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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014 ISSN 2278-6856

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									    International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

                  An Optimized Technique for Secure
                        Data Over Cloud OS
                                        R. H. Sakr1, F. Omara2,         O. Nomir3
                                1,3
                                 Mansoura University,Faculty of Computers and Information,
                            2
                                Cairo University, Faculty of Computer Science and Information
Abstract: The cloud computing becomes morepopular,                and IaaS (Infrastructure as a service). A cloud computing
especially with large companies as they share resources in a      system must make a copy of all its clients’ information
cost effective way. It provides an advanced computing             and store it on other devices. These copies are enabling to
platform in which the users can access computing services on      the central server to access backup machines to retrieve
demand anytime and anywhere.It integrates, optimizes and          the data. Also, the Cloud Service Provider (CSP)
provides computing ability, aiming to simplify the clients’       maintains database and applications for the users on a
computincomputingg jobs by the way of renting resources
                                                                  remote server and provides independence of accessing
and services. Due to this increasingdemand for more cloud
services, there is an ever growing threat of security becoming
                                                                  them from any place through a network [9].
a major issue. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES),            In spite of Cloud computing advantages in cost reduction,
and the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) algorithms are the            resource sharing, and time saving for new service
main popular encryption schemes that guarantee                    deployment, most data and software are resided on the
confidentiality and authenticity. According to the work in this   Internet. This would introduce some new challenges for
paper, a hybrid encryption algorithm based on these two           the system, especially security and privacy. Because each
security algorithms is introduced and implemented on a cloud      application may use resources from multiple servers, and
platform called eyeOS. This hybrid encryption algorithm           the servers are potentially based at multiple locations and
optimizes the results for both computation time and security.     the services provided by the cloud may use different
                                                                  infrastructures    across    organizations,     all   these
Keywords; cloud computing, Encryption, key encryption,            characteristics make Cloud Computing to be complicated
eyeOS ,eyeOS advanced, advanced standard encryption ,             to guarantee security [7,8].
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman.
                                                                  On the other hands, Cloud Computing security refers to a
1. Introduction                                                   broad set of policies, technologies, and controlsdeployed
Cloud Computing is a set of IT Services that are provided         to protect data, applications, and the associated
to a customer over a network and these services are               infrastructure of cloud computing. It should be noted that
delivered by third party provider who owns the                    Cloud Computing security is not cloud-based security
infrastructure. It is often provided "as a service" over the      softwareproducts such as cloud-based anti-virus, anti-
Internet, typically in the form of infrastructure as a            spam, anti-DDoS,and so on [12].
service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software
as a service (SaaS) [23].                                         Cloud computing security includes a number of issues
                                                                  like multi tenancy, data loss and leakage, easy
Cloud computing is a technology that keeps up data and            accessibility of cloud, identity management, unsafe API’s,
its applications by using theInternet and central remote          Service Level Agreement, inconsistencies, patch
servers [1]. It introduces a new supplement, consumption,         management, internal threats etc. It is not easy to enforce
and delivery model for IT services based on Internet              all the security measures that meet the security needs for
protocols, and involves provisioning of dynamically               all the users, because different users may have different
scalable and often virtualized resources. This may take           security demands based upon their objective of using the
the form of web-based tools or applications that the users        Cloud services [13].
can access and use through a web browser [2]. Also,
Cloud Computing provides much more efficient                      There are many security issues associated with Cloud
computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing             Computing and they can be grouped into any number of
and bandwidth. Resources are accessible from the Cloud            dimensions (see Figure 1) [12].
at any time and from any place across the globe using the
Internet, and the Cloud users only pay for the resources          The cloud users can remotely store their data and enjoy
allocated to them [3,4,5].Among the development of                the on-demand high-quality applications and services
distributed computing, parallel computing and grid                from cloud resources. The data security is one of the
computing, Cloud Computing is considered the business             major concerns as the users of cloud storage services no
realization of all these concepts [6].                            longer physically maintain direct control over their data
                                                                  in cloud. Thus shifting of all data over the cloud has
Three services could be provided by Cloud Computing;              implications for privacy and security.[24]
SaaS (Software as a service), PaaS (Platform as a service),
Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                                 Page 278
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

There are different types of cloud operating systems         Asymmetric Key Cryptography – uses two different keys
including Glide , Amoeba , My Goya , Kohive, Zimdesk         called public key and private key; one is used for
, Ghost , Joli, Cloudo, Corneli , Lucid , EyeOS ,            encryption andanother for decryption.
Startforce, etc .The most used one as Web Operating
system is EyeOS [11].                                        Common asymmetric encryption algorithms include The
                                                             Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA),ElGamal and Rabin. RSA
According to the work in this paper, the EyeOS is            algorithm is the first asymmetric algorithm that was
installed on ubuntu server which is installed on VMware      discovered in 1978, and it is still one of the mostefficient
(cloud services). Two security algorithms are applied; the   and used algorithm this day. The RSA cipher represented
advanced encryption standard (AES) which is a                a real turning point for practical applications with high
symmetric     algorithm,    and     the    Rivest-Shamir-    quality, guaranteed security and reliability. In fact, the
Adleman(RSA)which is asymmetric[3].                          expression "strong encryption" was invented exactly with
                                                             the RSA algorithm [4].
This paper is organized as follows; encryption algorithms
are discussed in section 2, the Proposed Hybrid Security     2.1 The Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) Algorithm
Algorithm is presented in section 3. Also, the Simulator     The AES algorithm was known as Rijndael. Rijndael has
Environment, the Evaluating parameters and The               named after two Belgian cryptographers, Dr. Joan
Implementation Results are presented in section 4;           Daemen and Dr. Vincent Rijmen, have developed and
conclusion is presented in section 5.                        submitted it [15]. AES, Like DES, AES, is a symmetric
                                                             block cipher. This means that it uses the same Key for
                                                             both encryption and decryption.
                                                             Rijndael Algorithm allows for a variety of block and key
                                                             size to be used rather than 64 and 56 bits of DES’ block
                                                             and key size. The block and key can be chosen
                                                             independently from 128, 160, 192, 224, 256 bits and need
                                                             not be the same. However, the AES standard states that
                                                             the algorithm can only accept a block size of 128 bits and
                                                             a choice of three keys , 128, 192, and 256 bits. Also, the
                                                             AES algorithm differs from the DES algorithm where it
                                                             is not a Feistel structure, but it is based on substitution-
                                                             permutation network.
                                                             In most ciphers, the iterated transform (or round) usually
                                                             has a Feistel Structure. Typically in this structure, some
        Figure 1: Cloud Computing Security [12]              of the bits of the intermediate state are transposed
                                                             unchanged to another position (permutation). AES does
                                                             not have a Feistel structure but is composed of three
2. Encryption Algorithms                                     distinct invertible transforms based on the Wide Trial
In Cloud Computing technology, there are a set of
                                                             Strategy design method.
important policy issues like privacy, security, anonymity,
telecommunications capacity, and reliability. The most
                                                             Wide Trail Strategy
important issue is security and how the Cloud provider
                                                             The Wide Trial Strategy design method provides
assures it [14].
                                                             resistance against linear and differential cryptanalysis
                                                             such that, every layer has its own function [21]:
On the other hands, encryption algorithm is a
                                                             The linear mixing layer: guarantees high diffusion over
mathematical procedure that is used to encrypt the data.
                                                             multiply rounds
According to the encryption algorithm, the data is
                                                             The non-linear layer: parallel application of S-boxes that
encoded into cipher text and requires the use of a key to
                                                             have the optimum worst-case non-linearity properties.
transform the data back into its original form.
                                                             The key addition layer: a simple XOR of the round key to
                                                             the intermediate state
There are two types of cryptographic schemes are
                                                             On the other words, in a Feistel structure, half of the data
available [15]:
                                                             block is used to modify the other half of the data block
Symmetric Key Cryptography – uses a common key for
                                                             and then the halves are swapped. In this case the entire
both encryption and decryption of themessage. Common
                                                             data block is processed in parallel during each round
symmetric encryption algorithms include Data Encryption
                                                             using substitutions and permutations.
Standard (DES), Triple Data Encryption Standard
(3DES), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), and RC4.
                                                             The AES algorithm provides flexibility, simplicity for
In this paper, the AES is concerned rather than others
                                                             hardware and software sustainability. This algorithm can
because of its excellent security [15].
                                                             be used in a variety of platforms andapplications.


Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                             Page 279
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

The number of AES parameters is depending on the key          hexadecimal value {95} references row 9, column 5 of the
length. For example, if the used key sizeis 128, then the     S-box, which contains the value {2A}. Accordingly, the
number of rounds is 10. The number of round for 192 and       value {95} is mapped into the value {2A} (See Figure
256 bits are 12 and 14 respectively.                          3)[20].
The AES is a block cipher with a block length of 128 bits.    The S-box, then, is a function on a byte in State s so that:
According to the work in this paper, the AES algorithm        s'i,j = S-box (si,j)
with 128 bit key length is concerned. The encryption
process consists of 10 rounds of processing for 128-bit
keys. Except for the last round in each case, all other
rounds are identical.
For encryption, each round consists of the following four
phases [16]:
SubBytes – a non-linear substitution step where each byte
is replaced with another according to a lookup table or
substitution table(S-box).
ShiftRows – a transposition step where each row of the
state is shifted cyclically a certain number of times
MixColumns – a mixing operation which operates on the
columns of the state, combining the four bytes in each              Figure 3 : SubBytes Transformation Step [20]
column.
AddRoundKey – XORs a key that is the same length as           2.1.2 ShiftRows Phase
the block, using an Expanded Key derived from the             The purpose of this phase is to provide diffusion of the
original Cipher Key                                           bits over multiple rounds. ShiftRows essentially consists
For the final round only three steps are performed            of shifting the bytes in the row. It is a transposition step
;SubBytes, ShiftRows and AddRoundKey (See Figure 2).          on the row of the state where each row of the state is
                                                              shifted cyclically by certain number of steps. The first row
                                                              (row 0) is not shifted. The second row (row 1) is shifted
                                                              by one byte, the third row is shifted by two bytes and final
                                                              row is shifted by three bytes. It also ensures that each byte
                                                              in each row does not interact solely with their
                                                              corresponding bytes. The transformation is shown in
                                                              Figure 4.




 Figure 2: Four steps in each round in AES encryption
                    and decryption
                                                                      Figure 4: ShiftRows Transformation Step
2.1.1 SubBytesPhase
The Substitution table (S-box) matrix consists of all the     2.1.3 MixColumns Phase
possible combinations of an 8 bit sequence (28= 16 × 16       Like ShiftRows phase, the purpose of this step is to
= 256). However, the S-box is not just a random               provide diffusion of the bits over multiple rounds. This is
permutation of these values and there is a well-defined       achieved by performing multiplication one column at a
method for creating the S-box tables.                         time. During this operation, each column is multiplied by
                                                              the known matrix Galois field GF and is shown in Figure
                                                              5.
SubByte transformation is a nonlinear substitution that       Each value in the column is multiplied against every row
operates on individual bytes using a S-box, controls the      value of a standard matrix. The results of this
transformation.. Each individual byte of state (input         multiplication are XORed together. The multiplication
matrix) is mapped into a new byte as the following way:       operation continues against one matrix row at a time for
These row and column value serve as indexes into the S-       each value of a state column.
box to select a unique 8-bit output value. For example, the

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                              Page 280
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

The multiplication operation is defined as; Multiplication      2.2 The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) Algorithm
by 1 means leaving unchanged, multiplication by 2 means         The RSA is an algorithm for public-key cryptography. It
shifting byte to the left by 1 position and multiplication by   is the first suitable algorithm to be used for encryption.
3 means shifting to the left by 1 position and then             TheRSAalgorithm is widely used in the electronic
performing XOR with the initial unshifted value.                commerce protocols, and is consideredto be secure by
                                                                given sufficiently long keys and the use of up-to-date
                                                                implementations [4].

                                                                The RSA algorithm includes three phases.
                                                                Key generation
                                                                Encryption, and
                                                                Decryption

                                                                2.2.1 Key GenerationPhase
                                                                The RSA algorithm includesa public key and a private
              Figure.5: MixColumns Phase                        key. The public key can be known to everyone and it is
                  Transformation Step                           used for encrypting messages. The encrypted Messages by
                                                                the public key can only be decrypted using the private
2.1.4 AddRoundKey Phase                                         key. The keys for the RSA algorithm are generated by the
In this phase, the 128 bits of State matrix is XORed with       following steps:
the 128 bits round key. The original key consists of 128        Select two prime numbers.
bits/16 bytes which are represented as a 4x4 matrix. This       Calculate n = p*q.
4 words key where each word is of 4 bytes is converted to       Calculate f(n) = (p-1)(q-1)
a 43 words key. The first four words represent W0, W1,          Select e such that e is relatively prime to f(n) and less
W2, and W3. The rest of expanded key, W[4] to W[43] is          than f(n).
generated as follows:-                                          Determine d such that congruent modulo 1 (mod f(n))
for (i = 4; i<44; i++)                                          and d<f(n).
{                                                               Public key = {e, n}, Private Key = {d, n}.
T = W[i-1];
if (i mod 4 = = 0)                                              2.2.2 EncryptionPhase
T = Substitute (Rotate (T)) XOR RConstant [i/4];                       Ciphertext c = message e mod n
W[i] = W[i-4] XOR T;
}                                                               2.2.3 Decryption Phase
Expanded Key: W0 W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7                            Plaintext p = Ciphertextd mod n
   ... W48 W49 W50 W51
Round keys: Round key 0 Round key 1 ... Round key               Symmetric Encryption Advantages:
12                                                              Provides authentication, as long as the key to be secret.
                                                                The encryption process is fast.
Where, Rotate means perform a one byte left circular            Symmetric-key ciphers can be designed to have high rates
rotation on the 4-byte word, Substitute means perform a         of datathroughput.
byte substitution for each byte of the word, using S-box,        Keys for symmetric-key ciphers are relatively short.
also used in the SubBytes step, and RConstant means              Symmetric-key ciphers can be employed as primitives to
Round Constant (size of 4 bytes) which is XORed with            construct various cryptographic mechanisms including
the bytes. The rightmost three bytes of the round constant      pseudorandom number generators, hash functions, and
are zero. In this way, W [4] to W [43] of the key schedule      computationally efficient digital signature schemes, to
isgenerated from the initial four words.                        name just a few.
Although, overall, the same steps are used in decryption,        Symmetric-key ciphers can be composed to produce
as in encryption, the order in which the steps are carried      stronger ciphers. Simple transformations which are easy
out is different (See Figure 6).                                to analyze, but on their own weak, can be used to
                                                                construct strong product ciphers.

                                                                Symmetric Encryption Disadvantages:
                                                                In a two-party communication, the key must remain
                                                                secret at both ends.
                                                                In a large network, there are many key pairs to be
                                                                managed. Consequently, effective key management
                                                                requires the use of an unconditionally trusted TTP.
                                                                In a two-party communication between entities A and B,
              Figure 6: AES key expansion                       sound cryptographic practice dictates that the key has be

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                              Page 281
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

changed frequently and perhaps for each communication          asymmetric algorithm, and the key distribution
session.                                                       complexity of the symmetric algorithm).
Digital signature mechanisms arising from symmetric-           The phases of the proposed hybrid security algorithm are
key      encryption     especially     if  keys      change    implemented as follows:
frequentlytypically require either large keys for the public   3.1 Session key Phase
verification function or the use of a TTP,because they         Session key is not an asymmetric key, but it is only used
allow accessing all the encrypted Information                  during the session life cycle. In fact, a symmetric key is
Advantages of Using Asymmetric Encryption                      produced by two entities every time they create a new
Only the private key must be kept secret (authenticity of      session. After the session life cycle, the key is destroyed.
public keys must,                                              This provides more robust level of security, where if a
however, be guaranteed).                                       hacker captures a session key, he would only be able to
For any number of users (represented as “n”), only 2*n,        use this key during that session but not any future
(N=2*n) keys are required instead of n*(n-1)/2 by using        sessions, because it is destroyed after the session life
symmetric encryption. For example if the number of users       cycle.
n=3, then they use N=6keys,.Using asymmetric
encryption, each user has only 1 key pair. This means that     3.2 Encryption Phase
only a user’s public key is exchanged and each group of        According to the hybrid algorithm, the sender's plaintext
people does not need separate keys.                            document is compressed to reduce its size and
Depending on the mode of usage, a private key/public key       strengthening its cryptographic security. The proposed
pair may remain unchanged for considerable periods of          hybrid algorithm would create a symmetric key (e.g.,
time, e.g., many sessions even several years).                 random number session key).Then, the session key is
The problem of distributing keys is solved because a user      processed using asymmetric encryption algorithm such as
’s public key can be                                           AES which generates a one-time-only secret key
Shared by anyone                                               [Rijndael].
Many public-key schemes yield relatively efficient digital
signaturemechanisms. The key used to describe the public
verification function is typically much smaller than for
the symmetric-key counterpart.
In a large network, the number of keys necessary may be
considerablysmaller than in the symmetric-key scenario.
.
Disadvantages of Using Asymmetric Encryption:
Asymmetric encryption algorithm is slower than that
symmetric one
Some algorithms are only suitable for key distribution
Throughput rates for the most popular public-key
encryption methods are
several orders of magnitude slower than the best-known
symmetric-key .
  Key sizes are typically much larger than those required                   Figure 8: The Encryption Phase
for symmetric-keyencryption, and the size of public-key
signatures is larger than that of tags                         The session key is used by symmetric encryption
Providing data origin authentication from symmetric-key        algorithm to encrypt the plaintext; the result is ciphertext.
techniques.                                                    Once the data is encrypted, the session key is then
                                                               encrypted to the recipient’s public key, using asymmetric
Summary of comparison                                          encryption such as RSA
1. Public-key cryptography facilitates efficient signatures
(particularly non repudiation) and key management, and         This public key-encrypted session key is transmitted
2. Symmetric-key cryptography is efficient for encryption      along with the ciphertext to the Recipient. The main
and some data Integrity applications.                          components of the proposed hybrid algorithm are seen in
3. The Proposed Hybrid Security Algorithm                      Figure8
The asymmetric algorithms are much slower than that the        3.3 Decryption Phase
symmetric algorithms, especially with large amounts of         Decryption process is done in the reverse way of the
data. On the other hands, using the symmetric algorithm        encryption process. The recipient’s copy of the proposed
as key distribution is considered a problem because it         hybrid algorithm uses his or her private key to recover the
can't prove the authenticity and non-repudiation.              session key, and then the hybrid algorithm uses the
Therefore, by amalgamating both the symmetric and              session key to decrypt the symmetrically encrypted
asymmetric encryption algorithms, the drawbacks of these       ciphertext (See Figure 9).
algorithms would be eliminated (i.e., the speed of the

Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                                Page 282
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

                                                               input sizeas24 byte, 36 byte, and 61 byte. The encrypted
                                                               time of these algorithms are listed in Table 1.

                                                               Table 1: Encryption Times of RSA, AES, and Proposed
                                                                                Hybrid Algorithms




                                                               Input Data Size RSA AES Hybrid Improved %
               Figure 9: Decryption phase                      With respect to RSA Improved %With respect to
                                                               AES
4 The Implementation                                           24 bytes
The hybrid algorithm has been implemented on cloud               8 ms 6 ms 0.062 ms 99.2 98.96
platform (eyeOS) which is installed on ubuntu linux that       36 bytes
is installed on VMware(cloud service).                           6 ms 2 ms 0.049 ms 99 97.55
4.1 The Simulator Environment                                  61 bytes
The eyeOS simulator is used to implement the proposed            30 ms 12 ms 0.05
hybrid algorithm. On the other hands, eyeOS is                 ms 99.8 99.58
considered cloud computing platform and enabled
thecollaboration and communication among users. It is          According to the results in Table 1, it is found that the
mainly written in PHP, XML, and JavaScript. Generally,         encryption phase using the hybrid algorithm outperforms
it considered a private-cloud application platform with a      the AES, RSA algorithms (See Figures 10).
web-based desktop interface[11].
On the other hands, eyeOS is one of the most used              By analyzing Figure 10, it is found that the proposed
WebOSes which only needs Apache + PHP5 + MySQL to              hybrid security algorithm improves the speed of the
run. With eyeOS you can build your private Cloud               computation time.
Desktop. Using eyeOS Web Runner you can open your
eyeOS files from your browser with your local apps and
save them automatically on your cloud. In eyeOS 2.0 you
can work collaboratively with other users simultaneously
in the same document, it is the Safe Cloud Computing
system because you can host it in your own company or
organization. You will get privacy and cloud computing
at its best.[22]

4.2 The Evaluating Parameter:
The performance of the encryption algorithm is evaluated
by calculating the encryption time parameter. The
Encryption time is the time that an encryption algorithm       Figure 10: Encryption time of The AES, RSA and Hybrid
takes to produce a cipher text from a plain text in the case                         Algorithms
of encryption. Also, the time will be taken to produce
plain text from cipher text in case of decryption is used as
a parameter to evaluate the proposed hybrid security
                                                               5. Conclusions
algorithm performance.                                         The goal of encrypted storage in the cloud is to create a
                                                               virtual private storage system that maintains
                                                               confidentiality and data integrity which are provided by
                                                               AES algorithm, but RSA algorithm provides
4.3 The Implementation Results:
The encryption phase of the proposed hybrid algorithm,         authentication, encryption and key distribution.
as well as, the RSA and AES algorithms, have been              The public-key encryption RSA algorithm provides a
implemented on eyeOS simulator using different data            solution to the key distribution and data transmission
                                                               issues of the AES symmetric encryption algorithm. On
Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                            Page 283
   International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)
       Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com
Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June 2014                                            ISSN 2278-6856

the other hands, by using the symmetric encryption          [13] SachdevAbhaThakral,         and       MohitBhansali.
algorithm (i.e., AES algorithm) is satisfied about 100 to        "Addressing        the Cloud Computing Security
1,000 times faster than that the public-key encryption           Menace." IJRET, Volume 2, Issue 2, PP. 126-130,
RSA algorithm, which solves the problem of speed of the          Feb 2013.
encryption asymmetric algorithms.                           [14] Mandeep Kaur, Manish Mahajan,"Implementing
                                                                 various encryption algorithms to enhance the data
According to the hybrid algorithm, using the faster              security of cloud in cloud computing" VSRD
algorithm (i.e., Symmetric algorithm) to encrypt the bulk        International Journal of Computer Science &
data and the slower but scalable algorithm (i.e.,                Information Technology, Vol. 2 No. 10 October 2012
Asymmetric algorithm) is used to encrypt the small          [15] William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network
amount of data (the key). According to the proposed              Security Principles and Practices”, 4th ed., Prentice
hybrid algorithm, a secure system has been satisfied             Hall, PP. 134-173. November 2005.
which would provide scalability, speed and more security    [16] Bruce Schneier, “Applied Cryptography, Protocols,
(confidentiality, data integrity,and authentication).            Algorithms and Source Code in C”, 2nd ed., John
                                                                 Wiley& Sons, 1996.
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Volume 3, Issue 3 May – June 2014                                                                          Page 284

								
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