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Batterers are not born on their 18th birthday - Ending

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					Batterers are not born on their 18th birthday…

Etiology of Domestic Violence

Daun L. Sarapina, MA, LMHC DVTS

Why? What does it mean? Does it excuse what they’ve done?
This is NOT….  “an excuse”  “justification”  “blaming their parents”  “mental health” verses “domestic violence treatment” This is ….  What we know about childhood trauma and neglect  What we know about adolescent dating and peer violence  What we know about adult perpetrators

Comprehensive Assessment Effective Treatment

Traditional Theories
Cycle of Violence
Child Witness/ Child Victim of Domestic Violence Adult Perpetrator of Domestic Violence

 Social Learning Theory
 Feminist Theory  Attachment Theory  Typologies

Yes, partially….but Yes, partially….but Yes, partially….but

Yes, partially….but

The Unanswered Questions

 Not all child witnesses become perpetrators.  Not all perpetrators were child witnesses.  Can thoughts alone account for emotional
intensity; to the point of suicide and murder?

 What does Love have to do with it?  What is Anger? Verses Abuse? Verses Control?  Why the differences in behaviors?  Why the differences in tenacity?  Why the differences in intensity?
 Why can’t we find the “one size fits all” treatment?

Batterers are not born on their 18th birthday…
Pennington, B.F. (2002). The Development of Psychopathology: Nature and Nurture. New York: Guilford Press. Four levels of analysis:

   

Etiological: genetics + environment

Brain mechanisms
Neuropsychology

Symptoms and BEHAVIORS

Batterers are not born on their 18th birthday… “Back to the Future”…
Genetics Prenatal Influences / Temperament
Early childhood trauma Child Witness/Abuse/Neglect Adolescence Identity Interpersonal relationships Adult Reactive Instrumental/Preemptive

What it means to assessment and treatment

Temperament /Prenatal
Cognitive or Physical Disabilities Temperament
Activity – High energy level vs. Low energy level Rhythmicity (Regularity) – Propensity for routine Approach or Withdrawal - Boldness vs. Shyness Adaptability – Adjusts to change vs. Resistance Intensity – Calm and quiet vs. Excitable Mood – General tendency towards Happy or Unhappy Distractibility – Easily Sidetracked vs. Focused Persistence & Attention – Able to handle frustration Sensitivity to stimulation/Sensory Threshold

“Easy” “Difficult” and “Slow-to-Warm-Up”

Child Witness / Child Victims

Amygdala
Attaches threat and emotional value. Chronic fear exacerbates the level of fear and emotional value. Vagas Nerve

Interferes with development in the Neocortex
 Complex functioning  Sensory perceptions  Spatial reasoning  Verbal Skills

Parasympathetic Activation: becomes
hypervigilant to and often misinterprets interpersonal negativity in social situations

Child Witness / Child Victims

Externalizing Response
• Pain and blame • Anger and retaliation • Goal of self-protection • More aggressive and impulsive

Internalizing Response
• Guilt and shame • Anxiety and depression • Goal of pain avoidance. • More covert and manipulative

Child Neglect

Externalized
• • • • Outward indifference Defiance of authority Loss of empathy Why should I listen to you?

Internalized
• • • • Somatization Irresolvable fear Insecure attachments How do I make you love me?

Preadolescence/Adolescence:
Main Tasks
    Individuation Identity formation Achievement of intimacy Sense of Mastery

Social Impairment
        Shame Hypervigilence Egocentrism Low Self Esteem Alienation of Peers & Teachers Misinterpretation of social cues Negative Gender Role Attitudes Negative or low relationship expectations

Reactive & Preemptive Violence Internalizing Teen
Shame Depression Disassociation Low self-worth Insecure attachments Fear of social evaluation

Externalizing Teen
Blame Anger/Aggression Entitlement / Defiance Exaggerated self-worth Affective attachments Expectation of evaluation

Goal: Pain Avoidance Tactic: Need for Control

Goal: Self-protection Tactic: Need for Power

Pre-emptive Violence
Rumination of Loss Coercive and Manipulative Tactics Psychological and Emotional Abuse

Reactive Violence
Trait Anger Bullying and Aggressive Tactics Physical and Intimidating Abuse

Assessment Cues: Personal History Internalizing Externalizing
Self report:
 “Loss” or absentee parent or emotionally unavailable parents  Dissociative / sketchy details of childhood  Sense of sadness and/or rejection  Mental Health History  “Left me” break ups.

Self report:
 “Blames” absent/ alcoholic/ abusive parent(s)  Detailed descriptions of offenses against him/her  Gang/street affiliations  Criminal History  Conduct disorders; school suspensions/expulsions  “Accusatory” breakups

Affect/Non-verbal Cues
    Expectation of Judgment “Poor me” Explanations, justifications Attempts to bond/ manipulate therapist

Affect/Non-verbal Cues
    Resistance/Challenge Blaming Courts/Victims Posturing / Entitlement Presents as “non-amenable”

Assessment: Victim Reports
Pre-Emptive
Moved in with V within weeks of meeting Removed V from family/friends Limited access to vehicle, money, work Feeling “smothered” or “responsible” Jealous of V’s children or job Sabotaging & manipulative behaviors “If you leave me I will die” Stalking /Phone harassment

Reactive
Moved in, but comes and goes as pleases Multiple affairs / disregard for partner Use of anger to meet needs Demanding: “Who do you think you are?” Blaming: “You push my buttons…” Entitlement / Male privilege Intimidation / bullying Escalating physical violence

Treatment Goals Internalizing
Accountability:
      Over-reliance on V Controlling Behaviors Manipulative/Coercive Tactics Psychological Abuse Emotional Abuse Stalking/Obsessive Phone calls/ Violations of NCO

Externalizing
Accountability:
    Anger / Lack of Self-Control Blaming courts/victims Punishing Behaviors Demanding/Entitlement Tactics  Intimidating Behaviors  Physical and Sexual Abuse  Violations of NCO (defiant)

Empathy:
 Who is the REAL Victim (internalizers think they are)?  What did it feel like to be the victim of your need for Control?  It is no one’s job to meet your needs.

Empathy:
 Creating climate of Fear  What did it feel like to be the victim of your need for Power?  No one OWES you anything.  It is no one’s job to meet your demands.

Summary: Have we answered the questions?

 Why the
differences in intensity?

 Why the differences
in tenacity?

 Why the differences
in behaviors?

 Why can’t we find the “one size fits all” treatment?

Bibliography
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