Cluster Analysis Interpretation Practice

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					Cluster Analysis Interpretation Practice

Cars
Variable Names: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Country: Nationality of manufacturer (eg. U.S., Japan) Car: Car name (Make and model) MPG: Miles per gallon, a measure of gas mileage Drive_Ratio: Drive ratio of the automobile Horsepower: Horsepower Displacement: Displacement of the car (in cubic inches) Cylinder: Number of cylinders

16:54 Tuesday, September 12, 2006 The CLUSTER Procedure Complete Linkage Cluster Analysis Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix Eigenvalue 1 2 3 4 732.858074 9.889641 0.198477 0.023043 Difference 722.968432 9.691164 0.175435 Proportion 0.9864 0.0133 0.0003 0.0000 Cumulative 0.9864 0.9997 1.0000 1.0000

36

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 13.62873 Mean Distance Between Observations = 32.08764

Cluster History Norm T

1

NCL 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

--Clusters Joined-CL22 CL28 CL16 CL15 CL17 CL19 CL23 OB14 CL13 CL21 CL12 CL20 CL6 CL4 CL2 CL31 OB31 OB24 OB34 CL33 CL30 CL18 CL14 CL8 CL11 CL7 CL9 CL10 CL3 CL5

FREQ 7 3 4 8 6 5 6 4 8 9 16 8 14 22 38

SPRSQ 0.0012 0.0009 0.0010 0.0010 0.0031 0.0037 0.0034 0.0026 0.0083 0.0107 0.0339 0.0177 0.0327 0.1602 0.7132

RSQ .992 .991 .990 .990 .986 .983 .979 .977 .968 .958 .924 .906 .873 .713 .000

ERSQ . . . . . . . . .978 .971 .960 .939 .892 .754 .000

CCC . . . . . . . . -1.6 -1.7 -2.9 -2.0 -.80 -.94 0.00

PSF 214 214 217 223 196 177 171 180 159 145 100 109 121 89.5 .

PST2 6.5 6.3 2.7 2.7 10.5 12.3 10.7 4.9 9.3 15.0 28.3 20.6 19.3 42.2 89.5

Max Dist 0.2038 0.2272 0.2411 0.2451 0.3555 0.3796 0.4105 0.4258 0.475 0.5217 0.8003 0.8109 0.9908 1.8997 2.8567

i e

2

N e of am

O bser vat i on or

C ust er l

B ck ui C ysl er hr For d M cur y er P eugeot D odge C hevy For d C hevy V vo ol A C M S aab D odge For d B W M C hevy O ds l Toyot a D sun at D sun at A udi B ck ui C hevy H onda V W V W P ym l out h M azda D sun at Fi at D odge V W A C M D odge M cur y er For d B ck ui P ont i ac

E at e_W st agon LeB on_W ar agon C ount r y_S qui r e_W agon G and_M qui s r ar 694 S _R t egi s C apr i ce_C assi c l LTD M i bu_W al agon 240 C oncor d_D L / 99 A spen M ust ang_G a hi 320i C t at i on i O ega m C ona or 510 810 5000 C ent ur y_S peci al C hevet t e A ccor d S r occo ci R abbi t H i zon or G LC 210 S r ada t O ni m D asher S ri t pi C t ol Zephyr M ust ang S kyl ar k P hoeni x 0. 00 0. 25 0. 50 0. 75 1. 00 1. 25 1. 50 1. 75 2. 00 2. 25 2. 50 2. 75 3. 00

M axi m um D st ance B w i et een C ust er s l

3

16:54 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

37

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------The MEANS Procedure Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Ma ximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 16 30.8375000 3.9276583 20.8000000 37.3000000 Weight Weight 16 2.2760000 0.3344020 1.9150000 3.0700000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 16 3.2943750 0.4046887 2.5300000 3.7800000 Horsepower Horsepower 16 75.8125000 8.7880127 65.0000000 90.0000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 8 17.0500000 1.0127755 15.5000000 18.5000000 Weight Weight 8 3.8892500 0.2720928 3.4100000 4.3600000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 8 2.5500000 0.4448435 2.2600000 3.5800000 Horsepower Horsepower 8 139.0000000 9.4112395 129.0000000 155.0000 000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 14 22.2214286 3.8306815 17.0000000 28.8000000 Weight Weight 14 2.9471429 0.4164212 2.3000000 3.6200000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 14 3.1742857 0.4782132 2.5600000 3.9000000 Horsepower Horsepower 14 110.0714286 9.8563863 95.0000000 125.0000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

4

16:54 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

38

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Make Buick Ford Chevy Chrysler Chevy Toyota Datsun Dodge Audi Volvo Saab Peugeot Buick Mercury Dodge AMC Model Estate_Wagon Country_Squire_Wagon Malibu_Wagon LeBaron_Wagon Chevette Corona 510 Omni 5000 240 99 694 Century_Special Zephyr Aspen Concord_D/L

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Obs 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Make Chevy Ford Mercury Dodge Ford Ford Mazda Dodge Model Caprice_Classic LTD Grand_Marquis St_Regis Mustang Mustang_Ghia GLC Colt

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 --------------------------------------------

5

Obs 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Make AMC VW Honda Buick Chevy Olds Pontiac Plymouth Datsun Fiat VW Datsun

Model Spirit Scirocco Accord Skylark Citation Omega Phoenix Horizon 210 Strada Dasher 810

6

The SAS System

16:54 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

2

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------The MEANS Procedure Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 11 32.2000000 2.7871132 27.4000000 37.3000000 Weight Weight 11 2.1254545 0.2130429 1.9150000 2.6700000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 11 3.4209091 0.3277943 2.9700000 3.7800000 HorsePower HorsePower 11 72.0000000 5.4954527 65.0000000 80.0000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 10 17.5200000 0.9600926 16.2000000 19.2000000 Weight Weight 10 3.7215000 0.3466591 3.1400000 4.3600000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 10 2.6930000 0.4751152 2.2600000 3.5800000 HorsePower HorsePower 10 134.0000000 11.1255462 120.0000000 155.0 000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 14 24.2500000 4.3604428 18.6000000 33.5000000 Weight Weight 14 2.8143571 0.3473111 2.3000000 3.6200000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 14 3.1392857 0.4750298 2.5300000 3.9000000 HorsePower HorsePower 14 102.5714286 10.2485593 85.0000000 115.0000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

7

MG P 40

30

20

10 60 70 80 90 100 110 H seP er or ow C S R LU TE 1 2 3 120 130 140 150 160

8

16:54 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

3

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Make Buick Chevy Chrysler Toyota Datsun Dodge Audi Volvo Saab Peugeot Buick Model Estate Malibu LeBaron Corona Omni

Century

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Obs 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Make Mercury Dodge AMC Chevy Ford Mercury Dodge Ford Mazda Dodge Model Zephyr Aspen Concord Caprice LTD Grand St Mustang GLC Colt

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 -------------------------------------------Obs Make Model

9

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

AMC VW Honda Buick Chevy Olds Pontiac Plymouth Datsun Fiat VW Datsun BMW VW

Spirit Scirocco Accord Skylark Citation Omega Phoenix Horizon Strada Dasher 320i Rabbit

10

16:54 Tuesday, September 12, 2006 The CLUSTER Procedure Ward's Minimum Variance Cluster Analysis Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix Eigenvalue 1 2 3 4 707.465835 10.563816 0.208482 0.024586 Difference 696.902019 10.355334 0.183895 Proportion 0.9850 0.0147 0.0003 0.0000 Cumulative 0.9850 0.9997 1.0000 1.0000

4

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 13.40021 Root-Mean-Square Distance Between Observations = 37.90152

Cluster History T i e

NCL 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

--Clusters Joined--OB9 CL29 CL18 CL14 CL22 CL28 CL16 CL9 CL10 CL17 CL13 CL19 CL8 CL4 CL23 OB31 OB21 CL21 CL33 CL15 CL20 OB12 CL31 CL11 CL12 CL6 CL7 CL3

FREQ 4 3 4 7 5 6 5 6 8 8 11 10 14 24

SPRSQ 0.0009 0.0010 0.0011 0.0014 0.0017 0.0027 0.0034 0.0043 0.0055 0.0073 0.0104 0.0351 0.0474 0.2470

RSQ .993 .992 .991 .990 .988 .986 .982 .978 .972 .965 .955 .919 .872 .625

ERSQ . . . . . . . . .978 .971 .960 .939 .892 .754

CCC . . . . . . . . -.92 -.80 -.53 -1.2 -.82 -2.5

PSF 214 211 209 205 201 189 178 170 164 160 157 118 109 55.0

PST2 5.5 8.9 2.7 4.0 7.3 7.9 7.1 3.5 8.0 13.7 18.2 25.4 30.2 48.4

11

1

CL2

CL5

35

0.6251

.000

.000

0.00

.

55.0

12

N e of am

O bser vat i on or

C ust er l

B ck ui C ysl er hr For d M cur y er P eugeot D odge C hevy For d C hevy V vo ol A C M C hevy H onda V W V W P ym l out h M azda D sun at Fi at D odge V W A C M D odge Toyot a D sun at D sun at M cur y er For d B ck ui P ont i ac A udi B ck ui S aab D odge For d B W M C hevy O ds l

E at e_W st agon LeB on_W ar agon C ount r y_S qui r e_W agon G and_M qui s r ar 694 S _R t egi s C apr i ce_C assi c l LTD M i bu_W al agon 240 C oncor d_D L / C hevet t e A ccor d S r occo ci R abbi t H i zon or G LC 210 S r ada t O ni m D asher S ri t pi C t ol C ona or 510 810 Zephyr M ust ang S kyl ar k P hoeni x 5000 C ent ur y_S peci al 99 A spen M ust ang_G a hi 320i C t at i on i O ega m 0. 00 0. 05 0. 10 0. 15 0. 20 0. 25 0. 30 0. 35 0. 40 0. 45 0. 50 0. 55 0. 60 0. 65 S i - P t i al em ar R S - quar ed

13

16:54 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

5

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------The MEANS Procedure Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 11 32.2000000 2.7871132 27.4000000 37.3000000 Weight Weight 11 2.1254545 0.2130429 1.9150000 2.6700000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 11 3.4209091 0.3277943 2.9700000 3.7800000 HorsePower HorsePower 11 72.0000000 5.4954527 65.0000000 80.0000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 10 17.5200000 0.9600926 16.2000000 19.2000000 Weight Weight 10 3.7215000 0.3466591 3.1400000 4.3600000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 10 2.6930000 0.4751152 2.2600000 3.5800000 HorsePower HorsePower 10 134.0000000 11.1255462 120.0000000 155.0000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ MPG MPG 14 24.2500000 4.3604428 18.6000000 33.5000000 Weight Weight 14 2.8143571 0.3473111 2.3000000 3.6200000 Drive_Ratio Drive_Ratio 14 3.1392857 0.4750298 2.5300000 3.9000000 HorsePower HorsePower 14 102.5714286 10.2485593 85.0000000 115.0000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

The SAS System

18:10 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

26

14

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 car AMC Buick Chevy Datsun Dodge Dodge Fiat Ford Honda Mazda Mercury Plymouth Pontiac VW VW VW Spirit Skylark Chevette 210 Colt Omni Strada Mustang Accord GLC Zephyr Horizon Phoenix Dasher Rabbit Scirocco

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Obs 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 car Buick Chevy Chrysler Dodge Ford Ford Mercury Peugeot Estate_Wagon Caprice_Classic LeBaron_Wagon St_Regis Country_Squire_Wagon LTD Grand_Marquis 694

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 --------------------------------------------

15

Obs 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

car AMC Audi BMW Buick Chevy Chevy Datsun Datsun Dodge Ford Olds Saab Toyota Volvo Concord_D/L 5000 320i Century_Special Citation Malibu_Wagon 510 810 Aspen Mustang_Ghia Omega 99 Corona 240

16

MG P 40

30

20

10 60 70 80 90 100 110 H sepow or er C S R LU TE 1 2 3 120 130 140 150 160

17

Cities
Variable Names: 1. 2. 3. 4. City: City name Work: Weighted average of the number of working hours in 12 occupations Price: Index of the cost 112 goods and services excluding rent (Zurich = 100) Salary: Index of hourly earnings in 12 occupations after deductions (Zurich = 100)
The SAS System 17:58 Tuesday, September 12, 2006 5

The CLUSTER Procedure Complete Linkage Cluster Analysis Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix Eigenvalue 1 2 3 30622.5198 740.7699 102.4767 Difference 29881.7499 638.2931 Proportion 0.9732 0.0235 0.0033 Cumulative 0.9732 0.9967 1.0000

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 102.4138 Mean Distance Between Observations = 204.5639

Cluster History Norm Max Dist 0.3252 0.3395 0.3567 0.3728 0.3878 T i e

NCL 15 14 13 12 11

--Clusters Joined-CL27 CL29 CL30 CL19 CL25 OB22 CL21 CL16 CL22 CL15

FREQ 4 8 7 10 6

SPRSQ 0.0020 0.0030 0.0034 0.0036 0.0017

RSQ .986 .983 .980 .976 .974

ERSQ . . . . .

CCC . . . . .

PSF 156 143 132 126 133

PST2 8.9 10.0 9.4 9.1 2.4

18

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

CL20 CL17 OB15 CL14 CL18 CL12 CL5 CL6 CL7 CL2

CL24 CL10 OB25 OB32 CL11 CL9 CL13 CL8 CL4 CL3

5 9 2 9 9 19 26 11 35 46

0.0024 0.0081 0.0044 0.0080 0.0157 0.0282 0.0786 0.0650 0.1323 0.6317

.972 .964 .959 .951 .936 .908 .829 .764 .632 .000

. .976 .972 .966 .959 .947 .925 .878 .742 .000

. -2.9 -2.5 -2.6 -2.2 -2.8 -4.4 -3.7 -2.4 0.00

139 123 128 127 116 101 67.9 69.6 75.5 .

5.2 10.4 . 11.8 18.9 23.5 35.1 22.5 30.1 75.5

0.4172 0.5047 0.5483 0.689 0.7567 0.7881 1.1796 1.7599 1.9445 3.8839

19

N e of am

O bser vat i on or

C ust er l

A st er dam m B ussel s r D ussel dor f C openhagen M adr i d Fr ankf ur t S ydney H si nki el O o sl A hens t Lagos Li sbon R o_de_Janei r o i D ubl i n M l an i V enna i Luxem bour g London P i s ar G eneva Zur i ch Tokyo Tor ont o M ont r eal S ockhol m t N cosi a i S eoul S ao_P aul o B uenos_A r es i Johannesbur g M exi co_C t y i N r obi ai C cago hi N _Y k ew or H oust on B ogot a K ual a_Lum pur Tai pei B bay om P anam a C acas ar S ngpor e i Tel _A v vi Los_A ngel es H ong_K ong M ani l a 0. 0 0. 5 1. 0 1. 5 2. 0 2. 5 3. 0 3. 5 4. 0

M axi m um D st ance B w i et een C ust er s l

20

The SAS System

17:58 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

6

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------The MEANS Procedure Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ Work Work 9 2084.44 55.8146735 2015.00 2167.00 Price Price 9 57.5222222 18.5752374 30.3000000 84.3000000 Salary Salary 9 21.5777778 18.7306419 5.3000000 65.2000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ Work Work 10 1763.00 19.6468827 1737.00 1792.00 Price Price 10 67.4400000 15.4397899 45.2000000 84.2000000 Salary Salary 10 37.1600000 21.2641691 2.7000000 71.1000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ Work Work 9 1678.89 43.2852297 1583.00 1717.00 Price Price 9 86.3777778 18.3854411 65.6000000 115.5000000 Salary Salary 9 57.2666667 6.8216567 49.0000000 66.6000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=4 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

21

Work Work 7 1951.71 18.5716117 1924.00 1978.00 Price Price 7 61.5857143 14.6262810 45.0000000 83.3000000 Salary Salary 7 31.7142857 26.0216210 5.7000000 65.8000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=5 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ Work Work 9 1852.33 29.1504717 1805.00 1888.00 Price Price 9 80.0222222 26.1613636 47.9000000 115.0000000 Salary Salary 9 53.7888889 29.2101200 11.1000000 100.0000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

22

The SAS System

17:58 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

7

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=6 -------------------------------------------The MEANS Procedure Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ Work Work 2 2321.50 75.6604256 2268.00 2375.00 Price Price 2 51.9000000 16.8291414 40.0000000 63.8000000 Salary Salary 2 15.9000000 16.8291414 4.0000000 27.8000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

23

The SAS System

18:10 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

23

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------Obs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 City Bogota Bombay Caracas Kuala_Lumpur Los_Angeles Panama Singpore Taipei Tel_Aviv

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Obs 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 City Athens Dublin Lagos Lisbon London Luxembourg Milan Paris Rio_de_Janeiro Vienna

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 -------------------------------------------Obs 20 City Amsterdam

24

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Brussels Copenhagen Dusseldorf Frankfurt Helsinki Madrid Oslo Sydney

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=4 -------------------------------------------Obs 29 30 31 City Buenos_Aires Chicago Houston

25

The SAS System

18:10 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

24

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=4 -------------------------------------------(continued) Obs 32 33 34 35 City Johannesburg Mexico_City Nairobi New_York

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=5 -------------------------------------------Obs 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 City Geneva Montreal Nicosia Sao_Paulo Seoul Stockholm Tokyo Toronto Zurich

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=6 -------------------------------------------Obs 45 46 City Hong_Kong Manila

26

P i ce r 120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 W k or C S R LU TE 1 2 3 4 5 6 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

27

Nutrition
Variable Names: 1. Country: Country name 2. RdMeat: Red meat 3. WhMeat: White meat 4. Eggs: Eggs 5. Milk: Milk 6. Fish: Fish 7. Cereal: Cereals 8. Starch: Starchy foods 9. Nuts: Pulses, nuts, and oil-seeds 10. Fr&Veg: Fruits and vegetables
The CLUSTER Procedure Complete Linkage Cluster Analysis Eigenvalues of the Covariance Matrix Eigenvalue 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 155.233995 30.698737 15.643457 8.316930 3.629922 2.428791 1.556798 0.714799 0.252139 Difference 124.535258 15.055280 7.326526 4.687009 1.201130 0.871993 0.842000 0.462660 Proportion 0.7105 0.1405 0.0716 0.0381 0.0166 0.0111 0.0071 0.0033 0.0012 Cumulative 0.7105 0.8510 0.9226 0.9607 0.9773 0.9884 0.9956 0.9988 1.0000

Root-Mean-Square Total-Sample Standard Deviation = 4.926973

28

Mean Distance Between Observations

= 19.04712

Cluster History Norm Max Dist 0.4376 0.4614 0.4968 0.5098 0.5319 0.6296 0.6372 0.6431 0.6783 0.7957 0.9263 0.9912 1.2603 1.6368 2.1778 T i e

NCL 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

-------Clusters Joined-------CL23 Portugal CL17 CL22 Austria CL16 Albania CL19 CL11 E_Germany CL9 CL7 CL5 CL3 CL2 Romania Spain USSR CL20 CL12 Hungary CL13 Finland CL18 CL14 CL10 CL8 CL6 CL4 CL15

FREQ 3 2 3 4 5 3 4 4 8 3 7 12 10 22 25

SPRSQ 0.0067 0.0074 0.0079 0.0098 0.0084 0.0123 0.0147 0.0189 0.0223 0.0210 0.0320 0.0447 0.0948 0.2919 0.3713

RSQ .957 .950 .942 .932 .924 .911 .897 .878 .856 .835 .803 .758 .663 .371 .000

ERSQ . . . . . . . . . . .807 .762 .693 .562 .000

CCC . . . . . . . . . . -.20 -.13 -.73 -2.5 0.00

PSF 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 17.0 17.2 17.4 17.5 17.8 19.2 20.3 21.9 21.7 13.6 .

PST2 3.0 . 1.3 3.0 1.6 1.9 2.1 6.0 4.0 2.8 3.4 5.6 7.0 17.8 13.6

29

N e of am

O bser vat i on or A bani a l G eece r I t al y U S S R

C ust er l

C zechosl ovaki a P and ol H ungar y E er m _G any P t ugal or S pai n A ust r i a I r el and S i t zer l and w N her l ands et W er m _G any B gi um el Fr ance U K D enm k ar S eden w N w or ay Fi nl and B gar i a ul Y ugosl avi a R ani a om 0. 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1. 0 1. 2 1. 4 1. 6 1. 8 2. 0 2. 2

M axi m um D st ance B w i et een C ust er s l

30

The SAS System

18:10 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

34

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------The MEANS Procedure Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ RedMeat RedMeat 4 9.8500000 0.5446712 9.4000000 10.6000000 WhiteMeat WhiteMeat 4 7.0500000 2.8734416 4.7000000 10.8000000 Eggs Eggs 4 3.1500000 0.5259911 2.7000000 3.7000000 Milk Milk 4 26.6750000 4.7415715 23.3000000 33.7000000 Fish Fish 4 8.2250000 1.9482898 5.8000000 9.9000000 Cereals Cereals 4 22.6750000 2.8241518 19.5000000 26.3000000 Starch Starch 4 4.5500000 0.6027714 3.7000000 5.1000000 Nuts Nuts 4 1.1750000 0.4031129 0.7000000 1.6000000 FrVeg FrVeg 4 2.1250000 0.5619905 1.4000000 2.7000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ RedMeat RedMeat 3 6.1333333 1.7009801 4.4000000 7.8000000 WhiteMeat WhiteMeat 3 5.7666667 0.6806859 5.0000000 6.3000000 Eggs Eggs 3 1.4333333 0.2081666 1.2000000 1.6000000 Milk Milk 3 9.6333333 1.4047538 8.3000000 11.1000000 Fish Fish 3 0.9333333 0.3055050 0.6000000 1.2000000 Cereals Cereals 3 54.0666667 3.8888730 49.6000000 56.7000000 Starch Starch 3 2.4000000 1.1269428 1.1000000 3.1000000 Nuts Nuts 3 4.9000000 1.0583005 3.7000000 5.7000000 FrVeg FrVeg 3 3.4000000 0.7211103 2.8000000 4.2000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum

31

ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ RedMeat RedMeat 8 13.2125000 3.3099148 8.9000000 18.0000000 WhiteMeat WhiteMeat 8 10.6375000 2.6981144 5.7000000 14.0000000 Eggs Eggs 8 3.9875000 0.6034129 3.1000000 4.7000000 Milk Milk 8 21.1625000 2.8570402 17.5000000 25.8000000 Fish Fish 8 3.3750000 1.3338987 2.1000000 5.7000000 Cereals Cereals 8 24.7000000 3.1627294 18.6000000 28.1000000 Starch Starch 8 4.6500000 1.1058287 2.8000000 6.2000000 Nuts Nuts 8 2.0625000 0.6759913 1.3000000 3.4000000 FrVeg FrVeg 8 4.1750000 1.1170753 2.9000000 6.5000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

32

The SAS System

18:10 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

35

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=4 -------------------------------------------The MEANS Procedure Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ RedMeat RedMeat 4 9.6500000 0.5916080 9.0000000 10.2000000 WhiteMeat WhiteMeat 4 3.5250000 1.6760569 1.4000000 5.1000000 Eggs Eggs 4 2.0750000 1.1086779 0.5000000 2.9000000 Milk Milk 4 14.2000000 3.9012818 8.9000000 17.6000000 Fish Fish 4 3.1250000 2.3343450 0.2000000 5.9000000 Cereals Cereals 4 41.1000000 2.9743347 36.8000000 43.6000000 Starch Starch 4 2.8250000 2.4931573 0.6000000 6.4000000 Nuts Nuts 4 5.2500000 1.9052559 3.4000000 7.8000000 FrVeg FrVeg 4 4.4500000 2.5317978 1.7000000 6.7000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=5 -------------------------------------------Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ RedMeat RedMeat 3 7.3000000 2.2271057 5.3000000 9.7000000 WhiteMeat WhiteMeat 3 11.3333333 1.1015141 10.2000000 12.4000000 Eggs Eggs 3 2.8000000 0.1000000 2.7000000 2.9000000 Milk Milk 3 13.8333333 4.9369356 9.7000000 19.3000000 Fish Fish 3 1.7666667 1.3650397 0.3000000 3.0000000 Cereals Cereals 3 36.8333333 2.9687259 34.3000000 40.1000000 Starch Starch 3 4.9666667 0.9504385 4.0000000 5.9000000 Nuts Nuts 3 2.8333333 2.2678918 1.1000000 5.4000000 FrVeg FrVeg 3 4.9333333 1.4468356 4.0000000 6.6000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=6 --------------------------------------------

33

Variable Label N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ RedMeat RedMeat 3 7.2333333 1.1060440 6.2000000 8.4000000 WhiteMeat WhiteMeat 3 6.2333333 4.6500896 3.4000000 11.6000000 Eggs Eggs 3 2.6333333 1.3613719 1.1000000 3.7000000 Milk Milk 3 8.2000000 3.1192948 4.9000000 11.1000000 Fish Fish 3 8.8666667 4.6875722 5.4000000 14.2000000 Cereals Cereals 3 26.9333333 2.3007245 24.6000000 29.2000000 Starch Starch 3 6.0333333 0.4163332 5.7000000 6.5000000 Nuts Nuts 3 3.8000000 2.6664583 0.8000000 5.9000000 FrVeg FrVeg 3 6.2333333 2.3072350 3.6000000 7.9000000 ƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ

34

The SAS System

18:10 Tuesday, September 12, 2006

32

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=1 -------------------------------------------Obs 1 2 3 4 Country Denmark Finland Norway Sweden

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=2 -------------------------------------------Obs 5 6 7 Country Bulgaria Romania Yugoslavia

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=3 -------------------------------------------Obs 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Country Austria Belgium France Ireland Netherlands Switzerland UK W_Germany

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=4 -------------------------------------------Obs Country

35

16 17 18 19

Albania Greece Italy USSR

------------------------------------------- CLUSTER=5 -------------------------------------------Obs 20 21 22 Country Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland

36