Brief Summary by pengxiang


									Integrating the Delivery of Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollutant Reduction at the Local Level: A UK Case Study Ruth Wood
Executive Summary
The study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the contribution that Norfolk’s local authorities can make to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from their locality and the potential co-benefits and trade-offs with air pollutant emissions. The study comprises a number of key deliverables; 1. A spatially resolved emissions inventory (of Norfolk) to produce a baseline of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions and their sources 2. A series of emission scenarios expressed qualitatively 3. A quantitative assessment of the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of these scenarios and their impact on air pollutants for three sectors - municipal waste disposal, road transport and domestic heating provision expressed quantitatively. The summary provides the key results of each of the assessments, the results of the emissions inventory are reported separately.

Production of Emission Reduction Scenarios
A set of four emission reduction scenarios were developed with the help of local stakeholders. There are four scenarios, three of which entitled ‘Guided Change’, ‘Market Fix’ and ‘Local and Green’ aim to deliver a 60% reduction in CO2e emissions by 2050 from a 2003 baseline. Participants in the creation of each of these three scenarios were asked to specify a percentage reduction by 2050 for each sector, to contribute to the 60% target and set additional targets for NOx and PM1012 reduction. The fourth scenario, ‘More of the Same’ does not achieve large emission reductions, instead it is an assessment of the ‘trend-target gap’ exploring the potential reductions achievable if the trends continued as they are today with some effort at improving sustainability. The overall percentage emission reductions based on the sectoral emission reductions set by participants for each scenario are given in Table 1. Scenario More of the Same Market Fix Guided Change Local and Green CO2e -20 -60 -55 -60 NOx -30 -80 -70 -40 PM10 -30 -70 -30 -12


NOx and PM10 were focussed on as there are sites within Norfolk where air concentrations of these pollutants are greater than the minimum standards set to protect human health.

Table 1 Total emission reductions for 2050 delivered from the sectoral reductions described in the scenarios

The accompanying storylines which describe how the stakeholders thought the emission reductions would be delivered can be found in Section 4.4 of the Thesis.

Quantitative Assessment of Local Climate Change Mitigation Measures in Terms of their Impacts on Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants Emissions
Local Authority Responsibilities The sectors for the quantitative study were identified by the contribution they make to emissions in 2003 and the ability of the local authority to deliver reductions. The sectors identified were (i) municipal waste management, - waste sector contributes 49 % of methane emissions from Norfolk and both the County and District Authorities have responsibility as Waste Disposal and Waste Collection Authorities to manage waste in a way that does not only reduce methane emissions but also enhances resource use efficiency. (ii) road transport Road Transport was selected as it contributes 23% CO2, 49% NOx and 15% PM10 of Norfolk’s emissions and the county is a Transport Planning Authority. (iii) domestic heating. The Domestic heating sector was identified firstly due to its contribution to emissions (CO2 19%, NOx 12% and PM10 30%), secondly as local authorities have a variety of statutory responsibilities to improve the energy efficiency of the housing stock and reduce fuel poverty, and thirdly because Norfolk is about to undergo a period of sustained housing growth after winning two Growth Point Bids3 which could lead to a large increase in emissions from this sector. Emission reductions from the public sector can also make an important contribution, however, the information required to model reductions was not available for the study. Each of the 2050 scenarios described above was backcast to 2025 for each of these three sectors. The methodology for which is presented in section 4.6 of the thesis. The 2025 scenarios were modelled quantitatively using the methodologies described in Sections 5.7, 6.4 and 7.4. The quantitative models enable an assessment to be made on the scale of change required to deliver the stakeholder’s targets. The emission reductions that are achieved in each scenario for the three sectors studied are given in Table 2. Each of the


The new Growth Points are part of a government scheme to increase the rate of housing delivery in England from 160,000 homes per year then to 200,000 per year by 2016. Government invited local authorities and their partners to put forward proposals for sustainable growth to deliver this aim. Norfolk won funding to support two growth projects one in Greater Norwich and a second aroung Thetford. Total growth plans for Norfolk are for an extra 72,600 homes by 2021 CLG, (2006) "Successful New Growth Point Bids Confirmed" press release 24 October 2006 (London: Communities and Local Government) .


scenarios modelled changes that are technically feasible today with uptake rates which may be challenging but are not impossible. The table illustrates the difference in the capacity of the different sectors to contribute to CO2e emission reduction and the impact that meeting this reduction could have on air pollutants. In particular it highlights how challenging reducing emissions from road transport is, and the much larger percentage change that is possible from the waste management sector.

Scenario Modelling Results
Emission Changes of each 2025 scenario from a 2003 Baseline 2003 Baseline Tonnes CO2e 412,800 NOx 136 PM10 5.2 More of the Same Tonnes % 196,700 310 4.3 Guided Change Market Fix % -83 -26 -2 +36 -57 -44 Local and Green Tonnes 53,780 86 4.8

CO2e 1,659,000 2,323,000 NOx 7866 3320 PM10 252 140 CO2e 1,386,000 1,472,000 NOx 1,100 784 PM10 340 198

Tonnes % Tonnes Municipal Waste -53 179,400 -57 71,920 +126 230 +66 100 -16 1.2 -77 5.1 Road Transport +40 1,818,000 +10 2,255,000 -56 2,600 -66 3230 -44 100 -58 140 Domestic Heat Provision -13 1,099,000 -35 1,132,000 -28 629 -42 714 -33 209 -33 1,650

% -87 -37 -7

1,600,000 -4 2350 -69 100 -60

-33 1,102,000 -35 -35 650 -40 +432 578 +86

Table 1 Modelled changes in emissions from each sector under each scenario in both tonnes emitted per annum and percentage change from the 2003 baseline.

The main findings of each of the emission reduction scenarios are discussed below together with the further efforts or technology improvements which may be needed to deliver the emission reduction targets set for 2050 Waste Management Each of the scenarios produce large reductions in CO2e by 2025 by both reducing biodegradable waste sent to landfill and through the use of restoration layers to oxidise the methane in landfill gas to biogenic CO2. The scenarios also significantly reduce indirect CO2 through the generation of energy in ‘More of the Same’, ‘Market Fix’ and ‘Guided Change’ and through recycling in each of the scenarios. These results demonstrating the potential for the reduction of greenhouse gases from waste management have also been shown by other studies for the UK, for example ERM (2006) and Fisher, Collins et al. (2006). The increases in NOx in the ‘More of the Same’ and ‘Guided Change’ scenarios are due to their use of energy from waste techniques. Despite assumptions in the ‘More of the Same’ scenario of the use of advanced energy techniques to minimise pollutant emissions, some NOx is still emitted above the 2003 baseline. Unless further developments in cleaner waste 3

combustion are developed by 2025 this will lead to a trade-off with air pollutant emissions of an extra 170 and 90 tonnes per annum for ‘More of the Same’ and ‘Guided Change’ respectively. This represents 1% and less than 1% of total NOx emissions from Norfolk in 2003. Additional tradeoffs with air pollutant emissions may result from the use of open composting used in both the ‘Local and Green’ and ’Market Fix’ scenarios. Open composting increases the amount of bioaerosols released to the atmosphere compared to the 2003 waste emissions baseline. Emissions of bioaerosols from composting have been associated with respiratory problems from both site workers and nearby residents (Bunger et al., 2000; Herr et al., 2003). Abatement techniques are available to minimise these methods, by enclosing the process and filtering exhaust air, this increases the energy requirement of the process potentially leading to a tradeoff with CO 2 from the energy generation. Further reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from waste management can be achieved using different technologies according to the scenario. Each of the scenarios includes the addition of a restoration layer to landfill sites across Norfolk this gives the maximum reduction in the release of methane emissions from landfill that is possible with current technology. To reduce landfill gas emissions further the volume of putrescible waste going to landfill needs to be reduced. The additional measures that can achieve this depend on the technologies already employed by the individual scenario. Each of the scenarios only treats half of the residual waste left after the source separation of recyclables. Both ‘Local and Green’ and ‘Market Fix’ collect source separated kitchen waste at a level suggested from other research as the maximum percentage feasible (Fisher et al., 2006). To deliver further methane reductions the remaining putrescible waste mixed up with residual waste would need to either be combusted in an energy from waste plant or undergo mechanical biological transformation. The ‘More of the Same’ and ‘Guided Change’ scenarios do not involve the collection of source separated biodegradable waste, unless they started doing this to further reduce methane emissions from landfill (and to meet the Landfill Directive Requirements to reduce biodegradable waste going to landfill) they would need to extend their technologies to treat a greater proportion of the residual waste produced. The model does not include the emissions associated with the production of the products which are disposed of. Therefore to report the potential for further emission reductions of CO2 through increased recycling rates is misleading. Additional indirect CO2 emissions could be delivered through increasing recycling rates but only if the volumes and types of waste generated remained at 2003 levels.

Road Transport
Air pollutant emissions from the road transport sector are reduced significantly by 2025 in each of the scenarios. The main mechanism by which these reductions are achieved is through the fleet penetration of vehicles with EURO III and IV standard air pollutant emission controls. The scenarios demonstrate the potential success of the EU vehicle emission standards in reducing both NOx and PM10 from the whole vehicle fleet. 4

Methane and nitrous oxide are both reduced through the uptake of improved vehicle technology however it was particularly challenging to model a reduction in CO 2 despite the assumption that all EURO IV passenger vehicles emit 140gCO2/km. The main barrier to reducing CO2 is the rate of growth in vehicle-km predicted by the County in their local transport plan (NCC, 2006). A continuing growth rate of 1.71% per annum to 2050 would mean over 9 million extra vehicle-km on the road. In order to deliver the percentage reductions for 2050 Table 2 provides the mean CO2 emission per vehicle km travelled in 2050 that would be required after a zero growth from 2003 and the continuation of the current trend.
Market Fix Reduction Target by 2050 CO2 emission limit in tonnes per annum in 2050 Max CO2 emission in g/vehicle km if zero growth in vehicle km travelled from 2003 Max CO2 emission in g/vehicle km if growth continued at 1.71 per annum from 2003 65% 568,680 Guided Change 60% 649,920 Local and Green 90% 162480 More of the Same 0% 1,624,800









Table 2 Maximum CO2 emissions per vehicle-km travelled that would be required to deliver the 2050 emission reduction targets for road transport from either zero growth or continued growth at 1.71% in vehicle-km per annum from 2003 to 2050.

The delivery of the reductions may be shared between the components of the vehicle fleet, however, the table gives an indication of the average emission performance that must be achieved by the fleet as a whole. To achieve the reductions target either the vehicle fleet will need to be comprised of very low carbon vehicles or a reduction (or reversal) in the growth of vehicle-km must be achieved. As a comparison, current EU plans are to limit the average CO2 emissions of new passenger cars sold in the EU to 120gCO2/km by 2012 and for vans to 160gCO2/km by 2015 (Europa, 2007). These current plans do not extend to either HGVs, buses or coaches which also make a significant component of the fleet. The technical feasibility of achieving these limits depends on whether one considers tailpipe or ‘well to wheel’4 emissions. Only tailpipe emissions are reported in this study, however there are a number of ‘local zero carbon’ (and NOx and PM10) vehicles in prototype form which run on hydrogen or electricity. These vehicles may not emit CO2 at the tailpipe, but depending on the methods used to produce the H 2 or electricity they will emit CO2 to varying extents elsewhere. One of the benefits of these technologies is that the centralisation of energy production enables differing generation technologies and approaches such as carbon capture and storage to be employed. Low carbon vehicles available commercially today include the Smart fortwo CDI which emits 88gCO 2/km at the

This measure refers to emissions from the full fuel cycle from the production of the feedstock for the fuel to the end use in the vehicle or in the case of electric cars from the source of electricity .


tailpipe and undercuts EURO V standard NOx and PM10 limits and the Honda Insight Petrol/ Electric hybrid 1.0IMA Coupe is reported to release an average of 92 CO 2g/km ‘well to wheel’ (Hickman and Banister, 2005). Local authorities have the potential to reduce both air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions through their responsibilities in road transport and spatial planning. While they cannot dictate the emission standards of vehicles for sale (an EU level responsibility) they can encourage the uptake of low emission vehicles through emission based congestion charging and parking schemes or for example, through Norwich’s low emission zone which restricts buses entering the zone if they do not meet low emission criteria for both CO2 and air pollutants. The scenario results demonstrate the difficulties of reducing CO 2 emissions if relying solely on vehicle emission controls. Local authorities therefore can make a significant contribution to emission reduction by reducing the vehicle-km driven in their area through transport planning. Existing local transport planning guidance sets the proxy indicator for CO2 emissions as area wide vehicle-km (DfT, 2004). No limits have been set by the Department for Transport for this indicator as they have been for other indicators. Subsequently every Local Transport Plan in the Country has set targets that increase vehicle-km driven, in Norfolk this is by 1.71% per year (NCC, 2006). While there is potential for CO2 emission reductions through local transport planning there is no current legislative incentive for change. To help encourage local authorities to use their potential to reduce CO 2 emissions from road transport stronger guidance would be required from central government limit the growth in vehicle-km. Spatial planning in conjunction with transport planning is crucial to avoid locking residents into unsustainable travel patterns. Coordinated planning can reduce the need to travel through the co-location of housing and key services and the provision of integrated public transport systems. Government guidance on the integration of climate change mitigation into spatial planning is currently under consultation, although draft proposals suggest such coordination will be encouraged (CLG, 2006).

Domestic Energy
Each of the domestic heating scenarios delivers approximately half the 2050 CO 2e emission reduction target by 2025. However, the changes in emissions of air pollutants were dependent on the amount of biomass burning used to deliver the CO 2e reduction. A large proportion of the reductions in CO2e are from maximising the energy efficiency of the housing stock through high uptake rates of loft and cavity wall insulation and improvements in boiler efficiencies. By 2025 uptake of these measures (100% for insulation) is at a maximum in the ‘Local and Green’ and ‘Guided Change’ scenarios, this achieves a reduction in CO2e of approximately 35%. ‘Market Fix’ and ‘More of the Same’ have insulation levels and boiler efficiencies that follow the trend in current uptake rates, they achieve 80% uptake of loft insulation and 60% cavity wall insulation, which together with boiler upgrades to 80% efficiency delivers a reduction in CO2e of 22%. The additional reductions that are reported are achieved through fuel switching. All of the scenarios include some degree of fuel switching using both solar thermal and heat pumps, in addition both ‘Local and Green’ and ‘Market Fix’ include fuel switching to biomass. 6

The scenarios also have to offset the increased CO2 emissions resulting from new build in Norfolk. All of the scenarios included CO2 emissions for the heating requirements of the 79,860 homes currently planned to be built in Norfolk between 2003 and 2025. They differ in the energy efficiency standard to which the new homes are built. Both ‘Local and Green’ and ‘Guided Change’ assume that all homes are zero carbon by 2016, whereas ‘Market Fix’ and ‘More of the Same’ assume that only the Code for Sustainable Homes’ 3 star efficiency standard is met by 2025. These growth scenarios result in an extra 72,000 and 154,000 tonnes CO2 per annum from the house’s heat consumption, representing 5 and 11% of the 2003 CO2e emissions from domestic heating. The scenarios must therefore offset this increase before CO2e savings can be achieved. The changes in air pollutants under each scenario depend on the final fuel sources used to deliver the CO2e reductions. The major source of CO, SO2, mercury, lead, PM10 and B[a]P in 2003 was from the small use of coal in Norfolk. The coal burning limits the pollutant reduction that is achieved through efficiency measures to ~10%5. By switching to cleaner burning fuels such as oil and gas, savings for all of these pollutants can be achieved. By switching to wood burning, emissions of B[a]P, PM10, benzene and CO can increase but emissions of VOCs, mercury and lead and SO2 decrease. Changes to pollutant emissions from switching to biomass are dependent on the emission standard and efficiency of the boiler used and the quality of the biomass. Emission factors which reflect these dependents would be required to provide a more accurate picture of the impact on air pollutants from increased biomass use, however, these emission factors are difficult to obtain (Jonsson and Hillring, 2006). Switching to electricity may also decrease local air pollutants but depending on the generation source could increase pollutants elsewhere. The ‘Local and Green’ and ‘Guided Change’ scenarios maximise the savings that can be achieved through loft and cavity wall insulation and boiler efficiency. Additional savings to reach the ultimate 2050 target will require large uptake rates of measures such as solid wall insulation and low carbon (lower carbon than gas) heating forms. Much higher uptake rates of these technologies are needed than the current trends would deliver (MTP, 2007). To achieve a 75% or 80% reduction in CO2, not only would houses need maximum insulation (and all new homes post 2016 to be zero carbon) but they would also require an acceleration of the uptake rates of heat pumps, biomass or other low carbon sources. Switching semi-detached and detached households in rural areas to alternatives brings the largest reductions, as their size demands more heating than smaller houses and they do not have access to mains gas. Savings from the domestic sector are to a large extent dependent on national government success in delivering low carbon electricity (although by 2050, electricity generation may no longer be centralised). Switching to heat pumps will only deliver reductions if the CO 2 emission factor from electricity remains low. Switching to electricity to heating in general


For households using coal for heating the only efficiency savings achieved are from improved insulation. Whereas households using oil and gas can also reduce their fuel demand from boiler efficiency upgrades, households on coal in the model are assumed to switch to an alternative heating source rather than install an upgraded coal boiler. Therefore as the dominant source of air pollutants this limits the reductions achievable solely from efficiency savings.


will not deliver CO2 savings until the grid emission factor achieves an emission rate below that of natural gas (0.188 kg CO2/kWh). Existing local authority responsibilities empower them to influence the energy efficiency of their housing stock, they do not expressly cover the promotion of fuel switching. The limit of emission reductions achievable through these responsibilities is therefore approximately 40%, assuming loft, cavity and solid wall insulation and boiler efficiencies are maximised. To maintain this level of emission reduction all houses built post 2016 would need to be zero Carbon, this is also achievable through local authority spatial planning with appropriate support from the Department for Communities and Local Government.

Total Emission Reductions Achieved from each Scenario
Overall each scenario delivers the percentage reductions given in Table 3 which demonstrate the size of the contribution compared to the total emissions of 2003, assuming that the emissions from each of the additional sectors remain at 2003 levels.
More of the Same Tonnes % Guided Change Tonnes Market Fix % Tonnes % Local and Green Tonnes %

Total Change in Emissions CO2e NOx PM10

+220,800 +3 -4600 -240 -30 -15

-7 559,000 -5,600 -36 -270 -17

-2 207,000 - 4,900 -32 +822 +55

915,000 -5950 +76

-11 -38 +5

Table 3 Total emission changes achieved from each 2025 scenario based on a 2003 baseline

The large increase in CO2e under ‘More of the Same’s road transport scenario outweighs all of the savings achieved from the domestic and waste sectors. Likewise savings are minimal from ‘Market Fix’ due to the same reason. Each of the scenarios leads to a large decrease in NOx emissions, with any increases from the waste disposal sector being outweighed by the savings achieved from road transport and the domestic sector. The large increases in PM10 emissions under the ‘Market Fix’ and ‘Local and Green’ scenarios results from the large amount of biomass used to supply domestic heating in these scenarios. As greenhouse gases have a cumulative effect on the climate, to be effective in contributing to the mitigation of climate change, greenhouse gas emissions need to decline gradually to meet the 2050 target rather than continuing emitting at 2003 (or higher) levels and then suddenly reducing in the year 2050 (Broecker, 2007; Wigley, 2007). This requires action and planning much earlier than 2050. By making changes now to deliver 2025 CO 2e reductions, a pathway to meeting the 2050 targets can be started. Such changes, however, need to take air pollution impacts into account and the effect these changes may have on human health. It should also be remembered that both NO x and PM10 are climate active too.


Contribution of Local Authorities to Emission Reductions
The review of relevant government legislation and policy presented in chapter 2 demonstrated that there are opportunities at present for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation (and climate change adaptation) to be integrated across existing local authority remits, however for these opportunities to be optimised to deliver mitigation a statutory driver is required. National policy to incentivise local authorities to deliver reductions is necessary. One key piece of feedback from local authority officers given during the scenario workshop was that without formal regulation action at a local level on climate change would not happen and that delivering change would require an overall strong national framework with strong local spend. It was pointed out that highlighting areas where they could take action now was not enough, an imperative to act was felt necessary for local authority action. The response of local authorities to waste management after the implementation of the EU Landfill Directive was highlighted as an excellent example of how successful local authorities can be at tackling a problem if given the statutory responsibility and funding to deliver an objective. The EU Landfill Directive has provided a driver for the reduction of biodegradeable waste being sent to landfill necessitating the use of alternative means of waste disposal which can have emission benefits. Further legislation under the Waste Framework Directive has promoted resource efficiency and maximises the source separation of recylcate. Similar successes for air pollution control driven by the European Commission have been demonstrated here for road transport, as large percentage reductions are achieved through fleet turnover to higher emission standard vehicles in accordance with European standards. National emission reduction targets for CO2 have not been delegated to local authorities, providing no driver for change at present. To maximise their potential this driver is needed to deliver change through local authorities. The scenario results suggest that for the road transport sector, an incentive to minimise vehicle-km growth is required and for domestic heating, the current local authority energy efficiency targets for 2011 should be extended and tightened in order to enable the potential 40% savings from energy efficiency measures to be achieved. A further key role that local authorities can play in emission reduction is to enable residents to make pro-environmental change lifestyle choices. At present there are a number of institutional barriers which must be overcome. Effective planning policies are crucial to preventing the local population being locked-in to unsustainable consumption patterns. There are opportunities through planning to enable the local population to purchase or rent energy efficiency housing, minimise their need to travel, use integrated transport systems and dispose of their waste in a sustainable manner.


References Beer, T., Grant, T., Morgan, G., Lapszewicz, J., Nelson, P., Watson, H., Williams, D., (2002) Comparison of transport fuels (Aspendale: CSIRO) Bows, A., Anderson, K., (2007) Policy clash: Can projected aviation growth be reconciled with the Government's 60% CO2 reduction target? Transport Policy, 14(2), pp. 103110. Bristow, A., Pridmore, A., Tight, M., May, T., Berkhaut, F., Harris, M., (2004) How can we reduce carbon emissions from transport? Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research: Technical report no 15. Broecker, W.S., (2007) CO2 arithmetic. Science, 315(587), pp. 1371. Bunger, J., Antlauf-Lammers, M., Schulz, T.G., Westphal, G.A., Muller, M.H., Ruhnau, P., Hallier, E., (2000) Healthy complaints and immunological markers of exposure to bioaerosols amoung biowaste collectors and compost workers. Occupational Environmental Medicine, 57(7), pp. 458-464. Carraretto, C., Macor, A., Mirandola, A., Stoppato, A., Tonon, S., (2004) Biodiesel as alternative fuel: experimental analysis and energetic evaluations. Energy, 29, pp. 2195-2211. CLG, (2006) Consultation planning policy statement: planning and climate change supplement to planning policy statement 1 (London: Communities and Local Government) 06 PD 04292. Defra, (2005) Local and Regional CO2 emissions for 2003 a report for Defra by NETCEN (London and Didcot: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and AEA Technology) DfT, (2004) Full guidance on local transport plans 2nd Edition (London: Department for Transport) Durbin, T.D., Collins, J.R., Norbeck, J.M., Smith, M.R., (2000) Effects of biodiesel, biodiesel blends and a synthetic diesel on emissions from light heavyduty vehicles. Environmental Science and Technology, 34(3), pp. 349-355. ERM, (2006) Impact of energy from waste and recycling policy on UK greenhouse gas emissions (London: ERM for Defra) Europa, (2007) MEMO 07/46 Questions and answers on the EU strategy to reduce CO 2 emissions from cars (Accessed: 2007) TML&aged=0%3Cuage=EN&guiLanguage=en#fn1. Fisher, K., Collins, M., Aumonier, S., Gregory, B., (2006) Carbon balances and energy impact of the management of UK waste. Environmental Resources Management for Defra R&D Project WRT 237 Gonzalez-Gomez, M.E., Howard-Hildige, R., Leahy, J.J., O'Reilly, T., Supple, B., Malone, M., (2000) Emission and performance characteristics of a 2L Toyota diesel van operating on esterified waste cooking oil and mineral diesel fuel. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, pp. 13-20. Goodwin, J., King, K., Passant, N., Sturman, J., Li, Y., (2005) Local and regional CO2 emissions estimates for 2003. A report produced for Defra by NETCEN (London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) Gupta, R., (2006) Applying CO2 reduction strategies to existing UK dwellings using GISbased modelling: a case study in Oxford. Findings in Built and Rural Environments(July Issue), pp. 10

Herr, C.E.W., zur Nieden, A., Jankofsky, H., Stilianakis, N.I., Boedeker, R.H., Eikmann, T.I., (2003) Effects of bioaerosol polluted outdoor air on airways of residents. A cross sectional study. Occupational Environmental Medicene, 60, pp. 336-342. Hickman, R., Banister, D., (2005) Towards a 60% reduction in UK transport carbon dioxide emissions. A scenario building and backcasting approach (London: University College London) Hutchinson, S., (2006) Fuelling the debate: a report on the Norfolk County Council alternative fuel trials (Norwich: Norfolk County Council) Jonsson, A., Hillring, B., (2006) Planning for increased bioenergy use - evaluating the impact on local air quality. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30, pp. 543-554. King, K., Sturman, J., Passant, N., (2006) NAEI UK Emission Mapping Methodology (Didcot: Netcen, AEA Technology) MTP, (2007) Market Transformation Programme Crown Copyright 2000-2006 (Accessed: 2007) NCC, (2006) Local Transport Plan 2: 2006 - 2011 (Norwich: Norfolk County Council) Norfolk County Council, (2006) 2nd Local Transport Plan 2006 - 2011 (Norwich: Norfolk County Council) Smith, A., Brown, K., Ogilvie, S., Rushton, K., Bates, J., (2001) Waste Management Options and Climate Change AEA Technology for European Commission) ISBN 92894-1733-1. Syri, S., Kavosenoja, N., (2001) Energy pathways versus emission control policies in acidification reduction. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 130(1-4), pp. 1831-1836. Wigley, T.M.L., (2007) CO2 emissions: a piece of the pie. Science, 316, pp. 829-830.


To top