VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 26 POSTED ON: 8/6/2014
Physics of fusion power Lecture 12: tokamak – continued A tokamak n Plasma (purple) Notice the shape n Surrounded by plates n Vessel (pumps) n Coils mostly outside vessel (finite reaction time) n Ohmic transformer / toroidal field coils (green) Schematic Drawing of the poloidal cross section of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak The tokamak n Magnetic surfaces are the surfaces traced out by the magnetic field n They are nested (best confinement) n Centre is shifted outward n Large passive coils n Magnetic field ends on a set of plates n Large set of small coils for diagnostic purposes Schematic Drawing of the poloidal cross section of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak Reason 1 for plasma elongation n Plasma can be diverted onto a set of plates n Close to the coils the field of the coils dominates n In between the field is zero resulting in a purely toroidal field line n This shows up as an X-point in the figure of the magnetic surfaces n Surfaces outside the one with the X-point are not close with the field ending on the plates Shaping coils allow for plasma to be diverted onto the divertor-plates Plasma limiter n Without divertor the plasma needs to be limited by a material (referred to as limiter) n The plasma touching the limiter is still several 1000 of Kelvin n Sputtering or melting leads to the release of material into the plasma n These unwanted Schematic picture of a plasma limiter components are referred to as impurities Impurities are no good news n Given a fixed electron density, impurities dilute the fuel Density of the impurity with charge Z n Acceleration of electrons by the ions in the plasma lead to radiation losses known as ‘Bremstrahlung’ Effective charge n The radiation scales with the average charge. High Z impurities enhance the radiation n High Z-impurities also lead to energy loss through line radiation Preventing impurities n Plasma facing components have to be chosen carefully n Carbon / Beryllium have a low Z n Carbon does not melt but has the problem that it binds well with Tritium (contamination of the machine) n Tungsten has very high Z, but takes the heat loads very well Divertor n Using a divertor the particles that leave the plasma flow along the magnetic field and hit the target plates n These plates are far away from the plasma such that any impurity released at the plate has a smaller chance ending up in the plasma n Furthermore, one can try to cool the plasma further through special arangements in front of the plates Plasma flow in divertor configuration Divertor n The divertor has a disadvantage : it takes space n In general only one divertor is used, usually at the bottom (easier to construct) Picture of the plasma n Shows that most of the line radiation (one of the lines of Hydrogen) comes from the divertor structure n Real plasma so hot that it does not have Hydrogen line radiation n So thin that you look right through it The divertor n A modern divertor design looks something like this n Note that it has, as far as possible a closed structure. This to allow the efficient pumping of the neutral particles n Note also that the angle between the magnetic field and the plate is as small as possible. This makes that the energy carried by the particles Modern divertor design (ITER) to the plate is distributed over the largest possible area Reason II : Plasma elongation n Distance to go around poloidally is larger For the same plasma current n If q = 3 is the limit of operation one can run a larger current in an elliptically shaped plasma Reason III : Plasma elongation n A transition phenomenon is observed in Divertor plasmas known as the L (low) to H (high confinement) transition n In this transition a steep pressure profile is generated at the plasma edge n Not very well understood n Confinement improvement is roughly a factor 2 !!!! Equilibrium / Vertical instability n Magnetic field due to the coil follows form n Assume d<<R one finds n This leads to a force on the plasma Vertical stability n Integrating the force n Thus Vertical stability n Forces n Equilibrium requires n Such that the forces balance Vertical stability n The forces n Are in equilbrium when the coil currents are the same. n But when the plasma is shifted upward by a small amount d Vertical instability n Small shift d << d n When total mass of the plasma is M Growth rate of the vertical instability Back to the picture n Plasma vertical instability with growth rates of the order 106 s-1 n For this reason the passive coils have been placed in the plasma n When the plasma moves it changes the flux through the coils which generates a current that pushes the plasma back n Growth rate is reduced to the decay time of the current in the coils (ms) Why more current? n One of the reasons is related to the equilibrium n The surfaces of the tokamak are shifted outward Outward shift ??? n The surfaces of the tokamak are shifted outward n This effect will be investigated starting from circular concentric surfaces, i.e. no outward shift n The pressure is constant on a magnetic surface Circular concentric magnetic surfaces Outward force n Force = pressure x area n Considering the inboard and outboard side the areas are not the same n This lead to an outward force n Equivalent to inflating a tire The force leads to an outward shift n The pressure force leads to an outward shift n This shift compresses the surfaces on the outboard side n The poloidal magnetic field increases (distance between surfaces is smaller) n The increased tension and magnetic pressure can then balance the outward force After some mathematics n The shift can be estimated to be roughly equal to n Where Picture of the Shafranov shift n Is the plasma beta connected with the poloidal field But the shift can be too large n The solution stops to give a physically reasonable equilibrium when the shift is equal to the plasma radius n From which it follows n Loosely speaking it is only the poloidal field that confines the plasma Relation between the beta values n The relation n Directly yields a maximum beta well below 1 Typical value 3 Ratio of the field strengths is roughly 0.1