interpersonal behavior increase. C. androgyny in men decreases. D. androgyny in women decreases. 68. A person who is both _______ would be considered androgynous. A. assertive and nurturing B. intelligent and athletic C. moral and competent D. good and evil 69. Pat has qualities like assertiveness, a traditionally masculine trait, as well as nurturance, a quality associated with traditional femininity. Pat could be described as A. gender-ambivalent. B. role-conflicted. C. androgynous. D. gender-diffused. 70. Evolutionary explanations of gender differences have been criticized because they A. underestimate the role of genetic factors. B. do not explain cultural changes in behavior that occur over relatively short periods of time. C. deny the role of hormonal factors. D. rely too heavily on the experimental method in testing hypotheses. 71. Evolutionary psychology has been criticized for A. hindsight biases. B. unethical treatment of human participants. C. the use of unrepresentative samples. D. functional fixedness. 72. Evolutionary psychologists respond to their critics by saying that A. the criticisms are "flat-out wrong." B. cultural explanations are guilty of hindsight explanations. C. their field is an empirical science that tests its predictions with a variety of data. D. All of the choices are correct. 73. A set of behavioral expectations for males or females defines gender A. type. B. role. C. identity. D. position.
74. The term gender role refers to A. enduring behaviors, attitudes, and traditions transmitted from one generation to the next. B. a set of behavior expectations for males or females. C. a rule for accepted and expected behaviors. D. the personality characteristics by which people define male and female. 75. Analysis of labor in 185 societies indicated that A. men are more likely to harvest crops. B. women are more likely to milk cows. C. men are less likely to plant crops. D. women are more likely to cook food. 76. Which one of the following statements is TRUE? A. Gender roles are the sole result of genetics. B. Gender roles are the sole result of learning. C. Gender roles vary by climate. D. Gender roles vary by culture. 77. One example of how gender roles vary with culture is that A. women are more likely to cook in China than in Sweden. B. both men and women think life is better when both spouses work. C. men are more aggressive in China than in Sweden. D. most North American doctors and dentists are men. 78. In the mid 1960s, married women in the United States devoted 7 times as many hours to housework as did their husbands, yet in the mid 1990s, this figure was down to 2 times as many hours. This pattern reflects how gender roles A. B. C. D. are learned. biologically determined. vary by culture. vary over time.
79. Your mother has commented on how little time your older sister, who recently married, spends on housework, as compared to what she herself used to spend when she was a newlywed. Your mother's comment reflects how gender roles A. are learned. B. are biologically determined. C. vary by culture. D. vary over time. 80. The Nurture Assumption refers to the belief that A. women are more caring and care-giving than men. B. women are expected to be more caring and care-giving than men. C. the way parents bring up their children governs who their children become. D. the way parents bring up their children has very little to do with who their children become.
81. One dramatic finding from developmental psychology (Plomin & Daniles, 1987) is that two children in the same family are, on average, A. as different from one another as two children selected at random. B. more likely to share the same general personality characteristics than two children selected at random. C. completely uninfluenced by their genetic heritage. D. likely to share the same IQ. 82. Twin and adoption studies indicate that genetic influences explain approximately ___ % of individual variations in personality traits. A. 0 to 10 B. 15 C. 25 D. 50 83. Harris (1996) argued that 40 to 50% of the personality differences between siblings can be explained by A. the sex of the child. B. parental influence. C. peer influence. D. sibling rivalry. 84. Harris (1996) suggested that if children were left with their same schools, neighborhoods and peers, but their parents were switched, the children would develop into the same sort of adults. This conclusion reflects the power of A. parents. B. siblings. C. peers. D. teachers. 85. According to the text, what term best describes the relationship between biology and culture? A. competition B. interaction C. interpolation D. reciprocation 86. A relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor (such as environment) is the definition of A. competition. B. interaction. C. interpolation. D. reciprocation.
87. A very strong cultural norm dictates that males should be taller than their female mates. This height norm is cited in your text as evidence that A. relationship behavior is influenced more by biology than culture. B. gender roles are essentially cultural and thus completely arbitrary. C. what is biologically "fit" may be culturally disastrous. D. biology and culture interact to develop gender-role norms. 88. Eagly and Wood (1999) theorized that in adult life, the immediate causes of gender differences in social behavior are A. the roles that reflect a sexual division of labor. B. biologically-based differences in power and aggressiveness. C. learned habits reinforced by social rewards like affection. D. rules and laws that legislate and maintain the status quo. 89. As women's employment in formerly male occupations has increased, the gender difference in selfreported masculinity/femininity has A. increased. B. decreased. C. remained the same. D. remained unknown. 90. As men and women perform more similar roles, their psychological differences A. shrink. B. magnify. C. stay the same. D. are unknown. 91. What can we conclude about the relationship between persons and situations? A. Individuals vary in how they interpret and react to a given situation. B. People choose many of the situations that influence them. C. People often create their social situations. D. All of the choices are correct. 92. Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion regarding the relationship between social control and personal control? A. Social situations influence individuals. B. Individuals influence social situations. C. Social situations and individuals interact. D. Social situations have no influence. 93. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which social situations and individuals interact? A. Social situation affects different people differently. B. People choose their social situations. C. People create their social situations. D. People are unaffected by their social situations.
94. Myers mentions that ardent political liberals are unlikely to live in suburban Dallas. This is an example of how A. the social situation affects different people differently. B. people choose their social situations. C. people create their social situations. D. geography affects people. 95. Myers mentions that the Japanese are more responsive to social expectations than are the British. This is an example of how A. the social situation affects different people differently. B. people choose their social situations. C. people create their social situations. D. social situations have little effect. 96. You chose to attend a college that is known for its arts program, as you would like to develop your talents further. This is an example of how A. the social situation affects different people differently. B. people choose their social situations. C. people create their social situations. D. social situations have little effect. 97. If we expect someone to be hostile, our actions toward that person may induce hostility. This is an example of how A. the social situation affects different people differently. B. people choose their social situations. C. people create their social situations. D. social situations have little effect. 98. If we expect our significant other to be cheerful when we next see her, this may encourage her to be cheerful. This phenomenon is an example of how A. the social situation affects different people differently. B. people choose their social situations. C. people create their social situations. D. social situations have little effect. 99. The text suggests that most religions encourage us to view ourselves as _______ and others as _______. A. influenced by our environments; free agents B. free agents; influenced by their environments C. free agents; free agents D. influenced by our environments; influenced by their environments
Critical Thinking Questions 100) Explain the hindsight criticism of evolutionary psychology. Provide an example of this type of thinking in evolutionary psychology.
101) Imagine yourself going to the head of a very long line for a popular movie and cutting in. What are the likely consequences of such a norm violation? How does this scenario illustrate the function(s) of social norms? 102) How would evolutionary psychology explain Brown’s universal norm that forms of address communicate social status and that advances in intimacy are initiated by the higher status person? 103) Discuss cultural versus evolutionary explanations for gender differences in aggressiveness. Given the implications of this theory, what do you suggest for reducing aggression in our society? 104) In your opinion, what are the most important gender differences described in the textbook? Why? 105) Harris (1996) argued that if you left a group of children with their same schools, neighborhoods, and peers but switched parents, those children “would develop into the same sort of adults.” What then is the role of parenting? How do parents influence the development of their children? 106)
Provide an example of how social control and personal control interact. (page 184)
What are the pros and cons of seeing ourselves as free agents while viewing others as influenced by their environments?