IJETTCS-2014-06-25-137.pdf by editorijettcs


More Info
									    International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

                                              Babita Shivade 1, Meena Sharma2
                                          DAVV University, IET-DAVV, Khandwa Road,
                                                   Indore (M.P.) , India
Abstract: Software usability is very important factor in          easy to learn and it can easily to memorize (usability
evaluating the quality of software product and it also affect     goals). Usability can be enhanced by expert design of the
the success of a project development. There are several area      user interface, and, as importantly, by careful design of
of the software engineering in which we can use the usability     user system interactions.
as the major constraint like project planning, project            Usability evaluation is a very essential technique to
construction, software implementation etc. The importance of      estimate the function of human-computer interaction
usability evaluation becomes critical in the early stage of the
                                                                  (HCI).In HCI we measure the factors which comes during
software life cycle because there are lots of products or
applications with similar functionality are available in the
                                                                  the interaction of computer system. HCI is an interactive
market. The scale of on-line markets, users typically face the    system which shows the interaction between human and
choice between the applications with similar functionality.       the computer. Among interactive system developers and
Thus developers need to develop high quality application in       users there is now much agreement that usability is an
order to be competitive. In software development, so for the      important measure of software systems [1]. Usability is a
accuracy and efficiency of software usability evaluation is       recent, but sometimes very critical and an abstract idea in
very important in software development. In this paper, we         human and computer interaction field.
represent some mathematical formulas which effectively and        According to Jakob Nielsen, usability is defined by the
accurately calculate the usability factors.                       following 5 quality components [23]:
In this paper, we have developed a software usability                 Learn-ability: How fast can users learn working
evaluation tool (i.e. “Usability Analyzer Tool”) that helps in
                                                                  with a certain interface and how easy is it for them to do
software development organizations to calculate the usability
factors. The purpose of this paper is to describe a
                                                                  more or less complex tasks when working with the
recommended process to develop a tool which measures the          interface for the very first time?
software usability for the big organization. These approaches         Efficiency: How fast are users in accomplishing
generally followed by the usability evaluation professionals.     different tasks once they have internalized the
                                                                  functionality of the interface design?
Keywords: Usability, Human Computer Interaction,                      Memorability: When users have not worked with the
Usability factors, Usability evaluation methods, Usability        interface for a longer time, how much of its functionality
testing of android application, Usability Analyzer Tool.          do they remember and how fast can they regain their
1. INTRODUCTION                                                       Errors: Do users make many errors when working
Software usability is a major factor in judging the quality       with the interface? Are those severe errors and can they
of any software or product. The entire software quality           easily cope with them?
model has examined the usability as one of the most                   Satisfaction: How satisfied are users after working
significant measure of evaluating the performance of any          with the interface concerning the time they had to invest?
software. Usability metric is a well known metric to              Was the interface pleasant to use?
estimate the attractiveness, understand- ability and learn-
ability, operability of the software products and it is a part    Software usability evaluation is an approach to estimate
of software metric. Software metric is a measure of some          the usability for every project or mobile product. Usability
property of a piece of software or its specifications.            metrics included the following factors: efficiency,
                                                                  effectiveness, productivity, satisfaction, learn-ability,
Software metrics deals with the measurement of the                attractiveness, operability, accuracy, and response
software product and the process by which it is developed         time [2] of every software project. Web based application
                                                                  or software product or even mobile application is needed
A software or product is considered “usable”, if it has a
                                                                  usability estimation which shows the software usefulness.
pleasant or acceptable user interface, easy to use and
                                                                  The proposed tool i.e. “Usability Analyzer Tool”
works as our judgement [6]. Usability is a quality attribute
                                                                  developed in java, this tool is used to two different
of the usage of an application. From the users’ point of
                                                                  purposes, first to calculate the usability of android based
view it can be described as how effectively, efficiently,
                                                                  application & secondly, to make the comparison between
safe a user can accomplish tasks of a good utility that are
                                                                  different similar kinds of android application based on

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                                  Page 247
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

usability criteria. Most of the software's fails due to their   production of mobile applications [14]. Testing methods
attractiveness, understand- ability and learn-ability,          which measure efficiency, effectiveness, ease of learning
operability of the software & so on. Usability metric is a      and user satisfaction have been developed to take these
well known metric to estimate the attractiveness,               usability principles into account like Simplicity,
understand- ability and learn-ability, operability,             Naturalness,      Consistency,    Efficient  Interactions,
productivity of the software products.                          Forgiveness and Feedback, Effective Use of Language
For any application or software product, usability is a         [13].
necessary condition for survival. If a application product      The usability engineering is an area which deals with the
or software product is inconvenient to use, people don’t        user requirement specification. Generally for evaluating
want to use that product. If the product fails or discarded,    software usability we uses the three following techniques
due to their uselessness, so peoples are not interested in      [11]:-
that product and people leave. There are lots of similar            1) Usability Inspection: In Usability Inspection
products available in the market, so usability is very                 approach, usability-related aspects of a user
important factor for any software development.                         interface examined by the usability experts and
According to various user, lost of applications are                    sometimes software developers, users and other
frequently used in daily life. This makes the usability                professionals.
more important in the application quality. As a result,             2) Usability Testing: In Usability Testing approach,
companies are realizing the advantage of designing and                 firstly we work on the prototype model of the
developing products in a usability-oriented manner rather              actual system and test it to check whether the
than a purely functionality-oriented manner [8].                       system is working as per the user specification or
     1) First, as the competition is growing on mobile                 not and also checks the user interface support the
          application markets, it’s very important for a               users to do their tasks.
          developer’s team to launch their product before           3) Usability Inquiry: In Usability Inquiry approach,
          competitors release their product.                           evaluator observes the users likes, dislike, their
     2) Second, mobile applications are usually                        needs and understanding about the system through
          developed in comparatively small scale projects              the observation or asking questionnaires. The
          which may not be able to support extensive and               evaluator note down this interview in written form
          expensive usability testing.                                 or store in mind verbally.
     3) Developer’s team are not able to find the root the      These usability techniques are also divided into subpart
          cause of usability defects, if they perform           which is summarized in Figure. 1.
          usability testing after completion of the product.

We have explained the usability analyzer tool is
organized as follows. In section I, we explained the
introduction. In section II, we present the background and
related work. . In section III, we have explained the
working of the proposed tool. In section IV, we have
explained the usability analyzer tool with experimental
results. Finally we conclude the paper in section V.

The purpose of this study is to make the mobile
application more familiar with users, because mobile
application is used by the common users as well as the
technical users. The technical person knows very well
how to use application but non technical person don’t
know. There are lots of mobile applications available in
the market which is used for several purposes like
calculating, games, alarms, educational purposes etc. So
the usability evaluation is the one of the major goal of the
software project development process. If the software is
more usable than it is used by the lots of users otherwise                Figure 1 Usability evaluation methods
There are various testing strategy available for mobile         The objective of this tool is to produce the accurate result
application like usability testing, compatibility testing,      of software usefulness based on the feedbacks given by
Interface Testing, Services testing, Low Level Resource         real users. In Usability Testing users are given tasks to
Testing, Performance Testing, Operational Testing,              perform using the product and observed to see if they
Security Testing. The important challenges and risks            have any problems performing the tasks. Users perform
involved in mobile application testing can impact               the tasks on the application that we want to test. Real

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                                Page 248
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

users/ programmer(s)/tester(s) should be considered for
usability testing. Architecture of the proposed “Usability   3.1 Usability Evaluation of Android Application
Analyzer tool” is given in Figure. 2                         For usability evaluation of Android applications, we have
                                                             considered 4 applications, out of these 4 applications 2
                                                             applications are similar and other remaining 2
                                                             applications are similar type but there is some difference
                                                             in their functionality, their appearance as well as their
                                                             difficulty level. Now we have gone through the usage of
                                                             all the applications and take the feedback from the
                                                             evaluator based on some questionnaires and we also
                                                             generate some logs to evaluate the usability of these four
                                                             android apps.
                                                             In usability evaluation of android application we have
                                                             considered 2 basis method of usability evaluation that is:
                                                             Questionnaire and Logging which comes under the
                                                             usability inquiry approach.
                                                             Questionnaire: In this type of method we asked certain
                                                             question from the user and they give some answer. This
                                                             method is very cheap as comparison to other to usability
                                                             evaluation method. Basically in this method we form or
                                                             design certain question to take review or feedback from
                                                             the user and according to this question set we decide the
                                                             usability of the software.
                                                             Logging: This method automatically collects all the
Figure 2 Architecture of the proposed Usability Analyzer     statistics about the user and the system interaction and the
                          Tool                               detailed use of the systems. It is very useful because it
                                                             show the actual use of the system. It contains some log
                                                             file which records all the data about each event related to
                                                             every user interface. Typically, an interface log will
The proposed evaluation tool (i.e. “Usability Analyzer
                                                             contain statistics about the frequency with which each
Tool”) represented diagrammatically in figure 2. A
                                                             user has used each feature in the program and the
Usability evaluation tool enable us to measure the
                                                             frequency with which various events of interest (such as
software usability from the real users view points and
                                                             error messages) have occurred.
produce the accurate result of software usefulness based
                                                             In this project we have considered 4 android applications
on the feedbacks given by real users. The main
                                                             For Usability Evaluation:
perspective of the project can be summarized as follows:
                                                                  1. Alarm Clock 1
    1. Build four android applications for usability
                                                                  2. Alarm Clock 2
         testing with the help of ADT.
                                                                  3. GK Test 1
    2. A user uses this application and gives their
                                                                  4. GK Test 2
         responses in the form of feedback.
                                                             There are four parts for each application
    3. This responses store in the databases in the form
                                                                  1. Usage of an application
         of numerical values.
                                                                  2. Feedback Questionnaires
    4. Then usability analyzer tool fetches this values
                                                                  3. Usability Evaluation using Formula's
         form the databases
                                                                  4. Making Usability Graph and Comparison Graph
    5. Now usability calculation is done based on the
                                                             3.1.1 Usage of an Application
         certain formula’s
                                                             In this section basically we describe the usage of an
    6. Now we are able to generate the usability graph
                                                             application. All the application which is built in this
         also comparison graph for similar type of
                                                             proposed tool is a general purpose application and their
         android application, by which we can show
                                                             way of usage is similar as the other mobile application,
         which application is most liked by the user.
                                                             but some differences is there.
This tool provides the following usability factors which
                                                             3.1.2 Feedback Questionnaires
we are measuring in this project:
                                                             In this section we will discuss about the feedback
    1. Effectiveness
                                                             question, which we are using for the above all android
    2. Efficiency
                                                             application. By this feedback question we are measuring
    3. Attractiveness
                                                             the usability of android application which we considered
    4. Productivity
                                                             for this project. The entire feedback questions is related to
    5. Response Time
                                                             some factor like productivity, efficiency, effectiveness,
    6. Understand ability
                                                             attractiveness, response time and understand ability. This
                                                             factor comes under the usability metrics. So with the help

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                             Page 249
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

of these questions we finally measure the usability of any                      0<=Y<=1, the closer to 1 the better.
software product. These questions are calculated based on         3.  Effectiveness: “The capability of software
some mathematical formulas which we will discuss later                product to enable users to achieve specified tasks
on in this report. So the Feedback Question lists are as              with accuracy and completeness in specified
follows:                                                              context of use.”
     1. Is the response time of application satisfactory                          Eff = 50% Comp + 50% Accu
         (Response Time)                                                  Accu=Accuracy
     2. Are the symbols and icons user friendly                           Comp=Completeness
         (Understand-ability)                                     4. Efficiency: The amount of resources expended
     3. Is      the      application    improving     your            in relation to the accuracy and completeness with
         productivity.(Productivity)                                  which the user achieves a goal. How user achieve
     4. Is the application interaction user friendly                  each task efficiently.
         (Attractiveness)                                                   Efficiency=Task Effectiveness/Task Time
     5. Is the design of user interaction help in                 5. Attractiveness: “The capability of assessing the
         effectiveness of work (Effectiveness)                        appearance of the software, and will be
     6. Is the design of the user interaction                         influenced by factors such as screen design and
         efficient.(Efficiency)                                       color.”
This question is frame in android application which                  Questionnaire to assess the attractiveness of the
contains 5 options for each question ranging from 1 to 5.           interface to users, taking account of attributes
1 means strongly disagree and 5 means strongly agree                 such as color and graphical design.
and 2 to 4 are the intermediate values. The feedback form
is shown in Figure .3                                                    Attractiveness=No. of element should be
                                                                                 modified/total no. Of element in app
                                                                  6.   Learn-ability: “The capability of the software
                                                                       product to enable the user to learn its
                                                                       application. Ease of function learning: How long
                                                                       does the user take to learn to use function?
                                                                              T= Mean time taken to learn to use a
                                                                              function correctly
                                                                              0<T The shorter is the better.
                                                                  7.   Task Time: Record how long it takes a user to
                                                                       complete a task in seconds and or minutes. Start
                                                                       task times when users finish reading task
                                                                       scenarios and end the time when users have
                                                                       finished all actions.
                                                                                 Task Time=start time/finish time
                                                                  8.   Productivity: Productivity is the ratio of output
                                                                       to inputs in production..
                                                                           Development Productivity = Development
     Figure 3 Feedback form for android application                        project size (in Functions) /Development
                                                                           effort (in hours)
3.1.3 Usability Evaluation using Formula's
In these we will discuss about the usability factors which    3.2 Usability Analyzer Tool
we are considering in this project. Firstly we will define    In this section we basically show how we are Making
those factors and secondly how we calculate these factors     Usability Graph and Comparison Graph with the help of
using certain formulas [3, 15].                               Usability Analyzer Tool.
     1. Response Time: What is the time taken to              All the application has its usability value associated with
         complete the specified task?                         usability measure. If the organization wants to check the
                T= (time of gaining the result)-(time of      product usability they can check in the form of graph and
                        command entry finished)               they can also check the previous result of the particular
     2. Understand-ability:         Whatever user can         product and they come to know that which type of
         understand how to select a software product that     usability problems they are facing and how they can
         is suitable for their intended user and how it can   improve the product usability.
         be used for particular tasks.                        Figure.4 shows the usability graph based on the feedback
                        Y=C/D                                 value getting from the users of any one application and
           C= Number of user interface functions whose        Figure 5 shows the usability comparison graph. All the
           purpose is understood by the user.                 data which we got from this tool are summarized in the
           D= Number of user interface functions              experimental result table which will shown in next

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                             Page 250
    International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

                                                                  When user chooses any one of the above option, value
                                                                  according to particular option is store in database and the
                                                                  calculations perform on these value using formulas. Some
                                                                  of the values already assume constant for calculation.
                                                                  The results for the given android application that we got
                                                                  from the proposed “Usability Analyzer Tool” are
                                                                  summarized in table I, II, III and IV.

                                                                      Table I: Usability Calculated Data for Alarm Clock 1
                                                                  S.n Effecti Efficien- Attract Under Respon           Prod
                                                                   o ven-ess     cy        -    s-tand   -se            uc-
Figure 4 Usability Test Result for an android application                               iveness    -    Time           tivity
                  generated by the tool
                                                                  1     1.0%     1.0%       0.834% 1.0%     126sec     0.3%
                                                                  2     0.6%     0.75%      1.0%     0.8%   128sec     0.375
                                                                  3     0.2%     0.337%     0.166% 0.2%     207sec     0.75%

                                                                      Table II: Usability Calculated Data for Alarm Clock 2
                                                                  S.no Effectiv Efficien Attract Under Respon Produc-
                                                                        en-ess    -cy    -iveness   s-    -se  tivity
                                                                                                  tand- Time
                                                                  1      1.0%     1.0%      0.66%    0.66% 80sec       0.375%
                                                                  2      0.8%     0.8%      0.833% 0.8%     60sec      0.375%
Figure 5 Comparison Usability Test Result for an android
                                                                  3      0.6%     0.6%      0.833% 1.0%     100sec     0.3%
           application generated by the tool

                                                                      Table III: Usability Calculated Data for GK Test 1
                                                                   S. Effec     Efficien-   Attract- Unders- Respon- Produ
In this section we have presented how the proposed
                                                                   no tiven-       cy       iveness   tand-   se Time   c-
“Usability Analyzer Tool” would be useful to estimate the
                                                                        ess                           ability         tivity
usability in software as well as estimate the usability of
different type of software and the result range of the            1     1.0%    1.0%        0.833%   1.0%    100sec      0.3%
whole project is ranging from 0 to 1 and calculation has          2     0.8%    1.0%        0.66%    1.0%    60sec       0.3%
done within this range in the form of:
                                                                  3     0.5%    0.625%      0.66%    1.0%    192sec      0.3%
                      0<usability factor<1
If usability factor is near to 1 i.e. software or product is
                                                                      Table IV: Usability Calculated Data for GK Test 2
more usable, else if it is very close to 0 i.e. software is not
more usable, means users are not very much interested in           S.n Effectiv Efficie Attract Unders- Respon- Produ
                                                                    o   en-ess   n-cy -iveness tand-     se Time   c-
this application.
                                                                                                 ability         tivity
All the usability metrics which we are discussing in this
paper like effectiveness, efficiency, productivity,               1      0.8%     1.0%      0.66%    1.0%     60sec      0.3%
understandability, learn-ability and attractiveness               2      0.2%     0.333% 0.166% 0.2%          194sec     0.95%
calculated based on formulas. In this project, we have
considered 4 android applications this application is used        3      0.8%     0.8%      0.833% 0.8%       60sec      0.37%
by users and at the end of application they give feedback.
Feedback form of an android application is already shown
                                                                  5. CONCLUSION
in fig.3. The entire questions have such type of pattern as
                                                                  In this paper we have proposed usability evaluation tool
shown in figure 6.
                                                                  i.e. “Usability Analyzer Tool”. It is a web based
                                                                  application which evaluates the usability of android
                                                                  application, based on certain usability factors like
                                                                  attractiveness, efficiency, effectiveness, productivity,
                                                                  understandability and response time. It is a very simple
                                                                  tool which calculates the systems usability with the help
                                                                  of formulas. In this system we have selected graph for
                                                                  showing the output because it will be easily
            Figure 6 Feedback answer pattern                      understandable.

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                                    Page 251
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

More specifically, this system is designed for developer as           Rana,International Journal of Advanced Research in
well as the users, who want to test their product usability           Computer Engineering & Technology, Volume 1,
and also want to compare particular application with                  Issue 2, April 2012,ISSN: 2277 – 9043.
other application with similar functionality. Using this         [12] “A Quality Evaluation of an Android Smartphone
software, many organizations can improve their                        Application”,Aida Niknejad,Master Thesis in
productivity and adaptability of software. It provides a              Software Engineering and Management,Report No.
common platform for all the organization and the                       2011:023,ISSN: 1651-4769.
researcher who wants to work on this area. The                   [13] “Defining and Testing EMR Usability:Principles and
advantages of this software are:                                      Proposed Methods of EMR Usability Evaluation
This tool will facilitate the early detection of usability            andRating”,HIMSS EHR Usability Task Force,June
defects of android apps                                               2009
Since the quality of the software is checked before              [14] “Best      Practices   in     Mobile      Application
deploying the software, the quality of the software will be           Testing”,Mohan        Kumar,Manish         Chauhan,
assured                                                               www.infosys.com,2013.
So it will reduce development costs as well as                   [15] “A Roadmap for Usability and User Experience
maintenance costs.                                                    Measurement during early phases of              Web
In future, there is scope of increasing the usability factors         Applications Development”,Muhammad Arslan,
in this software like satisfaction, accessibility, safety etc.        Muhammad Assad Riaz, Master Thesis Software
and also there is a scope of getting good result from fuzzy           Engineering, Thesis no: MSE-2010-05,April 2010.
calculation. Other possibilities for adding more android         [16] “A Toolkit for Usability Testing of Mobile
application for usability testing.                                    Applications”,X. Ma, B. Yan, G. Chen, C. Zhang,
                                                                      K. Huang and J. Drury.
References                                                       [17] “Critical Evaluation On Software Development
[1] “Criteria for evaluating usability evaluation                     Process Models With Respect To Mobile Software
     methods”, H. Rex Hartson1, Terence S. Andre2, and                Development”,Kesava Pillai Rajadorai, Sa’adah
     Robert C. Williges2, 2000.                                       Hassan and Novia Admodisastro,255-264.
[2] “Usability measurement and metrics: A consolidate            [18] “Selecting a Mobile App: Evaluating the Usability of
     Model”, Harkirat K. Padda, Ahmed               Seffah·           Medical Applications”,mHIMSS App Usability Work
     Mohammad Donyaee,Harkirat K.Padda, Software                      Group,July 2012.
     Qual J (2006) 14: 159–178.                                  [19] “On Performance of Mobile Systems: Challenges of
[3] “QUIM: A Framework for Quantifying Usability                      Software Design and Evaluation”,Vahid Rahimian,
     Metrics in Software Quality Models”, A. Seffah,                  Jafar Habibi,v1.
     N. Kececi, M. Donyaee.                                      [20] “Software Metrics”,Everald E. Mills,SEI Curriculum
[4] “Usability-Improving         Mobile        Application            Module SEI-CM-12- 1.1,December 1988
     Development Patterns for Android”, Bettina Biel,            [21] “Executive Summary”, in Usability Inspection
     Volker Gruhn, Draft for EuroPLoP 2010.                           Methods, R. L. Mack and J. Nielsen,New York, John
[5] “Usability     Evaluation    Of     user    Interfaces”           Wiley & Sons, 1994.
     ,Inyternational Standard Orgenization, 1999.                [22] “Using Protocol Analysis to Evaluate the Usability of
[6] “Usability Testing of Android Applications”, Aruna                a Commercial Website”,R. Benbunan-Fich,in
     Alluri, San Diego State University, 2012                         Information & Management, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2001,
[7] “WEBUSE: Website Usability Evaluation Tool”,                      pp.151-163.
     Thiam Kian Chiew and Siti Salwa Salim, Malaysian            [23] Nielsen, J. Usability 101: Introduction to
     Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 16 No. 1, June                 Usability..http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030825.h
     2003, pp. 47-57.                                                 tml
[8] “AT-EASE: A Tool for Early and Quick Usability
     Evaluation of Smartphone Application”, Wei Yang,
     Xiao Yu.
[9] “The State of the Art in Automating Usability
     Evaluation of User Interfaces”, Melody Y. Ivory And
     Marti A. Hearst.
[10] “Evaluating The Usability Of Mobile Applications
     Without Affecting The User And The Usage
     Context”, Bodo Igler, Tobias Braumann, Stephan
     Böhm, International Journal Of Business And
     Management Studies, Vol 5, No 1, 2013 ISSN:
[11] “Software Usability Evaluation Method”,Piyush Jain
     ,Sanjay      Kumar        Dubey,        Prof.(Dr.)Ajay

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                               Page 252

To top