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					Dear Students: Welcome to Homestead High School! This packet is designed to start your English notebook. You are expected to carry this basic packet with you throughout your four years at Homestead and add to it as you progress through your English courses. The material contained in this packet is the foundation of English skills you will develop and refine. Some tips in order to succeed in your English studies:  Be Organized Keep a notebook with this packet, binder paper, pens, pencils, assignments, books, class notes, and student phone numbers just for English. Create a Plan Decide what you will study and when. Be Flexible High school requires growth. Learn what each teacher requires and adapt. Be Prepared Be on time everyday. Bring materials to class. Always do your work and have it with you. Stay Positive Verbal and nonverbal behavior is part of your participation grade. Treat others with respect, participate, be a good group member, and be an active listener.

  


English involves reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills that must be nurtured and developed. We look forward to working with you and seeing your growth throughout the next four years. Sincerely, Homestead English Department


HHS English Department Grades Nine and Ten English-Language Arts California Content Standards Reading

Foundation Packet

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately. Vocabulary and Concept Development 1.1 Identify and use the literal and figurative meanings of words and understand word derivations. 1.2. Distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words and interpret the connotative power of words. 1.3 Identify Greek, Roman, and Norse mythology and use the knowledge to understand the origin and meaning of new words (e.g., the word narcissistic drawn from the myth of Narcissus and Echo). 2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials) Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They analyze the organizational patterns, arguments, and positions advanced. The selections in Recommended Literature, Grades Nine Through Twelve (1990) illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade twelve, students read two million words annually on their own, including a wide variety of classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, and online information. In grades nine and ten, students make substantial progress toward this goal. Structural Features of Informational Materials 2.1 Analyze the structure and format of functional workplace documents, including the graphics and headers, and explain how authors use the features to achieve their purposes. 2.2 Prepare a bibliography of reference materials for a report using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents. Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 2.3 Generate relevant questions about readings on issues that can be researched. 2.4 Synthesize the content from several sources or works by a single author dealing with a single issue; paraphrase the ideas and connect them to other sources and related topics to demonstrate comprehension. 2.5 Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis, evaluation, and elaboration. 2.6 Demonstrate use of sophisticated learning tools by following technical directions (e.g., those found with graphic calculators and specialized software programs and in access guides to World Wide Web sites on the Internet). Expository Critique 2.7 Critique the logic of functional documents by examining the sequence of information and


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

procedures in anticipation of possible reader misunderstandings. 2.8 Evaluate the credibility of an author's argument or defense of a claim by critiquing the relationship between generalizations and evidence, the comprehensiveness of evidence, and the way in which the author's intent affects the structure and tone of the text (e.g., in professional journals, editorials, political speeches, primary source material). 3.0 Literary Response and Analysis Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They conduct in-depth analyses of recurrent patterns and themes. The selections in Recommended Literature, Grades Nine Through Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. Structural Features of Literature 3.1 Articulate the relationship between the expressed purposes and the characteristics of different forms of dramatic literature (e.g., comedy, tragedy, drama, dramatic monologue). 3.2 Compare and contrast the presentation of a similar theme or topic across genres to explain how the selection of genre shapes the theme or topic. Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 3.3 Analyze interactions between main and subordinate characters in a literary text (e.g., internal and external conflicts, motivations, relationships, influences) and explain the way those interactions affect the plot. 3.4 Determine characters' traits by what the characters say about themselves in narration, dialogue, dramatic monologue, and soliloquy. 3.5 Compare works that express a universal theme and provide evidence to support the ideas expressed in each work. 3.6 Analyze and trace an author's development of time and sequence, including the use of complex literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashbacks). 3.7 Recognize and understand the significance of various literary devices, including figurative language, imagery, allegory, and symbolism, and explain their appeal. 3.8 Interpret and evaluate the impact of ambiguities, subtleties, contradictions, ironies, and incongruities in a text. 3.9 Explain how voice, persona, and the choice of a narrator affect characterization and the tone, plot, and credibility of a text. 3.10 Identify and describe the function of dialogue, scene designs, soliloquies, asides, and character foils in dramatic literature. Literary Criticism 3.11 Evaluate the aesthetic qualities of style, including the impact of diction and figurative language on tone, mood, and theme, using the terminology of literary criticism. (Aesthetic approach) 3.12 Analyze the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes and issues of its historical period. (Historical approach)


HHS English Department Writing

Foundation Packet

1.0 Writing Strategies Students write coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed. Organization and Focus 1.1 Establish a controlling impression or coherent thesis that conveys a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject and maintain a consistent tone and focus throughout the piece of writing. 1.2 Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, appropriate modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice. Research and Technology 1.3 Use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g., library, electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources. 1.4 Develop the main ideas within the body of the composition through supporting evidence (e.g., scenarios, commonly held beliefs, hypotheses, definitions). 1.5 Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents). 1.6 Integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow of ideas. 1.7 Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style). 1.8 Design and publish documents by using advanced publishing software and graphic programs. Evaluation and Revision 1.9 Revise writing to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and controlling perspective, the precision of word choice, and the tone by taking into consideration the audience, purpose, and formality of the context. 2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0. Using the writing strategies of grades nine and ten outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students: 2.1 Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories: a. Relate a sequence of events and communicate the significance of the events to the audience. b. Locate scenes and incidents in specific places. c. Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the characters' feelings. 4

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d. Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in time and mood. e. Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details. 2.2 Write responses to literature: a. Demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of literary works. b. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works. c. Demonstrate awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created. d. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text. 2.3 Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports: a. Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on all relevant perspectives. b. Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently. c. Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas. d. Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and record information on charts, maps, and graphs. e. Anticipate and address readers' potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations. f. Use technical terms and notations accurately. 2.4 Write persuasive compositions: a. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashion. b. Use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., appeal to logic through reasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical belief; relate a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy). c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and logical reasoning. d. Address readers' concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations. 2.5 Write business letters: a. Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience appropriately. b. Use appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style to take into account the nature of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of, the recipients. c. Highlight central ideas or images. d. Follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to the documents' readability and impact. 2.6 Write technical documents (e.g., a manual on rules of behavior for conflict resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, minutes of a meeting): a. Report information and convey ideas logically and correctly. b. Offer detailed and accurate specifications. c. Include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension (e.g., troubleshooting guide). d. Anticipate readers' problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings. 5

HHS English Department Written and Oral English Language Conventions

Foundation Packet

The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are essential to both sets of skills. 1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions. Grammar and Mechanics of Writing 1.1 Identify and correctly use clauses (e.g., main and subordinate), phrases (e.g., gerund, infinitive, and participial), and mechanics of punctuation (e.g., semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens). 1.2 Understand sentence construction (e.g., parallel structure, subordination, proper placement of modifiers) and proper English usage (e.g., consistency of verb tenses). 1.3 Demonstrate an understanding of proper English usage and control of grammar, paragraph and sentence structure, diction, and syntax. Manuscript Form 1.4 Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct use of the conventions of punctuation and capitalization. 1.5 Reflect appropriate manuscript requirements, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material (e.g., in-text citation, use of direct quotations, paraphrasing) with appropriate citations. Listening and Speaking 1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies Students formulate adroit judgments about oral communication. They deliver focused and coherent presentations of their own that convey clear and distinct perspectives and solid reasoning. They use gestures, tone, and vocabulary tailored to the audience and purpose. Comprehension 1.1 Formulate judgments about the ideas under discussion and support those judgments with convincing evidence. 1.2 Compare and contrast the ways in which media genres (e.g., televised news, news magazines, documentaries, online information) cover the same event. Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication 1.3 Choose logical patterns of organization (e.g., chronological, topical, cause and effect) to inform and to persuade, by soliciting agreement or action, or to unite audiences behind a common belief or cause. 1.4 Choose appropriate techniques for developing the introduction and conclusion (e.g., by using literary quotations, anecdotes, references to authoritative sources). 1.5 Recognize and use elements of classical speech forms (e.g., introduction, first and second 6

HHS English Department

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transitions, body, conclusion) in formulating rational arguments and applying the art of persuasion and debate. 1.6 Present and advance a clear thesis statement and choose appropriate types of proof (e.g., statistics, testimony, specific instances) that meet standard tests for evidence, including credibility, validity, and relevance. 1.7 Use props, visual aids, graphs, and electronic media to enhance the appeal and accuracy of presentations. 1.8 Produce concise notes for extemporaneous delivery. 1.9 Analyze the occasion and the interests of the audience and choose effective verbal and nonverbal techniques (e.g., voice, gestures, eye contact) for presentations. Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications 1.10 Analyze historically significant speeches (e.g., Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream") to find the rhetorical devices and features that make them memorable. 1.11 Assess how language and delivery affect the mood and tone of the oral communication and make an impact on the audience. 1.12 Evaluate the clarity, quality, effectiveness, and general coherence of a speaker's important points, arguments, evidence, organization of ideas, delivery, diction, and syntax. 1.13 Analyze the types of arguments used by the speaker, including argument by causation, analogy, authority, emotion, and logic. 1.14 Identify the aesthetic effects of a media presentation and evaluate the techniques used to create them (e.g., compare Shakespeare's Henry V with Kenneth Branagh's 1990 film version). 2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students deliver polished formal and extemporaneous presentations that combine the traditional rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0. Using the speaking strategies of grades nine and ten outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students: 2.1. Deliver narrative presentations: a. Narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience. b. Locate scenes and incidents in specific places. c. Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of characters. d. Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate time or mood changes. 2.2 Deliver expository presentations: a. Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on all relevant perspectives. b. Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently. c. Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas. d. Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and display information 7

HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

on charts, maps, and graphs. e. Anticipate and address the listener's potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations. f. Use technical terms and notations accurately. 2.3 Apply appropriate interviewing techniques: a. Prepare and ask relevant questions. b. Make notes of responses. c. Use language that conveys maturity, sensitivity, and respect. d. Respond correctly and effectively to questions. e. Demonstrate knowledge of the subject or organization. f. Compile and report responses. g. Evaluate the effectiveness of the interview. 2.4 Deliver oral responses to literature: a. Advance a judgment demonstrating a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of works or passages (i.e., make and support warranted assertions about the text). b. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works. c. Demonstrate awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created. d. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text. 2.5 Deliver persuasive arguments (including evaluation and analysis of problems and solutions and causes and effects): a. Structure ideas and arguments in a coherent, logical fashion. b. Use rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., by appeal to logic through reasoning; by appeal to emotion or ethical belief; by use of personal anecdote, case study, or analogy). c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning. d. Anticipate and address the listener's concerns and counterarguments. 2.6 Deliver descriptive presentations: a. Establish clearly the speaker's point of view on the subject of the presentation. b. Establish clearly the speaker's relationship with that subject (e.g., dispassionate observation, personal involvement). c. Use effective, factual descriptions of appearance, concrete images, shifting perspectives and vantage points, and sensory details.


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Bloom’s Taxonomy
LEVEL 1: Knowledge
Knowledge of: A. specifics B. ways or means of dealing with specifics C. universal and abstractions in a field The leaner will: - Remember an idea, phenomenon or fact in somewhat the same form in which she learned them. For example, a performance activity may require that the learner:  Write (or tell) the formula for the area of a triangle  Spell the word taxonomy  List the levels of Bloom‟s Taxonomy  Recite the poem “Auto Wreck”
know tell list cite choose arrange find group label select match locate name offer omit pick quote repeal reset say show sort spell touch write underline point to tally transfer underline recite identify hold check

LEVEL 2: Comprehension
Comprehension: A. translation B. interpretation C. extrapolation The learner will: - communicate an idea or even in a new or different form (comprehension) - see relationship among ideas, may mean qualifying ideas in relation to experience (interpretation) - project the effect of ideas (extrapolation) For example, a performance activity may require the leaner to:  Reword the Pledge of Allegiance (comprehension)  Explain the meaning of FDR‟s “Four Freedoms” (interpretation)  Offer three ways life in prison would change in inmates were allowed to dress as they please (extrapolation) Comprehend translate change reword construe render convert expand transform alter vary retell qualify moderate restate Extrapolation project propose advance contemplate submit advance offer calculate scheme contrive Interpret infer define explain construe spell out outline annotate expound account for

LEVEL 3: Application
Application, described by Bloom, is “the use of abstract forms in particular and concrete situations. The abstractions may be in the form of general ideas, rules, or generalized methods.” The learner will: - use what she knows (data) from variety of areas to find solutions to problems - relate or apply ideas to new or unusual situations For example:  Making use of the clothes you are wearing, how can you stay afloat for several hours?  Utilize a pail and mop to remove the water from a plugged sink.
apply relate utilize solve adopt employ use avail capitalize consume exploit profit by mobilize operate ply handle manipulate exert exercise try devote handle put in action put to use make use of take up


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Bloom’s Taxonomy (Continued)
LEVEL 4: Analysis
Analysis of: A. elements B. relationships C. organizational principals The learner will: - break things down into their component parts - uncover the unique characteristics of a “thing” For example:  Simplify ballet into basic moves  Take apart an alarm clock  Inspect the house for poor workmanship  Search the “Last Supper” to uncover as many principles of art as possible
analyze break down uncover look into dissect examine take apart divide simplify reason list outline compare audit inspect section canvass scrutinize sift assay test for survey search study check screen

LEVEL 5: Synthesis
Synthesis A. communicating in a unique way B. developing a plan or proposing a set of operations C. developing a set of abstract relations (to hypothesize) The learner will: - think creatively (divergently) - make or create new and original “things” - take “things” and pattern them in a new way

LEVEL 6: Evaluation
Evaluation A. in terms of internal standards B. in terms of external criteria The leaner will: - make judgments about “things” based on either external or internal conditions or criteria - rate ideas, conditions, objects, etc. - accept or reject “things” based on standards

For example: For example:  Decide which candidate would best fill the  Develop a way to teach the concept of adjectives position of principal  Create new lyrics for the opening line of “Mary  Award the contract to the best proposal Had a Little lamb”  Rank the principals in order of “good  Combine elements of drama, music and dance sportsmanship” in order of importance to you into a stage presentation evaluate determine judge assess synthesize yield decide referee create breed rate umpire combine cause prioritize adjudge build effect appraise arbitrate compile generate assay decree make evolve rank rule on structure mature weigh award reorder make up accept criticize reorganize form reject censure produce constitute settle classify compose originate construct conceive blend formulate


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Bloom’s Taxonomy Grid
What Explain Metaphor Analyze Synthesize Conclusion Misc.


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Story Setting Characters Read= Tone/Mood Irony/Identify Imply/Infer Plot Theme Symbols


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Literature Terms 1. PRIMARY DEVICES: Plot, Character, Setting, Theme, Point of View, Irony, and Symbol are the main devices that an author can choose as a pivotal device for the construction of a short story. These devices are used in all types of literature. 2. Plot: The sequence of actions and events on a literary work is called the plot. Most plots center on conflict, which the characters struggle to resolve. Plots usually follow a specific pattern having five stages: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.
Climax: Turning Point; peak of tension Rising Action: series of conflicts, complications that lead toward the climax Falling Action: Consequences of the climax, leading toward the resolution

Plot Structure:

Exposition: Introduction of characters, settings, problem, time

Resolution/ denouément: Final outcome of the plot

3. Conflict:

Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces that is the basis for the plot of a story. External conflict occurs between a character and a force of nature, between two characters, or between a character and society. Internal conflict occurs when a character struggles within himself or herself, such as when one makes an important decision. Complication is the part of the plot in which the entanglement caused by the conflict of opposing forces is developed. It is the tying of the knot to be untied in the resolution.

4. Foreshadowing: Hints or clues that are given to let the audience know what will happen later on in the story. 5. Flashback: Scene in a movie, play, short story, novel, or narrative poem that interrupts the present action of the plot to ―flash‖ backward and tell what happened at an earlier time. This device presents material that occurred prior to the opening scene of the work. Various methods may be used, among them recollections of characters, narration by the characters, dream sequences, and reveries. The climax is the moment of highest interest or greatest dramatic intensity. Usually it marks a turning point in the action, after which the reader or audience is no longer in doubt about the outcome. 13

6. Climax:

HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

The climax may occur because of a decision the main character reaches or because of a discovery or an event. 7. Denouément: The final part of a plot of a story is called the denouément or the resolution. The denouément often blends with the falling action. It explains how the conflict is resolved and may also answer the reader’s remaining questions pertaining to the plot. Person in a story, poem, or play. A dynamic character undergoes some change during the course of a story. A static character undergoes little if any change during the course of a play. A complex or ―round‖ character is a mixture of weaknesses and strengths, good and bad qualities, in other words a character who has human qualities. A stock or ―flat‖ character is a character that has been used so many times that the audience immediately recognizes him and knows how he will think and act. Stock characters are also known as stereotypes. The main character in a play or drama who is faced with a problem. The action revolves around this character. Without this character, there would be no story. The person or force that opposes the main character (the protagonist). The antagonist may be some weakness, desire, or belief within the protagonist; or it may be some outside force, such as another character, nature, environment, or fate.

8. Character:

9. Protagonist:

10. Antagonist:

11. Characterization: Characterization refers to the technique a writer uses to create and develop a character. A writer reveals a character through: 1.) physical description; 2.) the character’s actions, feelings, and words; 3.) the words, actions, and feelings of others; 4.) the thoughts of the character; 5.) through a narrator’s comments about the character. When the author or narrator tells us the qualities a character has, this is direct characterization. When the reader is left to discover this character, this is called indirect characterization. 12. Dialogue: 13. Setting: The speeches, or conversations, between characters in a piece of literature. The setting of a story is the time and place in which the action occurs. A story may be set in the past, the present, or the future; during the day or at night; during a particular time of the year or in a certain historical period. The place may be real or imaginary. Sometimes the setting is clear and well-defined; at times it is left to the reader’s imagination. The idea, view of life, or comment on human beings behavior that is dramatized by the words and actions of the characters and by the 14

14. Theme:

HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

outcome of the play as a whole. The theme of a literary work is the message or insight about life or human nature that the writer presents to the reader. Although some works are written purely for entertainment and do not have clear-cut theme, in most serious works the writer makes at least one point about life or the human spirit. A theme, usually stated in one or two sentences, has universal applicability. 15. Point-of-View: Point of view is the perspective from which a story is told. In a story told from the first-person point of view, the narrator tells the story using the pronouns I and me and is usually a character in the story. In a story told in the third-person objective point of view, the narrator is outside the story. The story is told using the pronouns he, she, and they. If a story is told from the third-person, limited omniscient point if view, the narrator tells the thoughts of one character and the actions of all the others. If a story is told from a third-person, omniscient point of view, the narrator sees into the minds of all the characters. 16. Irony: Irony is the contrast between what is expected and what actually exists or happens. This is called situational irony. Another type of irony is verbal irony; this is when what is said is not what is meant. Dramatic irony is the final type of irony. This is a situation in which words or actions of the character have a meaning unnoticed by the character, but understood by the audience. It also applies to any situation in which the audience knows something that the characters do not. It heightens the suspense. When used symbolically, a word, character, situation, or object is used to represent or suggest an idea greater than itself. Subtle inferences of the author’s feelings towards his material. One may be serious, bitter, humorous, satirical, sarcastic, defeated, joyful, triumphant, scornful, remote, vengeful, mysterious, and so forth. Mood if the feeling that the writer wants the reader to get from a work of literature, such as: excitement, anger, sadness, happiness, or pity. The mood is directly affected by the tone of the author whose use of connotation, details, dialogue, imagery, figurative language, foreshadowing, setting, and rhythm can help set mood. An allegory is a story with more than one level of meaning–a literal level, and one (or more) symbolic levels. Allegory allows a writer to both tell a story about literal characters and to make a moral, religious, or political point. Besides having a literal surface meaning, the events, settings, or characters in an allegory also 15

17. Symbolism: 18. Tone:

19. Mood:

20. Allegory:

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Foundation Packet

stand for ideas or qualities and have a second meaning on that level. 21. Allusions: 22. Analogy: 23. Dialect A figure of speech that makes brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event or object. An analogy compares two different things to point out how they are similar. When the speech of two groups or of two persons representing two groups both speaking the same ―language‖ exhibits very marked differences, the groups or persons are said to be speaking different dialects. Literally a manifestation or showing-forth, usually of some divine being; sudden insight. In writing, the recounting of events. In a play, the explanations given by a character. Satire is a literary technique that combines a critical attitude with humor. Through the ridicule and mockery of satire, writers try to make their readers think about faults in society. Exaggeration is one of the satirist’s main tools. Anticipation as to the outcome of events, particularly as they affect a character for whom one has sympathy. It is a major device for securing and maintaining interest. Genre is the term used to specify the distinct types or categories into which literary works are grouped. The four main literary genres are: fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama. Prose writings about people and events are products of the author’s imagination. Fiction is not fact but may be based on facts, real experiences, or people the writer has known. Verisimilitude (semblance of truth) and Suspension of Disbelief (willingness to withhold questions about truth, accuracy, or probability in a work) are central to good fiction. There are two main types of fiction: A short story may be defined as a brief piece of fiction dealing with a single incident in the lives of its characters. It concentrates on producing a ―single impression or effect.‖ All elements in the story are should work together in building this single impression. A short story should be read in one sitting. A novel is an extended work of fiction that focuses on several ideas. It is much longer and more complex than a short story.

24. Epiphany: 25. Narration: 26. Satire:

27. Suspense

28. GENRE:

29. Fiction:


HHS English Department 30. Nonfiction:

Foundation Packet

Nonfiction is prose writing about real people, places, things, and ideas. Biographies and autobiographies, histories, diaries, editorial articles, essays, journals, research reports, and news articles are all examples of nonfiction. Poetry is a special type of literature in which words are chosen and arranged to create a certain effect. Poets carefully select words for their sounds and connotations and combine them in different and unusual ways in order to communicate ideas, feelings, experiences, and different points of view. Like fiction, poems can also tell stories. Poets use form, rhyme, rhythm, alliteration, assonance, imagery, figurative language, speaker and theme–known collectively as the elements of poetry–to convey the sounds, emotions, pictures, and ideas they want to express. An epic poem is a long narrative poem in elevated style presenting characters of high position in adventures forming an organic whole through their relation to a central heroic figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a nation or race. Drama is literature that is meant to be performed for an audience. In a drama, or play, actors and actresses play the roles of characters, telling the story through their words and actions. Like fiction, drama has the elements of character, setting, plot, and theme. Generally, the script for a play includes both a list of the characters and stage directions that tell the actors and actresses how to move or speak their lines. These directions also provide suggestions for special effects, music, lighting, and scenery. A play is made up of one or more acts. Each act contains several scenes. A monologue is a long speech by one character to another character. A soliloquy is a speech that a character makes when he or she is alone. Its purpose is to let the audience know what the character is thinking. An aside is when two characters talk to one another so a third (onstage) cannot hear, but the audience can. The study of myths. A myth is a traditional, anonymous story that explains a belief, a custom, or a mysterious natural phenomenon. Myth makes concrete and particular a special perception of human beings or a cosmic view.

31. Poetry:

32. Drama:

33. Mythology


HHS English Department Short Story Analysis Title:

Foundation Packet


Point of View:

Most Important Element:


Outer Antagonist Controlling (X) Name of Character One (X) One (X) Dynamic Static Complex Stock




Of ConflictOf CharacterOf Theme-










HHS English Department NAME: PERIOD: Short Story Analysis

Foundation Packet

The main character; whom the story is about Anyone or anything which is against the protagonist; may be more than one Subtle feelings of the author; an implied attitude The feeling you get as a reader A general message the story implies (or outright states); a moral; one or more When the narration shifts from the current events of a story to previous events When something stands for something else- a symbol of something deeper


When the outcome of an event is the opposite of what it should be

Plot Structure:
Climax: Turning Point; peak of tension Rising Action: series of conflicts, complications that lead toward the climax Falling Action: Consequences of the climax, leading toward the resolution

Exposition: Introduction of characters, settings, problem, time

Resolution/ denouément: Final outcome of the plot

TITLE: ____________________________________ PLOT STRUCTURE:

Author: _______________________________

List a few details from this story which form the exposition ____________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ List the major out and inner conflict: Outer Inner Briefly describe the part of this story which is the climax. _______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ List a couple details from this story which form the falling action. ________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Briefly describe the resolution in this story. __________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ SETTING: Where and when is the setting of this story? _______________________________________ List the two possible outcomes of each conflict


HHS English Department
CHARACTERS: Who is the protagonist in this story? _____________________________________

Foundation Packet

Who or what is/are the antagonist/s in this story? ________________________________________

For each of the following techniques of characterization, give an example from the story which describes the protagonist (or other character of your choosing).
What s/he does (action): _________________________________________________________________ What does this imply about him/her? ________________________________________________ What s/he says: ________________________________________________________________________ What does this imply about him/her? ________________________________________________ How others react to him/her (action): ______________________________________________________ What does this imply about him/her? ________________________________________________ What s/he thinks: ______________________________________________________________________ What does this imply about him/her? ________________________________________________ Narrative description: ___________________________________________________________________ POINT OF VIEW: List the characters in your story. Does the narrator know what they are thinking?
Characters: Are their thoughts narrated? Y N Y N Y N Y N What point of view is used in this story (check one) Objective (all No‟s) First person (one yes: “I”) Limited omniscient (one Yes) Omniscient (two or more Yes‟s)

FLASHBACK:(check one) This story is narrated ___in chronological order. ___with the use of flashbacks. SYMBOLISM: Give an example of any symbolism in this story.
is symbolic of

IRONY: Give an example of situational irony in this story. What should have been the outcome? Why?
______________________________________________________________________________________ What is the actual (ironic) outcome?

TONE: Describe the tone of this story. MOOD: Describe the mood of this story. THEME: What is/are the theme(s) of this story?

STORY TYPE: What is the most prominent element of this story? (check one)
MOST IMPORTANAT ELEMENT Plot (action/adventure: exciting, suspenseful) Characters (drama: emotional, touching) Mood (comedy, horror: hilarious, scary) Theme (universal truth: deep meaning) Irony (surprise: the unexpected) Point of view (unique view: who tells it) Setting (the place and time: unique) Symbol (representations: added meaning)


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Poetic Devices
DEVICE 1. IMAGERY DEFINITION Words suggesting a sense experience. A part of something is used to refer to the whole. Literal or explicit meaning of a word. Associated meanings of or attitudes about words. Language that is used to describe one thing in terms of something else; language that is not intended to be taken literally. A comparison using words such as like, as, than, similar to, or resembles. A comparison made by not using like or as and substituting one thing for another. Giving attributes of a human being to a nonhuman thing. Means more than what is said; relates to life as a whole. A reference to something else—usually in history or previous literature. Closely related idea is used for the real thing. Overstatement or exaggeration. Two words together with seemingly contradictory meaning The attitude a writer takes toward the subject. Not so much what is said but how it is said. 21 EFFECT OR EXAMPLE A vivid mental picture (hear, see, feel, touch, smell, taste) is created. Sail ho, heads of state, all hands on deck. Convey the dictionary meaning. Enhances meanings, adds mood and new levels of meanings. It depends on a new or shocking comparison to be made between two or more things that are basically unlike. Slow as a snail.

synecdoche denotation connotation




Fuller meaning and vivid image, such as: It’s raining cats and dogs. Fuller meaning and vivid image, such as: My shoes are killing me. I’ll cross that bridge when I come to it. Reference—creates clarity and a fuller understanding is created by the comparison. Artistic, such as pigskin for football. I’ll just die if I don’t pass my exams. She hit the ball a mile. Virgin mother, cold fury, standard variable, military intelligence Creates a depth of what the author intends.




metonymy hyperbole



HHS English Department Poetic Devices (Continued) DEVICE speaker diction DEFINITION The voice in a poem. A writer’s choice of words.

Foundation Packet




verbal dramatic situational


rhyme internal rhyme approximate rhyme rhyme scheme onomatopoeia alliteration


The reversal of the usual order of words in a sentence A contrast discrepancy between what is stated and what is really meant or between what is expected to happen and what actually does happen. Saying the opposite of what one means. Speaker says one thing but the author means another. Difference between what should happen and what does happen. Self-contradiction that is actually true and possible Those poetic devices that directly relate to, appeal to, or stimulate the sense of hearing. Word having the same sound or vowel sound Repeats sounds within the lines of verse. The final rhyming sounds are close, but not the same. The pattern of rhymes in a stanza or poem. Words which sound like what they mean. Repetition of initial consonant sounds in a group of words close together. Repetition of vowel sound.

EFFECT OR EXAMPLE Provides focus. ―‖le mot juste‖ (the precisely correct word) Flaubert. Creates a poetic atmosphere. Surprise, drama, and interest may result.

Emphasis: humor. Emphasis: emotional impact Emphasis: emotional impact Emphasis: shock value— an attention-getter. Appeals to the sense of sound or music.

Musical quality for smooth reading. Inner unity, musicality. Adds a discordant note. Creates unity and continuity. Creates a vivid image, such as: hiss, meow, buzz. Often emphasizes rhythmic sound, such as: safe and sound, do or die smooth free and easy Marge of Lake Lebarge


HHS English Department Poetic Devices (Continued) DEVICE consonance DEFINITION Repetition of final consonant sound in a group of words close together. One or more words, phrases, or lines that are repeated regularly in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza. The reappearance of a word, phrase, stanza, or structure in any literary work. Any and all poetic patterns that create unity, add to meaning, and enrich feeling. Having metrical form, repetition of sound, pattern, or accent. A set sound pattern. unstressed-stressed indeed trochee anapest stressed-unstressed harken unstressed-unstressedstressed comprehend dactyl stressed-unstressedunstressed favorite spondee stressed-stressed upset A single metric unit A poem without rhyme but with meter, usually in iambic pentameter. A poem without rhyme or meter; meaning is conveyed by content and word placement. 23

Foundation Packet


EFFECT OR EXAMPLE Odds and ends Short and sweet Molten golden notes. Emphasis: for memory, rhythm


Provides emphasis, as nevermore does in Poe’s poem. It creates music and unity.



Creates a musical quality, a regular beat. Varies with meter. Natural, easy, most common rhythm of the English language. Used as a slow and serious meter. Swift, graceful sound.

meter - iambic

Varies with context.

Harsh, emphatic. Varies with context. Seems very natural but with an underlying beat. New, revolutionary expression, reorganizes expectations.

foot blank verse

free verse

HHS English Department Poetic Devices (Continued) DEVICE 6. FORM continuous DEFINITION Any poetic convention used to enhance meaning. A poem in which each line follows into the other with no break. A poem written in repeated units having the same number of lines. A traditional pattern affecting the poem as a whole. A pair of successive rhymed lines of poetry. A group of four lines of verse which are unified in thought and sometimes rhyme A grouping of eight lines of verse A play written mostly or entirely in verse

Foundation Packet

EFFECT OR EXAMPLE Creates a tightness and dependability. No break in ideas.


More formal than continuous style. Varies with type of poem, sonnet, limerick. Creates rhyme and a completed thought. Act as a unit of thought


couplet quatrain

octave verse drama

Develop a single subject Shakespeare’s plays


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Homestead English Department Informal Manuscript Form
Your Name Date Teacher, Class Title or Period Assignment Name Title Goes Here

Everyday homework can be handwritten, but that does not mean that you may submit work that is messy or illegible. All work must be neat and organized. Remember to put proper headings on all papers you submit. You must also properly title your papers so that your teachers know what they are grading. When writing on lined-paper, there is no need to skip lines anywhere in your writing, as lined paper is usually already doublespaced. Please use only blue or black ink when writing homework, and only number two pencils when filling in scantron sheets for tests. This sample is for handwritten work only. The following pages address what you must do when you submit typed final draft work to your English teachers. Things to remember:  Organize and staple multiple pages of an assignment

before arriving in class, or arrive early to complete
these steps before the final bell.  Do not turn in work late.


MLA Style for Typed Work
8 1/2” Double-space

HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Clay 1

Olivia Clay Lit/Writing I, Per. 2 Research Paper 8 May 1999 Ellington’s Adventures in Music and Geography In studying the influence of Latin American, African, and Asian music on

Last name, space, page number

Indent ½ inch

modern American composers, music historians tend to discuss such figures as Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Henry Cowell, Alan Hovhaness, and John Cage (Brindle; Griffiths 104-139; Hitchcock 173-198). They usually overlook Duke Ellington, whom Guther Schuller rightly calls “one of America’s great composers” (318), probably because they are familiar only with Ellington’s popular pieces, like “Sophisticated Lady,” “Mood Indigo,” and “Solitude.” Still little known are the many ambitious



orchestral suites Ellington composed, several of which, such as Black, Brown, and Beige (originally entitled The African Suite), The Liberian Suite, The Far East Suite, The Latin American Suite, and Afro-Eurasian Eclipse, explore his impressions of the people, places,



and music of other countries. Not all music critics, however, have ignored Ellington’s excursions into longer musical forms. In the 1950’s, for example, while Ellington was still alive, Raymond

Indent 1 inch

Horricks compared him with Ravel, Delius, and Debussy: The continually enquiring mind of Ellington […] has sought to extend steadily the imaginative boundaries of the musical form on which it )

1” 26

HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Reminders for Typed Work Do…
    Use a plain, 12-point font (i.e.: Times, Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, Verdana, Garamond, Palatino, etc…). This applies to the title of your paper as well. Set margins at one inch on the left, right and bottom sides. Your last name and page number should no more than 1/2” from the top edge of the right corner of your paper. All typed final draft papers should be double-spaced.

Do not…
         Type in all caps, bold or in large font sizes. Use obnoxious fonts. When in doubt, opt for something conservative. Use wide margins. Use “you” or contractions (can’t, don’t, won’t, etc…) in formal writing. Use slang and, or informal language (i.e.: a lot, got, stuff, would of, towards…). Use abbreviations and, or symbols of any kind ( 2 b, &, +, =). Use numbers when they should be written out (numbers that can be written out in no more than two words should represented in such a manner) Type on the back of the paper. Turn in any work, typed or otherwise, that you have not proofread for spelling, grammatical, and format errors


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Proofreader’s Marks
Mark Meaning Delete Close up, no space Delete and close up Insert space* Insert space Insert letter or word Transpose letter or word Insert comma Insert period* Insert period Insert exclamation point or question mark Insert apostrophe Insert accent Insert semicolon
(Note: semicolon goes inside caret)

Example The the keyboard The key board The micro processor callforwarding callforwarding call forwaring frequent travle the man now right

the keyboard although Finish the job Finish the job Do it Why should I the keyboards location the employee‟s resume the keyboard however forty four keys A feature phone that phone the blue one converting the system

Insert hyphen Insert quotation marks Insert dash Restore to original
*Preferred method


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Proofreader’s Marks (Continued)
Mark Meaning Start new paragraph
(when sentence is already flush left)

Example Reverse the order. The main

Start new paragraph
(when sentence is not flush left)

Reverse the order. The main

No paragraph

Reverse the order of the two. The next step is to take a photo that highlights the The zenith microphone The Zenith Microphone The two parts microphone and speaker are to the chosen site has approx. four uses gave 7 reasons microphone keyboard speaker microphone microphone to the site. If it is chosen or to the site. If it is chosen The formula is E mc2 . replied, “It is “cute” to be “in”.” make the „right‟ move

Capitalize Lower case Add parentheses

Add brackets Spell out


Move left Move right Move whole words or sentences

Put in equal sign Change double quote to single or single quote to double
*Preferred Method


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Correction Symbol Sheet
Mark // ? ¶ or no ¶ ۸ or ۷ agr awk C c-f cl econ fig frag gr lev log MS P or pn ref rep R-O r-w sp wc wdg ww Meaning Not parallel in structure Exactly what do you mean? Paragraph needed or not needed Something is omitted Agreement of subject-verb, or pronoun-antecedent is faulty Awkward usage or construction Either a letter should or should not be capitalized Comma fault or splice = run-on sentence Coherence (clarity) of sentence or paragraph is weak Economize on words; remove unnecessary words; dead wood Something stated in figures should be written out, or vice versa Only a fragment exists–incomplete sentence Grammar faulty–elementary or basic error in grammar Level of usage inappropriate (such as colloquialism or contractions in a formal essay) Logic is faulty–you contradict yourself; gap in connection of ideas; unsound premise Manuscript form not followed–heading, title, margins, etc. Punctuation error Reference is faulty–is reference clear? Repetition of word or thought Run-on sentence–proper punctuation lacking Rewrite the portion indicated Spelling error Word choice–is there a better word? Wording involved or unnatural Wrong word–look up in the dictionary 30

HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Reading Rubric
Below the Standard (Inadequate) Able to derive meaning from a variety of texts Usually inexperienced in challenging the writer’s claims, evidence, or ideas and/or critiquing a text for style, logic, organization, etc. Expects or settles on a single interpretation of the text Sees most text as unrelated to life outside of school May express frustration with density of texts Frequently abandons the reading of texts, even those he or she has ostensibly chosen Strategies include the use of non-print media to collect information and a reliance on others for interpretation of text Unfamiliar with common text organizers (heading, index, etc.) May define him or herself as one who does not read Approaching the Standard (Adequate) Can read assigned course texts with preparation and support of visual and/or auditory supplement (graphics, listening to oral readings) Knows the characteristics of a few genres Usually reads to fulfill assignments or for purposes outside of school rather than for pleasure Has some favorite kinds of reading, but may be inhibited in sharing personal interpretations with others With preparation and support, can read aloud expressively Strategies for getting course information include media other than text (film, tapes); collaboration with peers to construct meaning in text; unconscious use of text’s organization or characteristics of different types of reading (chapters, subheadings, etc.) Becoming aware, in interpreting texts, of the influence of their contexts (period of time, subject, status of author) Can apply prior experience to some aspects of stories, biographies and/or current events but may be unable to relate his or her own past experiences to more abstract ideas presented without context or ―hands-on‖ application Meeting the Standard (Proficient) Acknowledges the potential of texts to provoke multiple valid interpretations Uses print conventions (punctuation, heading, index) to construct meaning in text Assesses him or herself as an effective reader of particular genres and can provide convincing evidence of the same Has strategies for unlocking difficult text, including sharing of initial interpretations with others Makes associations between texts and personal experience Able to evaluate information from multiple sources (texts and personal experience) Can explain the way particular texts are organized to help the reader derive meaning Able to explain contradictory interpretations and previously held misconceptions, displaying skill in using text ideas and challenging text assertions Brings outside reading to bear on course work Selects books for pleasure reading and for use in problem solving Can manage the reading of long texts outside of class Exceeding the Standard (Excellent) Reads avidly Travels back and forth easily across the continuum of reading purposes: from reading for information to reading in order to enhance personal experience Can discuss text interpretations tentatively, ready to modify and deepen initial impressions Can elaborate on connections he or she is making with text and present convincing evidence of the way they add to personal understanding Is able to weigh and compare relative strength and weakness, style, structure, credibility, or aesthetics of given and selfselected texts Can explain, orally and/or in writing, the significance of the social, cultural or political history of a text Reads aloud frequently, with appropriate expression

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HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Writing Rubric
Below the Standard (Inadequate/Redo) Inadequate introductory sentence(s) Previews topic unrelated to body Lack of attention getting devices Approaching the Standard (Adequate)  Unclear or poorly developed introductory sentence(s)  Previews topic not clearly related to body  Fails to engage the reader’s attention
           Unclearly stated thesis Lacks many elements of prescribed essay format Topic adequately stated in most body paragraphs Ideas have basic connection to thesis Some supporting details used Awkward transitions Appropriate examples of evidence need further development Occasionally uses summary in place of appropriate evidence Summary/concluding sentences poorly stated Attempts to restate thesis Leaves reader with basic ideas


  

Meeting the Standard (Proficient)  Clear introductory sentence(s)  Previews topic related to body  Catches the reader’s attention
          

Thesis Point of Departure Organization

     

No thesis statement Does not follow prescribed essay format to begin No focused topic in any body paragraph No connection of ideas to thesis Vague, weak, or no supporting details used Lack of transitions Lists few or random examples of evidence Relies heavily on summary

Clearly stated thesis Some elements of prescribed essay format are evident Topic well stated in each body paragraph Well arranged ideas have strong connection to thesis Clear supporting details used Smooth transitions Connects evidence which has been asserted and cited Uses specific examples; avoids summary Summary/concluding sentences clearly stated Thesis restated Leaves reader with a clear understanding

Supportive Evidence

 


  

Missing or ineffective summary/concluding sentences No reference to thesis Leaves reader confused

Exceeding the Standard (Excellent)  Strong introductory sentence(s)  Clearly states or implies topic discussed and/or analyzed in body  Engages the reader with commanding attention getting manner  Clear, thoughtful, relevant, focused thesis  Correctly uses prescribed essay format to begin  Topic clearly focused in each body paragraph  Clear, logically arranged ideas are supportive of thesis  Effective supporting details used  Seamless transitions  Incorporates evidence into a unique, smooth and coherent product  Critically evaluates and justifies the evidence; avoids summary  Summary/concluding sentences effectively stated  Thesis uniquely restated  Makes a definite impact on the reader


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Writing Rubric (Continued)
Below the Standard (Inadequate/Redo) Errors interfere with communication of ideas Mechanics seriously detract from text Frequent spelling errors Only simple sentences used Extensive fragment and run-on errors inhibit understanding Incorrect use of punctuation throughout Frequent subject/verb agreement errors Use of inappropriate or slang words such as: alot, hafta, should of, hecka, cool, gotta Approaching the Standard (Adequate) Errors still evident Obvious struggle to master conventions of mechanics Occasional spelling errors Limited use of varied sentence structure Fragment/run-on errors occasionally inhibit understanding Occasional incorrect use of punctuation Occasional subject/verb agreement errors Occasional use of inappropriate or slang words Meeting the Standard (Proficient) Few errors Shows general control of mechanics Minimal spelling errors Some use of varied sentence structure Fragment/run-on errors do not inhibit understanding Correct use of punctuation Minimal subject/verb agreement errors Minimal use of inappropriate or slang words Exceeding the Standard (Excellent)  No errors  Attempts complex usage of mechanics  No spelling errors  Consistent use of varied sentence structure  No fragment-run-on errors  Sophisticated use of punctuation, including end marks, commas, semi-colons, colons, quotation marks and capitalization  No subject/verb agreement errors  Carefully avoids use of inappropriate or slang words
  Craftsmanship Format (finished quality)    Demonstrates little attention to quality Illegible Does not follow formatting guidelines    Demonstrates adequate attention to quality Legible Attempts to follow formatting guidelines    Work is neat and well-crafted Neatly written Follows structural and formatting guidelines    Carefully chosen, specific, precise words Figurative language used to enhance ideas Work is neat, highly polished, unique Neatly typed Follows guidelines; infuses work with individual style

Mechanics (Punctuation, spelling, grammar, and appropriate language)

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       

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Word choice inaccurate or imprecise


Word choice sometimes too general, vague


Generally chooses specific, precise words


HHS English Department

Foundation Packet

Discussion Rubrics
Small Group Discussion
Below the Standard
     (Inadequate/Redo) Participates only when asked or not at all Does not have the following: book, journal, or discussion questions Is hesitant to give opinion Does not demonstrate knowledge of the text Does not have necessary materials ready    

Approaching the Standard
(Adequate) Participates following some prodding from other members Shows interest in the text by using one of the following: books, journal or discussion questions Provides opinion when asked May not have all necessary materials ready      

Meeting the Standard
(Proficient) Actively participates Shows interest in the text by using two of the following: book, journal or discussion questions Asks meaningful questions Provides vague responses or opinion only Refers to evidence, but does not look for it Has all necessary materials       

Exceeding the Standard
(Excellent) Takes initiative, leads the group conversation Invites participation Shows engagement by using book, journal and discussion questions Asks meaningful questions Gives meaningful responses Requires the whole group refer to evidence found Had all necessary materials

Large Group Discussion
Below the Standard Approaching the Standard
  (Adequate) Most participate, but some need prodding to speak One noticeable lull  

Meeting the Standard
(Proficient) Everyone participates voluntarily No noticeable lulls  

Exceeding the Standard
(Excellent) Everyone participates enthusiastically No lulls

Group Effort Quality

(Inadequate/Redo)  Only two members participate; others need prodding or do not talk  Ample ―dead time‖ Only surface matters are discussed because student:  Asks only vague questions  Offers only vague answers  Student does not seem to practice any norms at all.

The conversation allows members to understand what’s going on since student:  Asks meaningful questions (but still limits discussion of the issue)  Asks vague questions and offers vague answers Student practices only on of these norms:  Investigates what someone else thinks  Refers to, but does not find, evidence  Asks clarifying questions  Invites others to join in


The conversation allows members to interpret the text because student:  Asks meaningful questions (but still only gives one possible perspective)  Moves on to next questions without really exploring the issue Student practices three of these norms:  Investigates what someone else thinks  Refers to, but does not find, evidence  Asks clarifying questions  Invites others to join in

The conversation allows members to interpret the text deeper since student:  Asks meaningful questions and explores multiple perspectives on the issue raised Student practices all norms:  Investigates what someone else thinks  Refers to, but does not find, evidence  Asks clarifying questions  Invites others to join in


HHS English Department

Bloom’s Taxonomy:
Levels of Critical Thinking

Foundation Packet

Evaluation (Assess)
Demonstrate knowledge by making judgments, using criteria

Synthesis (Create/Combine Ideas)
Demonstrate knowledge by compiling information

Analysis (Break Down Parts)
Demonstrate knowledge by identifying components

Application (Apply Concepts)
Demonstrate knowledge by applying facts in a new way

Comprehension (Why)
Demonstrate understanding by organizing, comparing and interpreting

Knowledge (Who, What, Where, When)
Demonstrate factual knowledge (dates, names, events, etc.)

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