The Lewis Cross Cultural Communication Model by pptfiles


									              The Lewis Cross Cultural
               Communication Model

  "Cultural behavior is the end product of collected wisdom, filtered and
passed down through hundreds of generations as shared core beliefs, values
assumptions, notions and persistent action patterns. In other words, culture is
a collective programming of the mind, that distinguishes the members of one
human group from another." Richard Lewis

  The behavior we accept as normal is actually formed from learned and
inherited beliefs based on our religious upbringing, ethnic, generational, class,
and gender programming, as well as the educational socialization and the
professional ethics we have been taught and accepted.
These are actually all very subjective norms, that are based on the culture we
have spent the most time growing up in. When we travel or move to other
countries we cannot assume that our normal behaviours are known or
accepted as the norm there.

 Third Culture Kids are unique in their ability to transcend cultural boundaries,
because they have lived in so many different cultures.

Differences within countries
  The US leans slightly toward the multi-active pattern because of the
presence of a large Spanish speaking population in America.

  The UK leans toward a reactive pattern because of the large Asian

 Canada is located right in the middle between Linear-Active and Reactive
because in Canada, you'll find a large Linear-Active population and a large
population with Reactive Communication Patterns.
                       What is The Truth?

                                                 For a German and a Finn,
                                                  the truth is the truth.
                                                 In Japan and Britain the
                                                  truth is permissible, if it
                                                  doesn't rock the boat.
                                                 In China there is no
                                                  absolute truth.
                                                 In Italy the truth is

      Does signing a contract in Japan, South
      America, or Italy mean the same thing?

  Signing a contract means one
   thing to the North American
    mindset, but like the truth,
 depending on the culture, it can
    have many interpretations.

To a Swiss, a Scandinavian, a Brit, and a North American a contract
is a formal document, a sacred covenant, that once signed must be
adhered to.

To a Japanese, however, a signed contract doesn't mean it is settled at
all. It is merely a starting point, and can be modified at will, as the
circumstances require. To a Japanese it doesn't make sense to apply
the terms of a contract, if things have changed.

To a South American mind, a contract is an ideal that is unlikely ever
to be achieved. They will sign it just to avoid argument.

In Italy, it is assumed that a signed contract is negotiable. Italians call
the American's insistence on abiding by a signed contract, naive and

To an American, changing a contract would likely be viewed as a
"corruption of justice".
     The Lewis Cross Cultural Communication

        - Shows the Characteristics of Each Cultural Type -

    LINEAR-ACTIVE              MULTI-ACTIVE              REACTIVE
                                                    Listens most of the
Talks half the time        Talks most of the time
Gets data from stats,      Solicits information     Uses both data and
research                   first-hand from people   people sources
                           Plans grand outline      Looks at general
Plans ahead step by step
                           only                     principles
Polite but direct          Emotional                Polite and indirect
Partly conceals feelings   Displays feelings        Conceals feelings
Confronts with logic       Confronts emotionally    Never confronts
Dislikes losing face       Has good excuses         Must not lose face
Compartmentalizes          Lets one project         Sees the whole
projects                   influence another        picture
Rarely interrupts          Often interrupts         Doesn't interrupt
Job-oriented               People-oriented          Very people-oriented
                                                    Statements are
Sticks to the facts        Juggles the facts
Truth before diplomacy     Flexible truth           Diplomacy over truth
Sometimes impatient        Impatient                Patient
                           Unlimited body           Subtle body
Limited body language
                           language                 language
Respects officialdom       Pulls strings            Networks
Separates the social &     Interweaves the social Connects the social
professional               & professional         & professional
                                                    Reacts to partner's
Does one thing at a time Multi tasks
Punctuality very           Punctuality not
                                                    Punctuality important
important                  important
TOTAL =                    TOTAL =                  TOTAL =

   Promoting Harmony through Understanding
  By being aware of the communication traits of each 'Cultural Type', it's
surprising how quickly you'll learn how to get along better both
personally and professionally with other cultures, because you'll be able
to foresee how they are likely to react.
  This can promote harmony in relationships, by allowing empathy and
understanding to develop. When we can see that most of our reactions
come from how we've been programmed by our culture, we can step
back and find the humor in it all, and we don't have to take ourselves so
  Maybe we, Linear-Active types, can learn from the Multi-Active types
how to live a less frantic, and more relaxed lifestyle, which would
contribute so much more to our enjoyment of life.


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