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Administering the Internet

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					Administering the Internet.
A brief introduction
presented by

John LeRoy Crain RIPE NCC
john@ripe.net August 1999

Questions always welcome!!

Authority in the Net??
 The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the non-profit corporation that was formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions now performed under U.S. Government contract by IANA and other entities.

Structure of ICANN
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers 3 Supporting Organizations
Protocols ICANN

DNS

Addresses

IETF, ITU, WWWC, ETSI

www.dnso.org

APNIC ARIN RIPE NCC

http://www.icann.org

Address Supporting Organization
     RIR agreed on a proposal “Simple model” MoU between ICANN and RIRs Policies set through existing regional processes Formation of Address Council
 

oversee policy development processes select ICANN directors (open process)

 <aso-discuss@ripe.net>

RIPE and the RIPE NCC

What is RIPE?
 Reseaux IP Européens (1989)


forum for network engineers to discuss technical issues service provider forum open for everybody voluntary participation, no fees works by consensus encourages face-to-face discussion acts like an “interest group” supporting Internet community but has NO legal power

 RIPE is



   



Service Regions of the Registries

ARIN

RIPE NCC

APNIC

How RIPE Works
 RIPE chair <chair@ripe.net>


Chair is: Rob Blokzijl (Nikhef)

 How does it work?





Working groups Mailing lists Meetings

RIPE Working Groups
           Local Internet Registries (LIR) RIPE Database (DB) IP version 6 (IPv6) European Internet Exchange Forum (EIX) Routing / MBONE Domain Name System (DNS) TLD Administrators (TLD) NETNEWS Co-ordination Anti-Spam Test-Traffic Project European Operators Forum (EOF)

RIPE does NOT develop Internet Standards

RIPE Mailing Lists
 General announcement list


ripe-list@ripe.net
lir-wg@ripe.net dns-wg@ripe.net etc. Send “help” to <majordomo@ripe.net>

 Working group lists
  

 For more information


 Join the mailing lists and get informed
http://www.ripe.net/info/maillists.html

RIPE Meetings
 About RIPE meetings
   



RIPE meets 3 times a year 3.5 day meetings ~ 280 participants - growing! working group meetings, plenary presentations, hallway chats
keep up to date with Internet meet others in the business gather information, tips, ideas influence directions in Internet in Europe and surrounding areas

 Come to the meeting!
   

RIPE Meeting attendees for 1998
FR US NL FI BE CH AT IT DK ES PL HU RU SK SI EU PT IE CZ UA CM GR AE BA GM JP LU NO SE UK DE

RIPE Meetings
 More information about RIPE meetings


http://www.ripe.net/meetings/ripe/

 Contact


<meeting@ripe.net>

 Next meeting


Amsterdam, 20-24. September 1999.
May 2000 in Budapest!

RIPE Network Coordination Centre

Why a NCC ?
 RIPE participation was increasing  Too much RIPE work to be done on a voluntary basis.Some of these activities needed continuity  Contact point inside & outside Europe  Neutrality and impartiality were an important issue
 Co-ordination and support service for “European”Internet Service Providers

RIPE NCC History
 RIPE NCC birth - April 1992


legal umbrella TERENA (formerly RARE) financed by model of contributing Local IR‟s participative decision making via “Contributors Committee”

 Contributing LIRs in 1995
 

 In 1998 has become independent from TERENA

 Membership Association under Dutch law
 

General Assembly of all contributors Executive Committee of elected nominees
http://www.ripe.net/annual-report/98ar.html

 Annual Report


Formal Decision Making
“Consensus” Model
RIPE NCC proposes activity plan based on input from RIPE

RIPE NCC proposes budget to accompany activity plan

General Assembly of members votes on both activities and budget at yearly meeting (<ncc-co@ripe.net>)

Vital Statistics
 Statistics 1992
   

3 staff members No Local IR‟s 182,528 hosts in European Internet 7,955 objects in RIPE database (June „92)

 Statistics Now
  



56 staff (20 nationalities) 1,430+ participating Local IR‟s 8,428,408+ hosts in the “European” Internet 2,250,957+ objects in the database

Goals of the Internet Registry System
 Fair distribution of address space  Conservation


prevention of stockpiling of addresses

 Aggregation
 

hierarchical distribution of globally unique address space permits aggregation of routing information
provision of public registry ensures uniqueness and enables troubleshooting

 Registration
 

Some Core RIPE NCC Activities
 Registration services  DNS management

 RIPE Database maintenance
 Routing Registry maintenance  Co-ordination

Registration Services
    IP assignments & allocations AS # assignments Database updates Support & guidance to Local Internet Registries  Training - procedures & policies

Address distribution to RIPE region
Global Authority

/8

RIR LIR

/19 +

RIPE NCC Members

/32 +

End Users

Anybody with a network/host

How do you get IP addresses?
 Go to your Local Internet Registry.
Your provider is probably one or has connectivity through one. http://www.ripe.net/lir/registries/europe.html


 If you are a provider and think you may need to be an LIR? Come and talk to the NCC
Email : new-lir@ripe.net

1.5 New LIRs per Day
Jun-99

48
Apr-99 Feb-99 Dec-98 Oct-98 Aug-98 Jun-98 Apr-98 Feb-98 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

28

UK Germany Austria France Italy Netherlands Russia SaudiArabia Spain Sweden Switzerland Others

80,000,000

Address Space Usage
213/8 212/8 62/8 195/8 194/8 193/8

131,072

60,000,000

81% 24%
95% 97% 98%

40,000,000

20,000,000

0

Q 4/ 95 Q 1/ 96 Q 2/ 96 Q 3/ 96 Q 4/ 96 Q 1/ 97 Q 2/ 97 Q 3/ 97 Q 4/ 97 Q 1/ 98 Q 2/ 98 Q 3/ 98 Q 4/ 98 Q 1/ 99 Q 2/ 99

DNS Management
 Goals
 

ensure proper operation of nameservers minimise “pollution” of DNS

 Services

 

manage reverse delegations of networks in 193/8, 194/8, 195/8, 212/8, 213/8 and 62/8 in-addr.arpa domain support local IR‟s with feedback secondary namservers for ccTLDs
<auto-inaddr@ripe.net> <inaddr@ripe.net>

 Updates


 Contact


 We DO NOT register domain names

Reverse DNS Quality Report
     80% of delegating zones good Quality improving ~500 new zones /week 45% PRT queries miss at ns.ripe.net 52.3% of eligible /24 zones are delegated

http://www.ripe.net/inaddr/statistics/

RIPE DNS Hostcount
10.000.000 9.000.000 8.000.000 7.000.000
Number of Hosts

9148276

6.000.000 5.000.000 4.000.000 3.000.000 2.000.000 1.000.000 0
Q 2/ 93 Q 4/ 93 Q 2/ 94 Q 4/ 94 Q 2/ 95 Q 4/ 95 Q 2/ 96 Q 4/ 96 Q 2/ 97 Q 4/ 97 Q 2/ 98 Q 4/ 98 Q 2/ 99

Quarter

Additional RIPE NCC Activities
 RIPE support
 

organisational support for RIPE meetings support to working groups chairs Test Traffic project CENTR - now at http://www.centr.org European Internet Service Providers Other organisations - ARIN, APNIC, IANA, ICANN mailing list discussions WWW site http://www.ripe.net ftp site ftp://ftp.ripe.net

 Special projects
 

 Coordination
 

 Information dissemination
  

IPv6
    Allocation guidelines published Approved by community Document and request sent to IANA Official address allocation has started

http://www.ripe.net/registries/ipv6/

The RIPE Database
Its usage and its usefulness

RIPE Database
 Network Management Database  Data Management


Local IR‟s, other ISPs and RIPE NCC

 Software Management
 

RIPE NCC with Database Working Group Re-implementation in progress

RIPE Database
 RIPE whois server
whois.ripe.net

 RIPE whois client
ftp://ftp.ripe.net/ripe/dbase/software/ripe-dbase2.2.1.tar.gz

 Glimpse full text search
http://www.ripe.net/db/index.html

 Database documentation
http://www.ripe.net/docs/ripe-157.html http://www.ripe.net/docs/ripe-189.html

Some Database Objects
    


   

person: role: inetnum: mntner: domain: route: aut-num: as-macro: community: inet6num:

contact persons contact groups/roles address assignments & networks authorisation of objects forward and reverse domains announced routes autonomous system group of autonomous systems group of routes experimental object for IPv6 addresses

1.000.000

1.500.000

2.000.000

2.500.000

500.000

1-

0 2.250.957

DB Objects Break 2 Million Mark

11 -9 1- 6 19 1- 7 31- 97 51- 97 79 1- 7 9 1- -97 11 1- 97 19 1- 8 31- 98 51- 98 71- 98 9 1- -98 11 1- 98 11- 99 39 1- 9 51- 99 799

„person‟ Object
person: address: address: address: address: phone: fax-no: e-mail: nic-hdl: notify: changed: changed: source: Mirjam Kuehne RIPE NCC Singel 258 NL - 1016 AB Amsterdam Netherlands +31 20 535 4444 +31 20 535 4445 mir@ripe.net MK16-RIPE mir@ripe.net mir@ripe.net 19950411 mir@ripe.net 19970616 RIPE

„role‟ Object
role: address: address: address: phone: e-mail: trouble: trouble: admin-c: tech-c: notify: nic-hdl: changed: source: RIPE NCC Hostmaster RIPE Network Coordination Centre Singel 258 NL - 1016 AB Amsterdam, Netherlands +31 20 535 4444 hostmaster@ripe.net Work days 0900-1800 CET: phone XXX Outside Business Hours: phone YYY JLC2-RIPE MK16-RIPE hostmaster@ripe.net RNH124-RIPE hostmaster@ripe.net 19971002 RIPE

Network Object
inetnum: netname: descr: descr: country: admin-c: tech-c: status: mnt-by: changed: source: 193.0.0.0 - 193.0.0.255 RIPE-NCC RIPE Network Co-ordination Centre Amsterdam, Netherlands NL JLC2-RIPE MK16-RIPE ASSIGNED PA RIPE-NCC-MNT GeertJan.deGroot@ripe.net 19970310 RIPE

 “/” notation possible for inetnum value

Querying the Database
 Search keys (Look-up Keys)
    


  

person role maintainer inetnum domain aut-num as-macro community route

name, nic-hdl, e-mail name, nic-hdl, e-mail maintainer name network number, network name domain name AS number AS-macro name community name route value

 Network number and route value are classless  Network name is a search key, but not unique

DB Queries Reach 4.5/sec
14.000.000 12.000.000 10.000.000 8.000.000 6.000.000 4.000.000 2.000.000 0
9 ap 7 r97 ju n9 au 7 g97 ok t-9 de 7 c97 fe b98 ap r98 ju n9 au 8 g98 ok t-9 de 8 c98 fe b9 ap 9 r99 ju n99 96 de fe bc-

11.747.263

(~4.5 per sec.)

Example query
whois 193.0.0.0
inetnum: netname: admin-c: tech-c: route: descr: role: address: nic-hdl: person: address: nic-hdl: 193.0.0.0 - 193.0.0.255 RIPE-NCC DK58 OPS4-RIPE 193.0.0.0/24 RIPE-NCC RIPE NCC Operations Singel 258 OPS4-RIPE Daniel Karrenberg RIPE Network Coordination Centre (NCC) DK58

whois -h and -a
 whois -h query a specific host




whois -h whois.ripe.net whois -h whois.arin.net RADB CANET MCI ANS APNIC ARIN RIPE

 whois -a includes the following sources
      

whois -t (person)
person: address: phone: fax-no: e-mail: nic-hdl: remarks: notify: mnt-by: changed: source: [mandatory] [mandatory] [mandatory] [optional] [optional] [mandatory] [optional] [optional] [optional] [mandatory] [single] [multiple] [multiple] [multiple] [multiple] [single] [multiple] [multiple] [multiple] [multiple] [primary/look-up key] [] [] [] [look-up key] [primary/look-up key] [] [inverse key] [inverse key] [] []

[mandatory] [single]

whois -i
 Inverse lookup for special arguments  Examples:
   

whois -i tech-c,admin-c,zone-c MK16-RIPE whois -i notify mir@ripe.net whois -i origin AS1234 whois -i mnt-by AS1234-MNT

Example Query
All less specifics (-L) Exact / 1st less specific (default) 1st level more specific (-m) 0/0
193/8

193.1/16

All more specifics (-M)

Example query : 193.1.0.0/16

RIPE whois Flags
      i L m M r T inverse lookup for specified attributes find all Less specific matches find first level more specific matches find all More specific matches turn off recursive lookups type only look for objects of type (inetnum, route, etc..)

More RIPE whois Flags
     a h s t v search all databases hostname search alternate server search databases with source “source” show template for object of type “type” verbose information for object of type “type”

 and don‟t forget whois help (how to query the database)

DB Update Procedure
 Unique Keys (Primary Keys)
person name + nic-hdl  role name + nic-hdl  maintainer maintainer name  inetnum network number  domain domain name  aut-num AS number  as-macro AS-macro name  community community name  route route value + origin  Uniquely identifies object  Updating an existing object will overwrite the old entry hence need unique key


E-mail Interface
 <auto-dbm@ripe.net>
  

automatic mailbox send all updates to this mailbox can use HELP in subject line

 <ripe-dbm@ripe.net>


send questions and comments to this mailbox

 Test Database
 

test-whois.ripe.net <test-dbm@ripe.net>

Syntax Checking
 Successful update

 Warnings
 

object corrected and accepted notification of action taken in acknowledgement object NOT corrected and NOT accepted diagnostics in acknowledgement

 Errors
  

if not understandable send e-mail to
• <ripe-dbm@ripe.net>



please include object and error reports

Example Error Message
Update FAILED: [person] Mirjam Kuehne

person: address: address: address: phone: fax-no: e-mail: changed: source:

Mirjam Kuehne RIPE NCC Singel 258, NL-1016 AB, Amsterdam The Netherlands +31 20 535 4444 +31 20 535 4445 mir@ripe.net mir@ripe.net 19980828 RIPE

WARNING: date in "changed" (980828) changed to 19980828 *ERROR*: mandatory field "nic-hdl" missing

Deleting an Object
 Add delete attribute to copy of current object
person: address: address: address: address: phone: fax-no: e-mail: nic-hdl: changed: source: delete: Mirjam Kuehne RIPE NCC Singel 258 NL - 1016 AB Amsterdam Netherlands +31 20 535 4444 +31 20 535 4445 mir@ripe.net MK16-RIPE mir@ripe.net 19980911 RIPE training@ripe.net late for training

 Submit to database

Nic-hdl‟s (Example)
person: John F. Doe ……… JFD304-RIPE nic-hdl: AUTO-1JFD person: Anne Smith ……… AS519-RIPE nic-hdl: AUTO-2 inetnum: ……… ……… JFD304-RIPE admin-c: AUTO-1JFD AS519-RIPE tech-c: AUTO-2

Questions and Answers

Organizations
AFRINIC APNIC African Network Information Centre http://www.afrinic.org Asian Pacific Network Information Centre http://www.apnic.net American Registry for Internet Numbers http://www.arin.net Central and Eastern European Networking Association http://www.ceenet.org Council of European National Top level domain Registries http://www.centr.org Commercial Internet Exchange http://www.cix.org European Telecommunications Standards Institute http://www.etsi.org European Internet Service Providers Association http://www.euroispa.org Internet Assigned Numbers Authority http://www.iana.org

ARIN
CEENet CENTR CIX ETSI EuroISPA IANA

Organizations
ICANN IETF ITU NANOG RIPE RIPE NCC W3C Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers and Names http://www.icann.net Internet Engineering Task Force http://www.ietf.org International Telecommunications Union http://www.itu.int North American Network Operators Group http://www.nanog.org Reseaux IP European Network http://www.ripe.net RIPE Network Coordination Centre http://www.ripe.net World Wide Web Consortium http://www.w3.org


				
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