Physical Geography of the Southwest Asia - OTHS

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					Physical Geography of the
Southwest Asia

Chapter 21, Sections 1-2
¡   Identify and examine different features of the
    Southwest Asia’s and North Africa’s physical
¡   Explain the different types of climates and
¡   Describe the region’s key resources.
The Middle What?

  Why do we refer to Southwest Asia
  as “The Middle East?”
Southwestern Asian Countries and
¡   Afghanistan: Kabul
¡   Bahrain: Manama
¡   Cyprus: Nicosia
¡   Iran: Tehran
¡   Iraq: Baghdad
¡   Israel: Jerusalem
¡   Jordan: Amman
¡   Kuwait: Kuwait City
¡   Lebanon: Beirut
¡   Oman: Muscat
¡   Qatar: Doha
¡   Saudi Arabia: Riyadh
¡   Syria: Damascus
¡   Turkey: Ankara
¡   United Arab Emirates: Abu Dhabi
¡   Yemen: Sanaa
Southwest Asia Subregions

¡   How many cultural sub regions are
    l   Three
        ¡ Arabian Peninsula
        ¡ Eastern Mediterranean

        ¡ Northeast
Cultural Subregions Overview

¡   Arabian Peninsula
    l   Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates,
        Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Yemen, Bahrain
Cultural Subregions Overview

¡   Eastern Mediterranean
    l   Cyprus, Lebanon, Israel, Syria, Jordan
Cultural Subregions Overview

¡   Northeast
    l   Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan
The Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula
¡   What three continents surround the Arabian Peninsula?
    l Europe, Asia, and Africa

    l How might this location be beneficial to the area?

         ¡   Opportunities for trade and exchange of
             culture and religion.
¡   Surrounded by Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Arabian Sea
¡   Suez Canal
    l   Opens to Mediterranean Sea
         ¡   Gulf of Suez
         ¡   Gulf of Aqaba
¡   Strait of Hormuz
     l Only way to oil fields in

       Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq

¡   Hejaz and Asir Mountains
    l   Mainly in southwestern corner
   With your
  discuss the
    types of
vegetation that
    would be
 found in each
climate region
of the Arabian
  You have 2
The Arabian Peninsula
¡   Climate
    l   Desert
         ¡   Rub al-Khali
         ¡   An-Nafud
    l   Semiarid
¡   What type of vegetation do these regions have?
    l   Desert shrub, grasses
¡   Predominately covered by plains
    l   Low ridges, hills, and wadis
The Eastern Mediterranean
Physical Features:

¡   Golan Heights (Al Jawlan): a hilly plateau
    over looking Jordan River and Sea of
     l Strategic location has made it a site of
       many conflicts
Physical Features: Bodies of Water
¡   Jordan River: Flows from the mountains of
    Lebanon near Mt. Hermon to the Dead Sea
    l   Provides water
         ¡ Why is this valuable?
            l   Water is scarce.
¡   Dead Sea: Landlocked salt lake
    l   Located between Jordan and Israel
    l   Only bacteria can live in water
    l   So salty, one will float
    l   Lowest place of exposed crust on earth
         ¡ 1,349 below sea level
    l   Dead Sea Video
            Quick Check

Which of        A

 these is

   B                      D
   With your
  discuss the
    types of
vegetation that
   would be
 found in each
climate region
of the Eastern
  You have 2
¡   Get out a sheet of paper.
¡   Write TRUE on one side of the paper, and write
    FALSE on the other side. WRITE BIG!!
¡   The following slides will contain statements.
¡   If you think they are true, show the TRUE side of
    your paper.
¡   If you think they false, show the false side.
¡   Do not look on anyone else's paper. If you do,
    you will be asked to sit down.
¡   If you answer incorrectly, please sit down.
¡   The last person standing will receive a gold star.

¡   The West Bank and the Gaza Strip
    are located in Israel.
    l   True

¡   The three regions of Southwestern
    Asia are: the Northwest, the
    Arabian Peninsula, and the Western
    l   False: Northeast, Arabian Peninsula,
        Eastern Mediterranean

¡   Southwestern Asia is bordered by
    Asia, Africa, and Europe.
    l   True

¡   The Adriatic Sea is at the tip of the
    Arabian Peninsula.
    l   False – It is the Arabian Sea.

¡   The Strait of Hormuz leads to the
    Mediterranean Sea.
    l   False – The Suez Canal leads to the
        Mediterranean Sea.

¡   The Red Sea has a very high Salt
    l   False: Dead Sea

¡   Asia is the largest continent.
    l   True

¡   The main climate region in
    Southwest Asia is semiarid.
    l   False – It is desert.

¡   Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates,
    Qatar, Kuwait, Iran, Yemen are all
    located on the Arabian Peninsula.
    l   False: Oman is. Iran is not

¡   A wadis is a rapidly flowing river.
    l   False: It is a riverbed that remains dry
        except during heavy raining seasons.

¡   The Jordan River is located in
    l   True

¡   An oasis is an area in the desert
    where vegetation is found because
    water is available, usually from an
    underground spring.
    l   True

¡   The Rub al-Khali is the most famous
    desert on the Arabian Peninsula.
    l   True

¡   The Zagros Mountains are located in
    l   True

¡   Ukraine is in Southwestern Asia.
    l   False: It is a part of Russia and the

¡   The capital of Saudi Arabia is
    l   False: It is Riyadh.

¡   Syria is an island.
    l   False: Cyprus is an island.

¡   The Hindu Kush Mountains are
    located in Afghanistan.
    l   True

¡   The capital of the United Arab
    Emirates is Abu Dhabi.
    l   True

¡   Turkey is located on the Arabian
    l   False: It is located on the Anatolian

¡   There are 16 countries in
    Southwestern Asia.
    l   True

¡   The Dead Sea is located between
    Jordan and Israel.
    l   True

¡   The largest climate region in
    Southwest Asia is desert.
    l   True

¡   The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are
    in the Northeast region.
    l   True: They also run through the
        Eastern Mediterranean.

¡   Saudi Arabia is in the Northeast
    l   False – It is on the Arabian Peninsula.
The Northeast
Physical Features
¡   Mountains
    l   Zagros: Southwestern Iran
        ¡ Isolate from the rest of Southwest Asia
    l   Elburz: Northwestern Iran
        ¡ Cut off Iran’s access to the Caspian Sea
    l   Hindu Kush: Northeastern Afghanistan
        ¡ Afghanistan is basically landlocked by
¡   Plains, plateaus, and foothills
    l   Heart of Iran is a plateau surrounded by
        mountains (desert)
    l   Foothills around plateau produce crops
    l   Northern Plain of Afghanistan is also a fertile
        agriculture area
Physical Features:

¡   Taurus Mountains: located in southern
     l Cut off from the rest of Southwest Asia

¡   Pontiac Mountains: located in northern
¡   Water is more plentiful in mountainous
    regions of Southwest Asia.
Physical Features

¡   Rivers
    l   Tigris River and Euphrates River: flow
        through Turkey, Syria, and Iraq
        ¡   Support Fertile Crescent: Fertile, well
            watered, and good for agriculture
            l Home of many ancient river valley
              civilizations (Mesopotamia)
        ¡   Run parallel to each other, eventually
            emptying into Persian Gulf
Physical Features:

¡   Anatolian Peninsula: occupies
    Turkey and marks where the Asian
    continent begins
    l   Between the Black Sea and the
        Mediterranean Sea
    l   Bosporus Strait and Dardanelles Strait
         ¡ West of the peninsula
         ¡ Desirable for trade to Russia and interior
           of Asia

¡   Natural gas
¡   Crude Oil
¡   Water
   With your
  discuss the
    types of
vegetation that
   would be
 found in each
climate region
     of the
  You have 2
Physical Geography of North

Chapter 18, Sections 1 and 2
North Africa Countries and

¡   Western Sahara (Morocco)
¡   Morocco: Rabat
¡   Algeria: Algiers
¡   Tunisia: Tunis
¡   Libya: Tripoli
¡   Egypt: Cairo
Nile River
¡   World’s longest river
     l Flows more than 4,000 miles from Uganda to Sudan
        and into Egypt
¡   Nile Delta=VERY fertile!
     l Home to one of the world’s earliest civilizations
¡   More than 95% of Egyptians depend on it for water
     l 90% live on 3% of land
     l Average population density: 3,320 people per square
         ¡ Average population density for Egypt is 177 people
           per square mile
¡   Aswan High Dam
     l Help reduce flooding
     l Create alluvial soil: rich soil made up of sand and mud
        deposited by moving water.
Climate Map

¡   Look at the climate map on page
    421 in your book.
¡   With your one/two partners, discuss
    the types of vegetation that would
    be found in each climate region of
    North Africa.
    l   You have 2 minutes.
Quick Checks
¡   What are two mountain ranges discussed
    in class?
    l   Hindu Kush, Zagros, Elburz, Pontiac, Hejaz,
        Taurus, etc.
¡   What countries make up the Northeast?
    l   Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan
¡   What is the Fertile Crescent?
    l   Land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Southwest Asia

Chapter 21, Section 3
Map Activity

¡ Identify the main geographic
  features that might affect
  population density and
  settlement patterns..
¡ Examine the shared climates
  and vegetation and the impact
  they might have on settlement
  patterns and population density.

¡   Examine how water resources are
    used in Southwest Asia.
¡   Describe the formation, production,
    and movement of oil in Southwest
        Water – A Critical Resource
¡   Besides oil, what is the critical resource in
    Southwest Asia?
    l   Water! Why?
         ¡ Because it is scarce

¡   What types of water systems have been used
    throughout history to provide water?
    l   Drip Irrigation – placing water just at the root
    l   Qanat System – collects water from the mountains
    l   Irrigation Canals
    l   Noria – waterwheel run by the flow of water or by
        animal power
¡   Do these work everywhere?
    l   Nope.
What Are We Doing?

¡   Turkey
     l Series of dams & a man-made lake on the upper
     l Why is this project controversial?

        ¡ People below dam aren’t getting water

¡   Israel
     l National Water Carrier project

        ¡ Carries water from northern Israel to the
           center and south
     l Why is there conflict about it?

        ¡ Taking away water from some and giving to
What are some other solutions?
1.   Using drip irrigation
2.   Using ocean water. What has to be
     done to it first?
     l   Desalinization
3.   Treating wastewater
4.   Pumping water from underground
     aquifers. What is this water called?
     l   Fossil water
      Striking it Rich!
How was oil formed? Page 497
What is seismology?
  l   Seismology is the study of earthquakes and seismic
      waves that move through and around the earth.
  l   Seismic waves are the waves of energy caused by
      the sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an
      explosion. They are the energy that travels through
      the earth and is recorded on seismographs.
  l   A seismologist is a scientist who studies earthquakes
      and seismic waves.
Knowing the information above, how would
 seismology be useful in finding oil?
Seismology (continued)
“In a seismological survey a shock wave is aimed at
   the surface of the water or land and the length of
   time it takes for the waves to reflect back to the
   sensor is recorded. The speed of the shock wave
   depends on the type of rock it travels through,
   and by comparing the travel times to known
   densities of rock, seismologists can determine
   what rocks are underground and predict if they
   might contain oil. Although this technology is
   superior to other oil detection methods based
   solely on examining surface rock features, it has
   only a 10% success rate of finding new oil sites.”
Everyone needs oil!

Why does everyone need oil?
¡ Petroleum that has not been
  processed is called…
  l   Crude oil: It must be sent to a refinery.
      What is crude oil converted to at a

  How Stuff Works
Transporting Oil

¡   Crude oil is pumped from the
    ground and sent to a refinery to be
¡   Why is it dangerous to transport oil?
    l   Oil spills
         ¡   Largest: January 1991 during the Persian
             Gulf War
Oil Reserves in the World

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