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					A EUROPE OF DEFENCE AND SECURITY
CHRONOLOGY

November 1999

Europe’s overriding objective, the founding fathers believed, was to ensure peace so that the horrors of the two world wars might never recur. For almost fifty years the EEC, now the European Union, has thus pursued the goal of ‘keeping the peace’ that it had set itself. Curbing, preventing and combating conflicts have not been easy goals, as the recent conflict in Kosovo has shown. The European Union has therefore begun the process of establishing a security and defence policy. Negotiating, deciding and acting together would enable the European Union both to strengthen its legitimacy and to perpetuate peace in the continent of Europe. By devoting Title V of the Treaty of Amsterdam to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), the Union showed that it wanted independent capacity for action within NATO. ‘The framing of a common defence policy … might in time lead to a common defence.’ The Europeans will henceforth be able to take independent action within NATO, which will enable them to use 'separable but not separate’ military capacities in operations led by WEU. This vision has always been advocated and upheld by the EPP Group in the European Parliament. It finds its clearest expression in the last TINDEMANS report, which appeared in 1998. With the implementation of the Treaty of Amsterdam and pending the institutional reforms that will accompany the current process of enlargement, the issues of defence and security will occupy an increasingly important place on the agendas of the European Parliament and the EPP-ED Group.

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1 NOVEMBER 1993: ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE TREATY OF MAASTRICHT, TITLE V OF WHICH CONTAINS PROVISIONS FOR A COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY ‘The common foreign and security policy shall include all questions related to the security of the Union, including the eventual framing of a common defence policy, which might in time lead to a common defence.’

14 NOVEMBER 1994: CONFERENCE OF THE MINISTERS OF WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION (WEU) IN NOORDWIJK   Preliminary conclusions on the framing of a common European defence policy Noordwijk declarations on the objective of drawing up for the 1996 IGC a declaration on the common European defence policy

19 JANUARY 1995: ADOPTION OF A MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION TABLED BY THE EPP ON EUROPEAN CONTROLS ON THE EXPORT OR TRANSFER OF ARMS 27 JULY 1995: EUROPOL CONVENTION SIGNED BY THE MEMBER STATES 3 DECEMBER 1995: NEW TRANSATLANTIC AGENDA AND EU/US JOINT PLAN OF ACTION SIGNED AT EU/US SUMMIT 5 DECEMBER 1995: FRANCE REJOINS NATO’S MILITARY COMMITTEE AFTER THIRTY YEARS OF ABSENCE AND WILL AGAIN ATTEND ALL DISCUSSIONS ON DEFENCE POLICY. 22-23 FEBRUARY 1996: EXTRAORDINARY PART-SESSION ASSEMBLY ADOPTS A DECLARATION STATING THAT:    OF THE WEU

NATO is currently the only operational instrument for European defence. WEU should be equipped with the means to enable the Europeans to act alone in the event of crises in which the United States decides not to intervene. WEU should be progressively involved in the CFSP by taking full advantage of the WEU Council’s capacity to act on behalf of the European Union, e.g. by taking any decision arising from the application of the modified Brussels Treaty.

25 MARCH 1996: IN FIJI, FRANCE, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE UNITED STATES SIGN THE RAROTONGA TREATY DECLARING THE SOUTH PACIFIC A NUCLEAR-FREE ZONE. 6 MAY 1996: ‘SECURITY AGREEMENT’ SIGNED IN BRUSSELS BY WEU AND NATO TO FACILITATE EXCHANGES BETWEEN THEM OF DOCUMENTS CLASSIFIED AS CONFIDENTIAL 3 JUNE 1996: MEETING OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL IN BERLIN  The Europeans will henceforth be able to act independently within NATO through the Combined Joint Task Forces (CJTFs), which will enable ‘separable but not separate’ military capacities to be used in operations led by WEU.

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7 JULY 1996: INTERBALKAN CONFERENCE IN SOFIA  The Foreign Ministers of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Bosnia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Albania adopt a joint declaration on ‘good neighbourliness’, stability, security and cooperation in the Balkans.

10-25 SEPTEMBER 1996: THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ADOPTS THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY (CTBT) BY 158 VOTES TO 3 (INDIA, BHUTAN AND LIBYA), WITH 5 ABSTENTIONS (CUBA, SYRIA, LEBANON, TANZANIA AND MAURITIUS). 12 NOVEMBER 1996: CREATION OF THE JOINT ARMAMENTS COOPERATION STRUCTURE, A EUROPEAN ARMAMENTS AGENCY COMPRISING FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY AND BRITAIN. 2-5 DECEMBER 1996: 42nd SESSION OF THE WEU ASSEMBLY IN PARIS, DEVOTED TO RELATIONS BETWEEN NATO AND WEU.

16-17 JUNE 1997: THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL MEETING IN AMSTERDAM ADOPTS THE DRAFT TREATY OF AMSTERDAM AMENDING THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION, THE TREATIES ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES AND CERTAIN RELATED ACTS.

Title V concerning the implementation of a common foreign and security policy (CFSP) The implementation of the CFSP should ‘in time lead to a common defence’.

22 JULY 1997: DECLARATION BY WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION ON ITS ROLE AND RELATIONS WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION AND NATO, WITH THE FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES:      To monitor the implementation of the Treaty of Amsterdam To increase cooperation between the European Union and WEU To strengthen and renew the transatlantic partnership in the context of relations between NATO and WEU, including the establishment of a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) To develop WEU’s operational role with the support of NATO and/or the OSCE, where necessary To establish a policy planning and early warning unit

29 JULY 1997: FIRST TWO CONTRACTS SIGNED BY THE WESTERN EUROPEAN ARMAMENTS ORGANIZATION RESEARCH CELL 7 MARCH 1998: COMMEMORATION OF THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BRUSSELS TREATY

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4 MAY 1998: ADOPTION OF THE REPORT BY Mr LEO TINDEMANS (EPP, B) ON THE COMMON DEFENCE POLICY      To safeguard the Union’s common values, fundamental interests, independence and integrity in accordance with the United Nations Charter To strengthen the Union’s security in all respects To maintain peace and to strengthen international security, inter alia at the level of the external frontiers To develop closer WEU/EU relations To reallocate military spending in order to achieve an independent capacity for action ‘The pressure for a common defence policy should grow as the European Union becomes larger.’ 14 JULY 1998: ADOPTION OF A MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION TABLED BY THE EPP (Mr VON HABSBURG, Mr BIANCO, Mr OOSTLANDER, Mr PACK, Mr POSSELT AND Mr SARLIS) ON KOSOVO, WHICH:      Condemns President Milosevic’s repressive policy Considers that the international community has a duty to intervene to protect the civilian population of Kosovo Calls on the Council, Commission and Member States to support and guarantee the security and stability of the region Urges the United Nations to send emissaries to oversee movements on the frontiers between Kosovo and Serbia Calls for the resumption of negotiations between Kosovo’s Serbs and Albanians

NOVEMBER 1998: 44th ANNUAL SESSION OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC ASSEMBLY HELD IN EDINBURGH     The new NATO: security for an undivided Europe The reform of Russia’s armed forces: prospects, possibilities and dangers NATO forces: preparation for new roles and new missions The Baltic States’ contribution to European security

4 DECEMBER 1998: DECLARATION ON EUROPEAN DEFENCE AT THE FRANCOBRITISH SUMMIT AT ST MALO     To implement the provisions of the Treaty of Amsterdam on the CFSP To develop independent capacity for action To equip the European Union with appropriate structures for action To acquire stronger armed forces

23 MARCH 1999: OFFENSIVE BY THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY AGAINST THE SERBIAN ARMY OF Mr SLOBODAN MILOSEVIC

25 MARCH 1999: EUROPEAN COUNCIL IN BERLIN, DECLARATION ON KOSOVO Breakdown of the Rambouillet peace negotiations. European Union’s political endorsement of action against the Serbian army to put an end to the humanitarian disaster in Kosovo

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27 MARCH 1999: NATO’S PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY MEETING IN DRESDEN ADOPTS DECLARATION ON KOSOVO.   Unconditional endorsement of the military operation undertaken by NATO in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Clarification of the Russians' part in the negotiations on the Kosovo conflict

8 APRIL 1999: RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE EPP IN BRUSSELS ON EUROPEAN DEFENCE    Indignation at the Serbian army’s ethnic cleansing in Kosovo Approval of the military action undertaken by the Atlantic Alliance Proposal to the Council for a ‘plan for reconstruction and stability in the Balkans’

20 APRIL 1999: MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING SIGNED BY WEU AND CROATIA ON WEU DEMINING ASSISTANCE MISSION (WEUDAM) IN CROATIA 23-24 APRIL 1999: NATO SUMMIT IN WASHINGTON TO COMMEMORATE 50th ANNIVERSARY OF ATLANTIC ALLIANCE     Vision of the Alliance in the 21st century Official integration of the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary into the Atlantic Alliance Challenge of enlargement and reconciliation in the continent Debate on security, consultation, deterrence and defence

6 MAY 1999: MEETING OF THE G8 FOREIGN MINISTERS AT PETERSBERG  General principles for the political settlement of the Kosovo crisis

10-11 MAY 1999: DECLARATION BY WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION IN BREMEN    Support for the ‘return to peace’ campaign in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Satisfaction with the progress made by the Treaty of Amsterdam First declaration by Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic as WEU member countries

26 MAY 1999: COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ON THE STABILIZATION AND ASSOCIATION PROCESS FOR COUNTRIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE       Political context The European Union’s regional approach Stabilization and association agreements Democratization Justice and home affairs Trade, policy dialogue and financial aid

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3-4 JUNE 1999: EUROPEAN COUNCIL MEETING IN COLOGNE

Kosovo conflict Launching of a European defence policy to strengthen the European Union’s role in the international arena Appointment of Mr Javier SOLANA as the ‘High Representative’ for the common foreign and security policy Strengthening the industrial and technological defence base

10 JUNE 1999: UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION   Withdrawal of the Serbian army and political resolution of the Kosovo crisis Preparation for peace and reconstruction in Kosovo

18-20 JUNE 1999: G8 SUMMIT IN COLOGNE  Discussion on the establishment of a stability pact for south-eastern Europe

20 JUNE 1999: PLAN OF ACTION FOR POLICY DIALOGUE AND PRACTICAL COOPERATION BETWEEN WEU AND UKRAINE 24 SEPTEMBER 1999: FRANCO-ITALIAN SUMMIT AT NÎMES TO DISCUSS THE UNION'S INSTITUTIONAL REFORM AND DEFENCE 11 OCTOBER 1999: ADOPTION OF A REPORT ON ARMS EXPORTS BY THE FINNISH PRESIDENCY AT AN INFORMAL MEETING OF THE GENERAL AFFAIRS COUNCIL  To harmonise and develop armaments policies in certain countries where human rights are flouted and repressive policies are pursued

25 OCTOBER 1999: JAVIER SOLANA BECOMES THE 1ST "MISTER PESC" OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, AFTER HIS AUDITION IN FRONT OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

Published by: Author: Or:

Pascal FONTAINE Ludovic COURTOIS (trainee in the Research and Documentation Service) FR

Research and Documentation Service EPP-ED Group – European Parliament 47-53, rue Wiertz B-1047 BRUSSELS

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