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					    Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction

          A Guide with Resources for Content Area Teachers
                      By Christine M. Theroux




1   Theroux 2012
       Use this Notes Page to Collect and Organize
                                       Ideas
    Writing and/or reading lessons I would like to develop/co-teach/assess with
      Christine:

    Ideas with which Christine and/or the librarian could support:
       q Vocabulary knowledge



       q General knowledge about topic



       q Familiarity of text structure



       q Comprehension and monitoring strategies


    Other:
2     Theroux 2012
    Why is Literacy Instruction Necessary in
           Content Area Classrooms?
     Middle and high school students typically do not have reading
      instruction after 6th grade (Alexander & Fox, 2011).

     Text changes through the grades, becoming more demanding
      in their length and complexity.

     Adolescents usually find texts challenging due to lack of:
        Vocabulary knowledge
        General knowledge about topic
        Familiarity of text structure
        Comprehension and monitoring strategies to help them
         understand what they are reading (Lee & Spratley, 2010).
3    Theroux 2012
    What Tier 1 Literacy Instruction Should Look
                          Like
￿ Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction
 Ø WHY? It has been proven more effective in helping students increase
   comprehension of text rather than teaching reading strategies in
   isolation.
￿ Increased Opportunities to Read Content Area Text
 Ø WHY? Like when playing an instrument or a sport, the more students
    practice reading, the better they get---increasing speed and
    comprehension.
￿ Differentiate Reading Materials
 Ø WHY? It helps students access content.
￿ Assess Literacy Progress
 Ø WHY? It helps guide instruction and determines if students require a
   more intensive intervention.
4     Theroux 2012
                                Instruction
                                  What Is It?
     Teaching how to read/write in the discipline vs. general
       reading skills
     Looking at how experts use literacy in the field and then
       applying it to content area classrooms
     Using the commonly applied reading and thinking
       strategies in different ways across disciplines
           Ø It is important for teachers to:
               1)   Have a clear understanding how texts are being used in their
                    classroom
               2)   Be able to demonstrate how to use it
               3)   Seek assistance from the literacy specialist and
                    the librarian
5   Theroux 2012
                                        Key Topic
              Disciplinary Literacy vs Content Area Reading                                    is about …
 With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards, there are specific reading and writing standards for each content area that could
 present challenges for teachers. To meet this challenge, it will be important to understand differences between content area reading and
 disciplinary literacy, as well as how you can use a literacy specialist/coach to streamline the process of helping struggling readers access
 your content. Disciplinary literacy differs from content area reading in a number of ways, including:


     Nature of Skills                                             Targeted                     Types of                   The Role of
       Addressed                   Its Focus
                                                                  Students                     Texts Used                  Graphics
     Important Details            Important Details            Important Details              Important Details        Important Details
                                                           Content area reading tends     Content area reading often    Content area reading
Content area reading           Content area reading                                       promotes reading plays,       often promotes general
                                                           to be used in more remedial
 focuses on reading skills     promotes the use of         settings. Disciplinary         poems, novels, or short       interpretive skills for
                                                                                                                        gaining meaning from
that can apply to any          reading and writing         literacy for high school       stories in content classes
                                                                                                                        graphics or ignores
reading assignment in          to study and learn,         students needs to be more      such as math, science and     graphics altogether.
any content area.              where as disciplinary       highly specific strategy,      history. Disciplinary         Disciplinary literacy
                                                           with the students              literacy focuses only on      identifies what is special
Disciplinary literacy          literacy focuses on                                        disciplinary text, where the about the role of graphics
                               how literacy is used        understanding under what
promotes specialized                                                                      use of language and           in different disciplines
                                                           circumstance it should be                                    and aims to help students
skills and activities          to make meaning             used. Teaching struggling      grammar may differ            understand the kinds of
targeted to specific           within a discipline.        readers the literacy secrets   dramatically from             information that can be
content areas. A set of                                    of belonging in the            discipline to discipline.     obtained from different
                                                                                          Disciplinary literacy         types of graphics. In
literacy skills that helps                                 science, math or literature                                  some content areas, such
                                                           communities is as              strategies help students
students learn                                                                            understand the language
                                                                                                                        as chemistry, graphics
                                                           beneficial for the students                                  and text are of equal
chemistry                                                                                 of chemistry when reading importance in understanding
                                                           as it is appealing for the
might not be useful in                                     teacher.                       chemistry texts or the        and learning material.
literature or history.                                                                    language of math in math
                                                                                          textbooks.
                           So What? (What’s important to understand about this?)

       Let me collaborate with you in “apprenticing” students to understand how to read in your discipline.
 6
            Discipline-Specific Strategy
                     Instruction
     Common strategies used across content areas:
          qBuilding specialized vocabulary
          qBuilding prior knowledge
          qLearning to deconstruct complex sentences
          qUsing knowledge of text structures and genres
          qMapping graphic and mathematical representations against
             explanations in text
          qPosing discipline relevant questions
          qComparing claims and propositions across text and evaluating
             them
7   Theroux 2012
    Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction
      For example…
         ELA – Teach students how to use literary devices to interpret
          complex fictional texts
         Foreign Language – Model for students how to approach text in a
          different language using a step-by-step process
         Math – Show students how to read text with precision by teaching
          the importance of reading slowly and looking for specific meanings
         Science – Demonstrate how to transform information from one
          form to another
         History and Social Sciences – Illustrate how to evaluate sources
          and analyze evidence

8    Theroux 2012
     2. Increased Opportunities to Read
              Content Area Text
    Teachers of content are expected to:
      ￿       Provide students with excessive opportunities to read
              content area text
          Ø     Librarians can assist with finding a variety of
                texts that are reading level appropriate and interesting.

      ￿ Demonstrate how to apply literacy strategies for the
        various types
      ￿ Afford students multiple opportunities to independently
        struggle with text and apply disciplinary literacy
        strategies
          Ø    A literacy specialist can help with devising ways of demonstrating
          and supporting students in their independent practice
9      Theroux 2012
     3. Differentiate Reading Materials
  The Common Core standards have the goal of
     students reading at or near grade level (Common
     Core Standards, 2010).
  If students are not meeting the standard, reading
     materials need to be differentiated as often as
     possible.
     ØLibrarians are an amazing resource
     for finding appropriate leveled materials
     across all disciplines.


10    Theroux 2012
         3. Differentiate Reading Materials
     Teachers of content are recommended to assign the following
     types of text:

      Challenging texts with associated explanations
      Texts at the zone of proximal development
      A balanced diet of texts at varying difficulty
      Texts tailored to develop particular reading components


     When students are not reading at or near grade level, materials
     can be differentiated by assigning paired texts that use the
     same topic and different levels.
        Ø A librarian or literacy specialist can help.

11        Theroux 2012
              4. Assess Literacy Progress
      Although content area teachers do not typically
      assess literacy progress, they can inform the literacy
      specialist of students having difficulty reading grade-
      appropriate text, who will then take the next
      appropriate steps in determining the student’s
      literacy needs
          Cloze or Maze test


      In the meantime, a librarian can help find grade-level
      appropriate text and books of interest.
12      Theroux 2012
     Why is Literacy Instruction Necessary in
            Content Area Classrooms?
        Middle and high school students typically do not have
         reading instruction after 6th grade (Alexander & Fox, 2011).
         Ø   Provide the literacy specialist with the names of students who are struggling so that s/he may
             get the necessary assistance and instruction

        Text changes through the grades, becoming more demanding
         in their length and complexity.
         Ø   Librarians can assist with finding varied and appropriate leveled texts

        Adolescents usually find texts challenging due to lack of:
                 Vocabulary knowledge
                General knowledge about topic
                Familiarity of text structure
                Comprehension and monitoring strategies
         Ø Meet the needs of students challenged in these areas by collaborating
           with the literacy specialist
13
          Theroux 2012
              Who Is Available to Support
     1. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction
        Literacy Specialist
     2. Increased Opportunities to Read Content Area Text
        Librarian
        Literacy Specialist
     3. Differentiate Reading Materials
        Librarian
     4. Assess Literacy Progress
        Literacy Specialist


14     Theroux 2012
     New Role as Literacy Specialist &
                  Coach
 The literacy specialist and coach for both high schools who supports teachers with:
     Ø Instruction, content planning, assessment and classroom management
     Ø ANY activity or lesson involving reading or writing
     Ø Transition to the Common Core’s emphasis on literacy across all content areas 

 Support could involve:
     Ø Co-constructing lessons or Content Enhancement devices
     Ø Co-teaching or modeling
     Ø Providing professional development in Content Enhancement, Common Core, or
        other evidenced-based practices

 What is different about my position?
    Ø Confidential, on-site resource who is licensed in Reading (All Levels), Special
       Needs (PreK-12), Administrator (9-12), and Elementary (1-6)
     Ø 12 years of classroom experience with adolescents challenged in the areas of
       literacy and behavior, prior to being hired as the literacy coach in 2006
     Ø How I support is ultimately your choice and based on your level of comfort,
       ranging from assistance behind-the-scenes, all the way to teaching full segments of
       a class period.
15    Theroux 2012
Ideas for Reading With Literacy Specialist/Coach
        Find appropriate leveled text and/or ways to help students access
         information when text level is higher than their ability
        Address Common Core Literacy Standards without losing more time
         away from curriculum
        Incorporate a formal reading strategy into a lesson
        Devise ways of apprenticing students to read like a scientist,
         mathematician, literary critic, historian, health practitioner, artist,
         musician, mechanic, welder, chef, educator, etc.
        Determine in what areas your students need the most support




16       Theroux 2012
Ideas for Writing With Literacy Specialist/Coach
     1. Develop a lesson for a 1-3 paragraph Open Response or a 5-paragraph Essay:
     §    Using an MCAS Prompt
     §    In response to an article or video
     §    After participating in an experiment or demonstration

     2. Create a rubric for use with students that:
         Promotes writing instruction that helps students meet the Common Core
          standards
         Assesses what it is supposed to
         Is easy and more efficient to correct

     3. Modify past research assignments
     §    Based on research gathered from the library databases, write a persuasive
          essay supporting your point of view.
        Ø    Creationism vs. Darwinism.

     4. Assist with providing student support during the writing or revision process


17       Theroux 2012
         How the Librarian Supports Literacy
      The school library media program promotes
       reading as a foundational skill for learning,
       personal growth and enjoyment.

      A librarian addresses multiple literacies by:
       qProviding instruction that addresses information literacy, media
        literacy, visual literacy, and technology literacy
       qPromoting critical thinking by connecting learners with the
        world of information in multiple formats
       qStimulating critical thinking through the use of learning
        activities that involve application, analysis, evaluation and
        creativity

18      Theroux 2012
                        Role of the Librarian
Supporting your students and classroom:
Ø Models reading strategies in formal and informal instruction
Ø Collaborates with the teacher and literacy specialist to integrate reading
  strategies into lessons and units of instruction
Ø Acquires and promotes current, high quality, high-interest collections of
  books and other reading resources in multiple formats
Supporting the school community:
 Develops initiatives to encourage and engage learners in reading, writing and listening
  for understanding and enjoyment
 Fosters reading for various pursuits, including personal pleasure, knowledge and ideas
 Creates an environment where independent reading is valued, promoted and
  encouraged
 Motivates learners to read through read aloud, book-talking, displays, exposure to
  authors and other means
 Creates opportunities to involve parents and other family members in reading

19     Theroux 2012
     What Is Used in Your Content Area?
     WRITING
      How do you help students organization information?
       Ø   Outline or Frame

     READING
      How do we build vocabulary knowledge?


      How do we build general knowledge about topic?


      How do we help students use knowledge of text structure and genres?



      What comprehension and monitoring strategies do we use to understand
       reading?



20       Theroux 2012
       Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for
                            ELA
     WRITING
      Organization of information
         Ø Outline or Frame


     READING
      Vocabulary knowledge
         Ø LINC
         Ø Context Strategy
      General knowledge about topic
         Ø Teach students how to use literary devices to interpret complex fictional texts
         Ø Activate and/or provide background knowledge of author/time period
      Familiarity of text structure
         Ø Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking
           and understanding the causes, examples and/or consequences, etc.
         Ø Understand the different types, such as memoir, expository, poetry, etc.
      Comprehension and monitoring strategies
       Ø Pose discipline relevant questions before reading
       Ø Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them
       Ø Frame with quotes/significance
       Ø Frame with themes, or a literary device, to identify during reading
21
        Theroux 2012
       Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for
                History and Social Studies
     WRITING
      Organization of information
        Ø Outline or Frame

     READING
      Vocabulary knowledge
        Ø LINC
      General knowledge about topic
        Ø Activate and/or provide background knowledge
      Familiarity of text structure
        Ø Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking
           and understanding the causes, effects, examples and/or consequences, etc.
      Comprehension and monitoring strategies
        Ø Show how to evaluate sources and analyze evidence
        Ø Demonstrate how to transform information from one form (primary and secondary sources) to
          another (visual and oral presentations)
        Ø Pose discipline relevant questions before reading
        Ø Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them
        Ø Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading
22
        Theroux 2012
Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for History and Social Studies

  READING
  History Memory Bubbles Strategy
      Have students analyze key vocabulary or facts in terms of their connection to a problem/solution
       text frame by eliciting with questions, such as:
       What is this fact? What does it have to do with problems discussed in the chapter? What does it
          have to do with changes highlighted in this chapter?
     Students identify key terms or facts from a section they have read, but then asked to concentrate on
      information that focuses attention on key themes and ideas, NOT background details.
     Place a transparency of a blank History Memory Bubble on the overhead projector and model using
      a key term. Besides identifying and providing a definition, ask students to consider the problems
      connected to this term and list them.
     Partner students and have them work together to create History Memory Bubbles for the
      remainder of the terms, then share out with the entire class.




23      Theroux 2012
Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for History and Social Studies
  READING
  Reading Like a Historian Strategy - SC3
     Alert students to what they should be doing before reading and model during
      whenever possible
      Ø Sourcing
        Ø Consider the document’s author and purpose for the creation
        Ø Look for the author/creator, date, publisher, type of document, purpose of document, etc.
        Ø Determine what the information tells us about the document, its context and possible bias
      Ø Contextualizing
        Ø Situate the primary source in place and time
        Ø Ask what is happening at the time of the creation of the document and how might the events
           influence this document?
        Ø Look at both micro and macro context
      Ø Close Reading
        Ø Read carefully and consider what the source says and the language used to say it
        Ø Look for powerful words, repetition, patterns in word use, and key phrases
      Ø Corroborating
        Ø Compare to other sources to support conclusions or identify disparities
24
        Theroux 2012
       Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for
                    Foreign Language
     WRITING
      Organization of information
        Ø Outline or Frame


     READING
      Vocabulary knowledge
        Ø LINC
      General knowledge about topic
        Ø Activate and/or provide background knowledge
      Familiarity of text structure
        Ø Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking
           and understanding the processes, examples and/or concepts, etc.
      Comprehension and monitoring strategies
        Ø Model for students how to approach text in a different language using a step-by-step process
        Ø Pose discipline relevant questions before reading
        Ø Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them
        Ø Frame with questions to answer, or concepts/definitions to
           identify during reading
25      Theroux 2012
         Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for
                             Math
     WRITING
      Organization of information
       Ø Outline or Frame


     READING
        Vocabulary knowledge
         Ø LINC
        General knowledge about topic
         Ø    Activate and/or provide background knowledge
        Familiarity of text structure
         Ø Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means
           of tracking and understanding the processes, examples and/or concepts, etc.




26           Theroux 2012
         Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for
                             Math
     READING
         Comprehension and monitoring strategies
         Ø Show students how to read text with precision by teaching the importance of reading slowly and looking
            for specific meanings. Often students glide over math text in an attempt to jump right into solving
            problems and relying on the teacher to clear up misunderstandings.
         Ø Use the Math Reading Keys strategy
                       Ø Questioning the Author (QtQ): What does the author assume that I already know?
                          What previous math concepts does this author expect me to remember?
                       Ø Model how to read challenging text by reproducing pages on an overhead and have
                          students follow in their textbooks as the teacher thinks aloud and highlights hidden
                          knowledge
                       Ø Hand out copies of the Math Reading Keys Bookmark
                       Ø Partnered Reading
                       Ø Encourage students to compile explanations and translations of key terms. Urge students
                          to treat difficult math language the same way as they would a foreign language. Keep a
                          classroom dictionary of key math terms.
         Ø Scan the Text, Read Slowly, Pause, Read Example Problems, Learn New Words, Re-Read
         Ø    Mapping graphic and mathematical representations against explanations in text
         Ø    Pose discipline relevant questions before reading
         Ø    Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them
         Ø    Use a Frame with any of these strategies to make it interactive
27
             Theroux 2012
         Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for
                            Science
     WRITING
      Organization of information
        Ø Outline or Frame


     READING
      Vocabulary knowledge
        Ø LINC
      General knowledge about topic
        Ø Activate and/or provide background knowledge
      Familiarity of text structure
        Ø Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and
           understanding the causes, effects, examples, processes, and/or concepts, etc.
      Comprehension and monitoring strategies
        Ø Demonstrate how to transform information from one form to another
        Ø Mapping graphic and mathematical representations against explanations in text
        Ø Pose discipline relevant questions before reading
        Ø Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them
        Ø Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading

28        Theroux 2012
      Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for
        P.E. & Health, Child Development and
                         Culinary
     WRITING
      Organization of information
        Ø Outline or Frame


     READING
      Vocabulary knowledge
        Ø LINC
      General knowledge about topic
        Ø Activate and/or provide background knowledge
      Familiarity of text structure
        Ø Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking
           and understanding the causes, effects, examples and/or consequences, etc.
      Comprehension and monitoring strategies
        Ø Show how to evaluate sources and analyze evidence
        Ø Pose discipline relevant questions before reading
        Ø Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them
        Ø Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading

29      Theroux 2012
     Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for CTE
 WRITING
  Organization of information
      Ø Outline or Frame


 READING
  Vocabulary knowledge
      Ø LINC
  General knowledge about topic
      Ø Activate and/or provide background knowledge
      Ø Demonstrate how to transform information from one form to another
  Familiarity of text structure
      Ø Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and
         understanding the causes, effects, examples, processes, concepts and/or consequences, etc.
  Comprehension and monitoring strategies
   Ø Pose discipline relevant questions before reading
   Ø Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them
      Ø Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading


30       Theroux 2012
 Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for Fine
                         Arts
     WRITING
      Organization of information
        Ø Outline or Frame


     READING
      Vocabulary knowledge
        Ø LINC
      General knowledge about topic
        Ø Activate and/or provide background knowledge
        Ø Demonstrate how to transform information from one form to another
      Familiarity of text structure
        Ø When reading articles about art or music, what should students be aware of and look for?
        Ø Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking
           and understanding the causes, effects, examples, processes, and/or concepts, etc.
      Comprehension and monitoring strategies
       Ø Pose discipline relevant questions before reading
       Ø Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them
        Ø Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading
31
        Theroux 2012

				
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