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					APES Unit 2
Abiotic and Biotic Parts of Ecosystems
Chapter 4, 6, 7

Matter and Energy Resources: Types and Concepts
     

Matter: Forms, Structure, and Quality Energy: Forms and Quality Physical and Chemical Changes and the Law of Conservation of Matter Nuclear Changes The Two Ironclad Laws of Energy Connections: Matter and Energy Laws and Environmental Problems

Matter
Forms, Structure, and Quality






Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is found in two chemical forms: elements and compounds. Various elements, compounds, or both can be found together in mixtures.

Solid, Liquid, and Gas

Atoms, Ions, and Molecules






Atoms: The smallest unit of matter that is unique to a particular element. Ions: Electrically charged atoms or combinations of atoms. Molecules: Combinations of two or more atoms of the same or different elements held together by chemical bonds.

What are Atoms?




The main building blocks of an atom are positively charged PROTONS, uncharged NEUTRONS, and negatively charged ELECTRONS Each atom has an extremely small center, or nucleus, containing protons and neutrons.

http://mediaserv.sus.mcgill.ca/content/2004-Winter/180-Winter/Nuclear/frame0008.htm

Atomic Number and Mass Number.
 Atomic
 The

number

number of protons in the nucleus of each of its atoms.

 Mass
 The

number

total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.

Elements are organized through the periodic table by classifications of metals, metalloids, and nonmetals

Inorganic Compounds
 

All compounds not Organic Ionic Compounds
 

sodium chloride (NaCl) sodium bicarbonate (NaOH) hydrogen(H2) carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sulfur dioxide (SO2) Ammonia (NH3)



Covalent compounds
 
  

Inorganic Compounds




The earth’s crust is composed of mostly inorganic minerals and rock The crust is the source of all most nonrenewable resource we use: fossil Various combinations of only eight elements make up the bulk fuels, metallic of most minerals. minerals, etc.

Nonmetallic Elements.
 Carbon

(C), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Sulfur (S), Hydrogen (H), and Phosphorous (P).  Nonmetallic elements make up about 99% of the atoms of all living things.

Ionic Compounds
Structure
 

Composed of oppositely-charged ions Network of ions held together by attraction

Ionic bonds


Forces of attraction between opposite charges

Formation of Ionic Compounds


Transfer of electrons between the atoms of these elements




Atom that is metal loses electrons (oxidation) to become positive Atom that is nonmetal gains electrons (reduction) to become negative



Results in drastic changes to the elements involved

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/redox.gif

Sodium Chloride






Sodium is a rather "soft" metal solid, with a silver-grey color Chlorine is greenish colored gas When a single electron is transferred between these elements, their atoms are transformed via a violent reaction into a totally different substance called, sodium chloride, commonly called table salt -- a white, crystalline, and brittle solid

Covalent Bonds
Formed by two non-metals  Similar electronegativities  Neither atom is "strong" enough to steal electrons from the other  Therefore, the atoms must share the electrons


Covalent Bonds
 





Chlorine atoms with valence electrons shown Chlorine atom has seven valence electrons, but wants eight When unpaired electron is shared, both atoms now have a full valence of eight electrons Individual atoms are independent, but once the bond is formed, energy is released, and the new chlorine molecule (Cl2) behaves as a single particle

Organic Compounds


Compounds containing carbon atoms combined with each other with atoms of one or more other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, etc.


Hydrocarbons


Compounds of carbon and hydrogen Carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms carbon, hydrogen, oxygen combinations



Chlorofluorocarbons




Simple carbohydrates


Organic Compounds

Hydrocarbons

Chlorofluorocarbons

Biological Organic Compounds

Carbohydrates (Glucose)

Protein (Cytochrome P450)

Biological Organic Compounds

Lipid (Triglyceride)

Nucleic Acid (DNA)

Earth’s Crust

Matter Quality






Matter quality is a measure of how useful a matter resource is, based in its availability and concentration. High quality matter is organized, concentrated, and usually found near the earth’s crust. Low quality is disorganized, dilute, and has little potential for use as a matter resource.

High quality & Low quality

HIGH QUALITY

LOW QUALITY

Energy







Energy is the capacity to do work and transfer heat. Energy comes in many forms: light, heat, and electricity. Kinetic energy is the energy that matter has because of its mass and its speed or velocity.

Electromagnetic Spectrum


The range of electromagnetic waves, which differ in wavelength (distance between successive peaks or troughs) and energy content.

Kinetic energy.





Kinetic energy is the energy that matter has because of its mass and its speed or velocity. It is energy in action or motion. Wind, flowing streams, falling rocks, electricity, moving car - all have kinetic energy.

Potential energy




Potential energy is stored energy that is potential available for use. Potential energy can be charged to kinetic energy.

Energy Quality
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




Very High: Electricity, Nuclear fission, and Concentrated sunlight. High: Hydrogen gas, Natural gas, and Coal. Moderate: Normal sunlight, and wood. Low: Low- temperature heat and dispersed geothermal energy.

Natural Radioactive Decay


A nuclear change in which unstable isotopes spontaneously emit fast moving particles, high energy radiation, or both at a fixed rate


The unstable isotopes are also known as radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes

Natural Radioactive Decay




The decay continues until the original isotope becomes a stable, nonradioactive isotope Until then, the radiation emitted is damaging ionizing radiation
  

Gamma rays Alpha particles Beta particles



After ten half-lifes, the material is said to be clean

Alpha, Beta, Gamma rays

Nuclear Fission




Nuclear change in which nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass numbers are spilt apart into lighter nuclei when struck by neutrons Each fission releases two or three more neutrons and energy

Click to see QuickTime Movie of Fission http://www.atomicarchive.com/Movies/Movie4.shtml

Nuclear Fission


Critical Mass




Chain Reaction


Enough fissionable nuclei available for multiple fission reactions to occur





Multiple fissions within a critical mass Releases huge amounts of energy Atomic Bomb or Nuclear Power Plant

The “Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy”




In any nuclear change, the total amount of matter and energy involved remains the same. E = mc2


The energy created by the release of the strong nuclear forces for 1 kilogram of matter will produce enough energy to elevated the temperature of all the water used in the Los Angeles basin in one day by 10,000oC

What is Nuclear Fusion?


Nuclear Fusion is a nuclear change in which two isotopes of light elements, such as hydrogen, are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus, releasing energy in the process.

First Law of Thermodynamics
 


In all physical and chemical changes Energy is neither created nor destroyed But it may be converted from one form to another

Second Law of Thermodynamics
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

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When energy is changed from one form to another Some of the useful energy is always degraded to lower-quality, more dispersed, less useful energy Also known as Law of Entropy

High Waste Societies




People continue to use and waste more and more energy and matter resources at an increasing rate At some point, high-waste societies will become

 UNSUSTAINABLE!

Goals of Matter Recycling Societies

To allow economic growth to continue without depleting matter resources or producing excess pollution

Matter Recycling Societies
Advantages



Disadvantages


Saves Energy Buys Time






Requires high-quality energy which cannot be recycled Adds waste heat No infinite supply of affordable high-quality energy available Limit to number of times a material can be recycled

Low Waste Societies


Works with nature to reduce throughput


Based on energy flow and matter recycling

Low Waste Societies Function
1. Reuse/recycle most nonrenewable

matter resources 2. Use potentially renewable resources no faster than they are replenished 3. Use matter and energy resources efficiently

Low Waste Societies Function
4. Reduce unnecessary consumption
5. Emphasize pollution prevention and

waste reduction 6. Control population growth

Unit 2, Chapter 7
Ecology, Ecosystems, and Food Webs

Chapter 7
Ecology and Life  Earth’s Life-Support Systems  Ecosystem Concept  Food Webs and Energy Flow in Ecosystems  How do Ecologists learn about Ecosystems?  Ecosystem Services and Sustainability


Ecology and Life


Ecology- study of relationships between organisms and their environment




Ecology examines how organisms interact with their nonliving (abiotic) environment such as sunlight, temperature, moisture, and vital nutrients Biotic interaction among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and the ecosphere

Distinction between Species


Wild species- one that exists as a population of individuals in a natural habitat, ideally similar to the one in which its ancestors evolved Domesticated species- animals such as cows, sheep, food crops, animals in zoos



Vocabulary


Population


Group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same time Populations that are dynamic groups that change in size, age distribution, density, and genetic composition as a result of changes in environmental conditions



Genetic Diversity




Habitat


Place where a population or individual organism naturally lives Complex interacting network of plants, animals, and microorganisms Community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy All earth's ecosystems



Community




Ecosystem
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Ecosphere or Biosphere


What is Life?


All life shares a set of basic characteristics




Made of cells that have highly organized internal structure and functions Characteristic types of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules in each cell

Living Organisms




Capture and transform matter and energy from their environment to supply their needs for survival, growth, and reproduction Maintain favorable internal conditions, despite changes in their external environment through homeostasis, if not overstressed

Living Organisms
 

Perpetuate themselves through reproduction Adapt to changes in environmental conditions through the process of evolution

www.sws.uiuc.edu/nitro/biggraph.asp

Geosphere
The Earth contains several layers or concentric spheres
Lithosphere




Crust
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Crust and upper mantle

Outermost, thin silicate zone, eight elements make up 98.5% of the weight of the earth’s crust

Geosphere


Mantle
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Core


Surrounded by a thick, solid zone, largest zone, rich with iron, silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, very hot



Innermost zone, mostly iron, solid inner part, surrounded by a liquid core of molten material Inner Core is hotter than surface of the Sun

Atmosphere



Thin envelope of air around the planet
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Troposphere
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extends about 17 kilometers above sea level, contains nitrogen (78%), oxygen(21%), and is where weather occurs
17-48 kilometers above sea level, lower portions contains enough ozone (O3) to filter out most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation



Stratosphere


Hydrosphere

Consists of the earth’s liquid water, ice, and water vapor in the atmosphere

What Sustains Life on Earth?


Life on the earth depends on three interconnected factors
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



One-way flow of high-quality energy from the sun Cycling of matter or nutrients (all atoms, ions, or molecules needed for survival by living organisms), through all parts of the ecosphere Gravity, which allows the planet to hold onto its atmosphere and causes the downward movement of chemicals in the matter cycles

Sun
  




Fireball of hydrogen (72%) and helium (28%) Nuclear fusion Sun has existed for 6 billion years Sun will stay for another 6.5 billion years Visible light that reaches troposphere is the ultraviolet ray which is not absorbed in ozone

Solar Energy
72% of solar energy warms the lands  0.023% of solar energy is captured by green plants and bacteria  Powers the cycling of matter and weather system  Distributes heat and fresh water


www.bom.gov.au/lam/climate/levelthree/ climch/clichgr1.htm

Type of Nutrients


Nutrient




Any atom, ion, or molecule an organism needs to live grow or reproduce Ex: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen… etc nutrient that organisms need in large amount Ex: phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, iron … etc nutrient that organism need in small amount Ex: zinc, sodium, copper… etc



Macronutrient
 



Micronutrient
 

Biomes – Large regions characterized by distinct climate, and specific life-forms

Climate – Long-term weather; main factor determining what type of life will be in a certain area.

Ecosphere Separation


The Ecosphere and it’s ecosystem can be separated into two parts


Abiotic- nonliving, components
Ex: air, water, solar energy  Physical and chemical factors that influence living organisms




Biotic- living, components


Ex: plants and animals

Range of Tolerance


Variations in it’s physical and chemical environment
Differences in genetic makeup, health, and age.  Ex: trout has to live in colder water than bass


Limiting Factor


More important than others in regulating population growth



Ex: water light, and soil Lacking water in the desert can limit the growth of plants

Limiting Factor Principle


too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit growth of population, even if all the other factors are at optimum (favorable) range of tolerance.


Ex: If a farmer plants corn in phosphorus-poor soil, even if water, nitrogen are in a optimum levels, corn will stop growing, after it uses up available phosphorus.

Dissolved Oxygen Content


Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given volume of water at a particular temperature and pressure.


Limiting factor of aquatic ecosystem

Salinity


amount of salt dissolved in given volume of water

Living Organisms in Ecosystem
Producers or autotrophs- makes their own food from compound obtained from environment.
 Ex:

plant gets energy or food from

sun

Living Organisms in Ecosystem
Photosynthesis- ability of producer to convert sunlight, abiotic nutrients to sugars and other complex organic compounds


Chlorophyll- traps solar energy and converts into chemical energy



Producer transmit 1-5% of absorbed energy into chemical energy, which is stored in complex carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid in plant tissue

Chemosynthesis

Bacteria can convert simple compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compound without sunlight




Ex: becomes consumed by tubeworms, clams, crabs Bacteria can survive in great amount of heat

Consumers or Heterotrophs


Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains

Consumers
 

Herbivores (plant-eaters) or primary consumers Feed directly on producers


Deer, goats, rabbits

http://www.holidays.net/easter/bunny1.htm

Consumers




Carnivores (meat eater) or secondary consumers Feed only on primary consumer


Lion, Tiger

Consumers




Tertiary (higherlevel) consumer Feed only on other carnivores


Wolf

Consumers


Omnivoresconsumers that eat both plants and animals


Ex: pigs, humans, bears

Consumers


Scavengers- feed on dead organisms


Vultures, flies, crows, shark

Consumers


Detritivores- live off detritus


Detritus parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms.



Detritus feeders- extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter plant debris, and animal dung.

Consumers


Decomposers - Fungi and bacteria break down and recycle organic materials from organisms’ wastes and from dead organisms




Food sources for worms and insects Biodegradable - can be broken down by decomposers

Respiration


Aerobic Respiration




Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into carbon dioxide and water Glucose + oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy Breakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen



Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation


Food Chain


Food Chain-Series of organisms in which each eats or decomposes the preceding one




Decomposers complete the cycle of matter by breaking down organic waste, dead animal. Plant litter and garbage. Whether dead or alive organisms are potential (standard) sources of food for other organisms.

Second Law of Energy


Organisms need high quality chemical energy to move, grow and reproduce, and this energy is converted into low-quality heat that flows into environment




Trophic levels or feeding levels- Producer is a first trophic level, primary consumer is second trophic level, secondary consumer is third. Decomposers process detritus from all trophic levels.

Food Web




Complex network of interconnected food chains Food web and chains




One-way flow of energy Cycling of nutrients through ecosystem

Food Webs


Grazing Food Webs
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

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Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers

(100,000 Units of Energy)

Food Webs


Grazing Food Webs






Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers

(1,000 Units of Energy)

Food Webs


Grazing Food Webs






Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers

(100 Units of Energy)

Food Webs


Grazing Food Webs






Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers

(10 Units of Energy)

Food Webs


Grazing Food Webs






Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers

(1 Units of Energy)

Food Webs


Detrital Food Webs




Organic waste material or detritus is the major food source Energy flows mainly from producers (plants) to decomposers and detritivores.

Pyramid of Energy Flow



More steps or trophic levels in food chain or web, greater loss of usable energy as energy flows through trophic levels More trophic levels the Chains or Webs have more energy is consumed after each one. That’s why food chains and webs rarely have more than 4 steps

Pyramid of Energy Flow




Loss of usable energy as energy flows through trophic levels of food chains and webs Rarely have more than 4 steps

Biomass


Dry weight of all organic matter contained in organisms.


Biomass is measured in dry weight


Water is not source of energy or nutrient





Biomass of first trophic levels is dry mass of all producers Useable energy transferred as biomass varies from 5%-20% (10% standard)

Pyramid of Biomass
Storage of biomass at various trophic levels of ecosystem

Pyramid of Numbers
Number of organisms at each trophic level

http://www.nicksnowden.net/Module_3_pages/ecosystems_energy_flows.htm

Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
Rate in which producers convert solar energy into chemical energy (biomass) in a given amount of time

Net Primary Productivity (NPP)


Rate in which energy for use by consumers is stored in new biomass of plants






Measured in kilocalories per square meter per year or grams in biomass NPP is the limit determining the planet’s carrying capacity for all species. 59% of NPP occurs in land / 41% occurs in ocean

Ecological Efficiency


Percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to another.


10% ecological efficiency
1,000,000 units of energy from sun  10,000 units available for green plants (photosynthesis)  1000 units for herbivores  100 units for primary carnivores  10 units for secondary carnivores


Studying Ecosystems


FIELD RESEARCH
 



Going into nature and observing/measuring the structure of ecosystems Majority of what we know now comes from this type Disadvantage is that it is expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to carry out experiments due to many variables



LABORATORY RESEARCH





Set up, observation, and measurement of model ecosystems under laboratory conditions Conditions can easily be controlled and are quick and cheap Disadvantage is that it is never certain whether or not result in a laboratory will be the same as a result in a complex, natural ecosystem Simulation of ecosystem rather than study real ecosystem Helps understand large and very complicated systems



SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
 

Ecosystem Importance
Ecosystem services are the natural services or earth capital that support life on the earth  Essential to the quality of human life and to the functioning of the world’s economies


Ecosystem Importance


Ecosystem services include:

  



Controlling and moderating climate Providing and renewing air, water, soil Recycling vital nutrients through chemical cycling Providing renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and nonrenewable minerals Furnishing people with food, fiber, medicines, timber, and paper

Ecosystem Importance


Ecosystem services include





 

Pollinating crops and other plant species Absorbing, diluting, and detoxifying many pollutants and toxic chemicals Helping control populations of pests and disease organisms Slowing erosion and preventing flooding Providing biodiversity of genes and species

Why Is Biodiversity So Important?








Food, wood, fibers, energy, raw materials, industrial chemicals, medicines, … Provides for billions of dollars in the global economy Provides recycling, purification, and natural pest control Represents the millions of years of adaptation, and is raw material for future adaptations

Two Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability




Use renewable solar energy as energy source Efficiently recycle nutrients organisms need for survival, growth, and reproduction

Nutrient Cycles and Soils

Matter Cycling in Ecosystems
 Nutrient
 Natural

or Biogeochemical Cycles

processes that recycle nutrients in various chemical forms in a cyclic manner from the nonliving environment to living organisms and back again

Nutrient Cycles (Closed System) Energy Flow (Open System)
 Water
 Carbon

 Sulfur
 Rock

 Nitrogen  Phosphorus

 Soil  Energy

Flow

Biogeochemical Cycle Locations


Hydrosphere
 

Water in the form of ice, liquid, and vapor Operates local, regional, and global levels
Large portion of a given element (i.e. Nitrogen gas) exists in gaseous form in the atmosphere Operates local, regional, and global levels



Atmospheric






Sedimentary




The element does not have a gaseous phase or its gaseous compounds don’t make up a significant portion of its supply Operates local and regional basis

Nutrient Cycling & Ecosystem Sustainability


Natural ecosystems tend to balance


Nutrients are recycled with reasonable efficiency Nutrient loss from soils Doubling of normal flow of nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle is a contributes to global warming, ozone depletion, air pollution, and loss of biodiversity



Humans are accelerating rates of flow of mater
 



Isolated ecosystems are being influenced by human activities


				
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