document_gw_03

Document Sample
document_gw_03 Powered By Docstoc
					America’s Biggest Polluters
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants in 2007

America’s Biggest Polluters
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants in 2007

Courtney Abrams Environment America Research & Policy Center

November 2009

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to thank Tony Dutzik, Frontier Group and Mark Kresowik, Sierra Club for their review of this report. The author would also like to thank Emily Figdor, Timothy Telleen-Lawton, Alex Ussia, Stefanie Feldman, Janna Rosenthal, and Beth Coleman for their assistance. The generous financial support of New York Community Trust made this report possible. © 2009 Environment America Research & Policy Center Environment America Research & Policy Center is a 501(c)(3) organization. We are dedicated to protecting America’s air, water and open spaces. We investigate problems, craft solutions, educate the public and decision makers, and help Americans make their voices heard in local, state and national debates over the quality of our environment and our lives. For more information about Environment America Research & Policy Center or for additional copies of this report, please visit www. environmentamerica.org. Cover photo: Coal-fired power plant. Photo: acilo Layout: tothepointpublications.com

Table of Contents
Executive Summary .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .4 America’s Energy: A Menacing Mix .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .8 Global Warming .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .8 Air Pollution .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .9 Combustion Waste .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .10 Extraction  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .10 Economic Liability  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .11 Nuclear Power  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .12 The Promise of a Clean Energy Economy  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .12 America Relies on Outdated, Polluting Energy  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .14 America’s Power is Old  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .14 America’s Power is Dirty  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .16 The Oldest and Dirtiest Often Go Hand-in-hand  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .18 Power Plants Must Be Required to Clean Up  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .20 Recommendations for Policy  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .21 Methodology .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .23 Endnotes  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .24 Appendix A . Nation’s 100 Oldest Power Plants in 2007  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .26 Appendix B . Oldest Power Plant in Each State in 2007  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .28 Appendix C . Nation’s 100 Dirtiest Power Plants in 2007 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .29 Appendix D . Dirtiest Power Plant in Each State in 2007  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .31 Appendix E . States Ranked by Total CO2 Emitted From Power Plants in 2007  .  .32 Appendix F . All Power Plants in Data Set .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .33

Executive Summary

he United States relies heavily on outdated technology and limited resources for most of its electricity needs. While the production of clean, renewable energy such as wind and solar power is growing, the vast majority of American electricity comes from burning fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—and from nuclear power. Our long-time dependence on fossil fuels is a threat to our future. It wreaks havoc on our environment by polluting our air, land, and water; and it puts our entire economy at risk due to our reliance on imports from unfriendly parts of the world. Most importantly, it fuels global warming—the most profound environmental problem of our time, with ever growing impacts that will impose threats to our safety and immense financial cost on our society. Power plants are the single largest source of U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the main pollutant that fuels global warming.

T

Coal is the biggest culprit. Coal supplies just under half of America’s electricity – more than any other source – and is the dirtiest of all fuels. Coal has the highest carbon content of any fossil fuel per unit of energy, meaning that burning coal for electricity produces more carbon per kilowatt-hour generated than does burning oil or natural gas. America’s fleet of coal-fired power plants emitted more than 80 percent of CO2 pollution from U.S. power plants in 2007 and 36 percent of the total U.S. CO2 pollution, as well as disproportionate amounts of smog- and soot-forming pollutants, toxic mercury, and other toxic air pollutants.1 This report examines CO2 emissions of America’s power plants. We analyze 2007 plant-by-plant data from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Acid Rain Program; 2007 is the most recent year for which final data is available. The report finds that America’s power is dirty – and also very old – and that these two qualities tend to go hand-in-hand.

4 America’s Biggest Polluters

Key findings include the following for 2007: America’s power is old: •	 Two-thirds of fossil-fuel electricity was generated by plants built before 1980. We are reliant on plants more than 30 years old for the majority of our electricity. See ES Figure 1. •	 The oldest plants in the nation – which have been in operation for as long as 70 years – are located in Indiana, Wisconsin, New York, Iowa, and North Carolina. These dinosaur plants were built in the same decade that the television first became commercially available. America’s power is dirty: •	 In 2007, power plants released 2.56 billion tons of CO2, equivalent to the amount produced by 449 million of today’s cars. This represents 42 percent of the total U.S. CO2 emissions in 2007.2 •	 Georgia, Alabama, and Indiana are home to the dirtiest power plants. Along with Texas, Michigan, and Arizona, these states are home to power plants that each emitted more than 20 million tons of carbon dioxide pollution – equivalent to the pollution from 3.5 million of today’s cars – in 2007. Georgia and Texas both have two plants that belong to this elite dirty club. •	 Texas, Ohio, Florida, Indiana, and Pennsylvania emitted the most CO2 pollution from power plants. Texas power plants emitted nearly twice the amount of CO2 emitted by power plants in Ohio and Florida, the next highest polluting states.

E.S. Figure 1. America’s electricity comes from old power plants
900 800

Load in 2007 (million MWh)

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s

Year of Plant First Operation

The oldest and dirtiest often go hand-inhand: •	 The oldest power plants are dirty. Plants built before 1980 produced 73 percent of U.S. CO2 emissions from power plants. These represent just less than half of all plants, indicating that the older half of plants pollute a disproportionate amount. See ES Figure 2. •	 The dirtiest power plants are old. Of plants that produced more than five million tons of CO2 pollution in 2007, 83 percent were built before 1980. This subset of 129 plants, just 10 percent of plants—the oldest of the dirtiest—generated almost half of our electricity and produced half of the CO2 emissions from power plants in 2007. See ES Figure 3. •	 Older means dirtier on average. For each year older a coal generator is on average, it created 0.001 more tons of CO2 for each Megawatt-hour of electricity it produced in 2007. The relationship is slightly stronger for natural gas.

Executive Summary

5

E.S. Figure 2. Carbon dioxide emissions in 2007 based on plant age
500 450

CO2 Emissions in 2007 (millions of tons)

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Year of Plant First Operation

Power Plants Must Be Required to Clean Up
Cleaning up America’s fleet of aging, inefficient power plants is critical to stopping global warming. We cannot achieve the real and sustained reductions in global warming pollution that science shows are urgently needed to stop the worst effects of global warming unless we begin now to reduce carbon pollution from the utility sector. The most recent report by the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, released in 2007, found that in order to have a 50-50 chance of avoiding dangerous global warming, developed nations as a whole must reduce global warming emissions by 25-40 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and by 80-95 below 1990 levels by 2050. Cutting pollution from the oldest and dirtiest power plants is a key to being able to achieve these reductions. Moving to clean energy means leaving old, inefficient, and dirty technology behind. The U.S. Department of

Energy projects that electricity demand will remain relatively flat over the next two decades, growing at an annual average rate of less than 1 percent – and that’s without factoring in the enormous efficiency gains that we can and should make. These projections make it clear that allowing polluting fossil fuels to maintain the monopoly over America’s electricity will result in a much smaller market for renewables. Making the move to clean, renewable energy will cut pollution as well as jump-start our economy and create millions of clean energy jobs. In order to build a clean energy economy and stop global warming, lawmakers should adopt the following recommendations: 1. The Environmental Protection Agency should finalize its proposal to require coal plants and other big smokestack industries to meet modern standards for global warming pollution when new

6 America’s Biggest Polluters

plants are built or existing plants are upgraded. 2. Congress should pass strong clean energy and global warming legislation that caps global warming pollution at science-based levels, establishes strong mandates for clean energy production, and does not repeal the sections of the Clean Air Act that require coal-fired power plants to meet modern standards for global warming pollution. 3. Congress should eliminate subsidies that help keep our nation dependent on fossil fuels for its electricity.

E.S. Figure 3. CO2 Emissions in 2007 by Plant for Dirty Plants (emitted more than 5 million tons of CO2)
30

CO2 Emissions in 2007 (millions of tons)

25

20

15

10

5 1949

1962

1976

1990

2003

Year of Plant First Operation

Executive Summary

7

America’s Energy: A Menacing Mix

merica used 4.2 trillion kilowatthours of electricity in 2007.3 That electricity is used to light rooms, heat and cool our food, water, and homes, and power industry. This energy comes from a wide variety of sources, from wind turbines and solar panels to large power plants powered by fossil fuels or nuclear power. But it doesn’t come in equal amounts, nor with equal consequences. The lion’s share of the electricity generated in the United States in 2007—almost three-quarters—came from fossil fuels. Our long-term dependence on coal, natural gas, and oil pollutes our air and water, threatens public health, drains our economy of precious resources, and fuels global warming. Producing energy by burning coal is dirty and dangerous from cradle to grave—from mountaintop removal mining to pollution that threatens our health and fuels global warming to the toxic sludge that remains as a byproduct. Coalfired power plants provide just under half

A

of America’s electricity (Figure 1) and are responsible for a disproportionate amount of the country’s air and global warming pollution. America’s fleet of coal-fired power plants emitted over 80 percent of global warming pollution from all U.S. power plants in 2007 (Figure 2), as well as disproportionate amounts of harmful smog- and soot-forming pollutants, toxic mercury, and other air toxic pollutants.

Global Warming
Global warming has the potential to impose vast and unpredictable impacts on our environment and our lives. A warmer planet means dangerous changes to weather patterns, melting ice leading to sea-level rise, and shifting ocean currents. The impacts range from more intense storms that devastate coastal cities to vast displacements of world populations due to food and water shortages that may result from a warming climate.

8 America’s Biggest Polluters

Fossil fuel consumption is the leading contributor to global warming. Coal has the highest carbon content of any fossil fuel per unit of energy, meaning that burning coal for electricity produces more carbon per kilowatt-hour generated than does burning oil or natural gas. Coal emits 27 percent more CO2, the main pollutant that fuels global warming, per unit of energy than oil and 75 percent more than natural gas. Indeed, coal plants are the single largest source of global warming pollution in the nation, producing over one-third of the total U.S. CO2 emissions in 2007. As a result of our continued dependence on fossil fuels, we are already seeing the early effects of global warming all around us. For example, just two years ago, researchers thought the Arctic would be ice free in the summer by the end of the century. Now, scientists project it will happen in just five years.5 All over the world, global warming is happening far faster than scientists had predicted, and with more damaging effects.

Figure 1. U.S. Electric Power Industry Net Generation, 20074

Figure 2. U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Electric Power Sector, 20076

Air Pollution
Burning fossil fuels emits pollutants into our air that are a direct threat to public health. Power plants produce the primary ingredients of soot and smog, which are dangerous to breathe and can even shorten lives.7 Soot, or particle pollution, is directly released as fossil fuels are burned. Research has found that particle pollution and cigarette smoking harm the body in similar ways.8 A 2004 report by the Clean Air Task Force estimated that soot pollution from power plants contributes to 24,000 premature deaths, 38, 200 non-fatal heart attacks, and tens of thousands of hospital visits and asthma attacks each year.9 Smog, or ground-level ozone, results from a chemical reaction involving ni-

trogen oxides (NOx), a class of pollutants emitted from burning fossil fuels. In fact, coal-fired power plants are the second largest source of NOx in the United States. Ozone has been found to cause shortness of breath, chest pain, asthma attacks, and increased susceptibility to respiratory infections at current levels in the United States.10 A 2009 report by the National Academy of Sciences quantified the external damages that major air pollutants from burning fossil fuels incur upon human health, grain crops, buildings, and recreation. The report found that

America’s Energy: A Menacing Mix

9

coal-fired power plants cost the United States approximately $62 billion in external damages in 2005, about 3.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of energy. Similarly, burning natural gas incurred external costs from air pollutants totaling $740 million in 2005, an average of 0.16 cents per kilowatt-hour of energy.11 The electric power sector also is the largest source of toxic pollutants, such as mercury, arsenic, and lead, in the United States.12 Power plants are the largest industrial source of U.S. air emissions of mercury, a potent neurotoxin. Burning fossil fuels releases mercury into the air, which can be rained down onto land and into water and contaminate the fish we eat. Mercury is particularly harmful to the developing brain; even low-level exposure can cause learning disabilities, developmental delays, lowered IQ, and problems with attention and memory.13 As little as one gram of mercury can poison a mid-sized lake’s fish;14 and, in 2007, the EPA reported that over 100,000 pounds of mercury were released into our environment.15

sludge breached its barriers and poured across 300 acres of land, destroying homes and dumping into nearby rivers. This spill was estimated to be 100 times the size of the infamous Exxon-Valdez oil spill and extremely toxic—water samples by scientists around the spill site have shown elevated levels of mercury and lead, and arsenic levels up to 100 times above the drinking water standards.17

Extraction
Before fossil fuels can be burned to produce energy, their extraction from the earth by mining or drilling can cause a variety of serious and harmful environmental impacts. Coal mining contaminates water supplies. The Environmental Protection Agency reports that in 2007, coal mines released almost 13 million pounds of toxic chemicals, including ammonia, arsenic, lead, and mercury, into landfills and streams.18 Coal mining also damages the face of our land. Mountaintop removal mining, a common form of coal mining in Appalachia, blasts off the tops of mountains, leveling hills and filling valleys with the resulting debris. Between 1985 and 2001, mountaintop removal mining polluted or completely buried more than 1,200 miles of streams and destroyed seven percent of the region’s forests.19 The process to acquire natural gas also poses a threat to drinking water. For an average drilling site, approximately 10,000 gallons of undisclosed chemicals are used to create cracks in underground formations to allow gas to flow through.20. With an absence of federal regulations and with state regulation often uneven and inadequate due to lack of resources, leaks and spills are becoming more common, increasing the likelihood that these chemicals can make their way into our drinking water.21

Combustion Waste
Burning coal and oil for electricity produces waste in the form of fly ash and sludge, which are often stored in containment ponds on-site. The waste is known to contain as many as 23 heavy metals concentrated over decades of storage. There are no current federal controls in place for this waste, and it is often a threat to drinking water. Power plants are estimated to produce up to 130 million tons of this waste per year. About half of power plants dump their waste in surface ponds—only 26 percent of which are lined to prevent pollution from escaping or leeching into the groundwater.16 In December 2008, a combustion waste pond at a power plant in Tennessee containing 1.1 billion gallons of the toxic

10 America’s Biggest Polluters

Photo: Vivian Stockman

Mountaintop removal coal mine in southern West Virginia.

For example, in September 2009, natural gas drilling in northeast Pennsylvania resulted in three spills within one week of thousands of gallons of chemicals near the town of Dimock. While the drilling company, Cabot Oil & Gas Corp., refused to disclose the chemicals that were spilled, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection reported that the spills consisted of a potentially cancer-causing chemical used as a lubricant in natural gas drilling. Residents of the town reported clouded drinking water, sick animals, and flammable wells after drilling started near the area.22 Withdrawing raw gas from underground formations and processing gas in compressors also releases pollutants (CO2 and methane, CH ) that fuel global 4 warming. Methane is a much more potent global warming pollutant than CO2, by a factor of 20.23 Transporting natural gas from production sites to use sites requires 1.5 million miles of high-pressure pipelines across the United States.24 Leaks in these pipelines release more methane into our atmosphere.

Though oil is only a small percentage of our electricity, it makes up a large chunk of our overall power mix when considering transportation fuels. The United States is the world’s third largest petroleum producer, with more than 500,000 producing wells and approximately 4,000 oil and natural gas platforms operating in U.S. waters.25 Drilling off of our coasts can threaten ocean species and coastlines with spills.

Economic Liability
America’s dependence on fossil fuels is expensive. Rising costs of heating fuels in recent years have led to higher winter heating bills for Americans in colder parts of the country. Instability in natural gas and coal prices have caused spikes in electricity rates and hit fossil fuel-dependent segments of industry particularly hard. To add insult to injury, much of the money we spend on fossil fuels—particularly oil—is sent overseas, enriching foreign governments and

America’s Energy: A Menacing Mix

11

businesses at the expense of our domestic economy. In 2006, the United States spent nearly seven percent of its gross domestic product, or $921.2 billion, on fossil fuels for home, business, and transportation use.26 This amounts to $3,083 per U.S. resident.27 While oil accounts for the vast majority of this spending, in 2007 the average American household spent $1,934 on natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil for home use.28

Nuclear Power
Almost another one-fifth of our energy mix in 2007 came from nuclear power, a costly, dangerous, and time-intensive energy investment, especially compared with investments in clean energy and efficiency. Start-up for nuclear power is expensive. Building 100 new nuclear reactors – the level of construction currently advocated by supporters of nuclear power – would require an up-front capital investment on the order of $600 billion (with a possible range of $250 billion to $1 trillion).29 And that’s not the whole story—any up-front investment in nuclear power would lock in additional expenditures over time. Once a plant is built, the price of the electricity it generates will reflect the ongoing need to pay off debt; the cost of operating and maintaining the plant, the cost of fueling the plant with uranium; the cost of decommissioning the plant and disposing of the waste; and the cost of transmitting and distributing the electricity to consumers. During the last wave of nuclear construction in the United States, the average reactor took nine years to build.30 New reactors are likely to experience similar delays. For example, a new reactor now under construction in Finland is at least three years behind schedule after a series of quality control failures.31

By 2018, a reasonable estimate for the first date a new reactor could be online, nuclear power will be among the least cost-effective options for reducing global warming pollution. Per dollar spent over the lifetime of the technology, energy efficiency and biomass co-firing are five times more effective at preventing carbon dioxide pollution than nuclear power.32 Aside from being expensive, nuclear power also threatens our health, safety, and security. Nuclear reactors have created more than 50,000 tons of toxic, radioactive waste for which there is no current disposal solution.33

The Promise of A Clean Energy Economy
There is a better, cleaner way. We can unleash the power of clean energy to rebuild our economy, protect our environment, stop global warming, and build a sustainable future. We have the technology and the skilled workforce to tap vast reserves of energy efficiency and limitless energy from the sun, the wind, the waves, and the heat of the earth. We can make our homes and businesses so efficient that they use zero-net energy. Increasing the efficiency of our economy is the fastest and cheapest way to cut global warming pollution and means less damage to our environment— fewer mountain landscapes ruined by coal mining, fewer toxic chemicals in our drinking water, and less disastrous effects of global warming. Also, by improving the efficiency of our economy alone, we can create more than 1 million new jobs for Americans by 2030.34 We can harness the power of the wind and the sun for the energy we need. These resources won’t run out, don’t harm our environment, and will only grow cheaper over time. For example, the nation’s cumulative wind power potential

12 America’s Biggest Polluters

has been estimated at upwards of 10 trillion kilowatt-hours annually—more than twice the amount of electricity currently generated in the United States.35 Similarly, the United States could generate all of its electricity by installing solar panels on only seven percent of the land area currently used for buildings, parking lots and other built up areas.36 Tapping solar thermal energy through “passive solar”

applications, such as solar hot water heating, can significantly reduce use of fossil fuels in buildings. New central station solar power technologies promise the capability to use the sun’s energy to generate electricity even when the sun isn’t shining, by storing heat for use at night. We also have tremendous potential for producing energy from tides, underground heat, and other renewable sources.

America’s Energy: A Menacing Mix

13

America Relies on Outdated, Polluting Energy

his report analyzes data collected from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Acid Rain Program. The Acid Rain Program, established under the 1990 Clean Air Act to reduce sulfur dioxide pollution from power plants, tracks pollution and other data for over 1,200 of the country’s dirtiest power plants. Electric utilities have reported their CO2 emissions under the program since 1995. This report uses the Acid Rain Program database from 2007, the most recent year for which final data is available, to analyze CO2 emissions among America’s power plants. Our analysis finds that America’s power plants – particularly coal plants – are both old and dirty. Burning fossil fuels for almost three-quarters of our energy means that we are reliant on an infrastructure that is decades-old and

T

which releases CO2 into our atmosphere in unchecked amounts.

America’s Power is Old
Our analysis finds that the majority of our energy comes from plants that are at least three decades old. •	 Two-thirds of U.S. fossil fuel electricity in 2007 was generated by power plants built before 1980. These relics rely on outdated infrastructure yet continue to expand capacity. At the Tennessee Valley Authority plant that spilled 1.1 billion gallons of toxic waste in December of 2008, the waste had been building up for over 50 years. See Figure 3. •	 Indiana and Wisconsin are home to power plants seven decades old—the oldest in operation.

14 America’s Biggest Polluters

Table 1. Nation’s 50 Oldest Power Plants in 2007
National Old Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 State IN WI NY IA NC IA NC MN IN WI AR NY OH WV VA IN NY TX VA MD IL KY IA MS PA CA TX IL OH CO MI NJ NY KS MN WV IN AL MI WI MA MN AR PA NC IL OH NC OH NY Plant Name C. C. Perry K Steam Plant Blount Street Oswego Harbor Power Sixth Street Cliffside Dubuque Buck High Bridge Harding Street Station (EW Stout) Pulliam Harvey Couch AES Westover (Goudey) R E Burger Rivesville Power Station Glen Lyn Edwardsport Huntley Power Mountain Creek Generating Station Mirant Potomac River R. Paul Smith Power Station Havana Tyrone Lansing Rex Brown Mitchell Power Station AES Redondo Beach Handley Generating Station Meredosia O H Hutchings Zuni B C Cobb Sewaren Generating Station Rochester 7 - Russell Station Riverton Riverside (1927) Willow Island Power Station IPL Eagle Valley Generating Station Gadsden Trenton Channel DTE Stoneman, LLC Kendall Square Hibbard Energy Center Cecil Lynch Sunbury W H Weatherspoon Wood River Power Station Avon Lake Power Plant Dan River Miami Fort Generating Station Dunkirk Date Plant Began Operation Aug, 1938 Dec, 1938 Jan, 1940 Apr, 1940 Jul, 1940 Jun, 1941 Jul, 1941 Jan, 1942 Apr, 1942 Jan, 1943 Sep, 1943 Oct, 1943 Jan, 1944 Jan, 1944 Jun, 1944 Jul, 1944 Jan, 1945 Dec, 1945 Oct, 1946 Jan, 1947 Jul, 1947 Oct, 1947 Jan, 1948 Jan, 1948 Jan, 1948 Feb, 1948 Apr, 1948 Jun, 1948 Jul, 1948 Aug, 1948 Sep, 1948 Nov, 1948 Dec, 1948 Jan, 1949 Jan, 1949 Jan, 1949 Feb, 1949 Apr, 1949 May, 1949 May, 1949 Jun, 1949 Jul, 1949 Jul, 1949 Aug, 1949 Sep, 1949 Nov, 1949 Dec, 1949 Dec, 1949 Dec, 1949 Jan, 1950 Electricity (MWh) Produced in 2007 72,303 2,031,208 258,715 320,925 4,335,757 338,339 1,847,081 939,089 4,114,772 2,519,081 30,184 495,603 1,297,406 270,579 1,611,812 254,354 2,756,314 405,102 1,600,625 697,566 3,460,179 428,764 1,723,743 181,945 952,495 532,063 298,077 1,951,748 691,412 68,439 2,338,616 145,046 1,315,233 671,689 2,343,971 740,786 1,576,882 538,780 3,388,101 66,430 1,867,412 223,945 38,547 1,910,219 1,017,849 3,041,419 3,078,474 1,139,134 7,399,485 3,645,934

America Relies on Outdated, Polluting Energy

15

Figure 3. America’s electricity comes from old power plants
900 800

Load in 2007 (million MWh)

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s

These two plants were built in 1938. New York, Iowa, and North Carolina follow closely, with plants built in 1940. At 70 years old, these dinosaurs rely on ancient, inefficient infrastructure. See Table 1 for a list of the nation’s 50 oldest power plants in 2007.

America’s Power is Dirty
Currently, power plants do not have to meet any standard of pollution for carbon dioxide. •	 In 2007, power plants released 2.56 billion tons of CO2, equivalent to the amount produced by 449 million of today’s cars. This represents 42 percent of the total U.S. CO2 emissions in 2007.37 Coal-fired power plants are responsible for a disproportionate amount of global warming pollution: though they produced two-thirds of fossil fuel power in 2007, they emitted over 80 percent of the global warming pollution. •	 Georgia, Alabama, and Indiana are home to the dirtiest power plants. Along with Texas, Michigan, and Arizona, these states are home to power plants that each emitted more than 20 million tons of carbon dioxide pollution – equivalent to the pollution from 3.5 million of today’s cars – in 2007. Georgia and Texas both have two plants that belong to this elite dirty club. See Table 2 for a list of the nation’s 50 dirtiest power plants in 2007. •	 Texas, Ohio, Florida, Indiana, and Pennsylvania emit the most CO2 pollution from power plants. Texas power plants emitted nearly twice the amount of CO2 than power plants in Ohio and Florida in 2007, the next highest polluting states.

Year of Plant First Operation

Figure 4. Carbon dioxide emissions in 2007 based on plant age

500 450

CO2 Emissions in 2007 (millions of tons)

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Year of Plant First Operation

16 America’s Biggest Polluters

Table 2. Nation’s 50 Dirtiest Power Plants in 2007
National State Dirty Rank
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 GA AL GA IN TX TX MI AZ MT OH MO TX MN TN WV PA KS WY FL UT OH IN NM WY NC NC OH TX KY IL GA AR LA PA WV SC NC TX IN AL AL KY IN PA PA TX CO NM AL KS

Plant Name
Scherer James H Miller Jr Bowen Gibson Martin Lake W A Parish Monroe Navajo Generating Station Colstrip Gen J M Gavin Labadie Monticello Sherburne County Cumberland John E Amos Bruce Mansfield Jeffrey Energy Center Jim Bridger Crystal River Intermountain W H Sammis Rockport Four Corners Steam Elec Station Laramie River Marshall Roxboro J M Stuart Limestone Paradise Baldwin Energy Complex Wansley (6052) Independence Big Cajun 2 Homer City Harrison Power Station Cross Belews Creek Sam Seymour Petersburg Barry E C Gaston Ghent R M Schahfer Generating Station Conemaugh Keystone Welsh Power Plant Craig San Juan Widows Creek La Cygne

Number of Cars Per Year CO2 (tons) EmitEquivalent to Plant’s CO2 ted in 2007 Emissions in 2007
27,231,087 23,708,510 23,243,818 22,409,315 21,821,564 20,949,613 20,607,472 20,178,992 19,382,298 19,141,670 18,714,405 18,300,186 18,254,456 17,957,234 17,418,609 17,387,361 16,845,936 16,045,976 16,016,868 15,694,058 15,677,291 15,488,966 15,084,774 14,978,559 14,525,077 14,399,402 14,268,967 14,223,953 14,218,230 14,135,508 13,883,696 13,839,850 13,736,733 13,576,987 13,570,101 13,443,593 13,339,822 13,297,420 13,077,495 13,024,927 12,903,601 12,561,781 12,289,294 12,124,919 11,898,614 11,798,412 11,492,044 11,491,631 11,247,466 11,159,641 4,777,384 4,159,388 4,077,863 3,931,459 3,828,345 3,675,371 3,615,346 3,540,174 3,400,403 3,358,188 3,283,229 3,210,559 3,202,536 3,150,392 3,055,896 3,050,414 2,955,427 2,815,084 2,809,977 2,753,344 2,750,402 2,717,362 2,646,452 2,627,817 2,548,259 2,526,211 2,503,327 2,495,430 2,494,426 2,479,914 2,435,736 2,428,044 2,409,953 2,381,928 2,380,720 2,358,525 2,340,320 2,332,881 2,294,297 2,285,075 2,263,790 2,203,821 2,156,016 2,127,179 2,087,476 2,069,897 2,016,148 2,016,076 1,973,240 1,957,832

Date Plant Began Operation
Mar, 1982 Oct, 1978 Oct, 1971 Apr, 1975 May, 1977 Jun, 1958 Mar, 1971 May, 1974 Nov, 1975 Oct, 1974 May, 1970 Dec, 1974 May, 1976 Apr, 1972 Sep, 1971 Dec, 1975 Jul, 1978 Nov, 1974 Oct, 1966 Jul, 1986 Jan, 1959 Dec, 1984 May, 1963 Jun, 1980 Mar, 1965 May, 1966 Jun, 1970 Dec, 1985 Mar, 1963 Jul, 1970 Dec, 1976 Jan, 1983 Jul, 1980 Jun, 1969 Jan, 1972 May, 1984 Aug, 1974 Jun, 1979 May, 1967 Feb, 1954 May, 1960 Feb, 1974 Dec, 1976 May, 1970 Jun, 1967 Mar, 1977 Nov, 1979 Nov, 1973 Jul, 1952 Mar, 1973

America Relies on Outdated, Polluting Energy

17

Figure 5. CO2 Emissions in 2007 by Plant for Dirty Plants (emitted more than 5 million tons of CO2)
30

CO2 Emissions in 2007 (millions of tons)

25

20

15

10

5 1949

1962

1976

1990

2003

Year of Plant First Operation

The Oldest and Dirtiest Often Go Hand-in-hand:
•	 The oldest power plants are dirty. Plants built before 1980 produced 73 percent of the total global warming pollution from power plants in 2007. These represent just less than half of all plants, indicating that the older half of plants produce the lion’s share of pollution. See Figure 4. •	 The dirtiest power plants are old. Of plants that produced more than five million tons of CO2 pollution in 2007, 83 percent were built before 1980. This subset of 129 plants, just 10 percent of all plants in operation—the oldest of the dirtiest— dominate both energy production and pollution, generating just less than half of our power plant electricity and producing half of the power plant CO2 emissions in 2007. See Figure 5. •	 Older means dirtier on average. For each year older a coal generator is on average, it created 0.001 more tons of CO2 for each Megawatt-hour of electricity it produced in 2007. The relationship is slightly stronger for natural gas. See Figures 6 and 7.

18 America’s Biggest Polluters

Figure 6. Older Plants Pollute More per Unit of Energy: Coal Generators
3

2.5

CO2 tons/MWh

2

1.5

1

0.5

0 1935

1948

1962

1976

1989

2003

Year of Generator First Operation

Figure 7. Older Plants Pollute More per Unit of Energy: Natural Gas Generators
3

2.5

2

CO2/MWh

1.5

1

0.5

0 1935

1948

1962

1976

1989

2003

Year of Generator First Operation

America Relies on Outdated, Polluting Energy

19

Power Plants Must Be Required to Clean Up

Cleaning up America’s fleet of aging, inefficient power plants is critical to stopping global warming .
The most recent report by the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 indicates that in order to have a 50-50 percent chance of avoiding dangerous global warming, developed nations as a whole should reduce global warming emissions by 25-40 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and by 80-95 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.38 In 2007, the U.S. electricity sector released more CO2 than any other sector of the American economy. We cannot achieve the real and sustained reductions in global warming pollution that science shows are urgently needed to stop the worst effects of global warming unless we begin now to reduce CO2 pollution from power plants.

A recent report on “The Future of Coal” by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology makes clear that there is “no credible pathway toward GHG stabilization targets without emissions reductions from existing coal plants.” Steady reductions in pollution from power plants are necessary to achieve the deep cuts in pollution the science already shows are necessary by 2030 and later.39 Our analysis shows that half of the CO2 emitted by power plants in 2007 came from a small subset of the oldest of the dirtiest power plants, which also produced about half of our energy. These old polluting giants dominate our electricity sector and pollute without license, posing direct threats to our health and well-being. Requiring decades-old plants, even just the oldest of the dirtiest, to clean up or retire to cleaner energy, will significantly reduce our CO2 pollution and make critical strides towards stopping global warming.

20 America’s Biggest Polluters

Moving to clean energy means leaving old, inefficient, and dirty technology behind .
Our analysis shows that the majority of U.S. electricity in 2007 came from power plants at least three decades old, and that the older half of American plants produced the lion’s share of pollution. America’s power plants operate on outdated, inefficient, and polluting technology. For the same reasons we require cars, air conditioners, and light bulbs to meet technology standards, we must also set standards for power plants. If we are to transition smoothly to a clean energy economy and solve global warming, power plants – old and new alike – must not be permitted to keep running on inefficient, decades-old technology. Moving to clean energy means leaving old, inefficient, and dirty technology behind. The U.S. Department of Energy projects that electricity demand will remain relatively flat over the next two decades, growing at an annual average rate of less than 1 percent40 – and that’s without factoring in the enormous efficiency gains that we can and should make. These projections make it clear that allowing polluting fossil fuels to maintain the monopoly over America’s electricity will result in a much smaller market for renewables. Making the move to clean, renewable energy will cut pollution as well as jump-start our economy and create millions of clean energy jobs.

Policy Recommendations
Clean energy holds the future of America—to make our nation more energy independent, create millions of

new jobs, and avoid the worst effects of global warming. In order to realize this clean energy future, it is critical that we enforce pollution standards for power plants and create incentives and standards for moving to clean energy. The Environmental Protection Agency should implement the Clean Air Act to finally require power plants to meet modern pollution standards for carbon. The United States cannot achieve a clean energy economy or lead the world in stopping global warming while our most egregious polluters run rampant. The EPA should also finalize the recently proposed rule to require coal plants and other large smokestack industries to use available technology to cut their global warming pollution when new facilities are constructed or existing facilities are significantly modified. Congress should pass strong clean energy and global warming legislation. To ensure that the United States reduces pollution from across the economy to the levels that science dictates are necessary to prevent the worst impacts of global warming, Congress should enact a federal cap on global warming pollution. The cap should be consistent with the goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 35 percent below 2005 levels by 2020 and by at least 80 percent below 2005 levels by 2050. Clean energy and global warming legislation should also include a federal renewable electricity standard to ensure that the United States receives at least 25 percent of its electricity from clean renewable sources of energy by 2025—reducing the need for continued dependence on polluting fossil fuels. These policies should be paired with standards for and investments in energy efficiency. In addition, Congress must ensure that legislation does not weaken the ability of the Clean Air Act to require power plants to clean up.

Power Plants Must Be Required to Clean Up

21

Congress should eliminate subsidies that help keep our nation dependent on fossil fuels. For decades, the coal industry has been given hand-outs for electricity production. A 2009 report by the Environmental Law Institute found that traditional fossil fuels received more than five times more federal subsidies—including direct spending and tax breaks—than traditional renewables received during 2002-2008.41 Electricity production incentives should target energy sources that provide benefits to our environment and our economy.

22 America’s Biggest Polluters

Methodology

he Environmental Protection Agency’s Acid Rain Program tracks pollution and other data for more than 1,200 of the country’s dirtiest power plants. The Acid Rain Program was created under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act to reduce sulfur dioxide pollution from power plants. Electric utilities have reported their CO2 emissions under the program since 1995. This report uses the database from the most recent year with finalized data, 2007, to examine CO2 emissions for the nation’s power plants. For the purposes of this report, the age of a plant is defined to be the earliest commercial operation of that plant’s oldest generator. Thus, if a plant had 4 generators operating in 2007, and they were built in 1955, 1965, 1975, and 1985, the “plant age” in 2007 would be 52 years. Since retired generators aren’t included in the Acid Rain Program database, this measure will underestimate the length of time the plant has existed.

T

“Plant emissions” includes emissions from all operating generators at that plant as tracked by the Acid Rain Program. The “dirtiest plant” is determined by the total carbon dioxide emissions from all generators at that plant in 2007. Plants that did not generate electricity in 2007 but were still in the Acid Rain Program database were not included in this analysis. For example, the oldest plant in the database for 2007 was built in Michigan in 1930. However, this plant recorded no electricity output and no emissions data for 2007, so for these purposes, it is not considered in this analysis of plants in operation in 2007. This analysis excludes plants in Alaska and Hawaii because EPA’s database does not cover them. Washington, DC is included. Four generators from two plants in Rhode Island were omitted from our analysis for lack of CO2 emissions data in the EPA database for 2007.

Methodology

23

Notes
1. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gas Report, 3 December 2008. 2. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007, April 2009 shows that total CO2 emissions in 2007 were 6.103 billion tons. 3. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual 2007, 21 January 2009. 4. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Annual 2007: Figure ES 1, 21 January 2009. 5. Associated Press, Seth Borenstein, Washington, “Arctic Sea Ice Gone in Summer Within Five Years?”, 12 December 2007. 6. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gas Report: Table 11, 3 December 2008. 7. American Lung Association, State of the Air Report 2009, 2009. 8. van Eeden SF, Yeung A, Quinlam K, and Hogg JC, Systemic Response to Ambient Particulate Matter: Relevance to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.,Proc Am Thorac Soc 2005; 2:61-67. 9. Clean Air Task Force, Dirty Air, Dirty Power: Mortality and Health Damage Due to Air Pollution from Power Plants, June 2004. 10. See note 7. 11. National Research Council of the National Academies, Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use, The National Academies Press, October 2009. 12. Clean Air Task Force, Laid to Waste: The Dirty Secret of Combustion Waste from America’s Power Plants, 2000. 13. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury; Mercury Study Report to Congress. 14. United States Public Interest Research Group, Made in the U.S.A.: Power Plants and Mercury Pollution Across the Country, September 2005. 15. EPA Toxics Release Inventory, accessed October 2009; available at www.epa.gov 16. Public Citizen, Coal Combustion Waste fact sheet, accessed October 2009. 17. Chattanooga Times Free Press, “100 days later, ash spill questions linger for Tennessee Valley Authority”, April 2009. 18. See note 15. 19. EPA, Mid-Atlantic Mountaintop Mining Environmental Impact Statement, accessed October 2009. 20. Chesapeake Energy, Hydraulic Fracturing Fact Sheet, October 2009; available at www. chk.com/Media/CorpMediaKits/Hydraulic_Frac_Fact_Sheet.pdf 21. Environment America Research & Policy Center, Toxic Chemicals On Tap: How Natural Gas Drilling Threatens Drinking Water, November 2009. 22. Jon Hurdle, Reuters, “Penn. Charges Cabot with natgas chemical spills”, September 22, 2009.

23. EPA, Climate Change, Methane, accessed October 2009, available at www. epa.gov/methane/. 24. EIA, Natural Gas Pipelines, Basics, accessed October 2009, available at tonto.eia.doe.gov/energyexplained/index. cfm?page=natural_gas_pipelines 25. EPA, Oil and Gas Sector Information, accessed October 2009, available at www.epa.gov/ispd/sectorinfo/sectorprofiles/oilandgas.html 26. 2006 gross domestic product equaled $13,178.4 billion in 2007 dollars. From U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Current-Dollar and “Real” Gross Domestic Product, 29 April 2009. The United States spent $921.2 billion in 2007 dollars on fossil fuels in 2006. U.S. consumption data from U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration, State Energy Data System, Consumption, British Thermal Units, 1960-2006, 28 November 2008. U.S. price data from U.S. Dept. of

24 America’s Biggest Polluters

Energy, Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook: Low-Price Case, Table 3. Energy Prices by Sector and Source, March 2009. 27. Total government discretionary spending, including government branches, departments, administrations and agencies, totaled $840.3 billion in 2006. Total government spending, including mandatory spending, was $2,568 in 2006. United States Government Printing Office, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2006, Table S-10, Budget Summary by Category, 28 January 2008. Available at www.gpoaccess. gov/usbudget/fy06/browse.html. 2006 population from U.S. Census Bureau, Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007, 27 December 2007. 28. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2007: Table 2. Income Before Taxes: Average Annual Expenditures and Characteristics, 28 November 2008. 29. According to recent estimates of reactor overnight costs, and assuming a new reactor will have a 1,000 MW capacity. The low end of the range is represented by: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2009, Table 8.12, Cost Characteristics for Advanced Nuclear Technology: Three Cases, Report DOE/EIA-0554, March 2009; and the high end of the range is represented by Jim Harding, Economics of Nuclear Reactors and Alternatives, February 2009; many estimates are reviewed in Mark Cooper, Vermont Law School, Institute for Energy and the Environment, The Economics of Nuclear Reactors: Renaissance or Relapse?, June 2009. 30. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, An Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Costs, DOE/EIA-051, 1988; Jonathan Koomey and Nate Hultman, “A Reactor-

Level Analysis of Busbar Costs for U.S. Nuclear Plants, 1970-2005,” Energy Policy 35: 5630-5642, November 2007. 31. Associated Press, “3-Year Delay Expected at Finnish Nuclear Plant,” International Herald Tribune, 17 October 2008; James Kanter, “More Delays at Finnish Nuclear Plant,” New York Times, 2 September 2009. 32. Environment America Research & Policy Center, Nuclear Power and Global Warming, November 2009. 33. Public Citizen fact sheet, New Nuclear Power Plants = More Nuclear Waste, August 2003. 34. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Energy Efficiency in the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009: Impacts of Current Provisions and Opportunities to Enhance the Legislation, September 2009. 35. U.S. Department of Energy, Office Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Wind Powering America: Clean Energy for the 21st Century, 2 March 2005. 36. U.S. Department of Energy, National Center for Photovoltaics, How Much Land Will PV Need to Supply Our Electricity, available at www.nrel.gov/ ncpv/land_faq.html. 37. EPA Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007, April 2009 shows that total CO2 emissions in 2007 were 6.103 billion tons. 38. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007, February 2007 39. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, “Future of Coal,” March 2007 40. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2009, March 2009 41. Environmental Law Institute, Estimating U.S. Government Subsidies to Energy Sources: 2002-2008, September 2009.

Notes

25

Appendix A. Nation’s 100 Oldest Power Plants in 2007
National Old Rank
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

State
IN WI NY IA NC IA NC MN IN WI AR NY OH WV VA IN NY TX VA MD IL KY IA MS PA CA TX IL OH CO MI NJ NY KS MN WV IN AL MI WI MA MN AR PA NC IL OH NC OH NY

Plant Name
C. C. Perry K Steam Plant Blount Street Oswego Harbor Power Sixth Street Cliffside Dubuque Buck High Bridge Harding Street Station (EW Stout) Pulliam Harvey Couch AES Westover (Goudey) R E Burger Rivesville Power Station Glen Lyn Edwardsport Huntley Power Mountain Creek Generating Station Mirant Potomac River R. Paul Smith Power Station Havana Tyrone Lansing Rex Brown Mitchell Power Station AES Redondo Beach Handley Generating Station Meredosia O H Hutchings Zuni B C Cobb Sewaren Generating Station Rochester 7 - Russell Station Riverton Riverside (1927) Willow Island Power Station IPL Eagle Valley Generating Station Gadsden Trenton Channel DTE Stoneman, LLC Kendall Square Hibbard Energy Center Cecil Lynch Sunbury W H Weatherspoon Wood River Power Station Avon Lake Power Plant Dan River Miami Fort Generating Station Dunkirk

Date Plant Began Operation
Aug, 1938 Dec, 1938 Jan, 1940 Apr, 1940 Jul, 1940 Jun, 1941 Jul, 1941 Jan, 1942 Apr, 1942 Jan, 1943 Sep, 1943 Oct, 1943 Jan, 1944 Jan, 1944 Jun, 1944 Jul, 1944 Jan, 1945 Dec, 1945 Oct, 1946 Jan, 1947 Jul, 1947 Oct, 1947 Jan, 1948 Jan, 1948 Jan, 1948 Feb, 1948 Apr, 1948 Jun, 1948 Jul, 1948 Aug, 1948 Sep, 1948 Nov, 1948 Dec, 1948 Jan, 1949 Jan, 1949 Jan, 1949 Feb, 1949 Apr, 1949 May, 1949 May, 1949 Jun, 1949 Jul, 1949 Jul, 1949 Aug, 1949 Sep, 1949 Nov, 1949 Dec, 1949 Dec, 1949 Dec, 1949 Jan, 1950

Electricity (MWh) Produced in 2007
72,303 2,031,208 258,715 320,925 4,335,757 338,339 1,847,081 939,089 4,114,772 2,519,081 30,184 495,603 1,297,406 270,579 1,611,812 254,354 2,756,314 405,102 1,600,625 697,566 3,460,179 428,764 1,723,743 181,945 952,495 532,063 298,077 1,951,748 691,412 68,439 2,338,616 145,046 1,315,233 671,689 2,343,971 740,786 1,576,882 538,780 3,388,101 66,430 1,867,412 223,945 38,547 1,910,219 1,017,849 3,041,419 3,078,474 1,139,134 7,399,485 3,645,934

26 America’s Biggest Polluters

National Old Rank
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

State
WV AR NY OK KS VA MI GA TX NY NY IN AL TX NC MS PA OH WI SC MD NY UT TN CO MA NY WI WV IL GA TX KS PA PA OH AZ MI WI AL NH NC VA MI NY NY IL FL MO KY

Plant Name
Phil Sporn Lake Catherine AES Greenidge Mustang Hutchinson Energy Center Bremo Power Station Mistersky Yates Knox Lee Power Plant S A Carlson Dynegy Danskammer Tanners Creek Gorgas Laredo H F Lee Steam Electric Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Plant Titus Richard Gorsuch Edgewater (4050) W S Lee Riverside East River Gadsby Johnsonville Arapahoe Salem Harbor Glenwood Rock River Albright Power Station Waukegan McManus Plant X Murray Gill Energy Center Elrama New Castle Walter C Beckjord Generating Station Kyrene Generating Station J R Whiting Bay Front Widows Creek Schiller Riverbend Chesterfield Power Station St. Clair Astoria Generating Station Far Rockaway Hutsonville Scholz Electric Generating Plant Meramec Shawnee

Date Plant Began Operation
Jan, 1950 Mar, 1950 Apr, 1950 May, 1950 Jun, 1950 Jun, 1950 Aug, 1950 Sep, 1950 Nov, 1950 Dec, 1950 Jan, 1951 Mar, 1951 Apr, 1951 May, 1951 May, 1951 May, 1951 Jun, 1951 Jul, 1951 Jul, 1951 Jul, 1951 Sep, 1951 Sep, 1951 Sep, 1951 Oct, 1951 Nov, 1951 Nov, 1951 Jan, 1952 Jan, 1952 Jan, 1952 Jan, 1952 Jan, 1952 May, 1952 May, 1952 Jun, 1952 Jun, 1952 Jun, 1952 Jul, 1952 Jul, 1952 Jul, 1952 Jul, 1952 Oct, 1952 Oct, 1952 Nov, 1952 Jan, 1953 Jan, 1953 Jan, 1953 Feb, 1953 Feb, 1953 Apr, 1953 Apr, 1953

Electricity (MWh) Produced in 2007
6,572,030 33,801 760,243 1,037,489 161,622 1,582,334 134,060 8,098,859 391,658 177,602 2,702,823 6,427,036 7,846,560 858,552 2,703,506 27,689 1,480,982 1,488,696 5,046,739 1,669,868 26,669 3,039,506 705,083 8,894,715 1,076,484 2,037,242 226,097 35,639 1,481,481 5,112,471 16,843 1,424,136 175,741 2,231,618 1,544,709 6,654,641 859,572 2,576,510 385,363 10,723,662 1,049,335 2,406,854 9,494,715 8,304,907 2,266,494 265,093 902,719 440,027 6,309,911 10,233,322

Appendices

27

Appendix B. Oldest Power Plant in Each State in 2007
National Old Rank
38 11 87 26 30 112 360 134 98 58 4 670 21 1 34 22 160 41 20 168 31 8 99 24 207 5 291 125 91 32 170 301 3 13 54 525 25 603 70 474 74 18 73 15 565 443 2 14 214

State
AL AR AZ CA CO CT DC DE FL GA IA ID IL IN KS KY LA MA MD ME MI MN MO MS MT NC ND NE NH NJ NM NV NY OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VA VT WA WI WV WY

Plant Name
Gadsden Harvey Couch Kyrene Generating Station AES Redondo Beach Zuni Montville Benning Generation Station Edge Moor Scholz Electric Generating Plant Yates Sixth Street Rathdrum Combustion Turbine Project Havana C. C. Perry K Steam Plant Riverton Tyrone Teche Power Station Kendall Square R. Paul Smith Power Station William F Wyman B C Cobb High Bridge Meramec Rex Brown Lewis & Clark Cliffside R M Heskett North Omaha Station Schiller Sewaren Generating Station Rio Grande Sunrise Oswego Harbor Power R E Burger Mustang Boardman Mitchell Power Station Pawtucket Power Associates, LP W S Lee Big Stone Johnsonville Mountain Creek Generating Station Gadsby Glen Lyn J C McNeil Centralia Blount Street Rivesville Power Station Dave Johnston

Date Plant Began Operation
Apr, 1949 Sep, 1943 Jul, 1952 Feb, 1948 Aug, 1948 Jan, 1954 Jun, 1968 Dec, 1954 Feb, 1953 Sep, 1950 Apr, 1940 Jan, 1995 Jul, 1947 Aug, 1938 Jan, 1949 Oct, 1947 May, 1956 Jun, 1949 Jan, 1947 Jan, 1957 Sep, 1948 Jan, 1942 Apr, 1953 Jan, 1948 Sep, 1958 Jul, 1940 Nov, 1963 Jul, 1954 Oct, 1952 Nov, 1948 Jan, 1957 May, 1964 Jan, 1940 Jan, 1944 May, 1950 Apr, 1980 Jan, 1948 Feb, 1991 Jul, 1951 May, 1975 Oct, 1951 Dec, 1945 Sep, 1951 Jun, 1944 Jun, 1984 Dec, 1972 Dec, 1938 Jan, 1944 Nov, 1958

Electricity (MWh) Produced in 2007
538,780 30,184 859,572 532,063 68,439 95,484 72,577 2,078,705 440,027 8,098,859 320,925 19,471 3,460,179 72,303 671,689 428,764 1,038,111 1,867,412 697,566 406,954 2,338,616 939,089 6,309,911 181,945 342,353 4,335,757 541,941 3,629,878 1,049,335 145,046 702,165 72,873 258,715 1,297,406 1,037,489 4,618,225 952,495 36,033 1,669,868 2,605,306 8,894,715 405,102 705,083 1,611,812 316,808 9,312,408 2,031,208 270,579 6,207,237

28 America’s Biggest Polluters

Appendix C. Nation's 100 Dirtiest Power Plants in 2007
Number of Cars Per Year Equivalent to Plant’s CO2 Emissions in 2007
4,777,384 4,159,388 4,077,863 3,931,459 3,828,345 3,675,371 3,615,346 3,540,174 3,400,403 3,358,188 3,283,229 3,210,559 3,202,536 3,150,392 3,055,896 3,050,414 2,955,427 2,815,084 2,809,977 2,753,344 2,750,402 2,717,362 2,646,452 2,627,817 2,548,259 2,526,211 2,503,327 2,495,430 2,494,426 2,479,914 2,435,736 2,428,044 2,409,953 2,381,928 2,380,720 2,358,525 2,340,320 2,332,881 2,294,297 2,285,075 2,263,790 2,203,821 2,156,016 2,127,179 2,087,476 2,069,897 2,016,148 2,016,076 1,973,240 1,957,832

National State Dirty Rank
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 GA AL GA IN TX TX MI AZ MT OH MO TX MN TN WV PA KS WY FL UT OH IN NM WY NC NC OH TX KY IL GA AR LA PA WV SC NC TX IN AL AL KY IN PA PA TX CO NM AL KS

Plant Name
Scherer James H Miller Jr Bowen Gibson Martin Lake W A Parish Monroe Navajo Generating Station Colstrip Gen J M Gavin Labadie Monticello Sherburne County Cumberland John E Amos Bruce Mansfield Jeffrey Energy Center Jim Bridger Crystal River Intermountain W H Sammis Rockport Four Corners Steam Elec Station Laramie River Marshall Roxboro J M Stuart Limestone Paradise Baldwin Energy Complex Wansley (6052) Independence Big Cajun 2 Homer City Harrison Power Station Cross Belews Creek Sam Seymour Petersburg Barry E C Gaston Ghent R M Schahfer Generating Station Conemaugh Keystone Welsh Power Plant Craig San Juan Widows Creek La Cygne

CO2 (tons) Emitted in 2007
27,231,087 23,708,510 23,243,818 22,409,315 21,821,564 20,949,613 20,607,472 20,178,992 19,382,298 19,141,670 18,714,405 18,300,186 18,254,456 17,957,234 17,418,609 17,387,361 16,845,936 16,045,976 16,016,868 15,694,058 15,677,291 15,488,966 15,084,774 14,978,559 14,525,077 14,399,402 14,268,967 14,223,953 14,218,230 14,135,508 13,883,696 13,839,850 13,736,733 13,576,987 13,570,101 13,443,593 13,339,822 13,297,420 13,077,495 13,024,927 12,903,601 12,561,781 12,289,294 12,124,919 11,898,614 11,798,412 11,492,044 11,491,631 11,247,466 11,159,641

Date Plant Began Operation
Mar, 1982 Oct, 1978 Oct, 1971 Apr, 1975 May, 1977 Jun, 1958 Mar, 1971 May, 1974 Nov, 1975 Oct, 1974 May, 1970 Dec, 1974 May, 1976 Apr, 1972 Sep, 1971 Dec, 1975 Jul, 1978 Nov, 1974 Oct, 1966 Jul, 1986 Jan, 1959 Dec, 1984 May, 1963 Jun, 1980 Mar, 1965 May, 1966 Jun, 1970 Dec, 1985 Mar, 1963 Jul, 1970 Dec, 1976 Jan, 1983 Jul, 1980 Jun, 1969 Jan, 1972 May, 1984 Aug, 1974 Jun, 1979 May, 1967 Feb, 1954 May, 1960 Feb, 1974 Dec, 1976 May, 1970 Jun, 1967 Mar, 1977 Nov, 1979 Nov, 1973 Jul, 1952 Mar, 1973

Appendices

29

Appendix C. Nation's 100 Dirtiest Power Plants in 2007 (continued)
Number of Cars Per Year Equivalent to Plant’s CO2 Emissions in 2007
1,948,154 1,939,251 1,920,237 1,915,549 1,877,318 1,874,515 1,861,132 1,859,418 1,837,233 1,836,736 1,830,056 1,814,795 1,784,824 1,779,257 1,746,786 1,736,143 1,730,390 1,727,514 1,697,666 1,674,459 1,664,534 1,645,782 1,644,772 1,641,424 1,636,997 1,623,266 1,613,420 1,612,512 1,586,180 1,584,827 1,581,742 1,551,573 1,543,163 1,531,289 1,510,277 1,505,337 1,502,112 1,470,435 1,450,149 1,438,404 1,430,948 1,426,175 1,421,976 1,421,508 1,420,956 1,417,092 1,412,381 1,404,845 1,396,998 1,390,123

National State Dirty Rank
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 OH AR TN KY WV NE KY OH WA FL UT FL PA ND TX GA FL WV IA IL WI PA MS TN AZ PA IL OK AZ WV IL FL MI VA SC MI OK OK TX WI KY MN MD MI IN GA OH TN AL ND

Plant Name
Conesville White Bluff Kingston Mill Creek Mount Storm Power Station Gerald Gentleman Station Shawnee Cardinal Centralia Big Bend Hunter St. Johns River Power Hatfields Ferry Power Station Coal Creek Big Brown Harllee Branch Seminole (136) Mountaineer (1301) Walter Scott Jr. Energy Center Newton Pleasant Prairie Brunner Island Daniel Electric Generating Plant Johnsonville Springerville Generating Station Montour Joppa Steam Muskogee Cholla Mitchell (WV) Powerton Martin J H Campbell Chesterfield Power Station Winyah Belle River Northeastern Grand River Dam Authority Harrington Station Columbia H L Spurlock Boswell Energy Center Brandon Shores St. Clair Clifty Creek Yates Muskingum River Gallatin Colbert Antelope Valley

CO2 (tons) Emitted in 2007
11,104,478 11,053,731 10,945,350 10,918,631 10,700,711 10,684,738 10,608,452 10,598,682 10,472,231 10,469,398 10,431,321 10,344,332 10,173,499 10,141,763 9,956,682 9,896,014 9,863,224 9,846,831 9,676,698 9,544,417 9,487,843 9,380,958 9,375,199 9,356,114 9,330,886 9,252,615 9,196,492 9,191,321 9,041,223 9,033,512 9,015,927 8,843,967 8,796,026 8,728,350 8,608,578 8,580,419 8,562,036 8,381,481 8,265,848 8,198,904 8,156,403 8,129,199 8,105,262 8,102,594 8,099,448 8,077,423 8,050,570 8,007,616 7,962,886 7,923,701

Date Plant Began Operation
Oct, 1962 Aug, 1980 Jan, 1954 Jul, 1972 Sep, 1965 Apr, 1979 Apr, 1953 Feb, 1967 Dec, 1972 Oct, 1970 Jun, 1978 Mar, 1987 Jan, 1969 Aug, 1979 Dec, 1971 Jun, 1965 Jan, 1984 Sep, 1980 Mar, 1954 Nov, 1977 Jul, 1980 Jun, 1961 Sep, 1977 Oct, 1951 Jun, 1985 Nov, 1971 Aug, 1953 May, 1956 May, 1962 May, 1971 Jul, 1973 Dec, 1980 Aug, 1962 Nov, 1952 Mar, 1975 Apr, 1984 Jun, 1970 Jan, 1982 Jul, 1976 Mar, 1975 Sep, 1977 Jul, 1958 May, 1984 Jan, 1953 Feb, 1955 Sep, 1950 Dec, 1953 Oct, 1956 Dec, 1954 Jul, 1984

30 America’s Biggest Polluters

Appendix D. Dirtiest Power Plant in Each State in 2007
Number of Cars Per Year CO2 (tons) Equivalent to Plant’s CO2 Emitted in 2007 Emissions in 2007
23,708,510 13,839,850 20,178,992 3,429,064 11,492,044 2,710,815 35,209 4,173,376 16,016,868 27,231,087 9,676,698 529,599 14,135,508 22,409,315 16,845,936 14,218,230 13,736,733 7,879,629 8,105,262 991,719 20,607,472 18,254,456 18,714,405 9,375,199 19,382,298 14,525,077 10,141,763 10,684,738 3,726,216 3,282,313 15,084,774 4,718,754 5,289,504 19,141,670 9,191,321 4,813,294 17,387,361 1,187,053 13,443,593 2,947,753 17,957,234 21,821,564 15,694,058 8,728,350 470,815 10,472,231 9,487,843 17,418,609 16,045,976 4,159,388 2,428,044 3,540,174 601,590 2,016,148 475,582 6,177 732,171 2,809,977 4,777,384 1,697,666 92,912 2,479,914 3,931,459 2,955,427 2,494,426 2,409,953 1,382,391 1,421,976 173,986 3,615,346 3,202,536 3,283,229 1,644,772 3,400,403 2,548,259 1,779,257 1,874,515 653,722 575,844 2,646,452 827,852 927,983 3,358,188 1,612,512 844,438 3,050,414 208,255 2,358,525 517,150 3,150,392 3,828,345 2,753,344 1,531,289 82,599 1,837,233 1,664,534 3,055,896 2,815,084

State
AL AR AZ CA CO CT DC DE FL GA IA ID IL IN KS KY LA MA MD ME MI MN MO MS MT NC ND NE NH NJ NM NV NY OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VA VT WA WI WV WY

Plant Name
James H Miller Jr Independence Navajo Generating Station Moss Landing Craig Bridgeport Harbor Station Benning Generation Station Indian River Crystal River Scherer Walter Scott Jr. Energy Center Rathdrum Power, LLC Baldwin Energy Complex Gibson Jeffrey Energy Center Paradise Big Cajun 2 Brayton Point Brandon Shores Westbrook Energy Center Monroe Sherburne County Labadie Daniel Electric Generating Plant Colstrip Marshall Coal Creek Gerald Gentleman Station Merrimack Mercer Generating Station Four Corners Steam Elec Station Reid Gardner AES Somerset (Kintigh ) Gen J M Gavin Muskogee Boardman Bruce Mansfield Rhode Island State Energy Partners Cross Big Stone Cumberland Martin Lake Intermountain Chesterfield Power Station J C McNeil Centralia Pleasant Prairie John E Amos Jim Bridger

National Dirty Rank
2 32 8 229 47 270 998 185 19 1 69 603 30 4 17 29 33 101 93 483 7 13 11 73 9 25 64 56 213 238 23 163 151 10 78 161 16 448 36 252 14 5 20 84 629 59 71 15 18

Date Plant Began Operation
Oct, 1978 Jan, 1983 May, 1974 Oct, 1967 Nov, 1979 Nov, 1957 Jun, 1968 Jun, 1957 Oct, 1966 Mar, 1982 Mar, 1954 Jul, 2001 Jul, 1970 Apr, 1975 Jul, 1978 Mar, 1963 Jul, 1980 Apr, 1963 May, 1984 Feb, 2001 Mar, 1971 May, 1976 May, 1970 Sep, 1977 Nov, 1975 Mar, 1965 Aug, 1979 Apr, 1979 Dec, 1960 Dec, 1960 May, 1963 Apr, 1965 Aug, 1984 Oct, 1974 May, 1956 Apr, 1980 Dec, 1975 Jul, 2002 May, 1984 May, 1975 Apr, 1972 May, 1977 Jul, 1986 Nov, 1952 Jun, 1984 Dec, 1972 Jul, 1980 Sep, 1971 Nov, 1974

Appendices

31

Appendix E. States Ranked by Total CO2 Emitted From Power Plants in 2007
CO2 (tons) Emitted by All Plants in 2007
259,316,148 138,746,713 134,421,884 132,366,579 123,583,904 109,133,960 101,784,836 100,758,584 94,803,587 90,852,440 80,547,112 78,857,483 77,693,441 66,351,591 63,711,756 51,635,313 49,966,375 49,718,002 49,575,411 47,548,400 47,340,646 46,472,992 43,925,814 43,010,571 42,451,036 42,177,274 39,928,099 37,999,633 34,679,303 32,700,106 32,281,960 30,876,990 30,063,514 25,044,476 23,461,853 22,419,752 17,049,816 14,697,856 12,766,455 10,728,865 8,168,879 7,845,513 6,786,731 3,533,199 3,241,000 2,417,212 685,225 470,815 35,209

National Rank
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

State
TX OH FL IN PA IL KY GA AL WV MO MI NC AZ TN OK WY WI NY LA CO SC IA KS CA UT MN VA ND AR NM MS MD MA NE MT NV NJ WA OR CT NH DE ME SD RI ID VT DC

Number of Cars Per Year Equivalent to State’s Power Plant CO2 Emissions in 2007
45,494,061 24,341,529 23,582,787 23,222,207 21,681,387 19,146,309 17,856,989 17,676,945 16,632,208 15,939,025 14,131,072 13,834,646 13,630,428 11,640,630 11,177,501 9,058,827 8,766,031 8,722,456 8,697,441 8,341,824 8,305,377 8,153,157 7,706,283 7,545,714 7,447,550 7,399,522 7,004,930 6,666,602 6,084,088 5,736,861 5,663,502 5,417,016 5,274,301 4,393,768 4,116,115 3,933,290 2,991,196 2,578,571 2,239,729 1,882,257 1,433,137 1,376,406 1,190,655 619,860 568,597 424,072 120,215 82,599 6,177

32 America’s Biggest Polluters

Appendix F. All Power Plants in Data Set
Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Apr, 2004 Feb, 1954 Jan, 2003 Mar, 1969 Dec, 1954 Mar, 2002 Jan, 2003 May, 1960 Apr, 1949 Apr, 1951 Jun, 1965 Mar, 2001 Oct, 1978 Jun, 1991 Aug, 1996 Apr, 2003 Dec, 2001 May, 1999 Dec, 2002 Jan, 2002 Oct, 2000 Feb, 1999 Jul, 1952 Mar, 1966 Jul, 1949 Apr, 2007 Jan, 1978 Apr, 2001 Jun, 1999 Sep, 1943 Mar, 2002 May, 2005 Jan, 1983 Mar, 1950 Apr, 1970 Mar, 2002 Aug, 2001 Apr, 1961 Dec, 2002 Sep, 2002 Aug, 1980 Apr, 1957 Sep, 1964 Jun, 1954 Apr, 2001 Mar, 2002 May, 1962 Dec, 1979 Apr, 2001 Sep, 2001 Jan, 2003 Mar, 2001 May, 1958 Jul, 1952 Feb, 2003 May, 1974 1,109 117 1,041 367 138 947 1,038 242 38 63 321 821 510 610 699 1,065 928 729 1,025 934 806 725 90 328 43 1,167 502 840 731 11 948 1,133 553 52 392 943 904 257 1,032 1,014 532 171 305 120 838 942 266 524 844 907 1,039 822 192 87 1,044 459 14,771 13,024,927 298,185 4,376,875 7,962,886 1,212,350 1,415,320 12,903,601 764,053 7,661,432 4,493,535 41,230 23,708,510 13,815 461,992 1,385,693 1,565,035 348,547 297,532 392,980 664,780 548,072 11,247,466 6,777 31,872 67,596 3,927,688 6,995 60,960 25,944 467,244 717,843 13,839,850 24,493 128,956 152,052 484,773 80 65,105 1,638,148 11,053,731 131,172 3,713,481 85,925 775,029 656,747 9,041,223 6,610,737 15,384 813,835 3,172,449 848,203 1,067,132 373,066 3,383,772 20,178,992 2,591 2,285,075 52,313 767,873 1,396,998 212,693 248,302 2,263,790 134,044 1,344,111 788,339 7,233 4,159,388 2,424 81,051 243,104 274,568 61,149 52,199 68,944 116,628 96,153 1,973,240 1,189 5,592 11,859 689,068 1,227 10,695 4,552 81,973 125,937 2,428,044 4,297 22,624 26,676 85,048 14 11,422 287,394 1,939,251 23,013 651,488 15,075 135,970 115,219 1,586,180 1,159,778 2,699 142,778 556,570 148,808 187,216 65,450 593,644 3,540,174 1,076 40 711 176 99 439 401 41 543 105 168 974 2 1,081 631 406 373 687 712 661 566 596 49 1,135 1,010 910 196 1,133 928 1,025 630 552 32 1,029 827 797 624 1,175 919 361 52 822 214 888 540 569 79 128 1,074 525 244 516 470 672 232 8 26,222 16,016,141 458,758 3,911,642 8,146,456 2,033,443 3,483,812 12,873,511 538,780 7,846,560 4,241,229 99,679 22,951,465 26,319 719,741 3,300,573 3,700,968 859,322 694,789 940,012 1,638,203 1,346,449 10,723,662 8,424 38,547 164,513 3,789,002 40,178 72,283 30,184 1,051,853 1,225,356 12,639,771 33,801 112,817 404,115 1,182,947 0 114,645 3,301,595 10,430,700 213,021 3,412,678 120,980 1,594,528 1,612,288 8,740,710 6,488,089 19,975 1,698,129 7,837,992 2,043,468 1,140,018 859,572 8,230,565 19,128,129

State

Plant Name

Fuel

AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AL AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AR AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ

AMEA Sylacauga Plant Barry Calhoun Power Company I, LLC Charles R Lowman Colbert Decatur Energy Center E B Harris Generating Plant E C Gaston Gadsden Gorgas Greene County Hog Bayou Energy Center James H Miller Jr McIntosh (7063) McWilliams Morgan Energy Center Plant H. Allen Franklin SABIC Innovative Plastics - Burkville Tenaska Central Alabama Gen Station Tenaska Lindsay Hill Theodore Cogeneration Washington County Cogen (Olin) Widows Creek Carl Bailey Cecil Lynch Dell Power Plant Flint Creek Power Plant Fulton Harry D. Mattison Power Plant Harvey Couch Hot Spring Energy Facility Hot Spring Power Co., LLC Independence Lake Catherine McClellan Oswald Generating Station Pine Bluff Energy Center Robert E Ritchie Thomas Fitzhugh Union Power Station White Bluff Agua Fria Generating Station Apache Station APS Saguaro Power Plant APS West Phoenix Power Plant Arlington Valley Energy Facility Cholla Coronado Generating Station De Moss Petrie Generating Station Desert Basin Generating Station Gila River Power Station Griffith Energy Project Irvington Generating Station Kyrene Generating Station Mesquite Generating Station Navajo Generating Station

Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal

Appendices

33

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
May, 2003 Feb, 1960 Apr, 2002 Nov, 2004 Mar, 2001 Jun, 1985 May, 2002 Mar, 1959 Jul, 1956 May, 1958 Feb, 1948 Jun, 2003 Apr, 1996 May, 1991 Feb, 2003 Jan, 1965 Nov, 1954 Oct, 2001 Dec, 2001 Oct, 2001 Nov, 2001 Dec, 2001 Sep, 1987 Apr, 2001 Oct, 1995 Nov, 2003 May, 2001 Jan, 1964 Apr, 1961 Jan, 2006 Dec, 2002 Dec, 2001 Mar, 2005 Jul, 1960 Nov, 1957 Jul, 1964 Mar, 2003 May, 2001 May, 1963 Dec, 2002 Jan, 2005 Nov, 2001 Sep, 2001 Jun, 2003 Dec, 2002 Nov, 1954 Sep, 2001 Oct, 1994 Jul, 1962 Jul, 2002 Feb, 2003 Aug, 1956 Jul, 2001 Jun, 2005 Mar, 2002 Jun, 2002 Dec, 2002 1,074 238 960 1,119 817 574 973 221 162 193 26 1,080 694 606 1,048 307 132 915 922 914 919 925 585 829 686 1,096 855 293 258 1,153 1,027 923 1,127 250 183 303 1,052 856 282 1,029 1,121 921 910 1,075 1,026 129 905 667 271 999 1,049 164 891 1,138 944 996 1,024 1,268,729 121,481 1,848,331 1,683,518 920,081 9,330,886 90,276 221,143 994,779 905,557 343,210 29,636 53,003 29,390 543,529 9,391 1,618,096 23,255 19,764 16,142 7,444 7,719 136,416 1,119,265 240,734 207,299 1,627 90,721 421,624 1,480,952 7,979 2,205,555 268,882 509,294 269,356 360,581 1,505,361 2,474 444,830 15,978 31,505 50,910 11,615 24,331 9,204 139,125 23,232 140,435 2,019,802 13,330 1,921,877 365,324 52,992 76,029 2,812,443 4,992 9,083 222,584 21,312 324,269 295,354 161,418 1,636,997 15,838 38,797 174,523 158,870 60,212 5,199 9,299 5,156 95,356 1,648 283,876 4,080 3,467 2,832 1,306 1,354 23,933 196,362 42,234 36,368 285 15,916 73,969 259,816 1,400 386,939 47,172 89,350 47,255 63,260 264,098 434 78,040 2,803 5,527 8,932 2,038 4,269 1,615 24,408 4,076 24,638 354,351 2,339 337,171 64,092 9,297 13,338 493,411 876 1,594 431 835 336 353 497 75 882 749 482 503 689 1,014 943 1,015 599 1,109 366 1,035 1,055 1,066 1,128 1,124 814 461 740 758 1,155 881 653 390 1,122 299 730 613 729 677 388 1,150 642 1,067 1,012 952 1,101 1,030 1,112 808 1,037 805 319 1,087 328 674 944 899 263 1,141 1,113 1,986,323 182,732 2,744,493 3,837,592 2,226,269 9,953,808 144,427 324,401 1,538,175 1,325,262 532,063 51,356 90,897 50,613 885,749 13,467 774,737 37,417 31,255 25,802 12,049 12,281 668,334 2,895,911 397,525 420,315 1,789 148,070 706,474 2,526,963 13,584 5,422,872 586,162 798,461 367,489 568,544 3,644,231 2,983 653,274 26,870 55,054 94,208 19,623 37,176 15,408 131,842 36,936 245,238 4,146,443 21,805 2,901,772 486,169 83,218 131,522 6,370,279 8,117 15,468

Fuel

AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ AZ CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA

New Harquahala Generating Company, LLC Ocotillo Power Plant Redhawk Generating Facility Santan South Point Energy Center, LLC Springerville Generating Station Sundance Power Plant Yuma Axis AES Alamitos AES Huntington Beach AES Redondo Beach Agua Mansa Power Almond Power Plant Anaheim Combustion Turbine Blythe Energy Broadway Cabrillo Power I Encina Power Station CalPeak Power - Border LLC CalPeak Power - El Cajon LLC CalPeak Power - Enterprise LLC CalPeak Power - Panoche LLC CalPeak Power - Vaca Dixon LLC Calpine Gilroy Cogen, LP Calpine Sutter Energy Center Carson Cogeneration Carson Cogeneration Company Chula Vista Power Plant Contra Costa Power Plant Coolwater Generating Station Cosumnes Power Plant Creed Energy Center Delta Energy Center, LLC Donald Von Raesfeld Dynegy South Bay, LLC El Centro El Segundo Elk Hills Power Escondido Power Plant Etiwanda Generating Station Feather River Energy Center Fresno Cogeneration Partners, LP Gilroy Energy Center, LLC Gilroy Energy Center, LLC for King City Glenarm Goose Haven Energy Center Grayson Power Plant Hanford Energy Park Peaker Harbor Generating Station Haynes Generating Station Henrietta Peaker Plant High Desert Power Project Humboldt Bay Indigo Generation Facility Kings River Conservation District Malaga La Paloma Generating Plant Lake Lambie Energy Center

Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Other Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

34 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jul, 2001 Dec, 2002 May, 2001 Sep, 2005 Jul, 2005 Apr, 1959 May, 2005 May, 2005 Jan, 1970 Oct, 1967 Aug, 2005 Apr, 1996 Jan, 1958 Dec, 1971 Oct, 2005 Feb, 2005 Aug, 1960 Jan, 1970 Jun, 2002 Jun, 2006 Mar, 2006 Apr, 2003 Jun, 2007 Aug, 1997 Apr, 1997 Dec, 1958 Jun, 2001 Apr, 2003 Aug, 2001 Oct, 2005 Dec, 2001 Jan, 2003 Dec, 1993 Jun, 2002 Nov, 1951 May, 2000 Jan, 2003 May, 2000 Mar, 1960 Sep, 1957 Nov, 1975 Nov, 1979 May, 1996 Jul, 2001 Apr, 2002 Dec, 2002 Jul, 1965 Dec, 2001 Jul, 2000 Oct, 1962 Jun, 1990 Dec, 1981 Apr, 1984 Apr, 1980 Mar, 2004 Apr, 2007 May, 1964 May, 2000 882 1,031 851 1,147 1,144 223 1,137 1,136 376 352 1,145 693 185 429 1,150 1,123 251 377 981 1,162 1,155 1,071 1,173 711 707 216 877 1,063 903 1,149 931 1,035 652 994 75 777 1,033 780 239 180 480 521 696 883 958 1,023 323 929 799 276 597 542 561 526 1,102 1,166 297 779 31,839 40,168 1,546,010 328,971 341,470 275,927 1,337,585 4,281 305,629 3,429,064 2,705,366 39,329 1,664 619,648 1,403,805 2,071,866 136,556 315,982 96,630 20,981 23,584 16,397 70,844 524,239 380,907 1,006,825 1,528,392 10,111 1,340,037 663,350 5,696 13,017 203,358 15,434 1,368,739 138,747 353,660 108,767 335,331 5,460,621 5,029,913 11,492,044 1,842,759 296,109 177,994 1,278,399 4,298,546 104,252 214,817 2,256,177 885,588 4,097,660 2,441,148 1,706,023 1,629,680 306,261 1,464,298 10,753 5,586 7,047 271,230 57,714 59,907 48,408 234,664 751 53,619 601,590 474,626 6,900 292 108,710 246,282 363,485 23,957 55,435 16,953 3,681 4,138 2,877 12,429 91,972 66,826 176,636 268,139 1,774 235,094 116,377 999 2,284 35,677 2,708 240,130 24,341 62,046 19,082 58,830 958,004 882,441 2,016,148 323,291 51,949 31,227 224,280 754,131 18,290 37,687 395,821 155,366 718,888 428,271 299,302 285,909 53,730 256,894 1,886 1,011 975 378 694 690 724 413 1,145 707 229 272 983 1,154 578 402 314 813 701 867 1,051 1,032 1,065 905 607 669 479 382 1,105 412 567 1,138 1,091 760 1,073 408 809 683 854 692 145 156 47 337 713 779 427 179 861 752 297 507 188 282 350 363 706 393 1,104 49,233 68,373 3,895,703 1,471,493 734,527 477,392 2,884,799 7,957 539,554 7,834,342 6,646,028 75,922 2,112 1,046,372 3,421,861 4,976,996 202,822 492,789 131,615 33,028 38,659 27,579 157,556 1,261,775 673,023 1,513,482 3,785,553 14,280 3,178,033 1,396,179 9,582 21,612 399,496 26,635 1,076,484 288,079 478,652 152,043 275,472 5,201,080 4,894,646 10,984,037 4,147,458 465,105 237,194 2,873,036 3,916,247 142,067 344,745 2,099,854 774,124 4,017,869 2,547,805 1,625,930 3,693,092 503,197 1,408,777 17,924

Fuel

CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO

Larkspur Energy Faciity Los Esteros Critical Energy Fac Los Medanos Energy Center, LLC Magnolia Malburg Generating Station Mandalay Generating Station Metcalf Energy Center Miramar Energy Facility Morro Bay Power Plant, LLC Moss Landing Mountainview Power Company, LLC NCPA Combustion Turbine Project #2 Olive Ormond Beach Generating Station Palomar Energy Center Pastoria Energy Facility Pittsburg Power Plant (CA) Potrero Power Plant Redding Power Plant Ripon Generation Station Riverside Energy Resource Center Riverview Energy Center Roseville Energy Park Sacramento Power Authority Cogen SCA Cogen II Scattergood Generating Station Sunrise Power Company Tracy Peaker Valley Gen Station Walnut Energy Center Wellhead Power Gates, LLC Wolfskill Energy Center Woodland Generation Station Yuba City Energy Center Arapahoe Arapahoe Combustion Turbine Blue Spruce Energy Center Brush Power Projects Cameo Cherokee Comanche (470) Craig Fort St. Vrain Fountain Valley Combustion Turbine Frank Knutson Station Front Range Power Plant Hayden Limon Generating Station Manchief Generating Station Martin Drake Nucla Pawnee Rawhide Energy Station Ray D Nixon Rocky Mountain Energy Center Spindle Hill Energy Center Valmont Valmont Combustion Turbine Facility

Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas

Appendices

35

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Aug, 1948 Aug, 2007 Jul, 1998 Nov, 1957 Oct, 1989 Jan, 1955 Aug, 2001 Nov, 1958 Mar, 2002 Jan, 1954 Aug, 1975 Jun, 1960 Aug, 2001 Jun, 1968 Jan, 1961 Dec, 1954 Jan, 1990 Jun, 1957 Sep, 1975 Jun, 2001 Jun, 1991 Jan, 2002 Oct, 1974 May, 1971 Dec, 1994 Mar, 2003 Oct, 1970 May, 2001 Feb, 1971 Mar, 1995 Apr, 1965 Jul, 1992 Jul, 1959 Oct, 1966 May, 1987 Nov, 1954 Nov, 1992 Aug, 1972 Jun, 2002 Sep, 2000 May, 2000 Jan, 1964 Aug, 1998 Feb, 1960 Nov, 1991 Aug, 1993 Jul, 2000 Feb, 2001 May, 1965 May, 1993 Oct, 1976 Dec, 1980 Sep, 2001 Aug, 1994 Jun, 1977 Jun, 2002 Jun, 1995 30 1,174 720 184 593 139 896 213 941 112 478 247 902 360 256 134 594 173 479 865 611 933 467 420 669 1,053 407 862 416 673 315 630 229 335 584 130 635 439 982 805 774 295 721 236 617 648 801 814 317 644 489 534 906 665 495 983 682 42,362 8,927 1,079,978 2,710,815 17,217 10,856 1,527,783 445,131 1,249,356 86,790 557,699 308,323 166,003 35,209 148,289 1,964,871 440,867 4,173,376 17,068 11,472 1,689 29,100 3,086,685 578,628 317,705 3,344,102 10,469,398 693,979 3,455,984 657,925 1,620,908 83,668 7,298,602 16,016,868 6,534,109 89,845 121,634 1,743,360 15,717 4,150,268 9,811 8,306 3,289,907 209,839 20,873 597,339 47,349 130,522 3,785,981 2,377,183 5,738,612 8,843,967 427,239 214,831 4,902,453 360,886 191,085 7,432 1,566 189,470 475,582 3,021 1,905 268,032 78,093 219,185 15,226 97,842 54,092 29,123 6,177 26,016 344,714 77,345 732,171 2,994 2,013 296 5,105 541,524 101,514 55,738 586,685 1,836,736 121,751 606,313 115,425 284,370 14,679 1,280,456 2,809,977 1,146,335 15,762 21,339 305,853 2,757 728,117 1,721 1,457 577,177 36,814 3,662 104,796 8,307 22,899 664,207 417,050 1,006,774 1,551,573 74,954 37,690 860,079 63,313 33,524 971 1,118 467 270 1,062 1,103 383 640 435 887 594 704 789 998 800 325 644 185 1,063 1,102 1,153 1,016 247 585 699 233 60 558 227 568 365 890 113 19 132 883 834 346 1,070 186 1,107 1,120 237 756 1,052 581 958 824 209 290 142 82 650 751 158 676 771 68,439 8,825 1,701,188 2,470,109 30,191 12,874 2,338,386 527,477 2,964,870 95,484 578,028 313,814 286,544 72,577 190,511 2,078,705 643,579 4,111,486 19,053 19,856 3,248 50,650 3,461,481 887,658 506,592 5,094,580 9,146,898 1,045,342 3,620,242 1,381,240 2,190,618 104,948 6,794,086 16,142,136 6,555,352 116,277 132,208 1,692,180 24,931 6,402,028 14,097 9,461 5,007,916 277,456 25,158 715,750 76,025 174,192 4,713,517 3,521,885 8,070,899 12,493,014 613,032 1,001,742 4,966,431 545,860 959,063

Fuel

CO CT CT CT CT CT CT CT CT CT CT CT CT DC DE DE DE DE DE DE DE DE FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL

Zuni Alfred L Pierce Generating Station Bridgeport Energy Bridgeport Harbor Station Capitol District Energy Center Devon Lake Road Generating Company Middletown Milford Power Company LLC Montville New Haven Harbor Norwalk Harbor Station Wallingford Energy Benning Generation Station Delaware City Refinery Edge Moor Hay Road Indian River McKee Run NRG Energy Center Dover Van Sant Warren F. Sam Beasley Pwr Station Anclote Arvah B Hopkins Auburndale Cogeneration Facility Bayside Power Station Big Bend Brandy Branch C D McIntosh Jr Power Plant Cane Island Cape Canaveral Charles Larsen Memorial Power Plant Crist Electric Generating Plant Crystal River Curtis H. Stanton Energy Center Cutler Debary Deerhaven Desoto County Generating Co, LLC Fort Myers Hardee Power Station Henry D King Hines Energy Complex Indian River (55318) Indian River (683) Intercession City J D Kennedy J R Kelly Lansing Smith Generating Plant Lauderdale Manatee Martin Midulla Generating Station Mulberry Cogeneration Facility Northside Oleander Power Project Orange Cogeneration Facility

Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Residual Oil Residual Oil Residual Oil Natural Gas Residual Oil Process Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Coal Residual Oil Natural Gas Diesel Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Diesel Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Diesel Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas

36 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Sep, 1993 May, 2004 Sep, 1958 Aug, 1996 May, 1960 Aug, 1977 Mar, 1989 May, 1962 Oct, 2001 Jun, 1966 May, 1959 May, 2002 Feb, 1953 Jan, 1984 Dec, 2001 Mar, 1987 Jul, 2003 Jun, 2006 Nov, 1953 Jul, 1997 Nov, 1967 Apr, 1967 Dec, 1993 Apr, 2002 Sep, 1971 Jun, 2000 Oct, 1971 Nov, 2002 May, 2000 Apr, 2000 Feb, 2003 Jun, 1954 Jun, 1965 Apr, 1994 Feb, 2001 Aug, 1963 Jul, 1958 Feb, 1979 Apr, 2005 Jan, 1952 Oct, 1997 May, 1964 Oct, 1999 Feb, 2002 May, 1995 Jun, 2002 Mar, 1982 May, 2000 Jun, 1999 Jun, 1999 Apr, 2002 Jun, 2001 Apr, 2001 Dec, 1976 Jan, 2004 Feb, 2003 650 1,111 208 700 245 496 589 267 913 330 225 975 98 560 930 583 1,085 1,164 110 709 353 346 654 956 424 791 426 1,021 772 760 1,043 124 322 657 811 286 202 513 1,129 81 714 299 746 936 676 984 547 778 732 739 955 866 841 490 1,100 1,045 457,836 1,003,647 1,520,316 1,869,826 2,422,109 546,098 67,029 1,509,900 199,291 702,681 5,255,488 2,597 572,228 9,863,224 665,482 10,344,332 1,137,137 1,438 267,719 385,202 4,132 3,800,193 201,993 134,924 51,499 18,995 23,243,818 652,671 177,150 38,099 506,358 5,188,147 9,896,014 162,147 32,642 3,888,518 1,653,099 868,039 2,391,102 21,800 130,707 679,637 11,723 854,631 36,108 60,356 27,231,087 103,227 28,468 21,063 136,720 93,329 55,750 13,883,696 376,399 53,116 80,322 176,078 266,722 328,040 424,931 95,807 11,760 264,895 34,963 123,277 922,015 456 100,391 1,730,390 116,751 1,814,795 199,498 252 46,968 67,579 725 666,700 35,437 23,671 9,035 3,332 4,077,863 114,504 31,079 6,684 88,835 910,201 1,736,143 28,447 5,727 682,196 290,017 152,288 419,492 3,825 22,931 119,235 2,057 149,935 6,335 10,589 4,777,384 18,110 4,994 3,695 23,986 16,373 9,781 2,435,736 66,035 9,319 632 480 385 334 283 598 912 387 764 556 152 1,149 589 67 565 62 456 1,157 732 666 1,147 206 763 816 948 1,059 3 570 781 990 616 154 66 790 1,008 199 359 511 285 1,045 823 563 1,100 514 996 931 1 863 1,019 1,050 812 872 938 31 670 942 978,479 2,291,441 1,539,485 1,477,058 2,960,872 960,770 101,045 1,962,534 310,404 1,006,880 7,839,255 3,065 440,027 10,056,637 1,054,112 10,219,444 1,978,745 1,902 326,651 542,807 4,762 7,488,862 80,082 218,565 68,038 32,478 24,037,957 1,046,936 253,478 52,093 770,688 5,094,820 10,886,057 217,574 50,567 4,067,943 1,373,041 826,179 5,810,346 16,843 286,429 615,437 17,247 1,836,962 46,766 78,605 26,455,145 152,695 41,004 35,904 182,409 147,640 93,387 16,054,008 603,006 85,635

Fuel

FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL FL GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA

Orlando CoGen Osprey Energy Center P L Bartow Polk Port Everglades Putnam Reedy Creek Riviera RRI Energy Osceola S O Purdom Sanford Santa Rosa Energy Center Scholz Electric Generating Plant Seminole (136) Shady Hills St. Johns River Power Stanton A Stock Island Suwannee River Tiger Bay Tom G Smith Turkey Point University of Florida Vandolah Power Project Vero Beach Municipal Baconton Bowen Chattahoochee Energy Facility Dahlberg (Jackson County) Doyle Generating Facility Effingham County Power, LLC Hammond Harllee Branch Hartwell Energy Facility Heard County Power, LLC Jack McDonough Kraft McIntosh (6124) McIntosh Combined Cycle Facility McManus Mid-Georgia Cogeneration Mitchell (GA) MPC Generating, LLC Murray Energy Facility Robins Sandersville Energy Facility Scherer Sewell Creek Energy Smarr Energy Facility Sowega Power Project Talbot Energy Facility Tenaska Georgia Generating Station Walton County Power, LLC Wansley (6052) Wansley (7946) Washington County Power, LLC

Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Diesel Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Diesel Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas

Appendices

37

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Mar, 2000 Sep, 1950 Aug, 1968 Jun, 1968 Apr, 2005 Jun, 1941 May, 1960 Apr, 2004 May, 2004 Apr, 1967 May, 1964 Jul, 1979 Mar, 2003 Jan, 1948 May, 1991 Oct, 1983 Apr, 1967 Dec, 1969 May, 1981 May, 1963 Jun, 1994 Aug, 1958 Jun, 1961 Apr, 1940 Mar, 1973 Apr, 1955 Mar, 1954 Feb, 2005 Sep, 2001 Jan, 1995 Jul, 2001 Jul, 1970 Jun, 2002 Dec, 1965 Jun, 2001 May, 1958 Mar, 2002 Jun, 1968 Jun, 1976 May, 1960 Aug, 2002 May, 1999 Mar, 1959 Jun, 2000 Jun, 2000 Jun, 2000 Jan, 2003 May, 2001 Jul, 1947 Jun, 1953 Mar, 2002 Feb, 1953 Sep, 1997 Apr, 1965 Jun, 1959 Aug, 1953 Nov, 2001 757 58 362 359 1,128 6 246 1,108 1,112 343 298 518 1,059 23 607 559 344 374 538 283 663 206 260 4 446 148 118 1,124 909 670 890 405 998 326 873 195 945 357 486 243 1,013 730 222 784 792 793 1,034 852 21 105 949 97 712 314 227 107 920 186,544 8,077,423 644,165 1,551,487 288 453,843 109,036 731,076 38,165 274,163 6,781,282 4,878,749 499,785 2,092,405 38,222 3,999,753 1,260,776 2,066,156 4,664,793 140,348 12,391 1,264,616 799,722 448,192 124,338 1,375,365 9,676,698 115,078 28,457 12,091 529,599 14,135,508 41,325 6,596,197 293,334 3,185,926 11,872 2,348,051 572,743 5,989,144 59,975 202,848 1,784,715 4,432 7,080 28,882 85,819 278,952 3,678,169 2,283,908 388,292 1,112,496 14,701 5,930,167 2,076,087 9,196,492 636,803 32,727 1,417,092 113,011 272,191 51 79,622 19,129 128,259 6,696 48,099 1,189,699 855,921 87,682 367,089 6,706 701,711 221,189 362,483 818,385 24,623 2,174 221,863 140,302 78,630 21,814 241,292 1,697,666 20,189 4,992 2,121 92,912 2,479,914 7,250 1,157,227 51,462 558,934 2,083 411,939 100,481 1,050,727 10,522 35,587 313,108 778 1,242 5,067 15,056 48,939 645,293 400,686 68,121 195,175 2,579 1,040,380 364,226 1,613,420 111,720 775 96 571 376 1,173 635 852 551 989 725 123 160 622 310 987 192 433 315 164 806 1,094 432 531 637 830 407 69 840 1,020 1,098 603 30 973 129 716 241 1,099 292 588 139 932 761 342 1,144 1,132 1,018 889 722 217 295 665 463 1,077 140 313 77 576 291,034 8,098,859 506,154 1,317,632 321 338,339 83,280 1,698,587 67,331 223,844 6,653,037 4,897,414 751,413 1,723,743 34,268 3,920,356 1,168,487 1,722,629 4,073,096 94,606 14,119 777,444 763,628 320,925 108,752 899,639 10,094,706 187,139 40,693 19,471 1,295,557 14,288,585 66,155 6,199,564 650,515 2,921,623 15,749 2,725,152 516,141 5,000,159 87,533 324,006 1,754,884 7,970 3,802 44,388 121,325 524,524 3,460,179 2,212,486 842,864 902,719 18,812 5,702,175 1,936,693 8,685,100 1,440,462

Fuel

GA GA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA IA ID ID ID ID IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL

West Georgia Generating Company Yates Ames Burlington (IA) Dayton Avenue Substation Dubuque Earl F Wisdom Emery Station Exira Station Fair Station George Neal North George Neal South Greater Des Moines Energy Center Lansing Lime Creek Louisa Milton L Kapp Muscatine Ottumwa Pella Pleasant Hill Energy Center Prairie Creek Riverside (1081) Sixth Street Streeter Station Sutherland Walter Scott Jr. Energy Center Bennett Mountain Power Project Evander Andrews Power Complex Rathdrum Combustion Turbine Project Rathdrum Power, LLC Baldwin Energy Complex Calumet Energy Team Coffeen Cordova Energy Company Crawford Crete Energy Park Dallman Duck Creek E D Edwards Elgin Energy Center Elwood Energy Facility Fisk Freedom Power Project Geneva Energy, LLC Gibson City Power Plant Goose Creek Power Plant Grand Tower Havana Hennepin Power Station Holland Energy Facility Hutsonville Interstate Joliet 29 Joliet 9 Joppa Steam Kendall Energy Facility

Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Diesel Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Diesel Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Tire Derived Fuel Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas

38 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jun, 1967 Apr, 2001 Apr, 1961 Apr, 2001 May, 2000 Oct, 1978 Jul, 2000 Jun, 1948 Nov, 1977 Jun, 2000 May, 2002 Jun, 2000 Jul, 1973 Jun, 2002 Jun, 2002 Jun, 1999 Apr, 2001 Jul, 2000 Jul, 2002 May, 1999 May, 2001 May, 2002 May, 1955 Jan, 1952 Mar, 1955 Nov, 1949 May, 2002 Apr, 1979 Apr, 1960 Jun, 1992 Oct, 1962 Aug, 1938 Oct, 1970 Feb, 1955 Jul, 1944 Dec, 1966 May, 1970 Apr, 2000 Apr, 1975 Apr, 1942 Jul, 2001 Feb, 2005 Feb, 1949 Sep, 2003 Feb, 1982 Nov, 1970 Jun, 2001 Apr, 2003 May, 1967 Dec, 1958 Dec, 1976 May, 1992 Dec, 1984 Jan, 1955 Jun, 2002 Mar, 1951 Mar, 2000 350 830 259 836 783 509 796 28 501 794 976 788 453 991 990 737 834 795 1,000 728 850 974 150 80 147 46 970 515 241 628 273 1 410 143 16 337 395 762 473 9 887 1,122 37 1,089 546 412 867 1,069 347 217 491 623 571 140 985 62 758 7,694,870 13,379 365,728 36,250 15,359 2,717,690 14,415 2,136,279 9,544,417 22,440 20,691 106,551 9,015,927 196,376 36,609 46,103 117,500 35,163 8,996 61,157 202,124 183,614 980,316 5,335,155 6,144,675 3,001,465 136,793 3,403,845 6,199,079 5,472 2,891,039 65,216 6,583,396 8,099,448 362,951 3,317,448 1,883,713 42,944 22,409,315 3,831,144 53,217 39,673 1,596,416 432,271 7,149,683 2,895,808 43,906 197,375 13,077,495 3,180,459 12,289,294 1,934 15,488,966 3,430,009 130,324 6,025,709 99,239 1,349,977 2,347 64,163 6,360 2,695 476,788 2,529 374,786 1,674,459 3,937 3,630 18,693 1,581,742 34,452 6,423 8,088 20,614 6,169 1,578 10,729 35,460 32,213 171,985 935,992 1,078,013 526,573 23,999 597,166 1,087,558 960 507,200 11,441 1,154,982 1,420,956 63,676 582,008 330,476 7,534 3,931,459 672,131 9,336 6,960 280,073 75,837 1,254,330 508,037 7,703 34,627 2,294,297 557,975 2,156,016 339 2,717,362 601,756 22,864 1,057,142 17,410 103 1,086 673 995 1,075 269 1,079 307 70 1,043 1,053 857 81 768 994 961 837 999 1,116 927 762 777 484 148 136 249 811 231 134 1,139 261 917 130 95 675 235 331 969 4 205 941 980 369 648 117 260 965 767 39 242 43 1,152 22 228 825 138 865 6,956,953 19,829 561,162 46,220 20,994 1,937,591 17,155 1,951,748 8,839,558 34,793 34,217 181,613 8,847,137 337,035 50,011 66,989 190,858 66,869 12,404 87,014 351,229 295,275 878,393 5,112,471 5,932,436 3,041,419 205,241 3,642,678 5,654,143 7,160 2,613,724 72,303 7,374,607 8,951,779 254,354 2,181,796 1,845,104 58,017 24,951,355 4,114,772 92,680 66,614 1,576,882 649,499 7,048,652 2,762,026 63,739 284,916 12,942,202 3,321,990 10,900,752 2,415 16,972,673 3,401,115 290,278 6,427,036 120,244

Fuel

IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN

Kincaid Station Kinmundy Power Plant Lakeside Lee Energy Facility Lincoln Generating Facility Marion MEPI Gt Facility Meredosia Newton NRG Rockford Energy Center NRG Rockford II Energy Center Pinckneyville Power Plant Powerton PPL University Park Power Project Raccoon Creek Power Plant Rocky Road Power, LLC RRI Energy - Aurora RRI Energy Shelby County Southeast Chicago Energy Project Tilton Power Station University Park Energy Venice Vermilion Power Station Waukegan Will County Wood River Power Station Zion Energy Center A B Brown Generating Station Alcoa Allowance Management Inc Anderson Bailly Generating Station C. C. Perry K Steam Plant Cayuga Clifty Creek Edwardsport F B Culley Generating Station Frank E Ratts Georgetown Substation Gibson Harding Street Station (EW Stout) Henry County Generating Station Hoosier Energy Lawrence Co Station IPL Eagle Valley Generating Station Lawrenceburg Energy Facility Merom Michigan City Generating Station Montpelier Electric Gen Station Noblesville Petersburg R Gallagher R M Schahfer Generating Station Richmond (IN) Rockport State Line Generating Station (IN) Sugar Creek Generating Station Tanners Creek Vermillion Energy Facility

Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas

Appendices

39

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Aug, 1953 Jun, 2000 Mar, 1955 Jul, 2001 Jun, 2000 Jul, 2001 Oct, 1963 Jan, 1973 Apr, 1970 Jun, 1969 Apr, 1973 Jun, 1961 Dec, 1963 Aug, 1983 Jun, 1950 Jul, 1978 Mar, 1973 Jan, 1955 Oct, 1998 May, 1952 Feb, 1981 Nov, 1954 May, 2003 May, 1965 Jan, 1949 Aug, 1957 Mar, 2003 Jan, 1963 Feb, 2002 May, 1962 Sep, 1969 Sep, 1984 May, 1957 Mar, 1981 Jun, 1964 Feb, 1974 Apr, 1954 Sep, 1977 Feb, 1968 Jun, 1973 Feb, 1965 May, 2002 Jul, 1972 Jun, 2001 Mar, 1963 Oct, 1979 Jun, 2001 Oct, 1965 Apr, 1953 Jan, 1999 Jan, 1990 Oct, 1947 Dec, 1954 Aug, 2002 Jan, 1970 Jul, 2002 108 785 146 886 786 879 290 444 393 370 448 261 292 556 55 506 447 142 723 83 535 131 1,073 316 34 179 1,061 278 938 268 373 568 172 536 302 457 119 498 356 450 309 977 438 876 280 520 871 325 100 724 595 22 135 1,009 378 1,006 5,710,477 17,279 515,677 873,434 22,926 27,987 94,465 1,143 461 320,899 23,274 409,629 111,471 3,081,538 104,183 16,845,936 11,159,641 4,320,499 22,569 126,101 2,193,688 6,626 7,693 1,457,132 802,929 1,819,229 73,477 7,177,086 7,440 3,787,734 3,653,553 3,881,863 4,302,393 3,871,543 2,710,250 12,561,781 1,169,616 8,156,403 8,179 2,467,124 1,931,759 92,258 10,918,631 38,858 14,218,230 3,923,035 41,374 315,903 10,608,452 327,283 3,912,618 514,928 1,186,544 430,121 73,421 13,221 1,001,838 3,031 90,470 153,234 4,022 4,910 16,573 201 81 56,298 4,083 71,865 19,556 540,621 18,278 2,955,427 1,957,832 757,982 3,960 22,123 384,858 1,162 1,350 255,637 140,865 319,163 12,891 1,259,138 1,305 664,515 640,974 681,029 754,806 679,218 475,482 2,203,821 205,196 1,430,948 1,435 432,829 338,905 16,186 1,915,549 6,817 2,494,426 688,252 7,259 55,422 1,861,132 57,418 686,424 90,338 208,166 75,460 12,881 2,319 143 1,061 609 510 1,039 1,021 869 1,161 1,166 698 1,034 656 846 248 862 17 50 177 1,042 828 302 1,136 1,125 395 529 338 901 115 1,129 208 220 200 178 201 271 42 453 91 1,121 279 327 873 54 985 29 197 972 702 57 696 198 610 449 649 902 1,089 4,572,706 22,232 438,788 98,810 38,628 31,584 136,245 1,415 1,064 506,190 40,023 620,204 175,238 3,073,698 161,622 16,369,404 11,083,468 3,842,478 27,998 175,741 1,827,320 9,693 9,811 1,288,450 671,689 1,591,870 99,323 7,884,188 11,301 3,866,864 3,214,910 3,438,205 4,425,928 4,169,764 2,446,308 12,930,794 1,069,639 6,493,139 5,631 2,373,828 2,092,674 126,365 11,518,858 66,772 8,837,046 3,768,799 63,246 273,017 10,233,322 381,025 4,593,524 428,764 1,095,999 997,936 85,831 17,854

Fuel

IN IN IN IN IN KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KS KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY KY LA LA LA

Wabash River Gen Station Wheatland Generating Facility LLC Whitewater Valley Whiting Clean Energy, Inc. Worthington Generation Chanute 2 Cimarron River Coffeyville East 12th Street Fort Dodge aka Judson Large Garden City Gordon Evans Energy Center Great Bend Station aka Arthur Mullergren Holcomb Hutchinson Energy Center Jeffrey Energy Center La Cygne Lawrence Energy Center McPherson 3 Murray Gill Energy Center Nearman Creek Neosho Energy Center Osawatomie Generating Station Quindaro Riverton Tecumseh Energy Center West Gardner Generating Station Big Sandy Bluegrass Generation Company, LLC Cane Run Coleman D B Wilson E W Brown East Bend Elmer Smith Ghent Green River H L Spurlock Henderson I HMP&L Station 2 John S. Cooper Marshall Mill Creek Paddy’s Run Paradise R D Green Riverside Generating Company Robert Reid Shawnee Smith Generating Facility Trimble County Tyrone William C. Dale Acadia Power Station Arsenal Hill Power Plant Bayou Cove Peaking Power Plant

Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

40 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Feb, 1972 Jul, 1980 May, 2000 Jun, 2003 Jan, 1965 Apr, 1965 Apr, 1986 Feb, 2000 Apr, 2006 May, 1969 Jan, 1970 Jan, 1970 May, 1970 Jan, 1970 Aug, 1975 Jan, 1972 Jan, 1970 May, 2002 May, 2001 Mar, 2004 May, 2002 Mar, 1960 Nov, 1972 May, 1970 Jun, 2005 Jul, 2002 May, 1956 Jan, 1974 Jan, 1970 Jun, 2002 Apr, 2001 Sep, 1991 Sep, 1999 Apr, 1963 Jul, 1968 Jun, 1966 May, 1992 May, 1999 Mar, 2003 Jun, 1949 Oct, 1988 Jul, 1993 Jul, 2000 Jun, 1960 Jan, 1957 Jan, 1967 Nov, 1951 Jul, 1959 Sep, 1957 May, 1984 Jul, 1961 Jan, 1956 Aug, 1964 Jun, 1959 Jun, 1970 Oct, 1996 Jun, 1995 435 530 775 1,081 308 312 578 754 1,159 369 379 380 398 381 477 432 382 979 853 1,106 980 240 441 399 1,142 1,004 160 455 383 995 842 615 745 281 361 331 625 727 1,060 41 588 647 800 248 167 338 76 230 181 564 264 157 304 226 400 702 677 22,313 13,736,733 42,867 1,075,467 289 36,965 4,551,483 806,389 113,163 12,169 81,572 909,775 1,955,527 1,278,468 36,864 383 3,762,472 699,945 1,065,555 2,534,696 1,675,693 5,102,118 3,947,442 34,319 62,972 2,111,296 643,560 578,209 152,932 1,134,579 1,178,895 263,823 450,965 7,879,629 2,020,056 21,410 62,020 121,426 1,445,546 771,128 1,333 195,406 813,949 1,166,926 4,457,903 8,987 2,078,419 824,748 147,329 8,105,262 2,240,019 3,340,874 5,292,022 3,133,017 6,747,408 280,860 22,816 3,915 2,409,953 7,521 188,678 51 6,485 798,506 141,472 19,853 2,135 14,311 159,610 343,075 224,293 6,467 67 660,083 122,797 186,940 444,683 293,981 895,108 692,534 6,021 11,048 370,403 112,905 101,440 26,830 199,049 206,824 46,285 79,117 1,382,391 354,396 3,756 10,881 21,303 253,605 135,286 234 34,282 142,798 204,724 782,088 1,577 364,635 144,693 25,847 1,421,976 392,986 586,118 928,425 549,652 1,183,756 49,274 4,003 1,044 33 970 468 1,172 992 167 528 844 1,096 892 501 326 426 993 1,169 210 557 471 276 355 155 195 1,001 923 309 572 586 795 457 451 733 636 101 318 1,049 926 836 396 542 1,158 769 524 454 172 1,117 312 521 801 93 298 234 150 245 125 719 1,041 30,241 13,169,326 66,971 2,536,839 353 62,123 4,129,011 1,788,336 166,101 15,293 119,517 1,379,175 4,072,013 1,925,033 26,159 5,599 4,484,680 1,587,415 2,084,475 7,571,848 3,000,650 4,897,096 4,261,307 56,965 91,316 3,039,707 1,038,111 610,760 224,816 1,680,724 1,853,067 385,709 1,069,171 9,014,122 2,454,208 29,216 118,530 251,382 3,527,706 1,867,412 1,590 277,363 1,281,992 1,197,338 6,890,062 13,729 2,037,242 530,165 164,724 8,952,240 2,156,148 3,163,570 5,468,940 3,343,103 7,338,759 589,518 32,011

Fuel

LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA LA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MD MD MD MD MD MD MD MD

Big Cajun 1 Big Cajun 2 Calcasieu Plant Carville Energy Center D G Hunter Doc Bonin Dolet Hills Power Station Evangeline Power Station (Coughlin) Hargis-Hebert Electric Generating Statio Houma Lieberman Power Plant Little Gypsy Louisiana 1 Michoud Morgan City Electrical Gen Facility Natchitoches Ninemile Point Ouachita Plant Perryville Power Station Plaquemine Cogen Facility R S Cogen R S Nelson Rodemacher Power Station (6190) Sterlington T J Labbe Electric Generating Station Taft Cogeneration Facility Teche Power Station Waterford 1 & 2 Willow Glen ANP Bellingham Energy Project ANP Blackstone Energy Company Bellingham Berkshire Power Brayton Point Canal Station Cleary Flood Dartmouth Power Dighton Fore River Station Kendall Square Lowell Cogeneration Company Masspower Millennium Power Partners Mount Tom Mystic New Boston Salem Harbor Somerset West Springfield Brandon Shores C P Crane Herbert A Wagner Mirant Chalk Point Mirant Dickerson Mirant Morgantown Panda Brandywine Perryman

Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Process Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Residual Oil Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas

Appendices

41

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jan, 1947 Sep, 1951 Nov, 2002 Dec, 1971 Oct, 1999 Oct, 2000 Mar, 2000 Jul, 2000 Feb, 2001 Jan, 1957 May, 1992 Sep, 1948 Apr, 1984 Jun, 1998 Jul, 1956 Aug, 1999 Sep, 1999 Apr, 2002 Jun, 1954 May, 1983 Jan, 1972 Jun, 1978 Feb, 1968 Aug, 1983 Apr, 1955 Aug, 1962 Jul, 1952 Apr, 2002 Apr, 1969 Jun, 1999 Nov, 2002 Jun, 1999 Oct, 1995 Aug, 1950 Mar, 1971 Aug, 2003 Jan, 1964 Mar, 2002 Jan, 1956 Mar, 1983 Jan, 1953 Apr, 2002 May, 1949 Jun, 1958 Mar, 2001 Feb, 1968 Aug, 1955 Jun, 2005 Jul, 1958 May, 2007 Apr, 2002 Mar, 1997 May, 2005 May, 2007 Jun, 1962 Jul, 1949 20 71 1,019 430 747 807 756 798 816 168 624 31 562 717 163 743 744 966 121 555 433 504 354 557 149 272 88 967 368 736 1,022 734 687 57 417 1,087 294 939 158 554 94 961 39 196 818 355 153 1,139 203 1,169 964 705 1,135 1,170 269 42 754,854 19,763 91,083 35,539 349,532 708,412 831,252 294,645 991,719 357,639 15,555 2,278,267 8,580,419 69,569 4,256,718 62,420 20,149 94,915 2,325,421 744,357 1,348,921 392,109 90,876 507,562 2,013,672 8,796,026 2,901,091 355,163 173,653 2,272 14,442 13,513 409,292 310,059 20,607,472 540,668 4,210,477 234,849 3,672,403 424,146 8,102,594 49,334 4,267,252 532,195 439,652 909,828 2,116,168 86,947 8,129,199 43,750 40,080 432,323 153,340 284,253 66,707 424,061 132,430 3,467 15,979 6,235 61,321 124,283 145,834 51,692 173,986 62,744 2,729 399,696 1,505,337 12,205 746,793 10,951 3,535 16,652 407,969 130,589 236,653 68,791 15,943 89,046 353,276 1,543,163 508,963 62,309 30,465 399 2,534 2,371 71,806 54,396 3,615,346 94,854 738,680 41,202 644,281 74,412 1,421,508 8,655 748,641 93,367 77,132 159,619 371,258 15,254 1,426,175 7,675 7,032 75,846 26,902 49,869 11,703 74,397 544 1,056 878 997 685 555 519 715 483 679 1,072 296 86 909 181 925 1,054 868 294 549 410 663 880 614 321 83 258 682 783 1,151 1,078 1,085 657 703 7 600 182 742 218 651 94 953 180 601 646 500 308 886 92 966 977 647 794 718 913 652 697,566 26,669 139,314 32,542 509,822 1,236,828 1,184,885 682,584 2,530,937 406,954 22,311 2,338,616 8,608,865 91,347 4,262,160 96,336 29,535 132,652 1,779,470 474,343 1,132,121 507,528 83,011 491,906 1,973,292 8,631,708 2,576,510 713,585 117,157 2,547 24,240 9,726 723,111 134,060 21,855,670 1,268,892 3,752,974 366,678 2,649,891 302,593 8,304,907 67,313 3,388,101 356,932 650,123 815,489 2,275,678 124,742 7,313,529 60,248 64,116 1,033,655 302,161 192,222 73,598 223,945

Fuel

MD MD MD MD ME ME ME ME ME ME MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MI MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN

R. Paul Smith Power Station Riverside Rock Springs Generating Facility Vienna Androscoggin Energy Bucksport Clean Energy Maine Independence Station Rumford Power Westbrook Energy Center William F Wyman 48th Street Peaking Station B C Cobb Belle River Conners Creek Dan E Karn Dearborn Industrial Generation Delray DTE East China Eckert Station Endicott Generating Erickson Greenwood Harbor Beach J B Sims J C Weadock J H Campbell J R Whiting Jackson MI Facility James De Young Kalamazoo River Generating Station Kalkaska Ct Project #1 Livingston Generating Station Michigan Power Limited Partnership Mistersky Monroe New Covert Generating Project Presque Isle Renaissance Power River Rouge Shiras St. Clair Sumpter Plant Trenton Channel Wyandotte Zeeland Generating Station Allen S King Black Dog Blue Lake Generating Plant Boswell Energy Center Cambridge Station Cascade Creek Cottage Grove Cogeneration Faribault Energy Park Fibrominn Biomass Power Plant Fox Lake Hibbard Energy Center

Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Other Solid Fuel Natural Gas Wood

42 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jan, 1942 Sep, 1959 Nov, 1994 May, 2001 Apr, 1953 May, 2006 May, 2001 Apr, 1971 Apr, 2001 Jan, 1949 May, 1976 Dec, 1969 Jun, 2003 Feb, 2002 Jun, 1970 Apr, 2001 Jun, 1965 Nov, 1960 Jan, 1957 Jun, 2001 May, 2001 Mar, 2003 Jun, 1999 Oct, 1997 Jun, 2002 May, 1980 Feb, 1960 May, 1970 Jan, 1970 May, 2002 Apr, 1953 Jun, 1958 Dec, 1972 Jun, 1999 Apr, 2002 Feb, 1976 Jan, 1960 Sep, 1981 Mar, 1967 Jun, 2005 Jun, 1976 Jul, 1999 Jan, 2000 Nov, 1966 Mar, 2001 Feb, 2000 Jan, 1970 Mar, 2003 May, 1994 Jun, 2006 Apr, 2002 Sep, 1977 May, 1975 Mar, 2001 Apr, 2002 Dec, 2002 Aug, 1970 8 232 668 845 103 1,160 846 419 831 35 484 375 1,076 935 401 832 320 252 169 868 863 1,055 738 713 986 527 237 396 384 971 99 197 442 740 968 483 235 541 342 1,141 485 742 750 336 826 753 385 1,058 659 1,161 951 499 476 823 965 1,030 406 1,119,674 1,227,768 16,516 278,008 879,613 337,285 7,478 110,960 177,405 2,785,184 18,254,456 256,161 38,185 1,752,752 1,212,452 49,261 189,022 439,905 134,132 9,023 357,187 52,512 6,798 4,464,906 40,134 4,427,207 1,401,226 18,714,405 824,749 32,117 6,929,442 3,757,492 7,640,456 6,306 108,791 7,057,640 3,296,383 2,452,275 6,460,311 135,937 1,459,659 381,034 865,454 7,640,899 920,611 939,015 1,273,904 867,534 415,977 390,333 12,118 9,375,199 940,519 505,968 47,295 1,041,434 197,644 196,434 215,398 2,898 48,773 154,318 59,173 1,312 19,467 31,124 488,629 3,202,536 44,941 6,699 307,500 212,711 8,642 33,162 77,176 23,532 1,583 62,664 9,213 1,193 783,317 7,041 776,703 245,829 3,283,229 144,693 5,635 1,215,692 659,209 1,340,431 1,106 19,086 1,238,182 578,313 430,224 1,133,388 23,849 256,080 66,848 151,834 1,340,509 161,511 164,740 223,492 152,199 72,978 68,480 2,126 1,644,772 165,003 88,766 8,297 182,708 34,674 460 437 1,064 723 509 691 1,127 848 780 264 13 734 988 345 438 954 773 645 817 1,114 680 946 1,134 170 976 173 403 11 520 1,009 121 211 107 1,137 853 118 236 280 133 815 394 668 513 106 496 493 429 512 655 664 1,097 73 492 617 959 474 766 939,089 1,013,048 21,554 393,597 646,052 747,911 11,073 81,611 260,629 2,343,971 17,082,577 215,406 55,191 1,572,424 1,140,785 68,081 149,301 404,127 95,298 12,546 796,138 75,888 10,156 4,378,757 52,140 4,417,381 1,337,828 19,906,688 760,324 44,367 6,309,911 3,317,029 7,871,786 8,924 164,956 7,420,913 3,202,001 2,179,061 7,050,014 181,864 1,485,121 833,913 1,328,298 7,328,489 1,608,479 1,858,080 1,869,874 2,099,988 509,182 834,187 17,250 9,451,929 1,430,538 866,600 65,230 2,330,476 299,326

Fuel

MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MO MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS

High Bridge Hoot Lake Hutchinson - Plant 2 Lakefield Junction Generating Laskin Energy Center Mankato Energy Center Minnesota River Station Northeast Station Pleasant Valley Station Riverside (1927) Sherburne County Silver Lake Solway Plant Taconite Harbor Energy Center Asbury Audrain Power Plant Blue Valley Chamois Power Plant Columbia Columbia Energy Center (MO) Dogwood Energy Facility Empire District Elec Co Energy Ctr Essex Power Plant Hawthorn Holden Power Plant Iatan James River Labadie Lake Road McCartney Generating Station Meramec Montrose New Madrid Power Plant Nodaway Power Plant Peno Creek Energy Center Rush Island Sibley Sikeston Sioux South Harper Peaking Facility Southwest St. Francis Power Plant State Line (MO) Thomas Hill Energy Center Attala Generating Plant Batesville Generation Facility Baxter Wilson Caledonia Chevron Cogenerating Station Choctaw Gas Generation, LLC Crossroads Energy Center (CPU) Daniel Electric Generating Plant Gerald Andrus Hinds Energy Facility Kemper County Magnolia Facility Moselle Generating Plant

Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Diesel Natural Gas Natural Gas

Appendices

43

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Apr, 1978 Feb, 2001 Jan, 1948 Jun, 2003 Oct, 2003 Mar, 2003 May, 1951 Apr, 2003 Jun, 1957 Nov, 1975 Jun, 2003 Apr, 2006 Sep, 1968 Sep, 1958 May, 1964 Aug, 1974 Jul, 1941 Dec, 1956 Jul, 1940 Oct, 1990 Dec, 1949 Jan, 1985 Jun, 1957 May, 1951 Aug, 1954 May, 1995 Jan, 1985 Mar, 1965 Dec, 1982 Jan, 2007 Oct, 2007 May, 2001 Mar, 2001 Oct, 1952 May, 2000 Dec, 1990 May, 1966 Sep, 1949 Jul, 1984 Aug, 1979 May, 1981 Jan, 1966 Nov, 1970 Nov, 1963 May, 1967 Oct, 2004 Nov, 1971 May, 1958 Mar, 2003 Apr, 1979 Jul, 1981 Jul, 1976 May, 1979 Jul, 1954 Aug, 1982 Nov, 1996 503 812 24 1,078 1,094 1,054 66 1,070 177 481 1,077 1,158 363 207 300 465 7 166 5 600 48 572 175 65 127 675 573 311 552 1,165 1,175 854 827 92 782 601 329 45 566 519 537 327 411 291 348 1,118 427 194 1,050 514 540 488 516 125 551 703 3,467,003 4,130,718 183,045 91,202 19,393 950,503 15,635 93,803 4,998,135 19,382,298 62,646 950,823 1,522,728 501,258 2,583,740 13,339,822 1,803,199 1,977,162 4,199,413 563,708 1,230,600 27,607 6,949,546 2,501,476 3,267,479 129,866 31,157 14,525,077 4,487,718 69,916 13,554 457,206 1,279,081 2,390,418 210,399 55,379 14,399,402 1,200,517 7,923,701 10,141,763 3,847,819 5,204,974 5,315,208 682,083 1,563,756 229,971 12,783 91,597 79,733 10,684,738 640,571 479,379 4,459,195 3,842,084 816,907 21,490 608,246 724,687 32,113 16,000 3,402 166,755 2,743 16,457 876,866 3,400,403 10,990 166,811 267,145 87,940 453,288 2,340,320 316,351 346,870 736,739 98,896 215,895 4,843 1,219,219 438,855 573,242 22,783 5,466 2,548,259 787,319 12,266 2,378 80,212 224,400 419,372 36,912 9,716 2,526,211 210,617 1,390,123 1,779,257 675,056 913,153 932,493 119,664 274,343 40,346 2,243 16,070 13,988 1,874,515 112,381 84,102 782,315 674,050 143,317 3,770 226 187 778 877 1,058 490 1,071 871 157 9 924 489 384 619 275 37 341 322 183 591 436 1,023 120 277 240 826 1,013 25 169 908 1,083 633 425 286 755 939 26 442 100 64 203 153 149 561 374 745 1,092 875 895 56 575 627 171 204 523 1,048 2,910,034 2,359,262 181,945 139,733 28,814 2,287,269 27,689 107,210 5,111,553 17,222,282 9,405 817,860 1,257,002 342,353 2,742,837 15,722,656 1,847,081 2,248,939 4,335,757 416,947 1,139,134 15,858 7,389,772 2,703,506 3,210,329 164,515 18,537 15,627,615 2,839,335 105,659 19,342 694,595 1,863,280 2,406,854 329,095 70,356 13,450,660 1,017,849 6,957,780 9,262,539 3,200,659 4,767,132 4,921,894 541,941 978,061 411,855 15,641 118,399 115,684 9,481,269 537,191 448,580 4,492,016 3,629,878 671,258 29,236

Fuel

MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MS MT MT MT MT MT NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC ND ND ND ND ND ND ND NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

R D Morrow Senior Generating Plant Red Hills Generation Facility Rex Brown RRI Energy Choctaw County Gen Silver Creek Generating Plant Southaven Combined Cycle Sweatt Electric Generating Plant Sylvarena Generating Plant Watson Electric Generating Plant Colstrip Glendive Generating Station Hardin Generating Station J E Corette Lewis & Clark Asheville Belews Creek Buck Cape Fear Cliffside Craven County Wood Energy Dan River Elizabethtown Power G G Allen H F Lee Steam Electric Plant L V Sutton Lincoln Lumberton Power Marshall Mayo NCEMC Anson Plant NCEMC Hamlet Plant Plant Rowan County Richmond County Plant Riverbend Rockingham County Combustion Turbine Rosemary Power Station Roxboro W H Weatherspoon Antelope Valley Coal Creek Coyote Leland Olds Milton R Young R M Heskett Stanton Beatrice C W Burdick Canaday Cass County Station Gerald Gentleman Station Gerald Whelan Energy Center Lon D Wright Power Plant Nebraska City Station North Omaha Station Platte Rokeby

Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Wood Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Diesel Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas

44 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jun, 1996 Jul, 1961 Aug, 2003 Feb, 2003 Dec, 1960 Jun, 2002 Jun, 1974 Oct, 1952 Jun, 2002 Oct, 1962 Sep, 1988 Jun, 1995 May, 2000 Mar, 1993 Dec, 1954 Jan, 1974 Dec, 1964 May, 2001 Nov, 2001 Jun, 1995 Dec, 1960 Sep, 1993 Aug, 1991 Jan, 2003 Mar, 1992 Nov, 1948 May, 1991 May, 1991 Oct, 2002 May, 2005 Jul, 1957 Dec, 1984 May, 1963 Jul, 2002 Dec, 2005 Jul, 1967 Nov, 1995 May, 2000 Feb, 2003 Oct, 1958 Jan, 1957 Nov, 1973 Mar, 2003 Aug, 2005 Apr, 2000 Oct, 1970 Jul, 1995 Aug, 2002 Dec, 1981 Apr, 1965 Jan, 2004 May, 1964 Oct, 1970 Jun, 2001 Sep, 2003 Aug, 2001 697 263 1,086 1,046 253 997 460 91 993 275 587 678 770 639 136 456 306 864 918 679 254 649 613 1,036 622 32 608 609 1,015 1,132 178 569 284 1,001 1,151 351 688 771 1,047 210 170 454 1,062 1,146 763 408 685 1,011 543 313 1,099 301 409 875 1,088 897 108,209 1,881,365 113,831 1,191,488 3,726,216 1,282,581 343,496 1,301,733 1,097,069 1,681,692 113,458 2,380,464 137,877 116,325 521,754 33,736 2,618,709 110,746 746,458 949,671 3,282,313 39,636 401,171 91,420 80,554 122,919 936 170,947 54,739 199,131 958,990 1,967,641 15,084,774 55,804 1,175,375 295,937 444,025 5,301 51,268 51,481 445,862 11,491,631 793,212 2,946,053 1,096,069 578,658 47,937 326,434 3,695,051 4,718,754 1,299,239 43,358 840,170 39,983 624,899 108,501 18,984 330,064 19,970 209,033 653,722 225,014 60,262 228,374 192,468 295,034 19,905 417,625 24,189 20,408 91,536 5,919 459,423 19,429 130,958 166,609 575,844 6,954 70,381 16,039 14,132 21,565 164 29,991 9,603 34,935 168,244 345,200 2,646,452 9,790 206,206 51,919 77,899 930 8,994 9,032 78,221 2,016,076 139,160 516,851 192,293 101,519 8,410 57,269 648,255 827,852 227,937 7,607 147,398 7,015 109,631 19,035 856 332 842 445 213 424 688 419 464 354 843 289 810 839 608 1,007 274 849 548 491 238 981 660 876 894 832 1,162 784 940 765 487 323 23 937 452 714 643 1,140 950 949 639 48 534 254 465 584 957 697 216 163 421 967 517 978 577 855 151,716 1,679,635 214,054 1,820,720 3,464,009 2,980,885 339,299 1,049,335 1,702,490 1,590,488 147,015 3,296,182 222,506 154,606 551,934 38,923 2,312,404 197,472 1,902,130 1,385,326 3,211,154 55,971 602,123 146,893 145,071 145,046 50,563 298,720 78,661 413,524 1,459,100 1,959,707 15,700,442 90,620 2,718,169 499,373 919,449 9,452 84,381 72,596 702,165 12,326,477 1,208,840 6,977,940 2,083,235 977,964 68,549 524,060 3,612,055 4,101,188 1,978,068 72,873 1,414,101 43,123 1,470,461 177,713

Fuel

NE NE NE NH NH NH NH NH NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NJ NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NM NV NV NV NV NV NV NV NV NV NV NV NV NV NY

Sarpy County Station Sheldon Terry Bundy Generating Station Granite Ridge Energy Merrimack NAEA Newington Energy LLC Newington Schiller AES Red Oak B L England Bayonne Plant Holding, LLC Bergen Burlington Generating Station Camden Plant Holding, LLC Deepwater Gilbert Generating Station Hudson Generating Station Kearny Generating Station Linden Cogeneration Facility Linden Generating Station Mercer Generating Station Newark Bay Cogen North Jersey Energy Associates Ocean Peaking Power, LP Pedricktown Cogeneration Plant Sewaren Generating Station Sherman Avenue Sunoco Power Generation, LLC Afton Generating Station Bluffview Power Plant Cunningham Escalante Four Corners Steam Elec Station Lordsburg Generating Station Luna Energy Facility Maddox Milagro Cogeneration and Gas Plant Person Generating Project Pyramid Generating Station Reeves Generating Station Rio Grande San Juan Apex Generating Station Chuck Lenzie Generating Station El Dorado Energy Fort Churchill Harry Allen Las Vegas Cogeneration II, LLC North Valmy Reid Gardner Silverhawk Sunrise Tracy Tri-Center Naniwa Energy Walter M. Higgins III Generating Station 23rd and 3rd

Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Residual Oil Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Diesel Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

Appendices

45

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Dec, 1978 Aug, 1955 Apr, 1950 Aug, 1984 Oct, 1943 May, 1994 Feb, 1996 Aug, 1959 Mar, 2006 Jan, 1953 Apr, 2003 Sep, 1992 Jul, 2002 Mar, 2005 Aug, 1989 Jan, 1993 Sep, 1972 Jul, 2001 Mar, 1996 Dec, 1993 Nov, 1991 Sep, 1992 Mar, 1977 Jan, 1950 Jan, 1951 Sep, 1974 Jan, 1956 Sep, 1951 Jul, 2004 Jan, 1953 Apr, 2004 Jan, 1952 Jun, 2002 Jul, 2001 Jun, 2003 Aug, 2001 Jan, 1945 Jul, 1995 Jun, 1994 May, 1990 Jun, 1991 Jan, 1988 Aug, 1994 Mar, 1955 Apr, 1993 Sep, 1991 Aug, 2001 Jan, 1967 Oct, 1993 Jan, 1940 Jun, 2005 Dec, 2005 Jan, 1958 Aug, 2001 Jul, 2002 511 154 53 567 12 660 690 231 1,156 95 1,067 633 1,002 1,126 592 638 440 892 691 653 618 634 492 50 61 466 159 72 1,116 96 1,110 77 987 893 1,082 898 17 684 662 596 612 586 664 145 640 614 901 339 651 3 1,140 1,152 186 900 1,005 332,984 2,370,486 780,467 5,289,504 615,505 410 38,380 975,883 1,398,139 1,648,461 2,080,145 9,715 57,398 675,520 240,941 1,216 501,132 60,493 1,128,320 27,831 13,299 124,591 1,301,207 3,664,079 2,746,225 898,675 923,028 2,165,403 71,123 166,158 35,050 149,392 75,591 60,512 65,184 66,668 2,897,734 248,973 123,605 13,535 7,654 12,360 1,071,993 1,621,389 7,155 254,676 70,610 4,036,116 4,157 237,011 168,116 1,425,843 958,900 89,585 113,043 58,418 415,875 136,924 927,983 107,983 72 6,733 171,207 245,288 289,204 364,938 1,704 10,070 118,512 42,270 213 87,918 10,613 197,951 4,883 2,333 21,858 228,282 642,821 481,794 157,662 161,935 379,895 12,478 29,150 6,149 26,209 13,262 10,616 11,436 11,696 508,374 43,680 21,685 2,375 1,343 2,168 188,069 284,454 1,255 44,680 12,388 708,090 729 41,581 29,494 250,148 168,228 15,717 19,832 693 291 538 151 579 1,168 986 486 404 360 311 1,108 935 564 739 1,159 620 930 458 1,022 1,088 829 420 219 265 505 495 306 904 788 1,000 799 900 929 918 914 259 738 831 1,084 1,126 1,095 469 364 1,131 736 906 191 1,146 741 786 399 488 884 845 300,276 2,480,090 760,243 5,917,056 495,603 667 81,437 1,533,633 3,747,571 2,266,494 5,027,359 13,144 83,175 2,230,647 471,725 1,933 651,828 107,700 1,641,132 42,969 26,081 238,576 1,915,842 3,645,934 2,702,823 1,134,052 1,466,620 3,039,506 117,957 265,093 56,343 226,097 136,298 94,890 77,671 106,617 2,756,314 525,232 248,417 25,907 13,402 22,362 2,366,414 1,379,141 8,398 192,323 120,189 5,808,634 6,337 258,715 286,883 3,422,494 1,455,036 155,585 195,999

Fuel

NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY

74th Street AES Cayuga, LLC AES Greenidge AES Somerset (Kintigh ) AES Westover (Goudey) AG - Energy Allegany Station No. 133 Arthur Kill Astoria Energy Astoria Generating Station Athens Generating Company Batavia Energy Bayswater Peaking Facility Bethlehem Energy Center (Albany) Bethpage Energy Center Binghamton Cogen Plant Bowline Generating Station Brentwood Brooklyn Navy Yard Cogeneration Carr Street Generating Station Carthage Energy Castleton Power, LLC Charles Poletti Dunkirk Dynegy Danskammer Dynegy Roseton E F Barrett East River Equus Freeport Power Generating Station Far Rockaway Freeport Power Plant No. 2 Glenwood Glenwood Landing Energy Center Harlem River Yard Hawkeye Energy Greenport, LLC Hell Gate Huntley Power Indeck-Corinth Energy Center Indeck-Olean Energy Center Indeck-Oswego Energy Center Indeck-Silver Springs Energy Center Indeck-Yerkes Energy Center Independence Lovett Generating Station Massena Energy Facility Niagara Generation, LLC North 1st Northport Onondaga Cogeneration Oswego Harbor Power Pinelawn Power Poletti 500 MW CC Port Jefferson Energy Center Pouch Terminal PPL Edgewood Energy

Residual Oil Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Other Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Diesel Coal Coal Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Diesel Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Residual Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas

46 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jul, 2002 Aug, 1992 Feb, 1963 Apr, 1994 Apr, 1994 Dec, 1948 Dec, 1950 Oct, 1991 Aug, 2001 Feb, 1994 Feb, 2001 Jun, 2001 Mar, 2001 Jun, 1958 Dec, 1949 Aug, 1955 Feb, 1967 Oct, 1962 May, 2001 Sep, 1953 Jun, 1995 Oct, 1974 Jun, 2000 Jun, 1974 Apr, 2003 Jun, 1970 Jun, 1982 Feb, 1955 Jun, 1962 May, 2000 Dec, 1949 Dec, 1953 Jan, 1954 Jul, 1948 May, 2000 May, 2000 Nov, 1955 Jan, 1944 Jul, 1951 Mar, 2000 Jun, 2002 Mar, 2003 Apr, 2002 Apr, 2002 Jan, 1959 Mar, 1991 Jun, 1952 Apr, 2002 Apr, 2003 Feb, 2001 May, 1992 Oct, 1958 Jun, 2000 Jun, 1973 Jan, 1982 Oct, 2001 1,007 632 279 658 656 33 60 616 899 655 810 870 820 201 47 155 341 274 849 109 680 468 789 461 1,064 402 549 144 270 781 49 111 113 29 766 767 156 13 68 755 992 1,051 962 957 218 605 86 969 1,066 815 627 212 790 452 544 916 33,897 152,146 2,911,690 9,327 407,115 1,433,256 290,520 3,521 69,979 33,890 509 285 334 1,686,152 2,979,805 4,753,101 10,598,682 11,104,478 64,367 7,858,316 15,796 19,141,670 34,169 392,544 777,433 14,268,967 4,414,559 6,857,137 1,422,268 156,708 7,151,743 8,050,570 1,288,903 749,495 522 426 501,705 2,038,237 1,778,480 39,623 106,302 23,250 51,593 58,083 15,677,291 7,329,384 6,627,725 316,592 268,868 45,941 114,701 10,027 799,269 591,756 8,381,481 1,313,024 5,947 26,692 510,823 1,636 71,424 251,448 50,969 618 12,277 5,946 89 50 59 295,816 522,773 833,877 1,859,418 1,948,154 11,292 1,378,652 2,771 3,358,188 5,995 68,867 136,392 2,503,327 774,484 1,203,006 249,521 27,493 1,254,692 1,412,381 226,123 131,490 92 75 88,018 357,585 312,014 6,951 18,650 4,079 9,051 10,190 2,750,402 1,285,857 1,162,759 55,542 47,170 8,060 20,123 1,759 140,223 103,817 1,470,435 230,355 1,005 796 256 1,110 658 398 717 1,148 907 1,006 1,165 1,174 1,170 352 250 162 58 51 921 102 1,069 10 1,003 662 539 27 174 122 400 791 116 97 423 546 1,164 1,167 618 317 343 982 858 1,036 947 934 21 112 127 700 731 963 841 1,106 532 582 88 416 43,174 250,964 4,603,310 14,953 597,601 1,315,233 177,602 4,949 119,045 72,262 570 248 410 1,560,384 3,078,474 4,295,681 11,210,960 11,160,796 86,642 8,539,104 18,745 20,328,098 53,127 301,909 1,686,291 16,065,476 4,477,454 7,368,604 1,299,188 192,026 7,399,485 8,904,666 1,276,221 691,412 766 603 384,201 1,297,406 1,488,696 44,549 169,675 36,254 66,642 87,723 16,293,580 8,992,725 6,654,641 697,108 413,384 58,968 67,934 17,234 1,858,614 656,336 7,499,358 3,127,094

Fuel

NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY NY OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OK OK OK OK OK

PPL Shoreham Energy Project Orange Facility Ravenswood Generating Station Rensselaer Cogen Richard M Flynn (Holtsville) Rochester 7 - Russell Station S A Carlson Sterling Power Plant Vernon Boulevard WPS Syracuse Generation, LLC AMP-Ohio Gas Turbines Bowling Green AMP-Ohio Gas Turbines Galion AMP-Ohio Gas Turbines Napoleon Ashtabula Avon Lake Power Plant Bay Shore Cardinal Conesville Darby Electric Generating Station Eastlake Frank M Tait Station Gen J M Gavin Greenville Electric Gen Station Hamilton Municipal Power Plant Hanging Rock Energy Facility J M Stuart Killen Station Kyger Creek Lake Shore Madison Generating Station Miami Fort Generating Station Muskingum River Niles O H Hutchings Omega JV2 Bowling Green Omega JV2 Hamilton Picway R E Burger Richard Gorsuch Richland Peaking Station Robert P Mone Rolling Hills Generating LLC Tait Electric Generating Station Troy Energy, LLC W H Sammis W H Zimmer Generating Station Walter C Beckjord Generating Station Washington Energy Facility Waterford Plant West Lorain Woodsdale Anadarko Chouteau Power Plant Comanche (8059) Grand River Dam Authority Green Country Energy, LLC

Diesel Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas

Appendices

47

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Apr, 1958 Apr, 1982 Mar, 2001 Mar, 1964 May, 1956 May, 1950 Jun, 1970 Jun, 2002 Oct, 1977 Apr, 2003 Jun, 1974 Mar, 1971 Nov, 1979 Jan, 1970 May, 2001 Nov, 2002 Jan, 1970 Apr, 1980 Nov, 1995 Jul, 1996 Apr, 2002 May, 2001 May, 2002 Jun, 2007 Jul, 2001 Dec, 2000 Nov, 1999 Sep, 2000 Jul, 2003 Apr, 2002 Jan, 1958 Aug, 2002 Dec, 1975 Jun, 1961 Jun, 1973 Dec, 2001 Dec, 1970 May, 1970 Jan, 1954 Jan, 1959 Jun, 1952 Feb, 2004 Mar, 2003 Jun, 2004 Jan, 1998 Jun, 2001 Jan, 1969 Mar, 2002 Jun, 1969 Jan, 1959 Apr, 2002 Jun, 1967 Mar, 2002 Nov, 2003 Aug, 1954 191 548 828 296 161 54 404 988 500 1,068 462 418 522 386 847 1,020 387 525 689 698 963 857 972 1,172 888 808 748 804 1,084 959 187 1,010 482 262 449 924 413 397 114 219 84 1,101 1,056 1,113 716 878 365 940 371 220 952 349 946 1,097 128 792,177 3,544,815 1,360,007 151,147 9,191,321 602,832 8,562,036 889,882 45,440 1,332,897 1,344,122 2,483,797 7,030,959 454,242 67,203 2,381,684 305,196 4,813,294 1,311,337 1,471,990 1,328,586 1,040,574 15,846 747,238 1,050,916 21,690 48,744 24,118 269,451 52,985 2,195,757 883,159 17,387,361 9,380,958 23,116 76,215 2,903,425 12,124,919 1,062,055 3,855,827 2,343,388 1,582,337 303,637 1,084,798 208,660 104,308 10,173,499 7,373 13,576,987 356,647 530,540 11,898,614 750,646 550,914 1,670,459 138,978 621,897 238,598 26,517 1,612,512 105,760 1,502,112 156,120 7,972 233,841 235,811 435,754 1,233,501 79,692 11,790 417,839 53,543 844,438 230,059 258,244 233,085 182,557 2,780 131,094 184,371 3,805 8,552 4,231 47,272 9,296 385,221 154,940 3,050,414 1,645,782 4,055 13,371 509,373 2,127,179 186,325 676,461 411,121 277,603 53,270 190,315 36,607 18,300 1,784,824 1,293 2,381,928 62,570 93,077 2,087,476 131,692 96,652 293,063 535 223 409 798 78 580 87 506 964 414 411 278 119 634 911 288 708 161 417 391 415 475 1,068 547 473 1,046 955 1,031 728 945 301 508 16 72 1,038 898 257 44 472 202 293 370 710 466 757 860 63 1,130 34 681 602 45 545 595 356 1,219,585 3,158,228 2,138,791 254,659 9,367,369 1,037,489 9,155,307 2,003,803 87,952 3,000,410 2,226,891 3,744,365 6,891,814 764,908 103,243 5,738,323 432,115 4,618,225 2,636,207 2,292,208 3,156,740 2,575,710 26,590 1,744,433 1,552,841 38,052 83,337 45,016 410,840 69,225 2,273,217 1,224,797 19,370,630 10,988,383 9,118 127,504 3,085,749 13,744,914 925,240 3,416,656 2,231,618 3,790,411 655,396 1,636,246 288,057 140,811 11,031,147 10,781 14,522,853 293,312 813,358 13,007,877 1,171,925 1,291,050 1,730,438

Fuel

OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OR OR OR OR OR OR OR PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA

Horseshoe Lake Hugo McClain Energy Facility Mooreland Muskogee Mustang Northeastern Oneta Energy Center Ponca Redbud Power Plant Riverside (4940) Seminole (2956) Sooner Southwestern Spring Creek Power Plant Tenaska Kiamichi Generating Station Tulsa Boardman Coyote Springs Hermiston Hermiston Power Plant Klamath Cogeneration Project Klamath Energy LLC Port Westward AES Ironwood Allegheny Energy Hunlock Unit 4 Allegheny Energy Unit 1 and Unit 2 Allegheny Energy Unit 8 and Unit 9 Allegheny Energy Units 3, 4 & 5 Armstrong Energy Ltd Part Armstrong Power Station Bethlehem Power Plant Bruce Mansfield Brunner Island Brunot Island Power Station Chambersburg Units 12 and 13 Cheswick Conemaugh Cromby Eddystone Generating Station Elrama Fairless Energy, LLC Fayette Energy Facility FPL Energy Marcus Hook, LP Grays Ferry Cogen Partnership Handsome Lake Energy Hatfields Ferry Power Station Hazleton Generation Homer City Hunlock Power Station Hunterstown Combined Cycle Keystone Liberty Electric Power Plant Lower Mount Bethel Energy Martins Creek

Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal

48 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jan, 1948 Nov, 1971 Sep, 1990 Jun, 1952 Dec, 1991 Nov, 2002 May, 2001 Oct, 1958 Jul, 1958 Mar, 2004 Jun, 1954 Aug, 1949 Jun, 1951 Jan, 1987 Jun, 1995 Feb, 1991 Jul, 2002 Feb, 2000 May, 2000 Apr, 1962 Jul, 1998 Mar, 2004 Mar, 1996 May, 1984 Jun, 1997 Jun, 1966 May, 1960 Jan, 1991 Nov, 2003 Jan, 1954 Dec, 2001 Jan, 1958 Dec, 2002 Jan, 1955 Jul, 1951 Jan, 1970 Jan, 1973 Mar, 1975 Sep, 1994 May, 1975 Jun, 2006 May, 1993 May, 2002 Nov, 1958 Jun, 1999 Apr, 1967 Apr, 1972 Oct, 1956 May, 2000 Jun, 1955 Oct, 1951 Jan, 1954 Apr, 2001 Jun, 1986 Mar, 1965 25 428 599 85 619 1,018 860 211 205 1,104 122 44 67 582 683 603 1,008 752 765 265 718 1,103 692 563 708 332 244 602 1,095 115 926 188 1,028 141 70 388 445 471 666 474 1,163 642 978 215 735 345 436 165 776 152 74 116 833 579 310 908,845 9,252,615 525,415 1,570,507 14,124 498,388 21,503 2,384,956 81,024 3,731,174 3,577,585 2,724,661 1,481,640 307,963 682,136 18,642 1,187,053 529,381 482,138 2,391,407 109,891 184,779 3,280,935 13,443,593 91,055 976,788 1,189,008 27,438 995,999 2,168,444 573,467 1,467,091 144,033 1,209,994 1,656,246 3,984,995 3,487,115 8,608,578 227,833 2,947,753 37,787 7,947 19,681 5,476,954 39,897 6,768,029 17,957,234 8,007,616 46,031 4,887,748 9,356,114 10,945,350 226,782 1,275,301 82,456 159,446 1,623,266 92,178 275,528 2,478 87,436 3,772 418,413 14,215 654,592 627,646 478,011 259,937 54,029 119,673 3,271 208,255 92,874 84,586 419,545 19,279 32,417 575,603 2,358,525 15,974 171,366 208,598 4,814 174,737 380,429 100,608 257,384 25,269 212,280 290,569 699,122 611,775 1,510,277 39,971 517,150 6,629 1,394 3,453 960,869 7,000 1,187,374 3,150,392 1,404,845 8,076 857,500 1,641,424 1,920,237 39,786 223,737 14,466 502 76 606 372 1,080 623 1,047 287 893 212 222 268 389 705 560 1,060 448 604 626 284 851 776 239 36 879 485 447 1,024 481 305 587 392 803 441 357 194 225 85 746 252 991 1,123 1,057 144 979 124 14 98 962 159 74 53 747 428 891 952,495 10,599,354 312,481 1,544,709 23,749 1,218,025 36,760 2,400,962 86,025 2,621,827 3,718,110 1,910,219 1,480,982 175,787 915,510 36,033 2,882,700 1,235,575 738,866 2,449,289 151,958 484,733 3,478,666 13,379,076 110,841 926,014 1,250,919 31,164 1,487,032 1,945,683 788,143 1,680,962 192,977 1,423,174 1,669,868 4,598,326 4,110,529 8,261,697 286,882 2,605,306 79,868 7,522 33,338 5,850,026 58,011 6,979,099 18,100,379 7,875,145 71,152 5,168,777 8,894,715 10,842,625 312,280 1,040,758 110,756

Fuel

PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA RI RI RI RI SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SC SD SD SD SD SD TN TN TN TN TN TN TN TN TN TN TX TX

Mitchell Power Station Montour Mt. Carmel Cogeneration New Castle North East Cogeneration Plant Ontelaunee Energy Center PEI Power Power Corporation Portland Schuylkill Seward Shawville Sunbury Titus WPS Westwood Generation, LLC Manchester Street Pawtucket Power Associates, LP Rhode Island State Energy Partners Tiverton Power Broad River Energy Center Canadys Steam Cherokee County Cogen Columbia Energy Center (SC) Cope Station Cross Darlington County Dolphus M Grainger H B Robinson Hagood Jasper County Generating Facility Jefferies John S. Rainey Generating Station McMeekin Mill Creek Combustion Turbine Sta Urquhart W S Lee Wateree Williams Winyah Angus Anson Big Stone Groton Generating Station Huron Lange Allen Brownsville CT Bull Run Cumberland Gallatin Gleason Generating Facility John Sevier Johnsonville Kingston Lagoon Creek AES Deepwater, Inc. Alex Ty Cooke Generating Station

Diesel Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Residual Oil Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Diesel Petroleum Coke Natural Gas

Appendices

49

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jun, 1974 Jan, 2002 Jun, 2002 Dec, 1971 Aug, 1998 Jun, 2000 Jan, 2003 Oct, 1963 Oct, 2003 Apr, 2000 Dec, 1970 Jul, 2001 Jul, 2001 Jun, 1980 Feb, 2002 Oct, 2001 Nov, 2002 Jul, 1971 May, 1975 Nov, 2002 Apr, 2001 Sep, 2001 Jun, 2001 Dec, 2004 Feb, 2003 Mar, 2002 Jul, 1999 Oct, 1983 Dec, 1960 Jun, 1973 Jan, 2000 Dec, 2000 Dec, 1984 Apr, 1948 Jul, 2001 Jul, 1976 Jul, 2003 Jun, 2001 Jun, 1966 Dec, 1992 Sep, 2000 Aug, 1977 Oct, 2005 Aug, 1996 Jul, 1971 Nov, 1950 Apr, 1953 Jun, 1970 May, 2000 May, 1951 May, 1953 Dec, 1970 Dec, 1985 Jan, 1970 463 932 989 431 722 787 1,037 287 1,092 761 414 881 895 529 937 911 1,016 422 475 1,017 839 908 874 1,120 1,042 950 741 558 255 451 751 809 570 27 880 487 1,083 872 333 637 803 497 1,148 701 423 59 102 403 764 64 104 415 576 389 187,496 1,035,992 2,168,880 9,956,682 1,200,012 406,490 1,212,102 777 352,689 790,296 1,190,360 1,688,035 3,114,717 4,384,926 131,245 1,517,944 1,630,355 685,921 104,962 4,057,253 1,288,960 714,833 23,350 1,815,560 3,700,278 1,808,739 1,033,988 3,524,022 563,508 154,164 1,877,652 1,849,954 5,738,749 216,619 1,186 8,265,848 563,032 1,571,224 271,244 4,560,391 100,811 7,682,305 1,543,765 642,277 1,180,501 255,739 51,011 417,941 2,018,715 547,240 78,398 1,256,425 14,223,953 4,813 32,894 181,753 380,505 1,746,786 210,528 71,314 212,649 136 61,875 138,648 208,835 296,146 546,442 769,285 23,026 266,306 286,027 120,337 18,414 711,799 226,133 125,409 4,096 318,519 649,172 317,323 181,401 618,249 98,861 27,046 329,413 324,553 1,006,798 38,003 208 1,450,149 98,777 275,653 47,587 800,069 17,686 1,347,773 270,836 112,680 207,105 44,866 8,949 73,323 354,161 96,007 13,754 220,425 2,495,430 844 774 476 304 65 443 659 440 1,163 684 537 446 351 246 175 821 386 362 559 859 190 422 553 1,033 339 215 340 477 224 592 792 333 335 141 750 1,160 89 593 371 727 165 864 104 379 573 450 735 951 654 320 597 897 434 28 1,142 294,422 1,414,175 4,415,443 9,090,236 1,793,119 593,577 2,814,037 572 652,506 1,161,542 1,975,343 3,547,654 7,541,675 4,395,901 278,182 3,567,702 3,602,685 1,110,280 159,506 9,675,374 2,301,756 1,743,250 31,889 4,352,554 5,705,952 2,556,870 1,432,628 3,611,185 845,181 210,235 4,411,502 2,653,559 5,171,260 298,077 1,664 7,810,504 1,280,272 2,323,198 400,394 4,270,895 211,428 5,602,197 3,690,636 1,339,376 1,955,556 391,658 74,253 626,119 3,651,819 858,552 126,345 1,865,503 14,410,512 7,731

Fuel

TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX

Barney M. Davis Bastrop Clean Energy Center Baytown Energy Center Big Brown Blackhawk Station Bosque County Power Plant Brazos Valley Energy, LP C E Newman C. R. Wing Cogeneration Plant Calpine Hidalgo Energy Center Cedar Bayou Channel Energy Center Channelview Cogeneration Facility Coleto Creek Colorado Bend Energy Center Corpus Christi Energy Center Cottonwood Energy Project Decker Creek Decordova Deer Park Energy Center Eastman Cogeneration Facility Ennis-Tractebel Power Company Exelon Laporte Generating Station Exxonmobil Beaumont Refinery FPLE Forney, LP Freestone Power Generation Frontera Generation Facility Gibbons Creek Steam Electric Station Graham Greens Bayou Gregory Power Facility Guadalupe Generating Station H W Pirkey Power Plant Handley Generating Station Hardin County Peaking Facility Harrington Station Harrison County Power Project Hays Energy Project Holly Street J K Spruce J Robert Massengale Generating Station J T Deely Jack County Generation Facility Johnson County Generation Facility Jones Station Knox Lee Power Plant Lake Creek Lake Hubbard Lamar Power (Paris) Laredo Leon Creek Lewis Creek Limestone Lone Star Power Plant

Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Other Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas

50 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Mar, 2001 Jul, 2001 May, 1977 May, 2000 Dec, 1974 Jul, 1954 Jun, 1959 Dec, 1945 Apr, 1999 Feb, 2006 Apr, 1996 Jan, 1958 Jul, 1960 Dec, 1959 Jun, 1972 Apr, 2001 Dec, 1986 Oct, 1985 Jun, 1989 Jul, 1998 Jun, 1958 May, 1952 Jan, 1969 Apr, 2007 Oct, 1968 Oct, 1963 Apr, 2002 Sep, 1978 Jan, 1970 Nov, 1999 Mar, 1958 Oct, 2003 Jun, 1979 Jul, 2001 Apr, 1995 Jan, 1982 Mar, 2001 May, 1981 Dec, 1996 May, 1965 Sep, 2003 Oct, 1963 Jul, 2001 Jun, 1958 Aug, 1997 Jun, 1989 May, 1974 May, 2000 Apr, 2001 Jul, 1982 Apr, 1970 May, 1965 Sep, 1990 Jun, 1966 Nov, 1962 825 894 494 773 470 126 228 18 726 1,154 695 189 249 234 437 843 581 575 590 719 198 82 366 1,168 364 288 953 507 390 749 190 1,093 517 885 674 545 819 539 704 318 1,091 289 889 200 710 591 458 769 837 550 394 319 598 334 277 1,392,680 1,271,133 21,821,564 2,968,562 18,300,186 65,593 4,643 280,522 1,122,456 110,721 9,018 1,304,205 848,973 131,590 1,009,428 1,966,865 4,555,053 2,065,947 214,808 1,558,282 253,080 900,391 9,325 153,371 233,416 206,744 1,116,749 214,111 2,947,678 472,970 190,723 359,469 13,297,420 1,519 791,487 3,589,409 795,356 5,413,397 34,032 682,035 2,446,589 58,106 1,725,591 527,995 2,629,647 141,748 511,964 1,896,991 1,732,104 7,638,638 280,221 56,550 2,738,265 1,191,776 174,798 244,330 223,006 3,828,345 520,800 3,210,559 11,508 815 49,214 196,922 19,425 1,582 228,808 148,943 23,086 177,093 345,064 799,132 362,447 37,686 273,383 44,400 157,963 1,636 26,907 40,950 36,271 195,921 37,563 517,136 82,977 33,460 63,065 2,332,881 266 138,857 629,721 139,536 949,719 5,971 119,655 429,226 10,194 302,735 92,631 461,342 24,868 89,818 332,805 303,878 1,340,112 49,162 9,921 480,397 209,083 30,666 405 430 5 251 12 915 1,143 720 459 850 1,115 418 515 820 478 324 166 316 753 375 737 504 1,111 793 744 759 462 754 253 628 772 678 38 1,156 536 221 533 146 1,004 562 281 933 348 605 273 804 612 329 347 108 721 936 266 444 782 2,088,214 3,410,429 19,460,251 6,885,474 16,432,427 46,186 6,337 405,102 2,355,535 172,833 11,256 1,844,915 1,351,502 205,150 1,461,212 2,718,016 4,473,120 3,141,160 348,282 4,414,306 341,050 1,424,136 9,818 325,520 342,749 317,082 2,241,307 342,495 4,738,875 523,578 312,784 513,580 12,823,490 2,115 974,395 3,041,014 1,906,017 4,830,430 45,500 1,076,743 1,540,648 74,518 3,348,645 827,830 3,689,327 238,704 816,383 4,731,507 4,059,234 7,537,506 425,689 77,009 2,623,615 1,146,146 248,291

Fuel

TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX

Lost Pines 1 Magic Valley Generating Station Martin Lake Midlothian Energy Monticello Moore County Station Morgan Creek Mountain Creek Generating Station Mustang Station Mustang Station Units 4 and 5 New Gulf Power Facility Newman Nichols Station North Lake O W Sommers Odessa-Ector Generating Station Oklaunion Power Station Optim Energy Altura Cogen, LLC Paris Energy Center Pasadena Power Plant Permian Basin Plant X Power Lane Steam Plant Quail Run Energy Center R W Miller Ray Olinger Rio Nogales Power Project, LP Roland C. Dansby Power Plant Sabine Sabine Cogeneration Facility Sam Bertron Sam Rayburn Plant Sam Seymour San Jacinto County Peaking Facility San Jacinto Steam Electric Station San Miguel Sand Hill Energy Center Sandow Silas Ray Sim Gideon South Houston Green Power Site Spencer SRW Cogen Limited Partnership Stryker Creek Sweeny Cogeneration Facility Sweetwater Generating Plant T C Ferguson Tenaska Frontier Generation Station Tenaska Gateway Generating Station Tolk Station Tradinghouse Trinidad Twin Oaks V H Braunig Valley (TXU)

Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas

Appendices

51

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Jun, 1958 Jun, 1954 Mar, 1977 Jan, 1970 Sep, 2003 Apr, 2003 Dec, 1985 Nov, 1954 Mar, 2005 Sep, 1951 Jun, 1978 Jul, 1974 Jul, 1986 May, 2007 Apr, 2006 Jun, 2004 Oct, 2001 Feb, 1992 Mar, 1991 Jun, 1950 Jul, 2002 Apr, 1953 Nov, 1952 Sep, 1958 Jan, 1995 Aug, 2000 Mar, 2001 Jun, 1992 Jun, 1944 Jun, 1994 Jul, 1992 May, 2001 Mar, 2003 Jun, 2004 Nov, 1992 Oct, 1946 May, 1955 Jul, 2000 Mar, 1992 Dec, 2003 May, 2001 Jun, 1957 Jun, 1984 Dec, 1972 Jun, 2003 Jul, 1993 Nov, 2001 Aug, 2002 Jul, 2001 Jul, 2004 Dec, 1997 Sep, 1957 Jul, 1952 Dec, 1938 Mar, 1975 199 123 493 391 1,090 1,072 577 133 1,125 73 505 464 580 1,171 1,157 1,114 912 620 604 56 1,003 101 93 209 671 802 824 629 15 661 631 858 1,057 1,115 636 19 151 797 621 1,098 848 176 565 443 1,079 645 917 1,012 884 1,117 715 182 89 2 472 20,949,613 13,599 11,798,412 714,620 1,154,981 1,546,941 4,083,840 1,536,505 1,439,112 483,433 10,431,321 7,223,031 15,694,058 512,426 24,919 303,700 444,928 447,469 222,270 1,534,214 46,203 4,183,816 8,728,350 3,788,437 7,360,175 43,208 65,046 111,075 1,654,470 234,824 375,630 132,663 167,768 191,502 914,092 1,776,053 1,605,715 117,007 500,942 823,601 140,131 2,834,974 470,815 10,472,231 834,108 94,207 316 384,033 13,151 327,504 640,904 807,439 565,192 273,621 8,198,904 3,675,371 2,386 2,069,897 125,372 202,628 271,393 716,463 269,562 252,476 84,813 1,830,056 1,267,198 2,753,344 89,899 4,372 53,281 78,058 78,503 38,995 269,160 8,106 734,003 1,531,289 664,638 1,291,259 7,580 11,412 19,487 290,258 41,197 65,900 23,274 29,433 33,597 160,367 311,588 281,704 20,528 87,885 144,491 24,584 497,364 82,599 1,837,233 146,335 16,528 55 67,374 2,307 57,457 112,439 141,656 99,157 48,004 1,438,404 6 1,082 46 554 455 377 189 380 397 625 61 114 20 611 1,028 709 641 638 748 381 960 184 84 207 111 968 920 847 358 743 671 818 787 770 498 344 368 838 621 522 807 262 629 59 518 870 1,171 667 1,090 695 574 526 590 726 90 21,342,018 18,793 10,963,432 1,134,114 2,586,494 2,305,556 3,635,490 1,434,467 3,681,175 705,083 10,320,272 7,568,444 15,371,980 1,370,541 41,946 708,770 683,985 325,242 388,547 1,582,334 80,125 4,127,472 9,494,715 4,314,563 7,173,277 51,231 94,412 145,710 1,611,812 447,847 248,337 207,316 237,682 281,133 741,284 1,600,625 3,111,380 180,111 364,566 2,063,926 209,765 3,050,770 316,808 9,312,408 1,292,530 131,381 415 916,771 19,674 562,318 1,559,022 840,318 385,363 2,031,208 7,744,524

Fuel

TX TX TX TX TX TX UT UT UT UT UT UT UT UT UT UT UT VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VA VT WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WI WI WI WI

W A Parish W B Tuttle Welsh Power Plant Wilkes Power Plant Wise County Power Company Wolf Hollow I, LP Bonanza Carbon Currant Creek Power Project Gadsby Hunter Huntington Intermountain Lake Side Power Plant Millcreek Power Nebo Power Station West Valley Generation Project Altavista Power Station Bellemeade Power Station Bremo Power Station Buchanan -- Units 1 and 2 Chesapeake Energy Center Chesterfield Power Station Clinch River Clover Power Station Commonwealth Chesapeake Doswell Limited Partnership Elizabeth River Combustion Turbine Sta Glen Lyn Gordonsville Power Station Hopewell Power Station Ladysmith Combustion Turbine Sta Louisa Generation Facility Marsh Run Generation Facility Mecklenburg Power Station Mirant Potomac River Possum Point Power Station Remington Combustion Turbine Station Southampton Power Station Tenaska Virginia Generating Station Wolf Hills Energy Yorktown Power Station J C McNeil Centralia Chehalis Generation Facility Encogen Generating Station Finley Combustion Turbine Frederickson Power LP Fredonia Generating Station Goldendale Generating Station River Road Alma Bay Front Blount Street Columbia

Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Diesel Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Wood Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Wood Coal Coal

52 America’s Biggest Polluters

State

Plant Name

Number of Cars Electricity Per Year CO2 (tons) National Date Plant (MWh) Equivalent National Dirty Emitted in Began Produced in to Plant’s Old Rank Rank 2007 Operation 2007 CO2 Emissions in 2007
Apr, 2002 Jul, 1993 Jun, 1999 May, 1949 Jul, 1951 May, 2001 Apr, 2005 Jul, 1969 May, 2000 Apr, 2004 Nov, 1979 Jun, 1957 Apr, 2000 Apr, 1959 Mar, 1995 Jul, 1980 Jul, 2005 Jan, 1943 Mar, 2004 Jan, 1952 Feb, 2001 May, 2005 May, 1993 Dec, 1959 Jun, 1968 Apr, 2005 Apr, 1993 Dec, 1954 Mar, 1997 Jan, 1952 Jun, 2001 Apr, 2001 Jan, 1967 Jan, 1972 Sep, 1971 Jul, 1958 Jul, 1953 May, 1971 Sep, 1965 Sep, 1980 May, 1992 Jan, 1950 Dec, 2001 Jan, 1979 Jan, 1944 Jan, 1949 Nov, 1958 Nov, 1974 Jun, 1980 May, 1963 Jun, 1995 May, 2001 Jan, 2003 Sep, 1978 954 646 733 40 69 859 1,131 372 768 1,107 523 174 759 224 672 531 1,143 10 1,105 78 813 1,134 643 233 358 1,130 641 137 706 79 869 835 340 434 425 204 106 421 324 533 626 51 927 512 14 36 214 469 528 285 681 861 1,040 508 39,271 145,814 48,619 78,813 5,403,713 22,902 170,257 2,204,412 34,254 25,795 2,731,480 742,790 72,452 1,710,358 87,194 9,487,843 807,155 2,913,320 587,824 29,010 64,108 25,113 65,234 6,580,984 1,889,394 131,662 92,186 3,173,658 507,231 1,610,136 121,755 96,656 6,726,767 13,570,101 17,418,609 3,991,447 2,182,018 9,033,512 10,700,711 9,846,831 771,565 6,153,309 8,513 7,471,146 349,501 799,862 7,570,888 16,045,976 14,978,559 6,101,930 927,282 12,597 912,154 3,416,990 6,890 25,581 8,530 13,827 948,020 4,018 29,870 386,739 6,009 4,525 479,207 130,314 12,711 300,063 15,297 1,664,534 141,606 511,109 103,127 5,090 11,247 4,406 11,445 1,154,559 331,473 23,099 16,173 556,782 88,988 282,480 21,361 16,957 1,180,135 2,380,720 3,055,896 700,254 382,810 1,584,827 1,877,318 1,727,514 135,362 1,079,528 1,494 1,310,727 61,316 140,327 1,328,226 2,815,084 2,627,817 1,070,514 162,681 2,210 160,027 599,472 984 802 956 896 147 1,040 785 300 1,002 1,026 267 550 903 349 885 71 527 255 583 1,017 922 1,027 916 131 330 819 874 243 615 367 833 866 126 35 15 193 303 80 55 68 541 135 1,119 110 686 530 109 18 24 137 494 1,093 499 230 78,441 181,066 71,368 66,430 5,046,739 30,985 438,007 2,360,109 43,980 40,534 2,667,126 501,742 108,284 1,305,597 105,850 8,540,832 1,889,098 2,519,081 1,458,405 35,639 93,066 37,946 64,175 6,136,793 1,428,220 260,720 120,875 2,922,022 1,259,242 1,481,481 218,150 134,305 7,237,707 14,609,661 19,576,801 4,235,693 2,361,046 9,414,785 10,762,194 10,094,196 552,059 6,572,030 18,026 8,602,328 270,579 740,786 6,207,237 16,053,535 13,232,063 5,594,647 817,066 21,208 782,324 3,154,001

Fuel

WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WV WY WY WY WY WY WY WY WY

Combined Locks Energy Center, LLC Concord Depere Energy Center DTE Stoneman, LLC Edgewater (4050) Elk Mound Generating Station Fox Energy Company LLC Genoa Germantown Power Plant Island Street Peaking Plant J P Madgett Manitowoc Neenah Energy Facility Nelson Dewey Paris Pleasant Prairie Port Washington Generating Station Pulliam Riverside Energy Center, LLC Rock River Rockgen Energy Center Sheboygan Falls Energy Facility South Fond Du Lac South Oak Creek Valley (WEPCO) West Campus Cogeneration Facility West Marinette Weston Whitewater Cogeneration Facility Albright Power Station Big Sandy Peaker Plant Ceredo Generating Station Fort Martin Power Station Harrison Power Station John E Amos Kammer Kanawha River Mitchell (WV) Mount Storm Power Station Mountaineer (1301) North Branch Power Station Phil Sporn Pleasants Energy, LLC Pleasants Power Station Rivesville Power Station Willow Island Power Station Dave Johnston Jim Bridger Laramie River Naughton Neil Simpson II Neil Simpson II (CT2) Wygen I Wyodak

Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Coal Natural Gas Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Coal Natural Gas Coal Coal

Appendices

53


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:867
posted:11/24/2009
language:English
pages:55