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					Unit 3


In-Class Reading Bridging Cultural Gaps Gracefully I. Words to learn

1. 1. slip v. to slide unintentionally or momentarily, lose footing or balance 滑倒
a. One day a man slipped and hurt his leg. b. He slipped on the ice. c. My foot slipped and I fell down the stairs. d. Time has slipped by. e. She slipped away from the meeting. n. slight error caused by carelessness 疏忽 a. I wish you would forget it. That was a slip of the pen.

b. That remark was no more than a slip of the tongue.
2. accomplish v. perform, complete, succeed in doing完成, 实现 a. He accomplished a great deal during his first year. b. It is the workers who will accomplish this task. c. They don’t accomplish the purpose desired. 辨异:complete, finish均表示“完成”,complete强调的是 “补足缺少的部分使之圆满”,如: The picture has been completed.;finish则侧重于事情的结束、完结,如:You have to finish your paper in a week. 此外,accomplish, achieve也有 “完成”的意思,前者侧重的是“成功地完成预期的目的”, 如:He worked but accomplished very little today.;而后者侧重 的是“取得成就”,如:You cannot achieve much without hard work.

3. accompany v. go with, escort 陪伴, 伴随 a. Lightning usually accompanies thunder. b. He accompanied his speech with gestures. c. I will accompany you for some distance.
4. involve v. 1)cause (person or thing) to share experience or effect 牵涉 (n. involvement) a. Don’t involve me in your quarrel! b. They are deeply involved in debt. c. He becomes involved with criminals. 2) have as a necessary consequence 包含

a. His work involves occasional journeys.
b. To accept the position you offer would involve my living in London.

5. observe (n. observation) v. 1) follow or keep (rules etc.) 遵守 e.g. Drivers must observe the speed limit. 2) watch carefully 观察 e.g. He likes to observe the behavior of birds. 3) say or comment 说,评论 e.g. I observed nothing on that subject. 4) celebrate or perform (occasion, rite, etc.) 庆祝,过 (节日,生日等) e.g. a. I forgot to observe my birthday last year. b. Do they observe Christmas in that country? 6. assure v. make (person) sure (of fact) 向……保证 e.g. a. I assure you that this medicine cannot harm you. b. They tried to assure him of their willingness to work. c. I can assure you of a hearty welcome. d. She was able to assure herself that nothing had been taken from her purse.

7. surpass v. outdo, be greater or better than 比……强, 超越 e.g. a. Anna surpasses her sister in school-work. b. He surpasses all his rivals. c. His performance surpassed my expectations.

II. Important Structures 1. Why is it that when you study a foreign language, you never learn the little phrases that let you slip into a culture without all your foreignness exposed? (L.1-2) More examples: — without all your weakness exposed

— without all the produce delivered
— without all the apples picked

— without all her sensitivity revealed
2. when it came to seeing (l.4) = “when it was a case or question of seeing” 这里的“to”是介词,后面跟名词或动名词-ing形式。 More examples: When it comes to relationships, everyone makes mistakes.

When it comes to hard work, you can rely on Jim.
3. Then finally, listening to others, I began to pick up the phrases that eased relations and sent people off with a feeling of mission. (l.9-10) 4. That modesty has left many a Chinese hungry at an American table, … (l. 43 - 44)

leave vt. 留置;听任 e.g. The window was left open. 让窗子开着。 many a (或an,another)[后接单数名词]许多的,多的,一个 又一个的
IV.Paraphrase the following sentences: 1.… that let you slip into a culture without all your foreignness exposed (L.2) 2.… I constantly found myself tongue-tied when it came to seeing guests off at the door. (L.4) 3. In my fluster, I often hid behind my Chinese husband’s graciousness (L.8-9) 4. … sent people off with a feeling of mission not only accomplished but surpassed. (L.10)

5. Better to accept the inevitable. (L.25)
6. American and Chinese culture are at polar opposites.( L.33) 7. That modesty has left many a Chinese hungry at an American table. (L 43-44) 8.… who will instead apologize for giving you “nothing” even slightly edible and for not showing you enough honor by providing proper dishes. (L.36-37) 9.… telling how Johnny made the school team or Jane made the honor roll. (L.39-40) 10.…because the Chinese had not taken their word the first time. (L.50)

After-Class Reading I. Words to learn Passage I 1. embarrassment n. the feeling you have when you are ashamed, nervous, or uncomfortable in a social situation 尴尬 e.g. She smiled with embarrassment. embarrass v. 使人尴尬 e.g. a. He should always avoid embarrassing the student. b. She was embarrassed at such request. 2. original a. 1) existing from the beginning; first or earliest 原 先的,最初的 e.g. His original intention was to become a teacher. 2) inventive, creative 有创造性的 e.g. a. He was a brilliant and original teacher.

b. She won an award for the most original design.
n. pattern, original model, thing from which another is copied or translated 原作, 原文 e.g. a. This copy is a copy; the original is in Paris. b. They are studying English in order to read Shakespeare in the original. 3. overstay v. stay longer than (a period of time) 呆得超过某期限 We’ve already overstayed our visit to London. similar verbs formed with the same prefix “over”: overestimate, oversleep, overtake 4. sensitive a. 1) (of person) easily offended or emotionally hurt 敏感, 容易生气的 e.g. He is very sensitive about his ugly appearance.

2) having sensibility to 敏锐的 e.g. a. An artist is sensitive to beauty. b. The eye is sensitive to light. Passage II 1. confuse v. make something unclear 混淆, 弄糊涂 e.g. a. The road signs confused the driver. b. I’m afraid I’m a little confused about these things. c. I always confuse Australia with Austria. (synonym: puzzle, confound) 辨异:puzzle 和confuse都有“(使)混乱、迷惑”的意思, puzzle指因难于理解某一复杂的事件或困难的问题而感到迷惑, 如:I was puzzled how to act.;confuse强调的是因混淆而产生迷 乱,变得糊涂起来,如:Don’t confuse Austria with Australia.
2. maintain v. 1) cause sth. to continue; keep sth. in existence at the same level 保持, 维持

e.g. a. Food is necessary to maintain life. b. He took the lead, and maintained it till the end of the race. 2) support 养活 e.g. He has to maintain a wife and 3 children. 3) take action to preserve ( machine, house, etc) in good order 保养, 维护 e.g. a. The Town Council maintain the roads. b. His car is well maintained. 3. spoil v. (spoiled 或spoilt; spoiling ) 1) make or become useless or unsatisfactory 弄坏, 糟蹋 e.g. The heavy rain had spoilt the flowers in my garden. 2) diminish person’s enjoyment of 令人扫兴 e.g. The bad news spoilt his evening. 3) harm the character or (person) by indulgence 惯坏,宠坏 e.g. He spoiled his son by giving him too much money.

Passage III 1. conscious a. 1) awake and aware of one’s surroundings and identity 苏醒的,清醒的 e.g. a. Is the patient conscious yet? b. The old man was conscious to the last. c. He’s not conscious yet after the accident. 2) aware of 知道,认识到 e.g. a. He was very conscious of his shortcomings. b. I suddenly became conscious that someone was looking at me. 2. joint a. sharing in possession 共同的,联合的 e.g. a. By our joint efforts we managed to push the car back on the road. b. There are many joint ventures in Suzhou. n. structure by which two bones fit together 关节 e.g. a. He has hurt the joints of his fingers. b. He suffers from arthritis in his leg joints.

3. subtle a. 1) not obvious or noticeable in any way 难以察觉的, 微妙的 e.g. a. The message of the film was subtle and indirect. b. These flowers have a subtle perfume. c. The subject in the painting is famous for her subtle smile. 2) ingenious, clever 敏锐的,巧妙的 e.g. a. He has a subtle mind. b. She is a subtle observer of slight difference in things. II. Important Structures
Passage 1 1. Depending on the situation, guests sometimes bring a box of candy or some flowers to give to the hostess as a sign of appreciation. (L.8-9)

2. Some Americans no longer do this, so the visitor must notice what others do and do likewise. (L.17-18) Passage II 1. Chinese males not only touch each other but also hold hand … (L.20) 2. Both Chinese and Americans face life and death, love and hate … (L.39)

Passage III 1. If someone gave you a lily at any time other than Easter … (L.1) 2. Consider the Latin word sub rosa, meaning secret, and note that many confessional booths in Catholic churches have carvings of roses above the doors. (L.29-30) 3. Either make them very subtle or simply insert your business card with the gift. (L.41)

III. Paraphrase the following sentences: Passage 1 1. … she times the meal so that … (l. 4) 2. Until the meal is under way, if the dinner is in a private home, a guest may avoid embarrassment by leaving the talking to someone else. (l. 18-20) 3. … but most dinner parties break up at about 11 o’clock. (l. 49-50) Passage 2 1. Even laughter has the potential either to communicate or miscommunicate. (L9) 2. …how often is offense taken when none is given? (L.13) 3. They talk away contentedly, unaware of my discomfort as I struggled to free my hand! (L.22- 23)

Passage 3 1. So it is with other cultures. (l. 5) 2. … yet this notion can be blunted by including a coin with the knives. (l. 18) 3. In rank-conscious societies like Japan, … (l. 37)
IV. Translation Passage 1

1. Depending on the situation, guests sometimes bring a box of candy or some flowers to give to the hostess as a sign of appreciation. (l. 8-10) 2. It is not considered good manners to leave a spoon in a soup bowl or coffee cup or any other dish. (l. 32-33) 3. In America a person does not eat lettuce that way, nor pick up a soup bowl to drink what remains at the bottom. (l. 40-41)

4. Following dinner, guests usually stay for two or three hours, but the thoughtful person is careful not to overstay his or her welcome. (l. 47-48) Passage 2 1. Even body language has a cultural accent. (l. 1) 2. In American culture, frequent, prolonged bodily contact between males suggests homosexuality. (l. 19-20) 3. And it is these cultural common characteristics upon which we can build understanding, respect and communication. (l. 42-43) Passage 3 1. Husbands here might feel hurt if some well-intentioned visitor gave their wives sexy undergarments. (l. .2-3) 2. Giving red roses in Germany signals that you have strong romantic interests. (l. 28)

3. In rank-conscious societies like Japan, be careful to present gifts in accordance with position and prestige. (l. 37) 4. Tone down corporate symbols on your gifts. (l. 41)

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