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					tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Lifelong learning, labour market policy, and “transitional labour markets”
Lorenz Lassnigg (lassnigg@ihs.ac.at; www.equi.at)

Presentation at the TLM.NET conference „Quality in Labour Market Transitions: A European Challenge“, 25 - 26 November 2004, Amsterdam

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Agenda

Lifelong learning policy: What does it mean in the various policy documents? What evidence do we have from different angles? Are the „transitional labour markets“ an alternative, or a complement? What difference does this concept make for lifelong learning? Some conclusions and open questions
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Lifelong learning policy
LLL a new paradigm in ET policy, however: gap between rhetoric and practice Very little comparative knowledge about functioning of LLL systems

some (questionable) indicators about participation lack of understanding of institutional frameworks some ideas about implementation and effects of policy elements

system view, policy coordinaton, management by objectives

Policy recommendations very ambitious big question: how to implement? Political conflicts

lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

interests of players, resource constraints, questions of governance

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

LLL-strategy: “the common core”
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Multiplicity (social, cultural, economic, individual) Access, right, equitable Demand orientation, diversity Foundation function of school, Linkages in the learning chain Motivation to learn MODES OF PROVISION Partnership, dialogue, democracy Policy coordination Centrality of the learner Early interventions lassnigg@ihs.ac.at INPUT Investment, resource allocation Full cycle secondary education Emphasis on teachers/trainers International cooperation INPUT- PROCESS Information-guidance-couns. Innovative pedagogy ICT, distance learning PROCESS-OUTPUT Basic skills, language, entrepr. Testing, excellence, standards OUTCOME Recognition of qualifications

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

LLL-strategy : “the common core”
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Multiplicity (social, cultural, economic, individual) Access, right, equitable Demand orientation, diversity Foundation function of school, Linkages in the learning chain Motivation to learn MODES OF PROVISION Partnership, dialogue, democracy Policy coordination Centrality of the learner Early interventions lassnigg@ihs.ac.at INPUT Investment, resource allocation Full cycle secondary education Emphasis on teachers/trainers International cooperation INPUT- PROCESS Information-guidance-couns. Innovative pedagogy ICT, distance learning PROCESS-OUTPUT Basic skills, language, entrepr. Testing, excellence, standards OUTCOME Recognition of qualifications

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

“Transitional labour markets”
Basic assumptions
Changes of the „standard employment relation“, increasing number of transitions, focus on flows, increasing risks, new risks New definition of „full employment“: different activities, different kinds of employment, new distribution over life course Social risks & risk management: New arrangements to a just and equitable distribution of risks and responsibilities, application of risk management to the labour market

Core concepts
Transitions: individual movements between basic positions TLMs: bridging institutions between those transitions
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Transitions
Movements between four positions and employment Household (HH)

EducationTraining (ET)

Employment (EE)
Unemployment (UE)

RetirementInactivity (RI)

lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Transitions: ETTs
Movements between four positions and employment Household (HH)

EducationTraining (ET)

Employment (EE)
Unemployment (UE)

RetirementInactivity (RI)

lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Transitions: ETTs
Movements: full-time/part-time ET, single/combined ETTs Household (HH)

Employment Education- and training related Education Trainingtransitions (ETTs) (ET) (EE)
Unemployment (UE)
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RetirementInactivity (RI)

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A European Comm. Thematic Network

ETTs, stylised
cET HH iET

Employment (EE)
UE

lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

youth

adult

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

ETTs: initial
cET HH iET

Employment (EE)
UE

lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

youth

adult

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Initial ET transitions - evidence
Extended transition period: 10-15 years
differs per country from 16/18 to 25/30 Extension of 2 years during one decade

LFS-module 2000, much information about 10-years transition period
less than half of young people smooth transition (44% < 6 months) employment rate 70% to 80%, activity rate 90% non-standard employment high: at least 15%, some countries 40-70% 2/5 need more than 1 year for transition into employment ¼ more than 2 years (6-45%) unemployment 20% to 10% on average during the 10 years period women with children have strong decline of activity rate lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

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A European Comm. Thematic Network

ETTs: Continuing ET
cET HH iET

Employment (EE)
UE

lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

youth

adult

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Adult ET transitions - evidence
OECD
CET participation has aggregate and individual effects related to gains in job mobility/income/better jobs/permanent jobs & to employment security/less involuntary separations/re-employment different for social groups: younger / highly educated > income older / lower educated > employment security

ECHP
Transitions into ET: 7% during one year, going down in time (1% perm.empl./4% temp. Empl./2% non empl./1 % self-empl.) going down with age: 30% among 15-25 - none among 55-64 Transitions from ET: similar into employment (15%) and non employment (13%); 1:1 permanent : temporary employment employment and non employment increases with age; higher education > higher permanent employment

lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

tlm.net
% transitions into education-training Transitions into ET from … from permanent employment permanentpresented in EIE 2004, Ch.4) temporary (%; ECHP-Data
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 8 9 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
0 1
A European Comm. Thematic Network

non employment
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

TOTAL pooled data GENDER male female AGE 16-24 25-34 35-54 55-64 EDUCATION Low Medium
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

0,6

1 2

4,1

1 2

2,1

0,6 0,6

3 4 5

4,1 4,0

3 4 5

3,3 1,6

3,3 0,7 0,3 0,1

6 7 8 9 10

10,8 2,8 1,4 0,3

6 7 8 9 10

13,1 2,8 0,8 0,1

0,6 0,7 0,3

11 12 13

3,3 5,3 3,3

11 12 13

1,3 3,0 2,9

High

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Transitions from ET into …
Transitions from education-training into status ...
(%; ECHP-Data presented in EIE 2004, Ch.4)

Transitions into education-training from status

Total, ... Gender, Age, Education
(%; ECHP-Data presented in EIE 2004, Ch.4)

permanent e

temporary e
0 10 20 5,4

self-employment
30 40 50 60 70

not employed permanent e
80 90 100

temporary e
0 10 20 30

self-employment
40 50 60 70

not employed
80 90 100

95-96 7,5

14,4 11,3 16,4
14 13,4

TOTAL pooled data

7,7

7 7,3 6,7 6,1

12,6

GENDER male female AGE

00-01 8,4 7,6 AFTER t + ... Yrs t+2 t+4 t+6

14,5 10,5 28,9 41,6

16-24 25-34 35-54 55-64 EDUCATION Low

17,0 16,1 12,6

14,1 11,6 28,0 22,6 4,2
6,1 7,4

8,9

26,4 45,1

TOTAL pooled data 7,7 7,0
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

Medium High

11,5

10,4

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A European Comm. Thematic Network

ETTs: Labour market training
cET HH iET

Employment (EE)
UE

lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

youth

adult

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Training in labour market policy
High incidence...
¼ of ALMP spending ~30 – 40% of participation

...but weak results relative to expectations Why? Some reasons:
High costs and low intensity of measures (goes further down)? Narrow evaluation criteria? Small incidence of training over the life course (initial ET: 15.000 hours; continuing ET 1.300 – 2.600 hours)? Isolated and punctual measures?
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

LMP training - evidence
Expenditure and evaluation
(Source: Betcherman et al 2004) 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Job subsidies Training Microenterpr Others PES 1999
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

new

Evaluations

expenditure

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

LMP training - evidence
T R A IN S U M P u b l w o rk J o b S u b s

T r a in

y o u th M L U E -5 0 -4 0 -3 0 -2 0 In c o m e -1 0 p o s 0 1 0 2 0 In c o m e 3 0 n e g 4 0

T r a in T r a in

T R A IN

S U M

E m p l p o s

E m p l n e g

P u b l w o rk J o b S u b s

T r a in

y o u th M L U E -1 0 0 % -6 7 % E m p l p o s -3 3 % In c o m e 0 % p o s 3 3 % E m p l n e g 6 7 % In c o m e n e g 1 0 0 %

T r a in T r a in
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tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

TLMs: bridging institutions
TLMs

a) full-time ETTs

ETTsb) part-time ETTs
b1) ET only 2) parallel ETTs

ft
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

pt

pt

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

TLMs: bridging institutions
Principles & criteria distinguishing TLM arrangements:
Principles: combination of employment with other activities combination of income sources (e.g., wages and transfers) valid entitlements geared to transitional choices fiscal incentives favouring employment over unemployment

Apprenticeship as a paradigm (work and ET; combined resources
of individuals, firms, state; quasi-guarantee, training wage and subsidies

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Quality criteria: empowerment of individuals sustainability of financing the arrangement flexible coordination between levels of decision making cooperation in networks

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A European Comm. Thematic Network

TLM: policy proposals
- Apprenticeship, extension to adults ? - Individual learning accounts, combined with public subsidies for disadvantaged - Provision of foresight/anticipation systems for risk assessment by actors
- Conversion of unemployment benefits into vouchers for ET - rights to training leaves connected to replacement policy (job rotation) - obligation to periodical competency assessment/training - outplacement measures providing ET for redundant or mobile workers - modules providing addit. services (info-guid., job search, brokering) - help to establish self-employment via the creation of small enterprises - networks among enterprises (SMEs) to pool their resources for ET
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

Future: more use of private insurance mechanisms?

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

TLM-policy and LLL-policy
LLL-policy
Oriented on transitions into ET Little knowledge about transitions, institutions, and policy Big aspirations, gap to practice „neoliberal“ attitude ? Market driven, „individualised“

TLM-policy
oriented on transitions into employment complement to LLL social attitude: shared responsibilities, distributional aspects
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Conclusions - questions
Weak understanding of relationship transitions institutions - policies, particularly in CET Big systemic approach with unclear implementation - meso level institution building LLL-policy: How to build bridges from ET supply orientation to labour market performance? TLM policy: does the framework really make a difference? To work out the meaning of the insurance metaphor and risk management for ET
lassnigg@ihs.ac.at

tlm.net
A European Comm. Thematic Network

Outlook for tomorrow
Session 1: Lifelong learning: evidence about training behaviour and policy approaches
Enterprise behaviour in Ireland / ICT learning provision in the Netherlands /workplace guidance in the UK

Session 2ab: Evidence about transitions and outcomes (parallel: youth and adult transitons)
significant jobs / flexible careers / effects of initial and continuing training / re-employability / matching ET and jobs

Session 3: Transitions and lifelong learning: institutional and policy issues
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Youth partnerships in France / ET networks in Denmark / life course policy


				
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