Iannis Xenakis his influence in music technology today

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					IANNIS XENAKIS AND HIS INFLUENCE ON
         TECHNOLOGY TODAY
         XENAKIS: AN INTRODUCTION

• May 29,1922 – February 4, 2001
• Greek composer, music theorist, and
  architect/engineer
• Born in Romania. Ethnic Greek. Forced to flee to
  Greece after being denounced a Communist. Later
  became a naturalized citizen of France and worked
  both in the US and in France.
• Post-war avant-garde composer
     XENAKIS: OVERVIEW OF HIS METHOD

• Used mathematical models and applications of set
  theory, stochastic (random) processes and game
  theory to make his music.

• Mixing music with mathematics

• XENAKIS AS AN ARCHITECT
 • http://www.iannis-xenakis.org/xen/archi/real.html
                   AS AN ARCHITECT

• Xenakis designed the hyperbolic Phillips Pavilion
  with Le Corbusier for the 1958 Brussels World Fair.
  • Edgard Varese’s “Poeme Eletronique”
  • Concret PH” by Xenakis


• Idea: “Math can be applied to any art form”

• Le Corbusier’s sketches were hand over to Ixenakis
  • He was to translate them through mathematics.
  • Xenakis was working on“Metastasis”
  • So, he turned his graphical musical sketches of Metastasis
    into architectural schemes
“METASTASIS”
AS AN ARCHITECT
                “METASTASIS”

• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZazYFchLRI&fe
  ature=player_embedded
                   “CONCRET PH”

• Crackling sound of burning charcoal

• Tape recording - cut into hundreds of tiny pieces
  and arranged in various densities according to
  theories of probability.

• Controlled individual elements of sound

• “Second-order sonorities”
  • Spectrum of small moments in time  larger formal
    structures
  • Related to the concept of fractals
                 “ANALOGIQUE B”

• Tape piece written in 1959

• Xenakis’s first attempt at granular synthesis
  • All sounds can be represented as micro-temporal pieces of
    sound called “grains.”


• Xenakis used data that depicted a moment in time
  and contained information regarding the density,
  frequency and amplitude of grains at that moment
  • Determined by Stochastics.
“ORIENT-OCCIDENT”
“BOHOR” (1962)
“BOHOR” (1962)
             CELLULAR AUTOMATA (CA)

• Colored cells on a grid of a specified shape
  • Cells change through discrete time steps based on a set of rules
    defined by surrounding cells.
  • “On” and “off” states


• Discrete model – computability theory, mathematics,
  physics, biology, and microstructure modeling.

• Xenakis used CA calculated with his “pocket computer”
  to determine the succession of chords within a rational,
  perceptible structure

• His mapping was based on pre-determined pitches and
  the state of the cell chose the instrumentation.
CELLULAR AUTOMATA

       • Left: Close up of
         Xenakis’ text/symbol
         pocket computer
         printout for his piece
         “Horos”

       • Right: Graphic blocks
         and stretched to line
         up with printout
            IN TERMS OF MAPPING

• Xenakis was the first composer to make
  mathematical concepts popular in composition.

• Mapping – using numbers plugged into a system
  that recognizes values and manipulates data by
  presenting it in a way that makes sense to our minds.
              IN TERMS OF MAPPING

• Xenakis designed the UPIC (computerized music
  composition tool) and is the inspiration behind the
  program called (IanniX)
  • IanniX is a program that can be integrated with Max
             IN TERMS OF MAPPING

• Dynamic stochastic synthesis
  • http://www.cycling74.com/forums/topic.php?id=16542


• IanniX
  • Graphical open source sequencer
  • http://vimeo.com/25041544
                        UPIC

• Digitalizing tablet linked to a computer with a
  vector display.
 • Draw waveforms and volume envelopes on the tablet
 • Compose with the waveforms by drawing
   "compositions" on the tablet
   • X-axis = time
   • Y-axis = pitch.
 • Compositions can be stretched in duration,
   transposed, reversed, inverted, and other algorithmic
   transformations.
 • Allows for real time performance by moving the stylus
   across the tablet.
UPIC
UPIC
        AUTUMN THEATER FESTIVAL, PARIS

• XENAKIS' POLYTOPE II DE CLUNY (2008)
  • http://thesoundofeye.blogspot.com/2010/05/anton-
    cabalero-xenakis-polytope-ii-de.html
                    CONTRIBUTION

• Founded the Center for Musical Mathematics and
  Automation

• France and the US:
 • Center Iannis Xenakis (CIX)
 • Xenakis Project of the Americas (XPA)

				
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