Chapter 1_ Aboriginal Societies - Mrs by malj


									Chapter 1: Aboriginal Societies

   “Who are the diverse Aboriginal
  people who have contributed to the
  building of the country we now call

• Culture: A way of life or a way of being shared by a group of 
  people; culture includes the knowledge, experiences, and values 
  a group shares and that shape the way its members see the 
• pluralistic society: A society made up of many different groups 
  of people, each with its own unique identities, ideas, 
  perspectives, and culture; developing a sense of respect for all 
• Culture is the way of life or a way of being that 
  is shared by a group of people.
• Canada is a pluralistic society. 
  • We are a society made up of many groups of
    people each with a unique identities, ideas,
    cultures and ways of seeing the world.
• Pluralism means we respect and value the 
  individual and collective opinions and identities 
  of all people. 
What are some of the different cultures we see 
and appreciate in our school, community and 
             First Nations
• The first nations who lived in Canada before it 
  became the country we know today, formed a 
  pluralistic society of their own. 
  • Each group had its own ideas, world, view,
    language, spiritual beliefs, government and way of

• We are going to study three of these groups: 
  The Haudenosaunee, Mi’kmaq and and 
              Values and Beliefs
Read the quotation carefully. What values and beliefs of Aboriginal Societies
   do you think are being expressed by the speaker?

   Our responsibilities to Mother Earth are the foundation of our
   spirituality, culture and traditions. -Cheif Harold Turner
   (Swampy Cree)
              Values and Beliefs
         Please turn to the “Values and Beliefs” page in your booklet.

Read each quotation carefully. What values and beliefs of Aboriginal Societies
   do you think are being expressed by the speaker?

                  Record your response below each question.
            Chapter Question
1.Do the values and beliefs discussed on page 5 exist in the 
   broader Canadian society today? Provide specific examples. 

• Natural World: The land, water, mountains, forests, 
  plants, wildlife, and climate.
• core values: An important idea or belief about how 
  people should live. 
• world view: A way of looking at the world that reflects 
  one’s core values. 
• Indigenous people: The original inhabitants of a given 

• traditional teachings: A unique belief of the First 
  Nations passed down orally from generation to 
  generation that explains ex: how the earth was created 
  or how people came to exist. 
• Elder: A respected member of an Aboriginal 
  community who uses Traditional Teachings, 
  experience and wisdom to help people in his or her 
  community make good decisions.
     Values and Viewpoints
 The First Nations in North America are diverse
  peoples. Each group has its own ideas, world view,
  language, spiritual beliefs, government and way of

 Think back: They are an example of what type of
     Values and Viewpoints
 The First Nations in North America are diverse
  peoples. Each group has its own ideas, world view,
  language, spiritual beliefs, government and way of

 Think back: They are an example of what type of

               A pluralistic society
 First Nations peoples have lived in all parts of the
  land we now call Canada.
 Each First Nation developed a unique
  culture suited to its surroundings in the
  natural world.
 The land, water, mountains, forests, plants, wildlife,
  and climate all played an important role in
  developing cultures as diverse as the Canadian
              World Views
 Although there were many unique First Nations
  cultures, these diverse peoples also shared some
  core values.

 Combined individual and core values make up a
  world view.
                World Views
• Many First Nations peoples (including the Mi’kmaq,
  Anishinabe and Haudenosaunee) shared values
  relating to their relationships with the Creator, the
  natural world, other people and themselves.

• For example, they believed the following:
              World Views
   Co re Val u
1. People are not separate from nature or from the
   non-living world. Everything on earth is
   connected to everything else.
2. The wisdom and experience of the Elders is highly
   valued. Elders deserve the respect of all members
   of the community.
3. A spiritual world exists. It plays a very important
   role in all the happens on earth.
4. People must live in harmony with each other and
   in balance with nature.
                World Views
• What related ideas/values are being identified in the
  song “Colours of the Wind” from Disney’s Pocahontas?
              World Views
“The rainstorm and the river are my brothers
The heron and the otter are my friends
And we are all connected to each other
In a circle, in a hoop that never ends”

        “You think the only people who are people
        Are the people who look and think like you
         But if you walk the footsteps of a stranger
    You'll learn things you never knew you never knew”
        Indigenous Peoples
• First Nations peoples are indigenous to North
  America. This means that they are the original
  people of this land.

• First Nations beliefs are often passed from
  generation to generation through traditional

• These teachings also help explain the
  relationships among the plants, animals, land,
  people and the spirit world.
     Keepers of Knowledge
• Traditional teachings have been
  passed down orally from
  generation to generation by
• Elders have traditionally been
  the most respected members of
  Aboriginal communities.
• They use their experience and
  wisdom to help people in their
  communities make good             Agnes Semaganis - Elder - 
  decisions and keep their          Poundmaker First Nation

  cultures alive!
     Keepers of Knowledge
• What types of things do you
  think may have been passed
  down because of Elders?

                                Agnes Semaganis - Elder - 
                                Poundmaker First Nation
      Keepers of Knowledge
• What types of things do you
  think may have been passed
  down because of Elders?
 •   Language
 •   Traditions
 •   Ceremonies
 •   Laws
 •   Skills
 •   Histories                  Agnes Semaganis - Elder - 
                                Poundmaker First Nation
• One way Elders taught youngsters morals and
  values was by telling stories.

• These stories had two main purposes:
   1. To teach
   2. To entertain
         Chapter Questions
Values and Viewpoints (pg 7-13)
2. How did each Aboriginal group gain its own culture? 
3.List four core values (world views) shared by all 
   Aboriginal groups. (4)
4. Who are the most respected members of Aboriginal 
   communities? (1) Why are they so important to First 
   Nations communities?  (2) 
5. What are the two purposes of stories? (2)

• oral culture: A way of life in which language, 
  teachings, and traditional stories are 
  memorized and passed down orally from one 
  generation to the next. 
 Oral and Written Histories
• Traditionally, young First Nations people learned
  about the First Nations’ ways of life and events
  that took place in the past by listening.

• Histories, place names, family trees, laws, and
  events were memorized and passed orally from
  one generation to the next. It did not need to be
  written down.
 •   In this way, the First Nations developed a rich oral
 Oral and Written Histories
• First Nations peoples had ways of making sure
   they remembered everything correctly:
1. One method was to repeat the information often,
   so that they would not forget.
2. Another method was to make visual reminders.
                                                        Wampum belt, 1682

 Wampum belt used by the Haudenosaunee. Sea shells were woven
into symbols and designs. A knowledgeable person would look at the
                      symbols “read” the belt.
Oral and Written Histories
  Chapter Task: Wampum Belt
 Create a wampum belt for a story that you
  believe should be passed down to future

It can be a story that has been passed down to 
you or one of your own that you feel should be 
                passed to others.
      Chapter Task: Wampum Belt
This Chapter Task has two (2) parts:
• Create a wampum belt using graph paper and coloured 
  pencils. Include symbols, designs and colours that are 
  meaningful to the story to share during a sharing circle. 
• Answer the following question in paragraph form: Why 
  are stories, pictographs, wampum belts and other 
  visual reminders important to preserving First Nation 

• ethnocentric: A viewpoint that judges other global cultures and 
  ideas according to personal values and standards; believing 
  one’s own ethnic group is superior. 
• clan: A small village of extended families who lived together, co-
  operated, and shared resources. 
• government: The way people organize themselves to choose 
  their leaders and make decisions. 
• Decision making by consensus: A debate in which people 
  discuss an issue until they can all agree on one outcome. 
• The Three Sisters: Haudenosaunee name for corn, beans, and 
         Expert Groups
• Create a Group of 3
• Decide who is going to be A, B and C
         Expert Groups
• Create a Group of 3
• Decide who is going to be A, B and C

A – The Mi’kmaq
B – The Haudenosaunee
C – The Anishinabe

   Complete “Comparing Aboriginal
     Societies Part A” in your Expert
    Groups for your assigned society.
The Mi’kmaq
         The Mi’kmaq
       Core Values/World Views
• Kisulk = the creator
• Humans are equal to nature
           The Mi’kmaq
• Eastern
  & QUE.
             The Mi’kmaq
              Group Structure
• 7 Districts
• Extended families – “Clans”
  – Each clan had a specific territory
                The Mi’kmaq
              Problem Solving/Decision
•   Consensus – A compromise by all members.
•   Clans – allowed villages to live in harmony with
    one another. Each clan elected a leader -
•   Districts – land was divided into 7 districts. Each
    district had a leader and council to govern.
•   Sante Mawiomi (Grand Council) settled problems
    affecting the whole Mi’kmaq Nation.
           The Mi’kmaq
• Hunters, Fishers and Gatherers
             The Mi’kmaq
               Role of Women
•   Raised Children
•   Took care of the home
•   Collected and prepared food
•   Hunted small game
•   Shared opinions
             The Mi’kmaq
             Nature/Mother Earth
•   Hunted, Fished and Gathered – Food
•   Humans are equal to nature. Treat it with
•   Wasted nothing.
•   Seasonal Cycle
The Haudenosaunee
        The Haudenosaunee
         Core Values/World Views
•   Collective thinking. Considering future
•   Decision making by Consensus.
•   Sharing labour and benefits.
•   Duty to family, clan, nation and Iroquois
•   Equality.
      The Haudenosaunee
• Northeastern
• Great Lakes
• North and South of
  the St. Lawrence
     The Haudenosaunee
             Group Structure
• 6 Nations (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga,
  Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora)
• Family Clans – each with an animal
        The Haudenosaunee
   Problem Solving/Decision Making/
• Collective thinking, consensus.
   – All must agree, or set aside to discuss later.
• Iroquois Confederacy Alliance formed by “the
• “Great Law of Peace” – set of laws explaining
  how the government should work and how
  people should behave in society.
• Men and Women had an equal opinion
     The Haudenosaunee
• Hunted and fished; gathered nuts, roots
  and berries.
• Farming - 3 sisters: corn, beans
  and squash
        The Haudenosaunee
                   Role of Women
•   Cared for crops.
•   Respected for “giving life”.
•   Matrilineal - woman head of the longhouse (Clan
•   Decision Making: male leaders, the location of a
    new village, what crops to plant and where,
    whether men should go to war, when to make
•   They also controlled immigration, played a central
    role in ceremonies, helped people and taught
      The Haudenosaunee
          Nature/Mother Earth
• Responsible for the health of the
• The Seventh Generation- take care of the
  Earth’s resources for future generations.
The Anishinabe
           The Anishinabe
        Core values/World View
• 7 Values:
  1.   Wisdom
  2.   Love
  3.   Respect
  4.   Bravery
  5.   Honesty
  6.   Humility
  7.   Truth
         The Anishinabe
• Northern and
  Central Ontario.
• Southern
• Moved West to the
              The Anishinabe

 Group Structure

• Family Clans named
  after animals.
  – Each clan had a specific
    responsibility (pg.25)
            The Anishinabe
           Problem Solving/Decision
•   Clan system: clans had specific duties. (Crane
    and Loon decided on whole community
    decisions, Fish settled disputes.)
•   Worked together to create a balanced
•   Each village looked after their own affairs.
•   Short term alliances.
         The Anishinabe
• Hunters and Gatherers.
• Wild rice (mamomin)
           The Anishinabe
               Role of Women
•   Equal to men.
•   Looked after children and maintained the
•   Hunted small animals.
•   Harvested, dried and stored food for the
         The Anishinabe
         Nature/Mother Earth
• Seasonal cycle surrounding the rice harvest.

• matrilineal: Ancestral decent through the maternal line 
• Clan Mother: The head of a Haudenosaunee longhouse.
• alliance: A union in which groups agree to trade and help 
  each other resolve disputes.  
• Iroquois Confederacy: An alliance including five 
  Haudenosaunee nations living south of the Great Lakes: The 
  Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk; the 
  Tuscarora later joined the alliance. 
• communal: Something done or owned collectively. 
 Economies and Resources
• An important part of every cultures is the
  • How people meet their basic needs, such as food,
    clothing, and shelter.
• There are three main types of First Nations’
Economies and Resources
How did First Nations communities
get what they needed?
 Economies and Resources
• An important part of every cultures is the
  • How people meet their basic needs, such as food,
    clothing, and shelter.
• There are three main types of First Nations’
   – Hunter-Gatherer Economies
   – Farming Economies
   – Trading Networks
 Economies and Resources
• The economies of the First Nations were based
  on food supply.

• If resources were scarce, people spent most of
  their time gathering food.

• If resources were plentiful life was easier. People
  had more time to spend on other things, such as
  art or recreation.
Hunter-Gatherer Economies
 Hunter-Gatherer Economies
• People gathered plants, hunted and fished
  according to the seasons.

• Most of the food was eaten fresh, but some of
  it was preserved and storied to eat during the

• People had to have an excellent knowledge of
  the land, climate and cycles of nature in order
  for this type of economy to work.
 Hunter-Gatherer Economies
• They moved their camps as the seasons and
  food supply changed.

• They did not gather many extra goods
  because they would have to abandon them
  each time they moved.

• Although they did some trading, they focused
  more on being in rhythm with the seasons
  and nature.
Farming Economies
       Farming Economies
• Only possible in regions of the country where soil
  and weather were ideal for growing crops.

• They did not move as hunter-gatherer societies did.
  They stayed in the same village year round, and
  moved only when the soil depleted.

• They were able to grow more food than needed,
  meaning less time had to be spent on hunting and
      Farming Economies
• The people had more time for creating art,
  performing ceremonies and recreation.

• They were able to produce and store extra
  food which could be used for trade with
  other First Nations groups.
Trading Networks
         Trading Networks
• The First Nations traded goods with one another
  long before European traders arrived.

• The people travelled across well-used trade routes
  that stretched over long distances.

• All across North America, First Nations traded
  with each other to obtain good they did not have.

• When Europeans arrived, they joined these
  trading networks.
Economies and Resources
  With a partner or by yourself,
  complete the “Economies and
 Resources” chart in your booklet.

      PROS = good things (+)
       CONS = bad things (-)

Use pages 26-28 in your textbook to
       help you brainstorm.
      Economies and Resources -
                 Hunter Gatherer Economies
              Pros (+)                      Cons (-)
•   Life is easy when lots of    • Time consuming if food is 
    resources                      scarce. 
•   More time to spend on        • Great knowledge of land, 
    art and recreation             climate and cycles of 
•   Easy to preserve and           nature required.
    store.                       • Had to move with the 
•   Balanced Diet                  seasons.
   Economies and Resources -
                  Farming Economies
           Pros (+)                    Cons (-)
• Less time spent Hunting    • Only available in regions 
  and Gathering.               with ideal soil and 
• Didn’t have to move.         weather conditions. 
• Extras goods could be      • Had to move if the soil 
  traded.                      depleted. 
                             • Animals/weather could 
                               destroy crops
    Economies and Resources -
                   Trading Economies
          Pros (+)                      Cons (-)
• You could get what you      • Trades weren’t always fair. 
  couldn’t collect or grow.   • Were the good 
• Created relationships         necessarily needed? 
  with other First Nations    • Had to travel long 
  groups and Europeans.         distances. 
           TEST REVIEW

                  10 Definitions
                8 Multiple Choice
            2 Short Answer (Listing)
           1 Short Answer (sentence)
              1 Long Answer (5 pts)

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