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Chapter 13 CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION

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					Robbins: Organizational Behavior

Chapter Fourteen

CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATION
LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, students should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Define conflict. Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict. Contrast task, relationship, and process conflict. Outline the conflict process. Describe the five conflict-handling intentions. Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. Identify the five steps in the negotiation process. Describe cultural differences in negotiations.

CHAPTER OVERVIEW Many people automatically assume that conflict is related to lower group and organizational performance. This chapter has demonstrated that this assumption is frequently incorrect. Conflict can be either constructive or destructive to the functioning of a group or unit. As shown in Exhibit 14-8, levels of conflict can be either too high or too low. Either extreme hinders performance. An optimal level is where there is enough conflict to prevent stagnation, stimulate creativity, allow tensions to be released, and initiate the seeds for change, yet not so much as to be disruptive or deter coordination of activities. Inadequate or excessive levels of conflict can hinder the effectiveness of a group or an organization, resulting in reduced satisfaction of group members, increased absence and turnover rates, and, eventually, lower productivity. On the other hand, when conflict is at an optimal level, complacency and apathy should be minimized, motivation should be enhanced through the creation of a challenging and questioning environment with a vitality that makes work interesting, and there should be the amount of turnover needed to rid the organization of misfits and poor performers. What advice can we give managers faced with excessive conflict and the need to reduce it? Do not assume there is one conflict-handling intention that will always be best! You should select an intention appropriate for the situation. The following provides some guidelines:  Use competition when quick, decisive action is vital (in emergencies); on important issues, where unpopular actions need implementing (in cost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline); on issues vital to the organization’s welfare when you know you are right; and against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior.  Use collaboration to find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised; when your objective is to learn; to merge insights from people with different perspectives; to gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus; and to work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship.  Use avoidance when an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing; when you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns; when potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution; to let people cool down and regain perspective; when gathering information supersedes immediate decision; when others can resolve the conflict more effectively; and when issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues.  Use accommodation when you find you are wrong and to allow a better position to be heard, to learn, and to show your reasonableness; when issues are more important to others than yourself and to satisfy others and maintain cooperation; to build social credits for later issues; to minimize loss when you are outmatched and losing; when harmony and stability are especially important; and to allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes.  Use compromise when goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches; when opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals; to achieve temporary settlements to complex issues; to arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure; and as a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful. Negotiation was shown to be an ongoing activity in groups and organizations. Distributive bargaining can resolve disputes but it often negatively affects one or more negotiators’ satisfaction because it is focused on the short term and because it is confrontational. Integrative bargaining, in contrast, tends to provide outcomes that satisfy all parties and that build lasting relationships. 295

Robbins: Organizational Behavior WEB EXERCISES

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At the end of each chapter of this instructor’s manual, you will find suggested exercises and ideas for researching the WWW on OB topics. The exercises ―Exploring OB Topics on the Web‖ are set up so that you can simply photocopy the pages, distribute them to your class, and make assignments accordingly. You may want to assign the exercises as an out-of-class activity or as lab activities with your class. Within the lecture notes the graphic will note that there is a WWW activity to support this material.

The chapter opens introducing Viacom’s President and COO, Mel Karmazin and CEO, Sumner Redstone. Both men are responsible for the management activities of Viacom and have experienced conflict as a result. The Board of Directors has ordered them to “patch things up.” Redstone would again like to be the sole manager of Viacome (he currently owns 68 percent of the stock) and he dislikes Karmazin’s aggressive management style. Karmazin has said he would leave at the end of his contract in 2003 and is said to be the better manager of the two. It is predicted that the stock price will drop should Karmazin leave.

CHAPTER NOTES A Definition of Conflict 1. There are several common themes which underlie most definitions: Notes:

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The parties to it must perceive conflict. Commonalties in the definitions are opposition or incompatibility and some form of interaction.

2. We define conflict as ―a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.‖

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This describes that point when an interaction ―crosses over‖ to become an inter-party conflict. It encompasses the wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations.

Transitions in Conflict Thought 1. The traditional view of conflict argues that it must be avoided—it indicates a malfunctioning with the group. 2. The human relations view argues that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group and that it need not be evil, but has the potential to be a positive force in determining group performance. 3. The inter-actionist approach proposes that conflict can be a positive force in a group but explicitly argues that some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.

Notes:

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior A. The Traditional View 5. This early approach assumed that all conflict was bad. Conflict was synonymous with such terms that reinforced its negative connotation. By definition, it was harmful and was to be avoided. 6. This view was consistent with the prevailing attitudes about group behavior in the 1930s and 1940s. Conflict was seen as a dysfunctional outcome resulting from poor communication, a lack of openness and trust between people, and the failure of managers to be responsive to their employees. B. The Human Relations View 1. Conflict is a natural occurrence in all groups and organizations. Since it was natural and inevitable it should be accepted. 2. It cannot be eliminated and may even contribute to group performance. 3. The human relations view dominated conflict theory from the late 1940s through the mid-1970s. C. The Inter-actionist View 1. The inter-actionist view is the one taken in this chapter. 2. This approach encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious, peaceful, tranquil, and cooperative group is prone to becoming static and nonresponsive to needs for change and innovation. 3. Group leaders maintain enough conflict to keep the group viable, self-critical, and creative. 4. Whether a conflict is good or bad depends on the type of conflict. Notes:

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Functional vs. Dysfunctional Conflict 1. Not all conflicts are good. Functional, constructive forms of conflict support the goals of the group and improve its performance. Conflicts that hinder group performance are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. 2. What differentiates functional from dysfunctional conflict? You need to look at the type of conflict.

Notes:

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Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Low-to-moderate levels of task conflict are functional and consistently demonstrate a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion, improving group performance. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships. a. These conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. b. The friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding.

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Process conflict relates to how the work gets done. a. Low-levels of process conflict are functional and could enhance team performance. b. For process conflict to be productive, it must be kept low. c. Intense arguments create uncertainty.

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Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the OB IN THE NEWS – Yahoo! Inc.: Suffering from an Absence of Conflict found in the text and below. A suggestion for a class exercise follows.

OB IN THE NEWS -- Yahoo! Inc.: Suffering from an Absence of Conflict The company might well have been the ―poster child‖ for the new-economy firm. Begun in 1994, Yahoo! is a clever service for searching the World Wide Web. By 1999, it had become one of the best known brand names on the Internet and was used by 185 million people worldwide. The company’s market value had rocketed to an eye-popping $134 billion. The implosion of dot.com stocks and the subsequent economic recession hit Yahoo! hard. By the spring of 2001, the stock was down 92 percent from its peak and advertising sales were plunging. The company still had a valuable brand name, easy-to-use and high-quality services, and a record of profitability. Yet the company’s most critical problem was now exposed for everyone to see: Yahoo! was too insulated and void of functional conflict. Yahoo! suffered from having managers and staff who were too comfortable with each other. It is a tone that had been directly set at the top by the company’s CEO, Tim Koogle. Yahoo!’s corporate mentality was one of nonconfrontation. This kept new ideas from percolating upward and held dissent to a minimum. It began with the company’s inbred board—made up of a small group of insiders and friends of insiders. There was no one on the board with the courage or perspective to challenge company practices. This intense closeness by insiders also made it hard for the company to attract or retain experienced managers. Many left when they were unable to penetrate the company’s inner sanctum. Yahoo!’s top European and Asian executives and many middle managers also left, amid complaints that the top team would not delegate authority. The company is ―very insular,‖ says a former executive. ―They see the world through the Yahoo! lens.‖ This insularity also carries over into an arrogant attitude of ―we know better than anyone else.‖ Over the years, its Yahoo!-way-or the-highway approach stifled new ideas and frustrated talented people who were outside the power core. Yahoo! took the first step toward changing its conflict-free climate in March 2001 when it announced it would launch a search for a new chief executive to replace Koogle.
Source: Based on K. Swisher, ―Yahoo! May Be Down, But Don’t Count It Out,‖ Wall Street Journal, March 9, 2001, p. B1; and M. Mangalindan and S. L. Hwang, ―Coterie of Early Hires Made Yahoo! A Hit but an Insular Place,‖ Wall Street Journal, March 9, 2001, p. A1.

Class Exercise: Discuss with students (as a class or in groups) the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Was the conflict (or lack of it) functional or dysfunctional? Why? What were the values of Yahoo and Koogle in regards to conflict? Would Yahoo have been a place you would want to have worked under those circumstances? Why? What could have been done at Yahoo so that Koogle would not have had to go? What conflicts have you been involved with at work and what were the causes? What could you have done to resolve task conflicts you have experienced? What could you have done to resolve relationship conflict you have experienced?

The Conflict Process A. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility First is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Three general categories: communication, structure, and personal variables 1. Communication Notes:

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Communication as a source of conflict represents those opposing forces that arise from semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and ―noise‖ in the communication channels. Differing word connotations, jargon, insufficient exchange of information, and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential antecedents to conflict. 298

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior A. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility (cont.) Notes:

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Semantic difficulties are a result of differences in training, selective perception, and inadequate information. The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place. The channel chosen for communicating can have an influence on stimulating opposition.

2. Structure

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The term structure includes variables such as size, degree of specialization, jurisdictional clarity, member-goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems, and the degree of dependence. Size and specialization act as forces to stimulate conflict. The larger the group and more specialized its activities, the greater the likelihood of conflict. The potential for conflict is greatest where group members are younger and turnover is high. The greater the ambiguity in responsibility for actions lies, the greater the potential for conflict. The diversity of goals among groups is a major source of conflict. A close style of leadership increases conflict potential. Too much reliance on participation may also stimulate conflict. Reward systems, too, are found to create conflict when one member’s gain is at another’s expense. Finally, if a group is dependent on another group, opposing forces are stimulated.

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3. Personal variables

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Include individual value systems and personality characteristics. Certain personality types lead to potential conflict. Most important is differing value systems. Value differences are the best explanation for differences of opinion on various matters.

Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the MYTH OR SCIENCE – “The Source of Most Conflicts Is Lack of Communication” found in the text and below. A suggestion for a class exercise follows.

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MYTH OR SCIENCE – “The Source of Most Conflicts Is Lack of Communication” A popular myth in organizations is that poor communication is the primary source of conflicts. A review of the literature suggests that within organizations, structural factors and individual value differences are probably greater sources of conflict. Conflicts in organizations are frequently structurally derived—conflicts between people in sales and credit are typically due to their different departmental goals. When people have to work together but are pursuing diverse goals, conflicts occur. Similarly, increased organizational size, routinization, work specialization, and zerosum reward systems are all examples of structural factors that can lead to conflicts. Many conflicts, which are attributed to poor communication, are due to value differences. When managers treat a value-based conflict as a communication problem, the conflict is often increased. Lack of communication can be a source of conflict, but managers should first look to structural or value-based explanations since they are more prevalent in organizations. Class Exercise: 1. Consider using the team exercise at this point or referencing this material when you process the exercise. 2. At that time, have students discuss what part the lack of communication had in fostering the conflict or how communicating minimized and/or resolved the conflict.

B. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization 1. Antecedent conditions lead to conflict only when the parties are affected by and aware of it. 2. Conflict is personalized when it is felt and when individuals become emotionally involved. 3. This stage is where conflict issues tend to be defined and this definition delineates the possible settlements. 4. Second, emotions play a major role in shaping perceptions.

Notes:

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Negative emotions produce oversimplification of issues, reductions in trust, and negative interpretations of the other party’s behavior. Positive feelings increase the tendency to see potential relationships among the elements of a problem, to take a broader view of the situation, and to develop more innovative solutions.

C. Stage III: Intentions 1. Intentions are decisions to act in a given way. 2. Why are intentions separated out as a distinct stage? Merely one party attributing the wrong intentions to the other escalates a lot of conflicts. 3. One author’s effort to identify the primary conflict-handling intentions is represented in Exhibit 14-2 is along two dimensions:

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Cooperativeness—―the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concerns.‖ Assertiveness—―the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns.‖

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior C. Stage III: Intentions (cont.) 4. Five conflict-handling intentions can be identified. Notes:

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Competing: When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests, regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict Collaborating: When the parties to conflict each desire to fully satisfy the concerns of all parties. The intention is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating. Avoiding: A person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it. Accommodating: When one party seeks to appease an opponent, that party is willing to be self-sacrificing. Compromising: When each party to the conflict seeks to give up something, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised outcome. There is no clear winner or loser, and the solution provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns.

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5. Intentions provide general guidelines for parties in a conflict situation. They define each party’s purpose, but they are not fixed.

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They might change because of reconceptualization or because of an emotional reaction. However, individuals have preferences among the five conflict-handling intentions. It may be more appropriate to view the five conflict-handling intentions as relatively fixed rather than as a set of options from which individuals choose to fit an appropriate situation.

D. Stage IV: Behavior 1. Stage IV is where conflicts become visible. The behavior stage includes the statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempts to implement each party’s intentions. 2. Stage IV is a dynamic process of interaction; conflicts exist somewhere along a continuum (See Exhibit 14-4).

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At the lower part of the continuum, conflicts are characterized by subtle, indirect, and highly controlled forms of tension. Conflict intensities escalate as they move upward along the continuum until they become highly destructive. Functional conflicts are typically confined to the lower range of the continuum.

3. Exhibit 14-4 lists the major resolution and stimulation techniques.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior E. Stage V: Outcomes 1. Outcomes may be functional—improving group performance, or dysfunctional in hindering it. 2. Functional outcomes Notes:

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How might conflict act as a force to increase group performance? Conflict is constructive when it: a. Improves the quality of decisions. b. Stimulates creativity and innovation. c. Encourages interest and curiosity. d. Provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released. e. Fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change. The evidence suggests that conflict can improve the quality of decisionmaking. Conflict is an antidote for groupthink. Conflict challenges the status quo, furthers the creation of new ideas, promotes reassessment of group goals and activities, and increases the probability that the group will respond to change. Research studies in diverse settings confirm the functionality of conflict. a. The comparison of six major decisions made during the administration of four different US presidents found that conflict reduced the chance of groupthink. b. When groups analyzed decisions that had been made by the individual members of that group, the average improvement among the highconflict groups was 73 percent greater than was that of those groups characterized by low-conflict conditions.

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Increasing cultural diversity of the workforce should provide benefits to organizations. a. Heterogeneity among group and organization members can increase creativity, improve the quality of decisions, and facilitate change by enhancing member flexibility. b. The ethnically diverse groups produced more effective and more feasible ideas and higher quality, unique ideas than those produced by the all-Anglo group.

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Similarly, studies of professionals—systems analysts and research and development scientists—support the constructive value of conflict. a. An investigation of 22 teams of systems analysts found that the more incompatible groups were likely to be more productive. E. Research and development scientists have been found to be most productive where there is a certain amount of intellectual conflict.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior E. Stage V: Outcomes (cont.) 3. Dysfunctional outcomes Notes:

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Uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. Undesirable consequences: a. A retarding of communication b. Reductions in group cohesiveness c. Subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members

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Conflict can bring group functioning to a halt and potentially threaten the group’s survival. The demise of an organization as a result of too much conflict is not as unusual as it might first appear. One of New York’s best-known law firms, Shea & Gould, closed down solely because the 80 partners just could not get along.

4. Creating functional conflict

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If managers accept the inter-actionist view toward conflict, they encourage functional conflict.

5. Creating functional conflict is a tough job, particularly in large American corporations.

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A high proportion of people who get to the top are conflict avoiders. At least seven out of ten people in American business hush up when their opinions are at odds with those of their superiors, allowing bosses to make mistakes even when they know better. Such anti-conflict cultures are not tolerable in today’s fiercely competitive global economy.

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6. This process frequently results in decisions and alternatives that previously had not been considered.

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One common ingredient in organizations that successfully create functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. The real challenge for managers is when they hear news that they do not want to hear. Managers should ask calm, even-tempered questions: ―Can you tell me more about what happened?,‖ ―What do you think we ought to do?,‖ and offer a sincere ―Thank you.‖

Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the POINT – COUNTER POINT – Conflict Benefits Organizations found in the text and at the end of these chapter notes. A suggestion for a class exercise follows. OR Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the CASE INCIDENT – Working at ThinkLink found in the text and at the end of these chapter notes. A suggestion for a class exercise follows.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior F. Negotiation 1. Negotiation is a ―process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them.‖ We use the terms negotiation and bargaining interchangeably. 2. Negotiation permeates the interactions of almost everyone in groups and organizations. For example, labor bargains with management. 3. Not so obvious, however, Notes:

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Managers negotiate with employees, peers, and bosses. Salespeople negotiate with customers. Purchasing agents negotiate with suppliers. A worker agrees to answer a colleague’s phone for a few minutes in exchange for some past or future benefit.

G. Bargaining Strategies

1. There are two general approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and
integrative bargaining. (See Exhibit 14-5)

2. Distributive bargaining 
An example of distributive bargaining is buying a car: a. You go out to see the car. It is great and you want it. b. The owner tells you the asking price. You do not want to pay that much. c. The two of you then negotiate over the price.

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Its most identifying feature is that it operates under zero-sum conditions. Any gain I make is at your expense, and vice versa. The most widely cited example of distributive bargaining is in labormanagement negotiations over wages. The essence of distributive bargaining is depicted in Exhibit 14-6.

a. Parties A and B represent two negotiators. b. Each has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. c. Each also has a resistance point, which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable. d. The area between these two points makes up each one’s aspiration range. F. As long as there is some overlap between A and B’s aspiration ranges, there exists a settlement range where each one’s aspirations can be met.

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When engaged in distributive bargaining, one’s tactics focus on trying to get one’s opponent to agree to one’s specific target point or to get as close to it as possible.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior G. Bargaining Strategies (cont.) 3. Integrative bargaining Notes:

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An example: A sales rep calls in the order and is told that the firm cannot approve credit to this customer because of a past slow-pay record. a. The next day, the sales rep and the firm’s credit manager meet to discuss the problem. They want to make the sale, but do not want to get stuck with uncollectable debt. b. The two openly review their options. c. After considerable discussion, they agree on a solution that meets both their needs. The sale will go through with a bank guarantee that will ensure payment if not made in 60 days.

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This example operates under the assumption that there exists one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. In terms of intra-organizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining. Because integrative bargaining builds long-term relationships and facilitates working together in the future, it bonds negotiators and allows each to leave the bargaining table feeling victorious. Distributive bargaining, on the other hand, leaves one party a loser. It tends to build animosities and deepens divisions. Why do we not see more integrative bargaining in organizations? The answer lies in the conditions necessary for this type of negotiation to succeed. a. b. c. d. Parties who are open with information and candid about their concerns A sensitivity by both parties to the other’s needs The ability to trust one another A willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility

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Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the ETHICAL DILEMMA – Is It Unethical to Lie and Deceive During Negotiations found in the text and at the end of these chapter notes. A suggestion for a class exercise follows. H. The Negotiation Process 1. A simplified model of the negotiation process is provided in Exhibit 14-7. 2. Preparation and planning: Notes:

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Do your homework. What is the nature of the conflict? What is the history leading up to this negotiation? Who is involved, and what are their perceptions of the conflict? What do you want from the negotiation? What are your goals? You also want to prepare an assessment of what you think the other party to your negotiation’s goals are. a. When you can anticipate your opponent’s position, you are better equipped to counter his or her arguments with the facts and figures that support your position.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior H. The Negotiation Process (cont.) Notes:

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Once you have gathered your information, use it to develop a strategy. Determine your and the other side’s Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA). a. Your BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement. b. Any offer you receive that is higher than your BATNA is better than an impasse.

3. Definition of ground rules:

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Who will do the negotiating? Where will it take place? What time constraints, if any, will apply? To what issues will negotiation be limited? Will there be a specific procedure to follow if an impasse is reached? During this phase, the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands.

4. Clarification and justification:

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When initial positions have been exchanged, explain, amplify, clarify, bolster, and justify your original demands This need not be confrontational. You might want to provide the other party with any documentation that helps support your position.

5. Bargaining and problem solving:

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The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement. Concessions will undoubtedly need to be made by both parties.

6. Closure and implementation: The final step—formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures that are necessary for implementation and monitoring Major negotiations will require hammering out the specifics in a formal contract. For most cases, however, closure of the negotiation process is nothing more formal than a handshake.

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I. Issues in Negotiation 1. The role of personality traits in negotiation

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Can you predict an opponent’s negotiating tactics if you know something about his/her personality? The evidence says no. Overall assessments of the personality-negotiation relationship finds that personality traits have no significant direct effect on either the bargaining process or negotiation outcomes.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior I. Issues in Negotiation (cont.) 2. Gender differences in negotiations Notes:

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Men and women do not negotiate differently. A popular stereotype is that women are more cooperative, pleasant, and relationship-oriented in negotiations than are men. The evidence does not support this. Comparisons between experienced male and female managers find women are: a. Neither worse nor better negotiators. b. Neither more cooperative nor open to the other. c. Neither more nor less persuasive nor threatening than are men.

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The belief that women are ―nicer‖ is probably due to confusing gender and the lack of power typically held by women. a. Low-power managers, regardless of gender, attempt to placate their opponents and to use softly persuasive tactics rather than direct confrontation and threats.

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Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and toward themselves appear to be different from men’s. a. Managerial women demonstrate less confidence in anticipation of negotiating and are less satisfied with their performance despite achieving similar outcomes as men. b. Women may unduly penalize themselves by failing to engage in negotiations when such action would be in their best interests.

3. Cultural differences in negotiations

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Negotiating styles clearly vary across national cultures. The French like conflict. a. They gain recognition and develop their reputations by thinking and acting against others. b. They tend to take a long time in negotiating agreements, and they are not overly concerned about whether their opponents like or dislike them.

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The Chinese also draw out negotiations but that is because they believe negotiations never end. a. Just when you think you have reached a final solution, the Chinese executive might smile and start the process all over again. b. Like the Japanese, the Chinese negotiate to develop a relationship and a commitment to work together.

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Americans are known around the world for their impatience and their desire to be liked. a. Astute negotiators often turn these characteristics to their advantage.

4. The cultural context of the negotiation significantly influences the amount and type of preparation for bargaining, the emphasis on task versus interpersonal relationships, the tactics used, etc. 5. A study compared North Americans, Arabs, and Russians negotiating style, how they responded to an opponent’s arguments, their approach to making concessions, and how they handled negotiating deadlines. 307

Robbins: Organizational Behavior I. Issues in Negotiation (cont.) Notes:

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North Americans tried to persuade others by relying on facts and appealing to logic. a. They made small concessions early in the negotiation to establish a relationship and usually reciprocated the opponent’s concessions. b. North Americans treated deadlines as very important.

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The Arabs tried to persuade by appealing to emotion. a. They countered opponent’s arguments with subjective feelings. b. They made concessions throughout the bargaining process and almost always reciprocated opponents’ concessions. c. Arabs approached deadlines very casually.

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The Russians based their arguments on asserted ideals. a. They made few, if any, concessions. b. Any concession offered by an opponent was viewed as a weakness and almost never reciprocated. c. Finally, the Russians tended to ignore deadlines.

3. A second study looked at verbal and nonverbal negotiation tactics exhibited by North Americans, Japanese, and Brazilians during half-hour bargaining sessions.

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Brazilians on average said ―No‖ 83 times compared to five times for the Japanese and nine times for the North Americans. The Japanese displayed more than five periods of silence lasting longer than ten seconds during the 30-minute sessions. North Americans averaged 3.5 such periods; the Brazilians had none. The Japanese and North Americans interrupted their opponent about the same number of times, but the Brazilians interrupted 2.5 to 3 times more often. Finally, while the Japanese and the North Americans had no physical contact with their opponents during negotiations except for handshaking, the Brazilians touched each other almost five times every half-hour.

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7. Third-party negotiations

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When individuals or group representatives reach a stalemate and are unable to resolve their differences through direct negotiations, they may turn to a third party. A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like. a. They are widely used in labor-management negotiations and in civil court disputes. b. Their settlement rate is approximately 60 percent, with negotiator satisfaction at about 75 percent. c. The key to success—the conflicting parties must be motivated to bargain and resolve their conflict, intensity cannot be too high, and the mediator must be perceived as neutral and noncoercive.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior I. Issues in Negotiation (cont.) Notes:

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An arbitrator is ―a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement.‖ a. It can be voluntary (requested) or compulsory (forced on the parties by law or contract). b. The authority of the arbitrator varies according to the rules set by the negotiators. c. The arbitrator might be limited to choosing one of the negotiator’s last offers or to suggesting an agreement point that is nonbinding, or free to choose and make any judgment. d. The big plus of arbitration over mediation is that it always results in a settlement. e. Any negative depends on how ―heavy-handed‖ the arbitrator appears.

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A conciliator is ―a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link among parties.‖ a. This role was made famous by Robert Duval in the first Godfather film. b. Conciliation is used extensively in international, labor, family, and community disputes. c. Comparing its effectiveness to mediation has proven difficult. d. Conciliators engage in fact finding, interpreting messages, and persuading disputants to develop agreements.



A consultant is ―a skilled and impartial third party who attempts to facilitate problem solving through communication and analysis, aided by his or her knowledge of conflict management.‖ a. In contrast to the previous roles, the consultant’s role is to improve relations between the conflicting parties so that they can reach a settlement themselves. b. This approach has a longer-term focus: to build new and positive perceptions and attitudes between the conflicting parties.

Instructor Note: At this point in the lecture you may want to introduce the TEAM EXERCISE – A Negotiation Role Play found in the text and at the end of the these chapter notes.

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1. What are the disadvantages to conflict? What are its advantages? Answer – Conflict can injure feelings, delay the work process, result in factions developing, etc. Conflict, however, can stimulate opinions, raise more and better ideas, air any problems or interpersonal conflicts so that they can be resolved, etc. 2. What is the difference between functional and dysfunctional conflict? What determines functionality? Answer – Functional—constructive forms of conflict support the goals of the group and improve its performance. Conflicts that hinder group performance are dysfunctional or destructive forms of conflict. Dysfunctional conflict depends on the type of conflict. Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work.  Low-to-moderate levels of task conflict are functional and consistently demonstrate a positive effect on group performance because it stimulates discussion of ideas that help groups perform better. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships.  These conflicts are almost always dysfunctional.  The friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding, which hinders the completion of organizational tasks. Process conflict relates to how the work gets done.  Low-levels of process conflict are functional and could enhance team performance.  For process conflict to be productive, it must be kept low.  Intense arguments create uncertainty. 3. Under what conditions might conflict be beneficial to a group? Answer – The conditions differ according to the type of conflict. With task conflict, low-to-moderate levels of task conflict are functional and stimulate discussion of ideas that help groups perform better. Relationship conflict is almost always dysfunctional because it decreases mutual understanding, which hinders the completion of organizational tasks. Process conflict is functional if kept to a low-level. 4. What are the components in the conflict process model? From your own experiences, give an example of how a conflict proceeded through the five stages. Answer – The process is diagrammed in Exhibit 14-1.  Stage I: Potential opposition or incompatibility—The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. These conditions have been condensed into three general categories: communication, structure, and personal variables.  Stage II: Cognition and personalization—The antecedent conditions can lead to conflict only when one or more of the parties are affected by, and aware of, the conflict. Just because a conflict is perceived does not mean that it is personalized. It is important because it is where conflict issues tend to be defined.  Stage III: Intentions—Intentions are decisions to act in a given way. Exhibit 14-2 represents one author’s effort to identify the primary conflict-handling intentions. Two dimensions—cooperativeness and assertiveness. Five conflict-handling intentions can be identified: competing (assertive and uncooperative), collaborating (assertive and cooperative), avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative), accommodating (unassertive and cooperative), and compromising (midrange on both assertiveness and cooperativeness).  Stage IV: Behavior—The behavior stage includes the statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempts to implement each party’s intentions. Exhibit 14-3 provides a way of visualizing conflict behavior. Exhibit 14-4 lists the major resolution and stimulation techniques that allow managers to control conflict levels.  Stage V: Outcomes—Outcomes may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the group’s performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance. Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions, stimulates creativity and innovation, etc. Dysfunctional outcomes— uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties, and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. Among the more undesirable consequences are a retarding of communication, reductions in group cohesiveness, and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting between members.

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5. How could a manager stimulate conflict in his or her department? Answer – If managers accept the inter-actionist view toward conflict, they encourage functional conflict. Creating functional conflict is a tough job, particularly in large American corporations. A high proportion of people who get to the top are conflict avoiders. At least seven out of ten people in American business hush up when their opinions are at odds with those of their superiors, allowing bosses to make mistakes even when they know better. Examples of creating functional conflict:  Hewlett-Packard rewards dissenters by recognizing go-against-the-grain types.  Herman Miller, Inc., has a formal system in which employees evaluate and criticize their bosses.  IBM also has a formal system that encourages dissension. Employees can question their boss with impunity.  Royal Dutch Shell Group, General Electric, and Anheuser-Busch build devil’s advocates into the decision process. 6. What defines the settlement range in distributive bargaining? Answer – The essence of distributive bargaining is depicted in Exhibit 14-6. Each party’s target point or resistance point marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable, and the area between these two points makes up each party’s aspiration range. As long as there is some overlap between A and B’s aspiration ranges, there exists a settlement range where each one’s aspirations can be met. 7. Why isn’t integrative bargaining more widely practiced in organizations? Answer – In terms of intra-organizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining, because the former builds long-term relationships and facilitates working together in the future. It bonds negotiators and allows each to leave the bargaining table feeling that he or she has achieved a victory. We do not see more integrative bargaining in organizations because certain conditions are necessary for this type of negotiation to succeed.  Parties who are open with information and candid about their concerns  A sensitivity by both parties to the other’s needs  The ability to trust one another  A willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility 8. How do men and women differ, if at all, in their approaches to negotiation? Answer – Men and women do not negotiate differently. Comparisons between experienced male and female managers find women are neither worse nor better negotiators, neither more cooperative nor open to the other, and neither more nor less persuasive nor threatening than are men. However, women’s attitudes toward negotiation and toward themselves as negotiators appear to be quite different from men’s. Managerial women demonstrate less confidence in anticipation of negotiating and are less satisfied with their performance despite achieving similar outcomes as men. Women may unduly penalize themselves by failing to engage in negotiations when such action would be in their best interests. 9. What problems might Americans have in negotiating with people from collectivist cultures like China and Japan? Answer – The Chinese also draw out negotiations but that is because they believe negotiations never end. Just when you think you have reached a final solution, the Chinese executive might smile and start the process all over again. Like the Japanese, the Chinese negotiate to develop a relationship and a commitment to work together. Americans are known around the world for their impatience and their desire to be liked. Astute negotiators often turn these characteristics to their advantage. North Americans tried to persuade by relying on facts and appealing to logic. They made small concessions early in the negotiation to establish a relationship, and usually reciprocated opponent’s concessions. North Americans treated deadlines as very important. Another study looked at verbal and nonverbal negotiation tactics exhibited by North Americans and Japanese. Japanese on average said ―No‖ five times for the nine times the North Americans did. The Japanese displayed more than five periods of silence lasting longer than ten seconds during the 30-minute sessions. North Americans averaged 3.5 such periods. The Japanese and North Americans interrupted their opponent about the same number of times. Finally, the Japanese and the North Americans had no physical contact with their opponents during negotiations except for handshaking.

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10. What can you do to improve your negotiating effectiveness? Answer – Take the time to assess your own goals, consider the other party’s goals and interests, and develop a strategy, then try the following:  Begin with a positive overture. Concessions tend to be reciprocated and lead to agreements.  Address problems, not personalities. Concentrate on the negotiation issues, not on the personal characteristics of your opponent.  Pay little attention to initial offers. Treat an initial offer as merely a point of departure.  Emphasize win-win solutions, assuming a zero-sum game means missed opportunities for trade-offs that could benefit both sides. So, if conditions are supportive, look for an integrative solution.  Create an open and trusting climate. Skilled negotiators are better listeners, ask more questions, focus their arguments more directly, are less defensive, and have learned to avoid words and phrases that can irritate an opponent.

QUESTIONS FOR CRITICAL THINKING 1. Do you think competition and conflict are different? Explain. Answer – They are both different and the same. First, they are the same in that there is a struggle over an issue, a resource, a decision between two or more parties, and a fight for control or power whether it’s winning a race or arguing over how to handle a labor dispute. They are the same in that they can be personal or professional in nature, but they are also different. Supposedly, competition is to stay on the ―field of competition,‖ and not become personal, whereas a major source of conflict is personal. Competition is universally valued in American culture, whereas it’s still a split decision over the benefits of conflict. 2. ―Participation is an excellent method for identifying differences and resolving conflicts.” Do you agree or disagree? Discuss. Answer – Participation will do this if there is trust, training in how to facilitate non-personal disagreement, and a commitment to work together. If these are not present, then participation is worthless. 3. From your own experience, describe a situation you were involved in where the conflict was dysfunctional. Describe another example, from your experience, where the conflict was functional. Now analyze how other parties in both conflicts might have interpreted the situation in terms of whether the conflicts were functional or dysfunctional. Answer – Students’ examples will vary but should take the criteria for functional and dysfunctional conflict into consideration; see the answer for #2 above in Questions for Review. 4. Assume a Canadian had to negotiate a contract with someone from Spain. What problems might he or she face? What suggestions would you make to help facilitate a settlement? Answer – The text does not provide information directly related to these two nationalities. Students might draw the following assumptions from two parallel cultures—Brazilians and North Americans—or you may wish to assign a brief cultural background research assignment to students. Consider bringing in a colleague from the Modern Languages department to discuss Spanish culture. 5. Michael Eisner, CEO at the Walt Disney Co., wants to stimulate conflict inside his firm, but he wants to minimize conflict with outside parties—agents, contractors, unions, etc. What does this say about conflict levels, functional vs. dysfunctional conflict, and managing conflict? Answer – It suggests that there may be apathy or groupthink going on and Mr. Eisner wants to create more energy inside the firm. He is probably looking for new ideas, increased communication, etc. He does not, however, want to create negative relationships with outside parties. He is looking for functional conflict to improve performance and is not afraid of the challenge to do so.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior POINT-COUNTERPOINT – Conflict Benefits Organizations POINT How stimulating conflict can provide benefits to the organization:  Conflict is a means by which to bring about radical change.  Conflict facilitates group cohesiveness.  Conflict improves group and organizational effectiveness.  Conflict brings about a slightly higher, more constructive level of tension.

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Groups or organizations devoid of conflict are likely to suffer from apathy, stagnation, groupthink, and other debilitating diseases. Look at a list of large organizations that have failed or suffered serious financial setbacks over the past decade or two. The common thread through these companies is that they stagnated. Their managements became complacent and unable or unwilling to facilitate change. These organizations could have benefited from functional conflict. COUNTER POINT All conflicts are dysfunctional, and it is one of management’s major responsibilities to keep conflict intensity as low as humanly possible because:  The negative consequences from conflict can be devastating.  Effective managers build teamwork. A good manager builds a coordinated team. Conflict works against such an objective.  Managers who accept and stimulate conflict do not survive in organizations. From the traditional view, any conflict will be seen as bad. Since the evaluation of a manager’s performance is made by higher-level executives, those managers who do not succeed in eliminating conflicts are likely to be appraised negatively. Failure to follow this advice might result in the premature departure of the manager. Teaching notes: 1. Lead a discussion on how conflict between the student body and the administration could help or hurt your institution. 2. Create functional/dysfunctional lists on the board, and ask students first how conflict could help the college or university. Record these under ―functional.‖ In the discussion, see if specific topics or issues are on the students’ minds. 3. Next, ask how such conflict can harm the institution. Again, record these and solicit specific issues, and record to whom the costs or ―hurts‖ would apply. 4. Now discuss what would make such conflict functional or dysfunctional.  Is it the topic?  The parties involved?  The history of the issue?  Student expectation of administration reaction to conflict? 5. Finally, discuss:  Why have students not spoken up on these issues?  How could functional conflict be started and managed over a specific issue?  What are the dangers if it got out of hand?

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior TEAM EXERCISE – A Negotiation Role Play

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Purpose: This role play is designed to help students develop their negotiating skills. Time: Up to 1 hour. Instructions: 1. Break the class into pairs. Identify one person as Alex and one person as C.J.  One person will play the role of Alex, the department supervisor.  The other person will play C.J., Alex’s boss.  It is easier to manage if all the student pairs sit facing the same way, so you can designate one side as C.J. and one side as Alex. It will help you keep students’ roles straight during the discussion. 2. Have students read only their portion of the role play. 3. Students should take 15 minutes to think through the facts in this exercise and to prepare a strategy. 4. They then have up to 15 minutes to conduct negotiation. 5. When negotiation is complete, the class will compare the various strategies used and pair outcomes. The Situation: Alex and C.J. work for Nike in Portland, Oregon. Alex supervises a research laboratory. C.J. is the manager of research and development. Alex and C.J. are former college runners who have worked for Nike for more than six years. C.J. has been Alex’s boss for two years. One of Alex’s employees has greatly impressed Alex. This employee is Lisa Roland. Lisa was hired 11 months ago. She is 24 years old and holds a master’s degree in mechanical engineering. Her entry-level salary was $37,500 a year. She was told by Terry that, in accordance with corporation policy, she would receive an initial performance evaluation at six months and a comprehensive review after one year. Based on her performance record, Lisa was told she could expect a salary adjustment at the time of the one-year evaluation. Alex’s evaluation of Lisa after six months was very positive. Alex commented on the long hours Lisa was putting in, her cooperative spirit, the fact that others in the lab enjoyed working with her, and that she was making an immediate positive impact on the project she had been assigned. Now that Lisa’s first anniversary is coming up, Alex has again reviewed Lisa’s performance. Alex thinks Lisa may be the best new person the R&D group has ever hired. After only a year, Alex has ranked Lisa as the number-three performer in a department of 11. Salaries in the department vary greatly. Alex, for instance, has a basic salary of $72,000, plus eligibility for a bonus that might add another $6,000 to $10,000 a year. The salary range of the 11 department members is $35,400 to $61,350. The lowest salary is a recent hire with a bachelor’s degree in physics. The two people that Alex has rated above Lisa earn base salaries of $57,700 and $61,350. They’re both 27 years old and have been at Nike for three and four years, respectively. The median salary in Alex’s department is $51,660. Alex’s Role: You want to give Lisa a big raise. While she’s young, she has proven to be an excellent addition to the department. You do not want to lose her. More importantly, she knows in general what other people in the department are earning, and she thinks she is underpaid. The company typically gives one-year raises of five percent, although 10 percent is not unusual, and 20–30 percent increases have been approved on occasion. You would like to get Lisa as large an increase as C.J. will approve. C.J.’s Role: All your supervisors typically try to squeeze you for as much money as they can for their people. You understand this because you did the same thing when you were a supervisor, but your boss wants to keep a lid on costs. He wants you to keep raises for recent hires generally in the five-to-eight percent range. In fact, he has sent a memo to all managers and supervisors saying this. However, your boss is also very concerned with equity and paying people what they are worth. You feel assured that he will support any salary recommendation you make, as long as it can be justified. Your goal, consistent with cost reduction, is to keep salary increases as low as possible. The Negotiation: Alex has a meeting scheduled with C.J. to discuss Lisa’s performance review and salary adjustment. Teaching notes 1. The process for running the exercise is self-explanatory. 2. Consider assigning some pairs a distributive strategy and some an integrative strategy. This will permit a comparison of results for discussion. 3. Consider your gender mix in the pairs, if you want to include a discussion of male/female negotiating strategies. 4. For the sake of time, this exercise can also be conducted as a ―fish bowl‖ using only one pair of students and having the rest of the class observe. 314

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ETHICAL DILEMMA – Is It Unethical to Lie and Deceive During Negotiations? In Chapter 10, we addressed lying in the context of communication. Here we return to the topic of lying but specifically as it relates to negotiation. We think this issue is important because, for many people, there is no such thing as lying when it comes to negotiating. It has been said that the whole notion of negotiation is built on ethical quicksand: To succeed, you must deceive. Is this true? If so, how can someone maintain high ethical standards and, at the same time, deal with the daily need to negotiate with bosses, peers, staff, people from other organizations, friends, and even relatives? We can probably agree that bold-faced lies during negotiation are wrong. Most ethicists would probably agree. The universal dilemma surrounds the little lies—the omissions, evasions, and concealments that are often necessary to best an opponent. During negotiations, when is a lie a lie? Is exaggerating benefits, downplaying negatives, ignoring flaws, or saying ―I don’t know‖ when in reality you do considered lying? Is declaring that ―this is my final offer and nonnegotiable‖ (even when you are posturing) a lie? Is pretending to bend over backward to make meaningful concessions lying? Rather than being unethical practices, the use of these ―lies‖ is considered by many as indicators that a negotiator is strong, smart, and savvy. When is evasiveness and deception out of bounds? Is it naive to be completely honest and bare your soul during negotiations? Or are the rules of negotiations unique: Any tactic that will improve your chance of winning is acceptable?
Source: Based on M. Diener, ―Fair Enough,‖ Entrepreneur, January 2002, pp. 100–102.

Class Exercise: Lead a discussion, or break the students into groups to discuss the questions raised in the last paragraph of the dilemma. Ask them to apply these questions to various situations. Do they come up with different outcomes depending on the scenario? Why or why not? Suggested scenarios:

1. Negotiate your salary and benefits package for a job you have just been offered with a new employer. The
employer would like to know what you were compensated in your last job.

2. Negotiate with a vendor who will do extensive renovations of the company headquarters over the next year.
You are on a very tight budget and if you come in under budget, you will be a ―hero‖ and receive a promotion and bonus. 3. Negotiate a divorce. Your retirement and the savings for your children’s education is at stake. You suspect your to-be ex-spouse will fritter it away. 4. Negotiate the sale of your house. You are in deep debt and need to maximize the selling price to come out ―unscathed.‖ You are moving into a very small apartment to save money once the sale is complete.

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Robbins: Organizational Behavior CASE INCIDENT – Working at ThinkLink

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Mallory Murray had not had much experience working as part of a team. What little exposure she had had to teams was in her organizational behavior, marketing research, and strategy formulation courses. When she interviewed with ThinkLink she did not give much thought to the extensive use of cross-functional teams. She did tell them she worked well with people and thought that she could be an effective team player. Mallory joined ThinkLink as an assistant marketing manager for software programs designed to help students learn algebra and geometry. Mallory’s boss is Lin Chen (marketing manager). Other members of the team she is currently working with include Todd Schlotsky (senior programmer), Laura Willow (advertising), Sean Traynor (vice president for strategic marketing), Joyce Rothman (co-founder of ThinkLink, who now works only part-time in the company; formerly a high-school math teacher; the formal leader of this project), and Harlow Gray (educational consultant). After her first week on the job, Mallory was seriously thinking about quitting. Every decision seems to be a power contest. What makes her job particularly difficult is that she does not have any specific job responsibilities. Mallory’s project team has a deadline only six weeks away, and they are at least two weeks behind schedule. Everyone is aware that there’s a problem but no one seems to be able to solve it. Neither Lin Chen nor Joyce Rothman is showing any leadership. Questions 1. Discuss cross-functional teams in terms of their propensity to create conflict. Answer – The peer nature of team members is fertile ground for conflict. Add what appears to be nondirective leadership and there is a big problem. The intensity of the conflict is hard to gauge since we hear it only from the newest team member, but it does seem to be dysfunctional in that it is interfering with the task accomplishment of the group. This particular team appears highly diverse and highly participative—all elements that add to the potential for conflict. 2. What techniques or procedures might help reduce conflict on cross-functional teams? Answer – It seems that one key is to clarify intentions. This group’s conflict, especially from Mallory’s perspective, may be largely a function of the attributing the wrong intentions to the other. When it comes to reducing conflict, it seems that one of the best ways would be for Mallory to adapt a collaborating perspective, where she desires to fully satisfy the concerns of all parties. The intention of the parties is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view. Also see Exhibit 14-4 for the major resolution and stimulation techniques that managers can use to control conflict. 3. If you were Mallory, is there anything you could do to lessen the conflict on the core project? Elaborate. Answer – This may be tough for students to answer, as they may say, ―Well, I’m not the boss. What can I do?‖ Help students think about what behaviors they can model and what suggestions they can make to Chin to move the group toward resolution. Mallory (students) may also need to refer to earlier material that explains how in the development of a group they will become much more productive as time expires and they get closer to their deadline.

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Exploring OB Topics on the World Wide Web
Search Engines are our navigational tool to explore the WWW. Some commonly used search engines are: www.goto.com www.excite.com www.hotbot.com www.google.com www.lycos.com www.looksmart.com

1. Let’s start out with a laugh. Go to dispair.com and see what their commentary is for dysfunction. Point to: http://www.despair.com/demotivators/dysfunction.html . While you are there feel free to look at some of the other posters that ―spoof‖ traditional motivational posters found on the walls of businesses and schools. Enjoy! 2. How do you handle conflict when it arises? Seven guidelines for handling conflict can be found at: http://www.mediate.com/articles/jordan2.cfm . Think of a conflict you are involved in or have been involved in recently. How could you have applied these guidelines to that situation? Is there room for improvement in your conflict management skills? Write a short reflection paper (or a paragraph or two) on one of the guidelines and how you plan to use it in future conflicts. 3. If you have never been involved in labor negotiations it can be a challenging task—especially if you lack experience in the process. Preparation is key. Every manager should have an understanding of the process. Learn more at: http://www.mediate.com/articles/lynnK.cfm . Are there lessons in this article that could be applied to any negotiation process—for example, buying a car, negotiating a contract with a vendor, etc.? Think of a circumstance where you might find yourself explaining a negotiation process to a friend and the skills necessary to be successful. (Use the article for ideas.) Write out the scenario and skills and bring it to class. 4. Negotiating with other cultures requires an understanding of the culture and the individuals with whom you are negotiating. Point to: http://www.mediate.com/articles/lauchli.cfm to learn more about negotiation and dispute resolution with the Chinese. As the book has discussed, the Chinese are a collectivist culture different in many ways from Americans. Write two or three things of interest you learned from reading this page and bring it to class. 5. Read the article by Stella Ting-Toomey titled ―Intercultural Conflict Management: A Mindful Approach‖ at : http://www.personal.anderson.ucla.edu/richard.goodman/c4web/Mindful.htm . Write a short synopsis of the three major points of the paper. What is the most interesting or intriguing idea put forth in the paper? Do you agree or disagree with her assessments? Bring your written work to class for further discussion. 6. The University of Colorado offers a great deal of information regarding conflict management on their website. One page provides abstracts of selected readings on transformative conflict resolution. Some readings are more global in nature—others are geared to the organization. Point to : http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/transform/abslist.htm and select three abstracts of interest to you. Print them off and bring them to class. Prepare a short presentation on what you learned from articles. Be prepared to talk about them before the class or in small groups. 7. Conflict resolution processes often involves ethical decisions as well. Read the case found on the SHRM website and the recommendations offered by other professionals in the field. Point to: http://www.shrm.org/hrmagazine/articles/1101/default.asp?page=1101ethics.asp . Write a short paper describing what your plan of action would be if you were in Janet De Paulo’s position.
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