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					American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

Accredited by the American National Standards Institute
Sponsored by the National Committee on Radiation Instrumentation, N42

IEEE 3 Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5997, USA 22 January 2007

ANSI N42.32-2006
(Revision of ANSI N42.32-2003)

ANSI N42.32-2006
(Revision of ANSI N42.32-2003)

American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security
Sponsor

National Committee on Radiation Instrumentation, N42
Accredited by the

American National Standards Institute
Secretariat

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Approved 28 August 2006

American National Standards Institute

Abstract: Performance specifications, design criteria, and testing methods are provided for the evaluation of radiation detection instruments that are pocket-sized and carried on the body. Keywords: alarming, design criteria, performance specifications, personal radiation detectors, pocket-sized, radiation, radiation detection, radiation instrumentation

_____________________
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA Copyright © 2007 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. Published 22 January 2007. Printed in the United States of America. IEEE is a registered trademark in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office, owned by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated. Print: PDF: ISBN 0-7381-5276-5 ISBN 0-7381-5277-3 SH95594 SS95594

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American National Standard
An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. An American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the consumer, and the general public. The existence of an American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has approved the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standard. American National Standards are subject to periodic reviews and users are cautioned to obtain the latest editions. CAUTION NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be taken to affirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of publication. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or writing the American National Standards Institute. Authorization to photocopy portions of any individual standard for internal or personal use is granted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., provided that the appropriate fee is paid to Copyright Clearance Center. To arrange for payment of licensing fee, please contact Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 USA; +1-978-750-8400. Permission to photocopy portions of any individual standard for educational classroom use can also be obtained through the Copyright Clearance Center.

Introduction
This introduction is not part of ANSI N42.32-2006, American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security. This standard is the responsibility of the Accredited American Standards Committee on Radiation Instrumentation, N42. The standard was approved by the N42 letter ballot of July–August 2006.

Notice to users

Errata
Errata, if any, for this and all other standards can be accessed at the following URL: http:// standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/updates/errata/index.html. Users are encouraged to check this URL for errata periodically.

Interpretations
Current interpretations can be accessed at the following URL: http://standards.ieee.org/reading/ieee/interp/ index.html.

Patents
Attention is called to the possibility that implementation of this standard may require use of subject matter covered by patent rights. By publication of this standard, no position is taken with respect to the existence or validity of any patent rights in connection therewith. The IEEE shall not be responsible for identifying patents or patent applications for which a license may be required to implement an IEEE standard or for conducting inquiries into the legal validity or scope of those patents that are brought to its attention.

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Participants
At the time it approved this standard, the Accredited Standards Committee on Radiation Instrumentation, N42, had the following membership: Michael P. Unterweger, Chair Louis Costrell, Deputy Chair William Ash, Administrative Secretary Organization Represented...................................................................................................Name of Representative Bartlett Services ………………………………………………………...………….…………………Morgan Cox Canberra ……………………………………………………………………………………………Markku Koskelo Chew, M.H …………………………………………………………………...….…………………….Jack M. Selby Commerce Dept, U.S. NIST ………………………………………………………..…………...Michael Unterweger ..............................................................................................................................................................Louis Costrell (Alt.) Consultant ..................................................................................................................................................Frank X. Masse Department of Homeland Security …………………………..………………………………………….Peter Shebell Entergy-ANO ……………………………………………..…………………………………………...Ron Schwartz Health Physics Society ………………………………………………….……………………………….Sandy Perle IEEE ..............................................................................................................................................................Louis Costrell ...............................................................................................................................................................Julian Forster (Alt.) .........................................................................................................................................................Anthony Spurgin (Alt.) ...............................................................................................................................................Michael P. Unterweger (Alt.) International Medcom …………………………………..…………………………………………………Don Sythe Lawrence Berkeley National Lab ……………………….…………………………………………Edward J. Lampo Lawrence Livermore National Lab ………………………..…………………………………………...Gary Johnson NASA, GSFC ……………………………………………..………………………………….Sachidananda R. Babu Nuclear Regulatory Commission ………………………………………………………..……………..Cynthia Jones Nuclear Stds Unlimited ……………………………………………………..………………………Al N. Tschaeche ORNL ……………………………………………………………………………..………………Peter J. Chiaro, Jr. ………………………………………………………………..………………………………...Charles Britton (Alt.) ORTEC ………………………………………………………………..…………………………..Ronald M. Keyser Pacific NW Labs ………………………………………………………..…………………………...Richard Kouzes Swinth Associates …………………………………………………..…………………………….Kenneth L. Swinth U.S. Army …………………………………………………………..………………………………Edward Groeber Members-At-Large ……………………………………………………………….…………………....Ernesto Corte ……………………………………………………………………………………………….....Joseph C. McDonald …………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..Paul L. Phelps …………………………………………………………………………………………………….….Joseph Stencel …………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..Lee J. Wagner

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At the time this standard was approved, Subcommittee N42.RPI had the following membership: Morgan Cox, Co-Chair Jack M. Selby, Co-Chair Dru Carson Peter J. Chiaro, Jr. Jack Cooley Leo Faust Edward Groeber Jerry Hiatt Mark M. Hoover Ron Keyser Joseph C. McDonald Robert Murphy Cheryl Olson Scott Rogers Michael P. Unterweger Ed Walker Chuan-Fu Wu

At the time this standard was approved, the ANSI 42.32 Working Group had the following members: Joseph C. McDonald, Chair and Project Leader Paul Bailey Peter Beck Brooke Buddemeier Bill Casson Peter J. Chiaro, Jr. Steve Donahoo John Gutman Guy Harkins Robert J. Ingram Siraj Khan Sergio Lopez Craig Marianno Chris Passmore Leticia Pibida Bill Quam Joseph Rotunda Jack M. Selby Chris Soares Claire J. Sullivan

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Contents
1. Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................ 1 2. Normative references.................................................................................................................................. 2 3. Definitions .................................................................................................................................................. 2 4. General considerations ............................................................................................................................... 6 4.1 Standard test conditions....................................................................................................................... 6 4.2 Units and uncertainties ........................................................................................................................ 6 4.3 Special word usage .............................................................................................................................. 7 5. General requirements.................................................................................................................................. 8 5.1 Controls ............................................................................................................................................... 8 5.2 Documentation check .......................................................................................................................... 8 5.3 Manufacturer, model, and serial number ............................................................................................. 8 5.4 Type of radiation device ...................................................................................................................... 8 5.5 Displays ............................................................................................................................................... 9 5.6 Effective range of measurement or indication ..................................................................................... 9 5.7 Functionality test ................................................................................................................................. 9 5.8 Audible alarms................................................................................................................................... 10 5.9 Vibration alarms ................................................................................................................................ 11 5.10 Size .................................................................................................................................................. 11 5.11 Mass................................................................................................................................................. 11 5.12 Reference point marking.................................................................................................................. 12 5.13 Clips and lanyards ........................................................................................................................... 12 5.14 Explosive atmospheres .................................................................................................................... 12 5.15 Batteries and battery lifetime........................................................................................................... 13 5.16 Data format ...................................................................................................................................... 13 6. Radiological tests...................................................................................................................................... 14 6.1 General test information .................................................................................................................... 14 6.2 Rate of false alarms ........................................................................................................................... 14 6.3 Time-to-alarm; photons ..................................................................................................................... 14 6.4 Time-to-alarm; neutrons (if provided) ............................................................................................... 15 6.5 Detection of gradually increasing radiation levels............................................................................. 15 6.6 Accuracy............................................................................................................................................ 16 6.7 Accuracy test for neutrons (if provided)............................................................................................ 16 6.8 Over-range response .......................................................................................................................... 17 6.9 Interfering ionizing radiation............................................................................................................. 17

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7. Environmental performance requirements ............................................................................................... 17 7.1 Temperature....................................................................................................................................... 17 7.2 Temperature shock ............................................................................................................................ 18 7.3 Humidity............................................................................................................................................ 19 7.4 Moisture and dust protection ............................................................................................................. 20 7.5 Cold temperature start up................................................................................................................... 21 8. Electromagnetic performance requirements ............................................................................................. 22 8.1 Electrostatic discharge (ESD)............................................................................................................ 22 8.2 Radio frequency................................................................................................................................. 23 8.3 Magnetic fields .................................................................................................................................. 23 8.4 Radiated emissions ............................................................................................................................ 24 9. Mechanical performance requirements..................................................................................................... 25 9.1 Vibration............................................................................................................................................ 25 9.2 Drop test ............................................................................................................................................ 25 9.3 Impact (microphonics)....................................................................................................................... 26 10. Documentation ....................................................................................................................................... 27 10.1 Type test report................................................................................................................................ 27 10.2 Certificate ........................................................................................................................................ 27 10.3 Operation and maintenance manuals ............................................................................................... 27 Annex A (informative) Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 28 A.1 General.............................................................................................................................................. 28 A.2 Detectors........................................................................................................................................... 28 A.3 Detection and identification instruments .......................................................................................... 29 A.4 Radiological protection instruments ................................................................................................. 29 A.5 Electromagnetic capabilities ............................................................................................................. 29 A.6 Units, quantities, calibrations............................................................................................................ 30 Annex B (informative) Detector tests........................................................................................................... 31 Annex C (informative) Sample user interface evaluation technique ............................................................ 32

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American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

1. Overview

1.1 Scope
This standard describes design and performance criteria along with testing methods for evaluating the performance of instruments for homeland security that are pocket-sized and worn on the body for the purpose of rapid detection of radioactive materials. These instruments are used for detection of photon-emitting, and optionally neutron-emitting, radioactive substances for the purposes of detection, interdiction, and prevention. The performance criteria contained in this standard are meant to provide a means for verifying the capability of these instruments to reliably detect significant changes above background levels of radiation and alert the user to these changes. This standard does not apply to instruments that are primarily intended to provide a measurement of dose equivalent, or dose equivalent rate. However, devices that comply with this standard can provide an approximate value of exposure rate.

1.2 Purpose
The purpose of this standard is to specify performance criteria and test methods used to evaluate selfreading, alarming, radiation detection instruments that are pocket-sized, worn on the body, and used to detect the presence of ionizing radiation.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

2. Normative references
This standard shall be used in conjunction with the following publications. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies. ANSI N42.22, American National Standard—Traceability of Radioactive Sources to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Associated Instrument Quality Control.1 ANSI N42.23, American National Standard Measurement and Associated Instrumentation Quality Assurance for Radioassay Laboratories. ANSI N42.42, American National Standard Data Format Standard for Radiation Detectors Used for Homeland Security.2 IEC 60068-1, Environmental Testing—Part 1: General and Guidance. 3 IEC 60068-2-18, Environmental Testing—Part 2-18: Tests—Test R and Guidance: Water. IEC 60068-2-75, Environmental Testing—Part 2-75: Tests—Test Eh: Hammer Tests. IEC 60529, Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures (IP Code), IP53. IEC 61000-4-1, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)—Part 4-1: Testing and Measurement Techniques— Overview of IEC 61000-4 Series. IEC 61000-4-2, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)—Part 4-2: Testing and Measurement Techniques— Electrostatic Discharge Immunity Test. IEC 61000-4-3, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)—Part 4-3: Testing and Measurement Techniques— Radiated, Radio-Frequency, Electromagnetic Field Immunity Test. ISO/IEC 4037-3, X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining the Response as a Function of Photon Energy—Part 3: Calibration of Area and Personal Dosemeters and Measurement of Their Response as a Function of Energy and Angle of Incidence.4

3. Definitions
The following definitions apply to this standard, as well as to ANSI N42.33 [B11]5, ANSI N42.34 [B12], and ANSI N42.35 [B13], all of which have been developed at the request of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for instruments to be used by DHS and emergency responders. 3.1 A-weighted sound level: The frequency weighting of an acoustic spectrum according to a standardized frequency response curve based on the frequency response of the human ear.
The ANSI N42 publications included in this clause are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA (http://standards.ieee.org/). 2 The ANSI N42.42 schema can be obtained from http://physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div846/Gp4/ANSIN4242/xml.html. 3 IEC publications are available from the Sales Department of the International Electrotechnical Commission, Case Postale 131, 3, rue de Varembé, CH-1211, Genève 20, Switzerland/Suisse (http://www.iec.ch/). IEC publications are also available in the United States from the Sales Department, American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA (http://www.ansi.org/).
4 1

ISO publications are available from the ISO Central Secretariat, Case Postale 56, 1 rue de Varembé, CH-1211, Genève 20, Switzerland/ Suisse (http://www.iso.ch/). ISO publications are also available in the United States from the Sales Department, American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA (http://www.ansi.org/). 5 The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex A.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

3.2 acceptance test: Evaluation or measurement of performance characteristics to verify that certain stated specifications and contractual requirements are met. 3.3 accepted ambient photon background: The background radiation as measured using a high pressure ionization chamber, an energy compensated Geiger-Mueller (GM) tube, an energy compensated proportional counter, a tissue equivalent plastic scintillator, a scintillator with spectral compensation, or any other exposure rate instrument having a nearly constant energy response (±30% in the energy range from 60 keV to 1.5 MeV). 3.4 accredited testing laboratory: Testing laboratory that has been accredited by an authoritative body with respect to its qualification to perform verification tests on the type of instruments covered by this standard. 3.5 accuracy: The degree of agreement between the observed value and the conventionally true value of the quantity being measured. 3.6 adjust: To alter the reading of an instrument by means of a built-in variable (hardware or software) control. 3.7 alarm: An audible, visual, or other signal activated when the instrument reading or response exceeds a preset value or falls outside of a preset range. 3.8 calibrate: To adjust and/or determine the response or reading of a device relative to a series of conventionally true values. 3.9 calibration: A set of operations under specified conditions that establishes the relationship between values indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, and the conventionally true values of the quantity or variable being measured. 3.10 check source: A not-necessarily calibrated source that is used to confirm the continuing functionality of an instrument. 3.11 coefficient of variation (COV) (%): The square root of the variance, σ2, divided by the mean value of “n” number of readings times 100. 3.12 conventionally true value (CTV): The commonly accepted best estimate of the value of that quantity.
NOTE—This and the associated uncertainty will preferably be determined by a national or transfer standard, or by a reference instrument that has been calibrated against a national or transfer standard, or by a measurement quality assurance (MQA) interaction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) or an accredited 6 calibration laboratory. (See ANSI N42.22 and ANSI N42.23.)

3.13 decade: A range of values for which the upper value is a power of ten above the lower value. 3.14 detection limits: The extremes of detection or quantification for the radiation of interest.
NOTE—The lower detection limit is the minimum statistically quantifiable instrument response or reading. The upper detection limit is the maximum level at which the instrument meets the required accuracy.

3.15 detector: A device or component designed to produce a quantifiable response to ionizing radiation normally measured electronically.

Notes in text, tables, and figures of a standard are given for information only and do not contain requirements needed to implement this standard.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

3.16 effective center: For a given set of irradiation conditions, the point within a detector where the response is equivalent to that which would be produced if the entire detector was located at the point. 3.17 effective range of measurement: Range of measurements within which the requirements of this standard are met. 3.18 energy dependence: Variation in instrument response as a function of radiation energy for a constant radiation type and exposure rate referenced to air. 3.19 exposure rate: The measure of ionization produced in air by x-ray or gamma-ray radiation. NOTE—The special unit of exposure rate is the Roentgen per hour, abbreviated in this standard as R/h. 3.20 false alarm: Alarm NOT caused by a radioactive source under the specified background conditions. 3.21 functional check: A frequently used qualitative check to determine that an instrument is operational and capable of performing its intended function.
NOTE—Such checks may include, for example, battery check, zero setting, or source response check.

3.22 indicated value: (A) A scale or decade reading. (B) The displayed value of the readout. See also: reading. 3.23 indication: Displayed signal from the instrument to the user conveying information such as scale or decade, status, malfunction, or other critical information. 3.24 influence quantity: Quantity that may have a bearing on the result of a measurement without being the subject of the measurement. 3.25 innocent alarm: An alarm resulting from an actual increase in radiation level, but for reasons that are not due to the detection of illicit radioactive materials. 3.26 instrument: A complete system consisting of one or more assemblies designed to quantify one or more characteristics of ionizing radiation or radioactive material. 3.27 instrument hour: That period of time that the instrument is powered on and operating.
NOTE—The number of operating instruments multiplied by the amount of time they are operating (e.g.,

eight instruments operating for 3.75 h is equivalent to 30 instrument hours). 3.28 interdiction: Stopping the illicit or inadvertent movement of radioactive material that has been discovered as a result of radiation detection or measurement. 3.29 monitoring: Means provided to continuously indicate the state or condition of a system or assembly.
NOTE—May also be used for the real-time measurement of radioactivity or radiation levels.

3.30 over-range response: The response of an instrument when exposed to radiation intensities greater than the upper detection limit. 3.31 performance test: An evaluation of the performance of an instrument in response to a given influence quantity. 3.32 point of measurement: Place where the conventionally true values are determined and where the reference point of the instrument is placed for test purposes. 4
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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

3.33 precision: Degree of agreement of repeated measurements of the same parameter. 3.34 range: All values lying between the lower and upper detection limits. 3.35 reading: The indicated or displayed value of the readout. 3.36 readout: The portion of the instrument that provides a visual display of the response of the instrument or the displayed value, with units, displayed and/or recorded by the instrument as a result of the instrument’s response to some influence quantity. 3.37 reference point of an instrument: Physical mark, or marks, on the outside of an instrument used to position it at a point where the conventionally true value of a quantity is to be measured, unless the position is clearly identifiable from the construction of the instrument. 3.38 relative error [εREL (%)]: The difference between instrument’s reading, M, and the conventionally true value, CTV, of the quantity being measured divided by the conventionally true value multiplied by 100.
ε

= REL (%)

[(M – CTV) ⁄ (CTV)] × 100

3.39 response: Ratio of the instrument reading to the conventionally true value of the measured quantity. 3.40 response time: The time interval required for the instrument reading to change from 10% to 90% of the final reading or vice versa, following a step change in the radiation field at the detector. 3.41 restricted mode: An advanced operating mode that can be accessed by an expert user (e.g., via password) to control the parameters that can affect the result of a measurement (i.e., radionuclide library, routine function control, calibration parameters, alarm thresholds).
NOTE—May be called the “advanced” or “expert” mode.

3.42 routine test: Test that applies to each independent instrument to ascertain compliance with specified criteria 3.43 standard deviation: The positive square root of the variance. 3.44 standard instrument or source: (A) National standard—a standard determined by a nationally recognized competent authority to serve as the basis for assigning values to other standards of the quantity concerned. In the U.S., this is an instrument, source, or other system or device maintained and promulgated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (B) Primary standard—a standard that is designated or widely acknowledged as having the highest metrological qualities and whose value is accepted without reference to other standards of the same quantity. (C) Secondary standard—a standard whose value is assigned by comparison with a primary standard of the same quantity. (D) Reference standard—a standard, generally having the highest metrological quality available at a given location or in a given organization, from which measurements made there are derived. (E) Working standard—a standard that is used routinely to calibrate or check material measures, measuring instruments, or reference materials. A working standard is traceable to NIST (see ANSI N42.22 and ANSI N42.23). 3.45 standard test conditions: The range of values of a set of influence quantities under which a calibration or a measurement of response is carried out. 3.46 test: A procedure whereby the instrument, circuit, or component is evaluated. 3.47 type test: Initial test of two or more production instruments made to a specific design to show that the design meets defined specifications.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

3.48 uncertainty: The estimated bounds of the deviation from the conventionally true value, generally expressed as a percent of the mean, ordinarily taken as the square root of the sum of the square of two components: 1) Random errors that are evaluated by statistical means; and 2) systematic errors that are evaluated by other means. 3.49 variance (σ2): A measure of dispersion, which is the sum of the squared deviation of observations from their mean divided by one less than the number of observations.

1 n σ = ∑ xi − x n − 1 i =1
2

(

)

2

4. General considerations
Unless otherwise specified in the individual steps, all tests enumerated in this standard are to be considered as type tests. Certain tests may be considered as acceptance tests by agreement between the customer and manufacturer. All test results shall be documented.

4.1 Standard test conditions
The required standard test conditions for environmental quantities, such as temperature and pressure, as well as those for other quantities that may influence the performance of instruments, are given in Table 1. These conditions as given in Table 1 shall be met, except where the effect of the condition or quantity itself is being tested. Environmental quantities, such as temperature and humidity, are referred to as influence quantities.

4.2 Units and uncertainties
For the purposes of this standard, the radiological units of exposure rate (R/h) shall be used for x-ray and gamma-ray radiation. Exposure rate can be converted to air-kerma rate to air by using the following conversion factor: 1 R/h = 876 mrad/h (8.76 mGy/h). For x-rays and gamma-rays, the factor to convert from absorbed-dose-to-tissue (rad) to dose equivalent (rem) is equal to 1. Therefore, in conventional units 1 rad = 1 rem and in SI units 1 Gy = 1 Sv. Conversion coefficients can be used to convert from air-kerma to dose equivalent. The conversion coefficients are tabulated as a function of photon energy as described in ISO/IEC 4037-3. For neutron radiation measurements, the radiological unit of dose equivalent (rem/h) will be used. Throughout the text, radiological quantities are expressed in conventional units; SI units are given in parentheses. If uncertainties are not specified for a measurable quantity, they are set to ±5%.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

4.3 Special word usage
The following word usage applies: ⎯ The word “shall” signifies a mandatory requirement (where appropriate, a qualifying statement is included to indicate that there may be an allowable exception). ⎯ The word “may” signifies an acceptable method or an example of good practice. ⎯ The word “should” signifies a recommended specification or method.

Table 1 —Standard test conditions
Influence quantity Stabilization time Ambient temperature Relative humidity Atmospheric pressure Battery voltage Reference point Electromagnetic field of external origin Magnetic induction of external origin Instrument controls Radiation background Contamination by radioactive elements Reference photon radiations Reference neutron radiation Standard test conditions (unless otherwise indicated by the manufacturer) As stated by the manufacture, or less than 1 min 18 °C to 25 °C 20% to 75% 70 kPa to 106.6 kPa (525 mm to 800 mm of mercury at 0 °C) Fresh batteries Effective center of detector as marked Negligible Negligible Set up for normal operation; alarm set points set to default Ambient photon exposure rate of 5 µR/h to 25 µR/h Negligible
241

Am, 137Cs, 60Co Cf (2×104 n/s ± 20%) in 1 cm steel plus 1 cm lead a *

252

NOTE—The characteristics of, and dosimetry methods for, the reference photon radiations are given in ISO 40371:1996 [B23] and ISO 4037-2:1997 [B24] and the characteristics of, and dosimetry methods for, the reference neutron radiations are given in ISO 8529-1:2001 [B25]] and ISO 8529-2:2000 [B26]. The calibrations of these sources shall be traceable to NIST (see ANSI N42.22 and ANSI N42.23). *To reduce photon component.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

5. General requirements

5.1 Controls
5.1.1 Requirement Controls shall be clearly identified, easily operable under conditions of expected use, and adequately protected from accidental operation. 5.1.2 Test method The instrument shall be placed on a flat, hard surface. The instrument may be supported or braced to maintain this orientation. A 1 kg weight shall be placed on the opposite side. The instrument shall not turn off or change mode. The test shall be repeated for each side of the instrument.

5.2 Documentation check
5.2.1 Requirement Manufacturers shall provide instructions to verify proper operation of the instrument. See Clause 10, the section on documentation, for a detailed list of requirements. 5.2.2 Test method The manufacturer-provided documentation shall be reviewed to ensure compliance with the requirement.

5.3 Manufacturer, model, and serial number
The following shall be recorded: manufacturer’s name along with the model, serial number, and firmware number of the instrument and detector, if separate.

5.4 Type of radiation device
The following shall be identified and recorded: type of instrument (gamma only or gamma/neutron) and the radiation detector types used (e.g., NaI, CsI, GM).

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

5.5 Displays
5.5.1 Requirement Radiation levels should be displayed using one or more of the following methods: ⎯ Digital display: The instrument directly displays the measured exposure or dose rate (e.g., µR/h, µGy/h, or µSv/h). ⎯ Unit-less display: The instrument displays a numerical value that may be proportional to the exposure or dose rate but is not explicitly reported as the exposure or dose rate. ⎯ Non-numerical display: The instrument displays a non-numerical indication of the intensity of the radiation field (e.g., bar-graph, colored LEDs). The display shall be readable in low light levels (<150 lux) and high light levels (>10 000 lux). 5.5.2 Test method The instrument shall be inspected and the type of display noted. Note whether the display is backlit. It shall be verified that the display is readable at low light (<150 lux) and high light levels (>10 000 lux).

5.6 Effective range of measurement or indication
5.6.1 Requirement The effective range of measurement or indication shall be specified by the manufacturer and shall be from 5 µR/h to not less than 2 mR/h. The instrument response over the effective range specified by the manufacturer shall be tested. 5.6.2 Test method The manual shall be reviewed and the stated range shall be recorded. The range will be confirmed during the accuracy test.

5.7 Functionality test
5.7.1 Requirements The instrument shall: a) Include a display that is easily readable over the required temperature range and under different lighting conditions Be capable of operation if the user is wearing gloves

b) Include controls that are user-friendly for routine operation c)

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

5.7.2 Test method A minimum of three potential users of this type of instrument shall review the operating instructions provided by the manufacturer. Following the review, each potential user shall operate the instrument. Specifically, the potential user shall: ⎯ Turn on the instrument and verify that it is working properly (e.g. the battery is charged; the detector is present and working; self-check passed, if available). ⎯ Wear the instrument as recommended in the manual. ⎯ Using an available source, cause the unit to alarm and note the indication method (audible, visual, and vibratory). ⎯ While measuring radiation, increase the exposure rate and observe the display. Note the method used to indicate the increase in the radiation level. ⎯ Turn off the instrument. The test shall be done in low light levels (<150 lux) and repeated in high light levels (>10 000 lux). Verify that the visual alarm is visible in a high light level of 10 000 lux. A separate test shall also be performed with the potential user wearing protective gloves. Gloves worn shall be typical of those used for thermal protection. A survey form (see Annex C) shall be completed by each potential user to assess the usability of the instrument’s controls, interface, and operation. A report shall be generated based on the survey results.

5.8 Audible alarms
5.8.1 Requirements The frequency of an audible alarm shall be within the range of 1000 Hz to 4000 Hz. Where an intermittent alarm is provided, the signal interval shall not exceed 2 s. The A-weighted alarm volume at a distance of 30 cm from the alarm source shall be at least 85 dB(A) and shall not exceed 100 dB(A). If the audible alarm can be disabled, the instrument shall have a vibration or a visual alarm. It shall not be possible to disable all alarms at the same time. 5.8.2 Test method The audible alarm of the instrument shall be activated with an appropriate radiation source that may be placed as close to the instrument as practical. The A-weighted sound level at a distance of 30 cm shall be measured and compared to the performance requirements. It shall be verified that it is not possible to deactivate all alarms at the same time.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

5.9 Vibration alarms
5.9.1 Requirements If the instrument has a vibration alarm, the vibration alarm shall have sufficient intensity to alert the wearer to an alarm condition. The use of soft-sided carrying pouches is discouraged. If a holder is used, there should be a rigid connection between the holder and the instrument such that there is no loss of vibration intensity to the user. The intensity of the vibration at the surface of the instrument shall be greater than 0.8 g. The vibration motor used by the instrument should rotate between 9000 rpm and 11 000 rpm. 5.9.2 Test method The instrument manual shall be reviewed and the vibratory motor-rotation frequency as stated by the manufacturer shall be recorded. New batteries shall be installed before testing. The instrument shall be attached to a flat, hard surface using non-cushioning double-sided tape, if possible. A single axis accelerometer shall be attached to the side of the instrument that, when worn, is closest to the wearer. After allowing the vibration measurement system to settle, the alarm shall be activated and once the measurement is stable, the results shall be recorded. The measured intensity shall be greater than 0.8 g. After a period of 10 s, the radiation field shall be reduced and the instrument shall be permitted to return to normal. The test shall be repeated nine additional times. Each measured reading shall be greater than 0.8 g to be acceptable.

5.10 Size
5.10.1 Requirement The overall dimensions of the instrument, excluding any clip, retaining device, or external alarm, shall not exceed 20 cm in length, 10 cm in width, and 5 cm in thickness, unless it is incorporated into another device. 5.10.2 Test method The physical dimensions of the instrument shall be measured. The instrument shall be measured outside of its holster or carrying case and the measurement shall exclude the clip and/or lanyard.

5.11 Mass
5.11.1 Requirement The mass of the complete instrument shall not exceed 400 g. 5.11.2 Test method The instrument, including the battery, its holster or carrying case, and clip shall be weighed. 11
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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

5.12 Reference point marking
5.12.1 Requirement The instrument shall have reference points on the front or back and on the side indicating the effective center of the detector. The instrument shall have an additional reference point indicating its orientation with respect to the wearer. The presence of a clip may be used as the reference point to indicate proper orientation. 5.12.2 Test method The instrument shall be inspected to verify compliance.

5.13 Clips and lanyards
5.13.1 Requirement Means shall be provided to securely fix the instrument to the user (for example, a clip, ring, or lanyard), with attention given to the necessary orientation of the detector, alarm type, and display. 5.13.2 Test method The instrument shall be inspected to verify compliance.

5.14 Explosive atmospheres
5.14.1 Requirement The manufacturer shall state whether the instrument is certified for use in explosive atmospheres. If certification is claimed, documentation shall be provided. Certification is based on UL-913-2002 [B3]. 5.14.2 Test method The documentation provided by the manufacturer shall be inspected. The documentation shall state whether or not the instrument is suitable for use in explosive atmospheres. A certificate of compliance shall be provided if the manufacturer states that the instrument may be used in explosive atmospheres. Compliance shall be based on testing done in accordance with UL-913-2002 [B3].

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

5.15 Batteries and battery lifetime
5.15.1 Requirement Batteries used shall be widely available, shall not be unique to the instrument, and shall be replaceable in the field without the use of special tools. The batteries shall be capable of powering the instrument in a non-alarm state for 16 h in a 50 µR/h field. The batteries shall be capable of powering the instrument alarm continuously for 30 min. The instrument shall have a low battery indicator. 5.15.2 Test method New batteries of the type indicated by the manufacturer shall be used for each of these tests. The test shall be performed using the following technique. Under standard test conditions, the instrument shall be switched on, allowed to stabilize, and measure background as specified by the manufacturer. The alarm threshold shall be adjusted to prevent instrument alarming during test. The instrument shall then be exposed to an exposure rate of 50 µR/h (0.5 µGy/h) using 137Cs for 16 h. The low battery indicator shall not come on during the 16 h period. At the end of the 16 h period, verify that each alarm as provided on the instrument is operational. Fresh batteries shall be installed and the radiation field shall be increased as needed to activate the alarm. It shall be verified that the alarm sounds continuously for 30 min. To verify the low battery indication, the batteries shall be replaced with a DC power supply. The applied voltage shall be reduced until the low battery indication is activated. It shall be verified that the instrument alarms.

5.16 Data format
5.16.1 Requirement If the instrument transmits (wireless, infrared, etc.) or stores data, the data format shall be in XML. Consideration should be given to data security when using wireless data transfer techniques. When used, wireless techniques shall have the ability to be encrypted. The transfer protocol and format shall be fully described in the technical manual and shall be freely distributable.
NOTE—The data format is defined by ANSI N42.42.

5.16.2 Test method The instrument shall be allowed to operate for a period of 30 min. During that time, cause the unit to alarm at least four times and to store data as defined by the manufacturer. Following the manufacturer’s instructions, transmit any stored data to a remote device such as a PC. The transmitted data shall be reviewed to ensure that it meets the requirements of the referenced standard.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

6. Radiological tests

6.1 General test information
Radiation sources used for the following tests shall be traceable to NIST as defined in ANSI N42.22. The reference point of the instrument shall be placed at the point of measurement. Unless stated otherwise, when radiation exposure rates are required, the positioning of an instrument for testing shall be based on the exposure-rate measurement from a calibrated gamma-measurement instrument, such as a microrem meter or ionization chamber. The instrument shall be oriented with respect to the radiation source as indicated by the manufacturer. If the instrument requires a background radiation measurement, it will be allowed to acquire the data in a manner specified by the manufacturer.

6.2 Rate of false alarms
6.2.1 Requirements The false alarm rate for gamma and neutron (when applicable) shall be less or equal than one alarm per 10 h when operated in a stable background environment. 6.2.2 Test method The alarm threshold shall be the same as that used for the “time-to-alarm” test (see 6.3 and 6.4); e.g., for gamma 30 µR/h (0.3 µGy/h). The test shall be performed using the following technique. The instrument shall be placed in an area where the ambient background is stable and shall be monitored for 10 h. The number of alarms during this period shall not exceed one for each instrument tested over the 10 h period.

6.3 Time-to-alarm; photons
6.3.1 Requirement The false alarm test shall be completed before this time-to-alarm test. The alarm set point shall be the same as the one used for the false alarm test. The instrument shall alarm in ≤2 s after exposure to an increase in the ambient radiation level of 50 µR/h (0.5 µGy/h). The increase in the ambient radiation level shall be over a period of not more than 0.5 s.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

6.3.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. The instrument shall be switched on and allowed to stabilize. The instrument shall be placed at the point of measurement and the radiation field shall be increased by 50 µR/h (0.5 µGy/h) above background using 137Cs in a period of not more than 0.5 s. It shall be verified that the instrument alarms in ≤2 s. The field shall be reduced and the test repeated nine additional times. The entire process shall be repeated using 241Am and 60Co. The test result is acceptable if the alarm occurs for each trial for each source.

6.4 Time-to-alarm; neutrons (if provided)
6.4.1 Requirements The instrument shall indicate the presence of neutron radiation when exposed to an unmoderated neutron field. The instrument shall fulfill this condition when tested on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. 6.4.2 Test method Neutron tests should be made in a low scatter irradiation facility (see ISO 8529-1:2001 [B25]) or with the instrument placed in an area where there is open space on all sides of at least 1 m. The alarm set point shall be set the same as used for the false alarm test. The test shall be performed using the following technique. The 252Cf source, listed in Table 1, shall be placed 25 cm away from the reference point. Photons from the source shall be shielded with an additional 1 cm of lead. The instrument shall be placed at the center of a 30 cm × 30 cm × 15 cm PMMA phantom facing the radiation source. The neutron field shall be increased to the required level within a period of not more than 2 s. The instrument shall indicate the presence of neutrons within a period of ≤2 s after the field increase. The field shall be reduced and the test repeated nine additional times. The test result is acceptable if presence is indicated for each increase.

6.5 Detection of gradually increasing radiation levels
6.5.1 Requirement The instrument’s alarm threshold shall not be affected by slowly increasing radiation levels that may be caused when a wearer is slowly approaching or is being approached by a radiation source. 15
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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

6.5.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. From the normal background position, slowly approach at 0.5 m/s and stop at the position where the radiation level produced by a 137Cs source is approximately 50 µR/h (0.5 µGy/h) above background at the reference position of the instrument. The alarm shall activate within 2 s after the instrument reaches the test position. Return the instrument to the original position, allow the instrument to stabilize, and repeat the process nine additional times. The test result is acceptable if the alarm occurs for each trial. If the instrument has neutron detection capabilities, repeat the test using the 252Cf source listed in Table 1. Place the instrument on the PMMA phantom at a distance of 3 m from the source; slowly approach at 0.5 m/s and stop 10 cm away from the source. The alarm shall activate within 2 s after the instrument reaches the test position. Return the instrument to the original position, allow the instrument to stabilize, and repeat the process nine additional times. The test result is acceptable if the alarm occurs for each trial.

6.6 Accuracy
6.6.1 Requirements Displayed exposure rates, when provided, shall be within ±30% of the conventionally true value of the applied exposure rate using 137Cs. For unit-less displays, if the manufacturer provides a conversion table to convert the displayed value to an exposure rate the indicated value shall be with ±30% of the applied exposure rate. 6.6.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique: For photons, expose the instrument to 137Cs fields that are equivalent to 20%, 50%, and 80% of the response range of the instrument. The instrument response shall be within ±30% for each field.

6.7 Accuracy test for neutrons (if provided)
6.7.1 Requirements
NOTE—This test is only required if the neutron indication is displayed in mrem/h (or any subunit of rem or Sv). If the instrument display is in cps or cpm or any other unit, this test is not required.

Displayed neutron dose rate, when provided, shall be within ±50% of the conventionally true value of the applied dose rate using 252Cf. 6.7.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. For neutrons, expose the instrument to 252Cf fields that are equivalent to 20%, 50%, and 80% of the response range of the instrument. The instrument shall be mounted on the PMMA phantom and its response

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

shall be within ±50% for each field. The 252Cf source should be shielded to prevent gamma-rays emitted by the source from affecting the measurements.

6.8 Over-range response
6.8.1 Requirements When exposed to an exposure rate that is two times the maximum exposure rate specified by the manufacturer, the indication of the instrument shall remain at the maximum of that range, and an overrange indication shall be displayed for the duration of the exposure. The instrument shall recover within 1 min when the radiation field is reduced. 6.8.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Expose the instrument to a 137Cs field that is twice the maximum range specified by the manufacturer. The instrument shall display that an over-range condition exists until the exposure rate is reduced. Verify that the instrument recovers within 1 min after the radiation field is reduced.

6.9 Interfering ionizing radiation
6.9.1 Requirements If the instrument has a neutron detector, the neutron detector shall be insensitive to photon radiation. 6.9.2 Test method The instrument shall be exposed to a 137Cs radiation field of 10 mR/h. The instrument shall not indicate the presence of neutron radiation.

7. Environmental performance requirements

7.1 Temperature
7.1.1 Requirement The instrument shall function correctly at temperatures from –20 ºC to +50 ºC. If the manufacturer specifies a broader operating temperature range, the instrument shall be tested at the broader temperature range specified by the manufacturer. Relative humidity shall be within the range specified in Table 1. 7.1.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Switch the instrument on and place it in an environmental chamber at a temperature of 22 ºC ±2 ºC and expose it to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). Increase

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

the alarm threshold as needed to prevent an alarm due to the field used for testing. Allow the chamber and instrument to stabilize at 22 °C for a period of 1 h. During the last 15 min of the stabilization period, collect ten independent readings and determine the mean response, standard deviation, and COV. If it is a nonnumerical display observe and record the response. Increase the temperature in the chamber at a rate of 10 °C per hour to +50 °C. The RH level within the chamber should be kept low enough (typically <65%) to prevent condensation. At each 10 °C (30 °C and 40 °C) increment, stabilize the temperature for a period of 45 min. During the last 15 min of each stabilization period, collect ten independent readings and determine the mean response. If it is a nonnumerical display observe and record the response. After the readings are obtained, an alarm test shall be performed by increasing the exposure rate above the alarm threshold by using an additional source. If the instrument has neutron indication capabilities, expose the instrument to the unmoderated neutron source and verify that it responds. At the high temperature limit of +50 °C, the instrument shall be exposed for a period of 4 h with readings recorded and the alarm tested during the last 15 min of the 4 h period. If the instrument has neutron indication capabilities, expose the instrument to the unmoderated neutron source and verify that it responds. This same process shall be performed for temperatures that are less than the reference temperature of 22 °C. The 10 °C intervals are 10 °C, 0 °C, and −10 °C and the lower temperature limit is −20 °C. The test at −20 °C shall be the same as that performed at +50 °C. The instrument response is acceptable if the mean reading at each test point is within ±15% of the mean reading obtained at 22 ºC. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than ±10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. If the instrument provides a non-digital display, no change shall occur over the temperature test range. No alarms shall occur due to temperature. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the 252Cf source.

7.2 Temperature shock
7.2.1 Requirement The instrument shall be fully functional within 30 min of exposure to rapid temperature changes from 22°C to –20 °C, –20 °C to 22 °C, 22 °C to 50 °C, and 50 °C to 22 °C with each change being made in less than five minutes. Relative humidity shall be within the range specified in Table 1. 7.2.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Switch the instrument on, place it in an environmental chamber and expose it to a 137Cs radiation field that provides a stable response (≤12% COV). Increase the alarm threshold as needed to prevent an alarm due to the field used for testing. Allow the chamber and instrument to stabilize at 22 °C for 1 h. During the last 15 min of the stabilization period, collect ten independent readings and determine the mean response, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. If it is a non-numerical display observe and record the response. The instrument shall then be exposed to a temperature of 50 °C with the temperature change being made in less than 5 min.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

The instrument shall be observed continuously. Every 15 min, ten independent readings shall be recorded for the digital readout instruments. If the readout is non-digital, note if any changes take place. If the instrument has neutron indication capabilities, expose the instrument to the unmoderated neutron source and verify that it responds. After the readings are obtained, an alarm test shall be performed using an additional source to verify alarm activation by increasing the ambient radiation field to a point that is above the alarm threshold. After 30 min, the instrument’s mean indicated reading shall be within ±15% of the mean reading obtained at 22 °C. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. If the instrument provides a non-digital display, the display shall have recovered to the pre-test indication. No alarms shall occur due to the test. If the instrument is unable to perform properly after the first 30 min, an additional 30 min is recommended with the time required for recovery noted. If the instrument recovers within the first 30 min,, data does not need to be taken during the second 30 min; however, the instrument should remain in this environment during the period to reach temperature stabilization. Following the stabilization period, expose the instrument to a temperature of 22 °C ± 2 °C. This change shall be performed in less than 5 min and the analysis process stated above repeated. The entire process shall be repeated for the 22 °C to −20 °C and −20 °C to 22 °C. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the Table 1.
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7.3 Humidity
7.3.1 Requirement The instrument shall function correctly over the range of relative humidity from 40% to 93% RH at 35 ºC. 7.3.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique: Switch the instrument on and place it in an environmental chamber at a temperature of 22 ºC ± 2 ºC and 40% RH. Expose it to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (12% COV). Increase the alarm threshold as needed to prevent an alarm due to the field used for testing. Allow the chamber and instrument to stabilize at 22 °C for a period of 1 h. During the last 15 min of the stabilization period, collect ten independent readings and determine the mean response, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. If it is a non-numerical display observe and record the response. The humidity level shall then be increased at a rate not exceeding 10% RH per hour until attaining 93% ±3% RH. The temperature shall be increased at a rate not exceeding 10 ºC per hour. The humidity and temperature shall be maintained at this value for 8 h. The instrument shall be observed continuously during the ramp and soak. Following the 8 h soak, collect 10 independent readings and determine the mean response. If it is a non-numerical display observe and record the response. After the readings are obtained, an alarm test shall be performed by increasing the exposure rate above the alarm threshold using an additional source. If the instrument has neutron indication capabilities, expose the instrument to the unmoderated neutron source and verify that it responds. 19
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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

The humidity shall then be reduced to 40% RH at a rate not exceeding 10% RH per hour while maintaining the temperature at 35 °C ± 2 °C. After allowing the instrument to stabilize in those conditions for a minimum of 1 hour, repeat the process stated in the previous paragraph. The instrument response is acceptable if the mean reading at each test point is within ±15% of the mean reading obtained at 22 ºC. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. If the instrument provides a non-digital display, no change shall occur over the humidity test range. No alarms shall occur due to humidity. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the Table 1.
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7.4 Moisture and dust protection
7.4.1 Requirements The instrument case design shall meet the requirements stated for IP code 53 (see IEC 60529), which means that the instrument shall be protected from the ingress of dust and spraying water. For IP53, the ingress of dust is not totally prevented, but dust shall not penetrate in a quantity to interfere with satisfactory operation of the instrument or to impair safety, and water sprayed at an angle up to 60º on either side of the vertical shall have no harmful effects. 7.4.2 Test method—dust The test shall be conducted in a dust chamber (IEC 60529, Category 2) where the powder circulation pump may be replaced by other means suitable to maintain the talcum powder in suspension in a closed test chamber. The amount of powder to be used should be 2 kg per cubic meter of the test chamber volume. The powder shall not have been used for more than 20 tests. The test shall be performed using the following technique. Prior to the test, expose the instrument to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). For instruments with a digital and unit-less display, record ten independent readings and determine the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.) observe and record the response. Remove the radiation field and place the instrument inside the dust chamber. Expose the instrument to the dust environment for a period of 1 h. No alarms shall occur during testing. Following the test, re-expose the instrument to the same radiation field that was used for the pre-test. The instrument response it acceptable if the mean reading following the test is within ±15% of the mean reading obtained prior to the test. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. If the instrument provides a non-digital display, no change shall occur. An inspection shall be performed to determine the extent of dust ingress. Particular attention shall be made to the battery compartment and any other easily accessed portions of the instrument. The protection is satisfactory if, on inspection, powder has not accumulated in a quantity or location such that, as with any other kind of dust, it could interfere with the correct operation of the instrument. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the 252Cf source.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

7.4.3 Test method—moisture The test shall be made using a suitable nozzle [see IEC 60529 (spray nozzle)] with the water pressure adjusted to give flow rate of 10 l/min ±5%, which should be kept constant during the test. The water temperature should not differ by more than 5 ºC from the temperature of the instrument under test. The test duration is 1 min/m2 of the calculated surface area of the instrument with a minimum duration of 5 min. The test shall be performed using the following technique. Prior to the test, expose the instrument to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). For instruments with a digital and unit-less display record ten independent readings and determine the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.) observe and record the response. Place the instrument inside the test chamber. Increase the alarm threshold as needed to prevent an alarm due to the field used for testing. The instrument shall then be exposed to the water spray. The spray nozzle should be located approximately 2 m from the instrument. The instrument shall respond to the presence of radiation throughout the test and after the test. No alarms shall occur during testing. The instrument shall be positioned such that the nozzle is directly pointed at the display. During the exposure, the orientation shall be changed by +60º and −60º in two orthogonal planes relative to each side of the instrument Following the test, re-expose the instrument to the same radiation field that was used for the pre-test. The instrument response it acceptable if the mean reading following the test is within ±15% of the mean reading obtained prior to the test. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. If the instrument provides a non-digital display, no change shall occur. The instrument, including the battery compartment, shall be inspected to ensure that moisture did not penetrate into the instrument. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the Table 1.
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7.5 Cold temperature startup
7.5.1 Requirement The instrument shall be able to operate when switched on at the cold temperature limit (−20 ºC). 7.5.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Switch the instrument on and place it in an environmental chamber. Expose the instrument to a 137Cs gamma radiation field. Collect ten independent readings and calculate the mean reading, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. Increase the exposure rate as needed to obtain a COV value that is ≤12%.
NOTE—It may be necessary to increase the alarm threshold to prevent an alarm due to the field used for testing.

Allow the chamber and instrument to stabilize at 22 °C for a period of 2 h.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

Remove the sources, switch the instrument off, and decrease the temperature in the chamber at a rate of 10 °C/hr to −20 °C. Allow the temperature to stabilize for a period of 2 h. Switch on the instrument, and after the manufacturer’s stated warm-up time, re-expose the instrument to the same radiation field that was used prior to the test. Record ten independent readings and determine the mean value. Remove the sources, switch off the instrument and return the temperature to 22 °C at a rate of 10 °C/hr. The instrument’s mean indicated reading at −20 °C shall be within ±15% of the mean reading obtained at 22 °C. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. If the instrument provides a non-digital display, the display shall have recovered to the pre-test indication. No alarms shall occur due to the test. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the 252Cf source.

8. Electromagnetic performance requirements

8.1 Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
8.1.1 Requirement The instrument shall not be affected by exposure to electrostatic discharges at intensities of up to 6 kV using the contact discharge technique. 8.1.2 Test method The “contact discharge” technique (see IEC 61000-4-2:2001) for conductive surfaces and coupling planes shall be used. Discharge points shall be selected based on user accessibility. The test shall be performed using the following technique. Prior to the ESD test, expose the instrument to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). For instruments with a digital and unit-less display record ten independent readings and determine the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.) observe and record the response. Remove the radiation field and expose the instrument to ESD. There shall be ten discharges per discharge point with a 1 s recovery time between each discharge. It is recommended that tests first be performed at 2 kV, then if acceptable, 4 kV, followed by 6 kV. Following the test, the instrument shall be exposed to the same radiation field as used prior to the test. For instruments with a digital display, the instrument’s response following the test shall be within ±15% of the pre-test reading. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.), the instruments’ display shall not have changed from the pre-test response. No alarms shall occur as a result of the electrostatic discharge alone.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the Table 1.

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8.2 Radio frequency
8.2.1 Requirement The instrument shall not be affected by radio frequency (RF) fields over the frequency range of 80 MHz to 2.5 GHz at an intensity of 50 volts per meter (V/m). When exposed to these RF fields, the instrument shall function correctly. No alarms shall occur as a result of the RF radiation alone. 8.2.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Prior to the RF test, expose the instrument to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). For instruments with a digital and unit-less display record ten independent readings and determine the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.) observe and record the response. Place the instrument and source in a RF controlled environment and expose it to a RF field of 50 V/m as measured without an instrument present in the test cell over a frequency range of 80 MHz to 2.5 GHz that is 80% amplitude modulated with a 1 kHz sine wave. The test should be performed using an automated sweep at a frequency change rate not greater than 1% of the fundamental. For instruments with a digital rate display, the instrument’s response during the test shall be within ±15% of the pre-test reading. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not change from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. For instruments with a nonnumerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.), the instruments’ display shall not change from the pre-test response. Remove the radiation source and repeat the test. No alarms shall occur as a result of the RF radiation alone.
NOTE—The COV requirement is not applicable when testing without radiation sources.

If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the Table 1.

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8.3 Magnetic fields
8.3.1 Requirements When exposed to direct current (DC) magnetic fields in all three mutually orthogonal orientations relative to a 10 gauss (1 mT) magnetic field, the instrument shall function correctly. 8.3.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Prior to the magnetic field test, expose the instrument to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). For instruments with a digital and unit-less display record ten independent readings and determine the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.) observe and record the response. 23
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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

Expose the instrument to a 10 gauss (1 mT) magnetic field. For instruments with a digital rate display, the instrument’s response during the test shall be within ±15% of the pre-test reading. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not change from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bargraph, LEDs only, etc.), the instruments’ display shall not change from the pre-test response. Remove the radiation source and repeat the test. No alarms shall occur as a result of the magnetic field alone.
NOTE—The COV requirement is not applicable when testing without radiation sources.

The test shall be repeated for all three mutually orthogonal orientations of the instrument with respect to the magnetic field. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the Table 1.
252

Cf source listed in

8.4 Radiated emissions
8.4.1 Requirement RF emissions from an instrument shall be less than that which can interfere with other equipment located in the area of use. RF emissions when measured at 3 m shall be less than those shown in Table 2. Table 2 —Radiated RF emission limits
Emission frequency range (MHz) 30–88 88–216 216–960 Above 960 Field strength (microvolts/meter) 100 150 200 500

8.4.2 Method of test The test shall be performed using the following technique. Place the instrument in a shielded room or chamber, as appropriate. Place an antenna three meters from the assembly. With the instrument off, collect a background spectrum using a bandwidth of 50 kHz. Switch the instrument on and perform an RF scan. Repeat the test with the instrument performing a radionuclide identification. RF emissions shall be less than those shown throughout the test.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

9. Mechanical performance requirements

9.1 Vibration
9.1.1 Requirement The instrument shall withstand exposure to vibrations associated with the operation of handheld or handcarried equipment. The physical condition and functionality of the instrument shall not be affected by exposure (e.g., solder joints shall hold, nuts and bolts shall not come loose). 9.1.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Prior to the test, expose the instrument to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). For instruments with a digital and unit-less display record ten independent readings and determine the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.) observe and record the response. Remove the radiation source and subject the instrument to a random vibration at 0.01 g2/Hz (spectral density) using 5 Hz and 500 Hz for the frequency endpoints for a period of 1 h in each of three orthogonal orientations. No alarms shall occur during the test. Following the test, the instrument shall be exposed to the same radiation field as used prior to the test. For instruments with a rate display, the instrument’s response following the test shall be within ±15% of the pre-test response. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.), the instrument’s display shall not have changed from the pre-test response. Increase the radiation field by 50 μR/h and verify that the instrument alarms. There shall be no visible external damage to the instrument and all control functions shall be verified to be operating correctly. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the Table 1.
252

Cf source listed in

9.2 Drop test
9.2.1 Requirement After being subjected to drops on each of its six surfaces from a height of 1.5 m onto a concrete floor, the instrument shall function correctly and alarm at a change in the radiation field. 9.2.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Prior to the test, expose the instrument to a 137Cs radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). For instruments with a digital and unit-less display record ten independent 25
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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

readings and determine the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.) observe and record the response. Remove the radiation source. The instrument shall then be dropped from a height of 1.5 m onto a concrete surface once on each of its six surfaces. No alarms shall occur as a result of the drops alone. Following the test, the instrument shall be exposed to the same radiation field as used prior to the test. For instruments with a rate display, the instrument’s response following the test shall be within ±15% of the pre-test response. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.), the instrument’s display shall not have changed from the pre-test response. Increase the radiation field by 50 μR/h and verify that the instrument alarms. There shall be no visible external damage to the instrument, and all control functions shall be verified to be operating correctly. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument shall be tested with the Table 1.
252

Cf source listed in

9.3 Impact (microphonics)
9.3.1 Requirement The instrument’s response shall be unaffected by microphonic conditions such as those that may occur from low intensity impacts from sharp contact with hard surfaces. If the instrument has a neutron detector, the instrument’s response shall be tested with the 252Cf source. 9.3.2 Test method The test shall be performed using the following technique. Switch on the instrument and allow it to warm up normally. Prior to the test, expose the instrument to a 137Cs source radiation field that produces a stable reading on the instrument (≤12% COV). For instruments with a digital and unit-less display record ten independent readings and determine the mean value, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.) observe and record the response. Remove the radiation source. Using an appropriate test device (i.e., spring hammer), expose the instrument case to three impacts at an intensity of 0.2 J. 0.2 J is equivalent to a mass of 0.2 kg moving at 1.4 m/s over a distance of 0.1 m (see IEC 60068-2-75). The test shall be performed on each side of the instrument case while observing the response. No alarms shall occur as a result of the mechanical shock alone. Following the test, the instrument shall be exposed to the same radiation field as used prior to the test. For instruments with a rate display, the instrument’s response following the test shall be within ±15% of the pre-test response. For instruments with a unit-less display, the instrument’s response shall not have changed from the pre-test response by more than 10% of the full scale reading or ±1 unit, whichever is greater. For instruments with a non-numerical display (bar-graph, LEDs only, etc.), the instrument’s display shall not have changed from the pre-test response. Increase the radiation field by 50 μR/h and verify that the instrument alarms.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

10. Documentation
Subclauses 10.1, 10.2, and 10.3 specify the requirements for documentation.

10.1 Type test report
The manufacturer shall provide a report covering the type tests performed in accordance with the requirements of this standard.

10.2 Certificate
The manufacturer shall provide a certificate or other documentation containing at least the following information: ⎯ Contacts for the manufacturer including, but not limited to, name, address, telephone number, fax number, e-mail address, etc. ⎯ Type of instrument, detector, and types of radiation the instrument is designed to measure ⎯ Range of exposure rates the instrument is designed to measure ⎯ Reference points and reference orientation for radiation source used for calibration ⎯ Location and dimensions of the sensitive volumes of the detectors ⎯ Response of the instrument to different appropriate radiation energies ⎯ Results of tests for accuracy, linearity, and lower limit of detection ⎯ Weight and dimensions of the instrument ⎯ Power supply (battery) requirements ⎯ Results of tests under environmental conditions ⎯ Results of electrical and mechanical tests

10.3 Operation and maintenance manuals
The manufacturer shall supply an operational and maintenance manual containing at least the following information for the user: ⎯ Operating instructions and restrictions ⎯ Schematic electrical diagrams plus spare parts list and specifications ⎯ Troubleshooting guide

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

Annex A (informative) Bibliography

A.1 General
[B1] IAEA Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.9: 2005, Categorization of Radioactive Sources. 7 [B2] IEEE Std C62.41™-1991, IEEE Recommended Practice on Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits. 8, 9 [B3] UL 913-2002, Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, and III, Division 1, Hazardous (Classified) Locations. 10

A.2 Detectors
[B4] ANSI N42.12-1994, American National Standard Calibration and Usage of Thallium-Activated Sodium Iodide Detector Systems for Assay of Radionuclides. 11 [B5] ANSI N42.13-2004, American National Standard Calibration and Usage of “Dose Calibrator” Ionization Chambers for the Assay of Radionuclides. [B6] ANSI N42.14-1999, American National Standard for Calibration and Use of Germanium Spectrometers for the Measurement of Gamma-Ray Emission Rates of Radionuclides. [B7] ANSI N42.31-2003 American National Standard for Measurement Procedures for Resolution and Efficiency of Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor Detectors of Ionizing Radiation. [B8] IEEE Std 300™-1988, IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Semiconductor Charged-Particle Detectors. [B9] IEEE Std 309™-1999/ANSI N42.3-1999 (Reaff 2006), IEEE Standard Test Procedures and Bases for Geiger-Mueller Counters. [B10] IEEE Std 325™-1996 (Reaff 2002), IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors.

IAEA publications are available from the International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, Wagner Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria (http://www.iaea.org). 8 The IEEE standards or products referred to in this annex are trademarks of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 9 IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA (http://standards.ieee.org/).
10 11

7

UL standards are available from Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112, USA (http://global.ihs.com/).

The ANSI N42 publications included in this annex are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA (http://standards.ieee.org/). 28
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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

A.3 Detection and identification instruments
[B11] ANSI N42.33-2006, American National Standard for Portable Radiation Detection Instrumentation for Homeland Security. [B12] ANSI N42.34-2006, American National Standard Performance Criteria for Hand-Held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides. [B13] ANSI N42.35-2006, American National Standard for Evaluation and Performance of Radiation Detection Portal Monitors for Use in Homeland Security. [B14] IEC 62327:2006, Radiation Protection Instrumentation—Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation.12

A.4 Radiological protection instruments
[B15] ANSI N42.17A-2004, American National Standard Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation—Portable Instrumentation for Use in Normal Environmental Conditions. [B16] ANSI N42.17B-1989 (Reaff 2005), American National Standard Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation—Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation. [B17] ANSI N42.17C-1989 (Reaff 2005), American National Standard Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation—Portable Instrumentation for Use in Extreme Environmental Conditions. [B18] ANSI N42.20-2003, American National Standard Performance Criteria for Active Personnel Radiation Monitors. [B19] ANSI N323A-1997, American National Standard Radiation Protection Instrumentation Test and Calibration—Portable Survey Instruments. [B20] ANSI N323B-2003, American National Standard for Radiation Protection Instrumentation Test and Calibration—Portable Survey Instrumentation for Near Background Operation.

A.5 Electromagnetic capabilities
[B21] FCC Rules, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Parts 0–19.13 [B22] IEC 61000-6-2:1999, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)—Part 6-2: Generic Standards— Immunity for Industrial Environments.

IEC publications are available from the Sales Department of the International Electrotechnical Commission, Case Postale 131, 3 rue de Varembé, CH-1211, Genève 20, Switzerland/Suisse (http://www.iec.ch/). IEC publications are also available in the United States from the Sales Department, American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA. 13 CFR publications are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 37082, Washington, DC 20013-7082, USA (http://www.access.gpo.gov/).

12

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

A.6 Units, quantities, and calibrations
[B23] ISO 4037-1:1996, X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining their Response as a Function of Photon Energy—Part 1: Radiation Characteristics and Production Methods. 14 [B24] ISO 4037-2:1997, X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining their Response as a Function of Photon Energy—Part 2: Dosimetry for Radiation Protection over the Energy Ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV. [B25] ISO 8529-1:2001, Reference Neutron Radiations—Part 1: Characteristics and Methods of Production. [B26] ISO 8529-2:2000, Reference Neutron Radiations—Part 2: Calibration Fundamentals of Radiation Protection Devices Related to the Basic Quantities Characterizing the Radiation Field.

ISO publications are available from the ISO Central Secretariat, Case Postale 56, 1 rue de Varembé, CH-1211, Genève 20, Switzerland/ Suisse (http://www.iso.ch/). ISO publications are also available in the United States from the Sales Department, American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA (http://www.ansi.org/).

14

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

Annex B (informative) Detector tests
This standard and ANSI N42.33-2006 [B11], ANSI N42.34-2006 [B12], and ANSI N42.35-2006 [B13] utilize some of the following types of detectors: ⎯ Cesium Iodide (CsI) Scintillation detectors: These detectors are used for their high efficiency of light output per photon incident. They are operated at room temperature and have moderate energy resolution. Test procedures for systems using scintillation detectors can be found in ANSI N42.121994 [B4]. ⎯ Sodium Iodide (NaI) Scintillation detectors: These detectors are available in large sizes such that they have both high efficiency and moderate energy resolution. They are operated at room temperature. Test procedures are given in ANSI N42.12-1994 [B4]. ⎯ CZT Semiconductor detectors: CZT and other wide-bandgap semiconductor detectors are semiconductor detectors that can be operated at room temperatures. At this time they are small physically and therefore have low efficiency. They have good energy resolution though somewhat poorer than that of Germanium detectors. Standard test procedures for these detectors are given in ANSI N42.31-2003 [B7]. ⎯ Germanium Gamma-ray detectors: These detectors have very high energy resolution and are currently of sufficient size to have also high efficiency. They must be operated at cryogenic temperatures. Test procedures for these detectors are given in IEEE Std 325-1996 (Reaff 2002) [B10]. ⎯ Semiconductor charged-particle detectors: These detectors are capable of high resolution measurements of charged particles. Test procedures for these detectors are given in IEEE Std 300-1988 [B8]. ⎯ Geiger-Mueller Counters: These are widely used for radiation detection and intensity measurements. They are avalanche detectors, the output signals of which are independent of the radiation energy. Test procedures for these detectors are given in IEEE Std 309-1999/ANSI N42.3-1999 (Reaff 2006) [B9]. ⎯ Ionization chambers: These are highly accurate detectors for gross measurement of radiation intensity. They are operated at room temperature. Test procedures for these detectors are given in ANSI N42.132004 [B5]. ⎯ Plastic Scintillator detectors: These detectors are particularly useful for portal monitors. Standards and standard measurement procedures have not yet been developed. ⎯ High-pressure 3He proportional counters: These are particularly useful for neutron detection and are commonly used in portal monitors.

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ANSI N42.32-2006 American National Standard Performance Criteria for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

Annex C (informative) Sample user interface evaluation technique
Controls 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Was the on/off switch easy to find? Were all the controls labeled? Were all the labeled controls easy to read/interpret? Were all the controls easy to operate without gloves? Could all the controls be operated with gloves? Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N

Interface 6. 7. 8. 9. Was everything readable in low light levels Was everything readable in high light levels Did the display contain abbreviations or icons? (If no, skip next question.) Were the abbreviations or icons easy to interpret or understand? Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N

Operation 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Did the instrument convey its state-of-health at start-up (e.g., battery life, detector present and working, memory available, mode of operation)? Did you have to refer to the instruction manual more than once to complete the test? Was the menu structure simple and intuitive? At any time during the test did the instrument prompt you for action? Did the instrument issue any cautions or warning? (If no, skip next question.) Did the instrument provide information on the nature of the cautions or warning and a corresponding course of action? Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N

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