at 200pm at the Trip to Ecuador Slide Show___

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					Next Meeting: Sunday May 13th 2007 at 2:00pm at the Museum of Natural History.

Trip to Ecuador Slide Show!!!
This month we will be treated to a slide show presentation by Gail and Bob Schwarz of their Orchid Hunting Trip to Ecuador. I’m sure it will be a fun trip to watch and will make us all want to go next time one is planned. Don’t miss it and the chance to hear what it’s like to see some of the exotics first hand in the wild. Note: Mark Your Calendars. See inside for details on Nova Scotia Orchid hunting trips this summer. Be sure to mark your calendars to you can come out and get great photos!

Cover photo of Rose Pogonia taken July 1st 2006 by John MacDonald on Parkland Avenue in the Clayton Park area.

In This Issue:
Executive member list…….………….…… 2 Member’s Corner………………………….…pg 2 . Dates to Remember………….…….……...… 3 Things to take note of……….…...…….…..…pg 3 Information Corner……………………...… 10

Mailing address: Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, 1747 Summer Street, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 3A6
The O.S.N.S. was founded in 1981 and incorporated under the Nova Scotia Societies Act. Website:

The flowers in the breeze are swaying, swaying, The whole wide world is out a-Maying –Genevieve Mary Irons

OSNS Executive & Committees 2006/2007
President: Past President: Vice President Treasurer/Membership Secretary Newsletter Editor Social Coordinator: Assistant Coordinator: Publicity: Table Display: Library: AOS/COC Rep: Show Chair: Assistant Show Chair Web Master Wayne Ward Jean Allen-Ikeson John MacDonald Ruth Ann Moger Linda (Josey) MacDonald Pam Ferro Ruth Ann Moger Valerie Layne John MacDonald Tim Wohlsclagel Gail Schwarz Wayne Ward Renee Clark


OSNS next General Meeting (at 2PM) For the month of May we will be treated to a talk from a couple of our members on their trip to Ecuador where they went orchid hunting. We’ve been waiting a while to see these slides and they promise to be entertaining. I’m sure it will make us all want to go on the next tropical “Orchid Hunting Trip” with them. Don’t miss out, see you at the meeting. April Show Once again we had a very successful, beautiful April show. There was a good turnout on both days and the various talks were well attended. Neville MacKay, of My Mothers Bloomers, packed the auditorium on Sunday and put on a very entertaining flower arranging demonstration. Neville is so generous to us. He donated his time and all of the orchids, plant material and containers that he used. He then raffled off all of the arrangements. We gave him two Phalaenopsis and an honorary membership to our society a small , price to pay for his generosity. I wanted to pay him but he wouldn’t let me! Thank you Neville! I would also like to thank everyone who helped in the weeksbefore the show, during and after the show. Many of you were there for the whole weekend. Also thank you to the vendors and the people who brought in food. Putting on a show is a team effort and I couldn’t do it without you all! Thank you all! Gail Schwarz *****************************************************************************************

Member’s Corner:

Note of Thanks :
"Thanks to everyone in the society who has helped me get through this winter and keep the greenhouse and my sales table running (particularly Wayne). I am grateful and the support helped keep me going. Jean" -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Dates to Remember:
• ( Below Dates taken from the November 2006 issue of the COC.) May 5-6: The Vancouver Orchid Society 50th annual show at the Richmond Winter Club, 5540 Hollybridge Way, Richmond BC. Contact Maureen Renton Or Bill Bischoff "" Sun Aug 5: SOOS Summerfest at the Toronto Botanical Gardens. 10 am - 4 pm. Great Speakers, Great plants for Sale. Guests Cal Orchids and Ratcliffe Orchids. All Orchidists Welcome" Sept 22-23: Central Ontario Orchid Society, Cambridge Hespeler Arena, 640 Ellis Road, Cambridge Sept 29-30: The Foothills Orchid Society (Calgary, Alberta), Triwood Community Association Hall, 2244 Chicoutimi Drive NW,Calgary, AB Contact: Sharon Williams ( • • • October 27-28: Fraser Valley Orchid Society Show & Plant Sale will be held at the Langley Civic Centre, 20699 - 42 Ave., Langley, B,C. Oct 27-28: Eastern Canada Orchid Society at the Days Inn Hotel, 1005 rue Guy, in Downtown Montreal. Phone 450467-4795 Nov 10-11: Niagara Region OS CAW Hall 124 Bunting Rd, St. Catharines, Ont Contact: Jodi Shannon, Show Chairperson Phone: 905-641-1934 ""

• • •


Things to take note of:
Winners of Raffle at April Show: Congratulations to all who supported our society and we hope you enjoy your prizes. Ted White Susan MacLennan Audrey Moore Pat Blaikie Ruth Ann Moger Wild Orchid Hunting Places and Times For those of you interested in going out in the field and looking for wild orchids this summer, either to take photographs of or just to see, will be interested in the times that we will be trying to make some day trips. The following is a tentative schedule of blooming times and places of specific orchids that we hope to visit this summer. More information will be released as we find out if our dates are on schedule, but if you are interested in joining the visit or are one of the many who have signed up for the “Wild Orchid Hunts” this summer, the following is a heads up of possibly trip dates.


You can always get in touch with John MacDonald if you want to make arrangements to go, or car pool, or join in on the fun. We usually go rain or shine, and have a great time no matter the weather. So read the schedule below, and mark your calendars for the “Wild Orchids Hunts” of this summer. Ramshead & Coralroot Yellows Reginae Albino Pink Slipper Hyperborea Rose Pogonia Grass Pinks Dragon Mouth L. Purple Fringe Machrofila May 23 exit 5@ 3:00 later Mt Uniake June 10 exit 5 @ 2:00 June 27 Smileys @ 1:00 Centerville July 2 @ Smileys1:00 July 11 @ Belcher Pond 6:00 Other locations dates & times TBA TBA

July 19 @Schubie Park 6:00 July 21@Wentworth STA 2:00

Misc Platanthera, Aug 8 @ Hartlan Point & other dates TBA Tresses, Fringes ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Wit and Wisdom from the Old Farmers Almanac:
(found at )

Poor Man’s Fertilizer
Under the snow the vegetables purr, Like an old man ’neath a mantle of fur. –Old saying

Old-timers knew that a late spring snowfall ("poor man’s fertilizer") was good for the garden. After a fierce blizzard in May 1891, corn was reported to have germinated and grown to a height of 3 inches beneath the snow. The ground was warm when the snow fell and the snow had an insulating effect against the cold air above. So, plant your corn and wish for some snow! Sincerely, The Old Farmer ’s Almanac

Calendar Dates:

MAY 1 – MAY DAY Ancient spring rites that related human fertility to crop fertility gave birth to most modern May Day festivities. May 1 is the traditional day to crown the May queen, dance around the maypole, perform mummers’ plays, and generally celebrate the return of spring. In Great Britain, the custom of "bringing in the May" involves gathering "knots," or branches with buds, on the eve or early morning of May 1. MAY 2 – FULL FLOWER MOON


Flowers spring forth in abundance this month. Some Algonquin tribes knew this full Moon as the Corn Planting Moon or the Milk Moon. MAY 5 – CINCO DE MAYO

Celebrate Cinco de Mayo with this spicy Guacamole with a Southwestern Kick to please a crowd. Ingredients: 4 large avocados; 1 cup roasted corn kernels; juice of one medium lime; 4 garlic cloves, finely chopped; 2 jalapeno peppers, finely chopped, or to taste; 1 teaspoon ground cumin, or to taste; 1 teaspoon salt Coarsely mash (do not puree) the avocados. Fold in remaining ingredients. Squeeze the lime juice into the mixture. Serve with blue corn chips or deep-fried flour tortilla chips. Makes about 24 servings. MAY 5 – KENTUCKY DERBY

America’s most famous horse race, the Kentucky Derby, has been held continuously since 1875 in Louisville, Kentucky, and has become one of the country’s largest civic celebrations (and betting opportunities). Not bad when you consider that the event lasts only two minutes! The Derby is the first event in the "Triple Crown" series, followed by the Preakness (the second Saturday after the Derby) and the Belmont Stakes (the fifth Saturday after the Derby).

Folklore for the Season
-When the down of a dandelion contracts, it is a sign of rain. -When spiders build new webs, the weather will be clear. -A dream of gardens foretells great joy. -An open anthill indicates good weather; a closed one, an approaching storm. -Dust rising in dry weather is a sign of an approaching change in the weather. -Many thunderstorms in May, and the farmer sings Hey! hey!

Rose-Growing Time Choose varieties proven in your climate. Plant roses where they will receive a minimum of five to six hours of full sun per day. Diligently water your roses. Soak the entire root zone at least twice a week in dry summer weather. Avoid frequent shallow sprinklings. Feed your roses; they have big appetites. Once a month between April and July, apply a balanced granular fertilizer (5-10-5 or 5-10-10). How to Keep Rabbits Out of Your Garden

As their twitching noses indicate, rabbits sniff a lot. Suspicious-smelling substances like dried blood meal can keep them from munching in small flower beds. Sprinkle dried blood on the soil surface around all your plants as early in the season as you can, and repeat after a heavy rain. Deodorant soap shavings placed in cloth bags around the garden will also help to keep rabbits away.

Information Corner: The Genus Cymbidium in China
by Liu Zhong-jian, Chen Sing-chi & Ru Zheng-zhong, 360pp, 498 colour photographs, 1 map, and 50 b/w figs.,2006, China Scientific Book Service Co. Ltd., ( Jian Nei Da Jie Post Office, 100001-88, Beijing, China, hardcover, Chinese & English, US $89, ISBN 7-03-017005-2 This is a well-illustrated book with more than 200 superb colour photographs of 49 Cymbidium species including several newly described epiphytic taxa from China, C. changningense, C. concinnum, and C. quinquelobum. Additionally, there are some 200 colour photographs of named cultivars of the more popular terrestrial species which have been cultivated for centuries including C. ensifolium, C. faberi, C. goeringii, C. kanran, C. sinense, C. tortisepalum and C. tortisepalum var. longibracteatum the latter two of which are currently listed in the World Checklist of Seed Plants as synonyms of Cymbidium goeringii var. tortisepalum and Cym. goeringii var. longibracteatum respectively. Each taxon is illustrated with a full page line drawing rendered by Chen Li-jun of The National Orchid Conservation Center of China. There are a number of new or re-defined taxa presented in this work based upon extensive field observations, herbarium studies, and behaviour in cultivation. The authors present C. baoshanense as a species from Yunnan and note that they "failed to know whether it is a natural species or a hybrid until recently. The World Checklist currently gives the accepted name of this taxon as Cymbidium H baoshanense F. Y. Liu & Perner, Orchidee (Hamburg) 52: 61 (2001), a natural hybrid of C. lowianum H C. tigrinum. In another instance, Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum Du Puy & P. J. Cribb is the current accepted name for what the authors describe here as C. mannii Rchb. f. They suggest that due to the geographical distance between C. mannii and C. bicolor and because of their marked difference in floral morphology it is unsuitable to treat C. , mannii as a subspecies of C. bicolor. They report that flowering of nursery-grown plants has shown that C. rigidum, first described in 2000, is now considered conspecific with C. devonianum, and conclude that C. maguanense, which was previously treated as a synonym of C. mastersii, is vegetatively quite different and therefore distinct. While the Table of Contents headings suggest that all topics are written in both English and Chinese, this is not always the case. The body of work contained in the Classification of Cymbidium chapter including useful keys and species descriptions is presented in both languages as are the names of the 200 illustrated cultivars and a synopsis of the non-Chinese species ofCymbidium. I would have appreciated learning about the aesthetics of leaves and flowers and of culture, propagation and disease contro but these sections are in Chinese only. Indices l are well prepared in both languages. It has been said that pictures are worth a thousand words and in this case, I heartily agree. Clear, true-to-colour, detailed photographs of flowers, inflorescences, fruits, and of entire plants, some of which appear to growing in situ, provides the reader with a fascinating insight to the genus. Both the specialist and advanced hobbyist would find this volume an interesting and useful addition to their library. Marilyn H. S. Light (from COC News Volume 19.2 March 2007)



A Selection of Cattleyas That Can Be Grown in theWindow Some Tips on How to Succeed With Them
By Ned Mattinen
(Many times, our commercial growers are plagued with the question, "What kind of Cattleya orchid will do well in my living room window, as I don't own a greenhouse?" Here are a few tried and proven window favorites which are of relatively easy cultivation, selected from the great many Cattleyas Mr. Mattinen has personally tried. We are sure your local commercial dealer can find these crosses or related ones for beginners to try in their home windows!) For the interest of home window growers of Cattleya orchids, I have compiled a short listing of some of the Cattleyas which I have grown in my apartment windows in the last few years. These have all been very interesting orchids ,in one way or another and I have mentioned the good qualities in all which were good throughout and the adverse qualities along with the good in a few of the others. All in all, everyone indeed is something to talk about! Perhaps, the reader may find in this list an orchid or two which he has grown and would like to compare his findings with mine. It would be interesting to know if all of the very same cross behave in the same manner (in reference to growth, vigor, blooming period, bloom size, fragrance and floriferousness . . . although we all know that many of the same cross can produce blooms of various coloring. . . some quite different)! C. ENID ALBA Here's a true pal! Excellent in most all respects. An eye opener of good sized blooms measuring anywhere from 5 to 8 inches in diameter. Snow-white exotic flowers with lavender mottled lip and a dabbing of yellow in throat with very nice fragrance. Without fail, this one has bloomed twice a year for me . . . spring and fall. It has easy to train foliage, not too tall or willowy. . . should just about please everyone! A very good orchid for the home window. BLc. ENCANTO Another very, very good orchid! Flowers have light green sepals and petals. It has a moderate-sized labellum of rose-lavender with orange blending in throat. . . not as full in petalage as most Cattleyas but the nice coloring of flowers makes up for what little adverse qualities this plant has. Substance of the blooms is quite heavy. Plant needs no staking up as it grows like an erect soldier. It has medium sized growth which appears nice 99% of the time. A very good corsage orchid, this plant should be grown about 2 feet from the window to keep the blooms on the "greenish" side. (,A Rod Mclellan gem.) SLc. GLEN ELLEN Quite gorgeous blooms! Although various colors are listed in the catalog from lavender to yellow, pink and red. . . I was fortunate in getting a most exotic peach color with red lip and deep gold eyes! Truly magnificent! Blooms were about 5 ½ inches in diameter. A wonderful corsage orchid. Although the young plant is of moderate height, it is a bit on the "willowy" side and foliage is somewhat floppy and should be trained early with "Tie-Ems." Lc. ALBULAH 'DA YDREAM' Just as beautiful as the name implies! Very large, well formed blooms of snow-white with crimson lip which is edged in white, 6 to 8 inch blooms which are nicely fragrant. This one is a "dream" . . . but alas, only one growth a year with 3 blooms the most at one time. Blooms in December. Foliage is quite heavy and large but not especially attractive. ("Oldish" appearance.) Lc. SKY BOLT Wonderful bright, but deep mauve-colored flowers of huge size! An eye-opener! (Bound to make most people gape and gawk!) Blooms are from 6 to 8 inches or more in diameter. Brought this one to a club meeting once in bloom and will say that every jaw dropped! (Lots of "ohs" and "mys.") Although very beautiful, its main faults are: exposed columns - blooms only once a year - and is rather a huge plant. BLc. RISING SUN What else can I say but, "magnifico" . . . in all respects! Stated as a yellow in the catalog. . . but mine is a most gorgeous, dear (all through) color of cantaloupe! Medium sized blooms with erect sepals and good form to the flower. Excellent nice foliage which is perfectly spaced and stands erect. Very little "Tie-Ems" needed on this one, if any! Blooms twice a year. (Another Mclellan gem.) Lc. DETTA Huge mauve blooms of most excellent shape and large red lip. Some of the blooms have measured over 8 inches in diameter. The plant is husky itself, but seems to demand good dean air. (Keep smokers far away from this one!) Blooms once a year. . . between Aug.-Sept. Fragrant. C. CLOTHO ALBA One of the most floriferous bloomers for the home window that I have ever seen! Beautiful snow-white flowers with disc of lavender on lip. Very nice, even form. Not too tall growing but it is a vigorous plant. Give it a good, large sunny window and you will be well rewarded with many blooms at one time. A nice corsage orchid. Blooms twi e a year. (5 ½ -inch blooms.) c Lc. CANTALOUPE A very nice yellow with red-rose lip. Good size blooms to almost 7 inches. Has bloomed twice a year for me. Even though the plant is of rather willowy type. . . the blooms are well worth it. A very good plant for the home.

8 Lc. ISSY The unusual! Light chocolate blooms with lavender lip which has a contrasting ivory-white hooding over the column. Blooms measure up to 5 ½ inches in diameter. Rather slender sepals and petals but the blooms should please almost everyone as they are full enough for corsaging just the same. Light, pleasant fragrance. Rather attractive tall bifoliate plants with slender pseudo-bulbs almost 2 feet tall . . . yet easy to train. Large handsome foliage. Easy to bloom in the home. Does good in my west window. Blooms once a year. Lc. GOLD FORD "Most beautiful yellow with red lip! First time to bloom plant in 4-inch pot had 2 flowers of excellent form and wonderful coloring. Much nicer than I had expected! Plant is rather small and young yet, but seems quite healthy. This one appears to be a show winner for so young a start! Lc. SAUCEY WHITE Another top semi-alba. Very good sized blooms from 6 to 8 ½ inches. The pure white blooms are nicely accented by the lavender lip. Blooms twice a year. Nice plant. Good growth. Give it a good large window for top results. Lc. GEORGE THOMAS Very nice lavender of good sized blooms. Good shape to blooms and a very excellent corsage orchid. Very nice plant of moderate proportions and growth. C. LINDO MAR One of my pets! This large flowering white with very attractive red lip edged in white has a yellowveined throat. The blooms measure from 5 to 8 inches in diameter and are truly magnificent! Exotic fragrance characterizes flowers. An easy to train plant of moderate height and growth. Almost anyone should be able to like this. Twice a year bloomer. A wonderful corsage orchid! Blc. ORANGE SHERBET Rather a nice yellow-orange flower of medium size. Lip is of same coloring. Although the flowers are not of huge size, it doesn't take long to like this one. A dependable plant for blooming twice a year. It is a slender, willowy plant and good grower. Easy to flower in the home living room window. Bc. PRAETTI Another unusual! Starry shaped blooms of about 4 ½ inches in diameter. Blooms are greenish with a blending towards upper sepals and petals of lavender-bronze coloring. The hooding over the column has a short fringing which coincides with the semiisthmus lip which is also fringed or fimbriated. (To me, this flower seems both attractive and repulsive!) Slender, bifoliate growth. (Some growers may like this one, but it would probably take me years to give a dependable reply!) I can only say. . . it sure is different! (At this time.) Lc. SACRAMENTO This one can be an eye-opener! Beautiful large well-shaped blooms of mauve with reddish lip and a touch of orange in the throat. Flowers are about 6 to 7 inches in diameter. One of my favorite lavender orchids and it gets nicer every year! It has moderat e growth and is easy to train. This plant should bring ardent admirers. Blooms twice a year for me. A very good home window orchid. Those are but a few of the very many Cattleya orchids one can grow in his home living room window. Try a few, if not all. Orchid Digest, October 1969 Editor’s Note: Please take note of the date of this article and look for these more as parents of available Cattleyas than for them as they stand. Some are still on the market or have been remadeso don’t give up.

********************************************************************** ORCHIDS 101


By William P. Rogerson William P. Rogerson is an AOS accredited judge and orchid hobbyist who lives and grows his plants in the Chicago area. He specializes in Cattleya species and has one of the best collections of choice cultivars of this group. One of the most basic and important rules to follow when growing Cattleyas (or most other sympodial orchids, for that matter) is to "repot only when new roots are just starting to grow." In this short article, I will begin by explaining what this rule means and why it is important to follow it. Then I will describe in more detail the various growth patterns of Cattleyas and, in particular, when new root growth occurs in these different growth patterns. The rule to "repot only when new roots emerge" follows from two basic characteristics of Cattleyas. First, each lead of a Cattleya sends out a single flush of roots once, and only once, in its lifetime. The roots grow down into the medium for the next few months before they reach maturity and stop growing. No new roots will emerge from the old lead again, and, in general, very few-if any-new roots will grow from the existing roots once they have matured. The only way for the plant to grow new roots is to send up another lead. Second, the repotting process is generally very hard on Cattleya roots and often results

9 in extensive root damage, even when done carefully. The roots are tender and tend to intertwine and cling to pieces of the potting medium and the pot, so dislodging the roots generally causes substantial damage. (The fact that roots cling to the medium and pot plays a big role in causing the damage. For example, new Paphiopedilum roots are as tender as Cattleya, roots, but they generally do not cling to the medium or pot. Consequently repotting Paphiopedilums is a comparatively gentle act that causes very little root , damage.) It is therefore imperative to repot them only when they are about to send out new roots to replace those damaged during repotting. The ideal repotting time window is fairly short, lasting from about one or two weeks before the roots first begin to emerge until a week or so after this time. If one repots more than a week or two before new roots emerge, the plant can suffer dehydration stress between repotting and the time new roots begin to grow. From the time of the visible appearance of the first slight bump of the first emerging root, it takes about a week for roots to grow too long (more than one quarter of an inch) for repotting to occur without significant risk of damaging the new roots. New root tips are extraordinarily tender; brushing the emerging tips even very lightly against the side of a new pot is likely to crush or break them. There are two ways to cope with this narrow window of repotting opportunity and I recommend that you employ both of them. First, constantly inspect your orchids for signs of new root growth, and be ready to repot them the instant you see signs of it. Second, learn each plant's growth pattern, so you can anticipate when it will need to be repotted. As I will discuss below, the precise point in the growth cycle at which new roots emerge varies dramatically among different Cattleyas, but any particular Cattleya tends to exhibit the same pattern over and over again. Once you know an orchid's growth cycle, it is easy to either simply repot it a few weeks before it will send out roots, or to become particularly vigilant when you know its rooting period is near, and repot it when the first signs of new roots appear. I generally keep an eye on entire groups of orchids that I know root at the same time, and then use the emergence of new roots on anyone of these plants as a signal that it is time to repot the entire group. Cattleyas exhibit two sharply distinct patterns of growth. In one growth pattern ("root before bloom"), roots emerge as the new lead grows; blooming occurs only once the lead and roots are mature and basically finished growing. In the other growth pattern ("root after bloom"), the new lead sends out roots only after it has fully matured and bloomed. This means that Cattleyas that follow the "root before bloom" pattern should be repotted BEFORE they bloom, when the new lead is just emerging and beginning to grow. However, Cattleyas that follow the "root after bloom" pattern should be repotted AFTER they bloom, when the lead is fully mature. Even many experienced orchid growers do not fully understand this distinction and tend to treat all of their Cattleyas as if they follow the "root before bloom" pattern, repotting all of them when the new leads are emerging. For the "root after bloom" group, this practice effectively destroys many of the existing roots just when the plant will need them to support its major growth spurt of the year. Plants exposed to such a shock are often set back and sometimes even die. I believe many Cattleyas considered to be difficult to grow are in reality difficult simply because people do not understand when to repot them. Cattleyas that follow the "root before bloom" growth pattern often bloom in fall, winter or spring. Orchids in this group typically send out new leads and roots during the spring and summer months so that leads are generally fully mature by fall. At this point the orchid enters into a rest phase that lasts until the plant's internal clock tells it that it is time to bloom. The plant then blooms, perhaps enters another rest period after blooming, then begins the cycle anew. (Fall-blooming Cattleyas like C. labiata have a fairly short rest period after their leads mature, and a correspondingly longer rest period after they bloom. The reverse is true for Cattleyas that bloom in spring, like C. mossiae.) Plants in the "root before bloom" group can send out successive leads during the summer growing period. The plant stores up all of these leads, then they all bloom simultaneously. Some of the most famous unifoliate species are in the "root before bloom" group. Listed in order of blooming, with the approximate blooming time in parentheses, these include C. labiata (October/November), C. jenmanii (December/ January), C. percivaliana (December/January), C. trianaei (January /February), C. schroderae (March/April), and C. mossiae (March/April/May). Most of theall/winter/spring blooming hybrid unifoliates descend from these species, and follow the same growth pattern. Bifoliate species that follow this pattern, once again listed in order of blooming, are C. amethystoglossa (January /February), C. aurantiaca (February /March/ April), and C. skinneri (April). Many of the winter/spring blooming reds and oranges have C. aurantiaca in their background, and they all generally follow the "root before bloom" growth pattern. Cattleyas that follow the "root after bloom" growth pattern often bloom in late spring, summer or fall. These orchids send up their new leads in late winter, spring or summer, and bloom almost immediately as the leads reach maturity. Roots are produced immediately after blooming. Many of them, particularly the bifoliates, enter a long rest period after they finish rooting. In this group, if a plant sends up successive leads in the same season, each lead will bloom as it matures. Most bifoliate species and hybrids derived from them follow the "root after bloom" pattern. Listed roughly in their order of bloom, these include C. schilleriana (March/April), C. aclandiae (April/May), C. granulosa (May), C. harrisoniana (June/July), c. leopoldii (June/July), C. schofieldiana (July/August), C. velutina (August), C. bicolor (August/September), C. guttata (September), and C. tenuis (September). While orchid growers often associate this growth pattern only with bifoliates, some unifoliates also exhibit this pattern. Cattleya lueddemanniana sends out new leads over the winter months, then blooms in March. Only after blooming do the leads send out new roots. It is more typical for unifoliates in this group to send out new leads in spring and then bloom in

10 summer or early fall. Species following this pattern, listed roughly in their order of blooming, include: C. warscewiczii (June/July), C. dowiana (late June/ July), C. rex (July), and C. aurea (also known as C. dowiana var. aurea, July/August/ September). Many summer and fall blooming unifoliate hybrids follow this pattern. For example, the very famous yellow hybrid Blc. Toshi Aoki has almost exactly the same growth pattern as C. aurea, which figures prominently in its parentage. In closing, I should mention that I have simplified many details of each species' growth habits in this short article. For example, some of the species tend to send up an extra lead at certain times of the year. Whether or not these extra leads will bloom depends on the species. Many hybrids have such complex ancestry that they tend to be in growth almost constantly, sending up one lead after another with no particular seasonal pattern. However, if you study your plants carefully, I think you will find that almost all of them bloom quite consistently either on leads that have already rooted, or on leads that have not yet rooted. Classifying them according to this pattern will help you make a lot more sense of their growth patterns. For me, learning about individual plants' growth patterns is one of the most interesting aspects of growing orchids, and is far more than something I need to do simply in order to grow them better. Try it, and I think you may end up agreeing with me! Orchid Digest, July/Aug./Sept. 2003

*********************************************************************** (above two articles found in CVIOS Newsletter April 2007)

Submissions for the Newsletter: If there is anything any member would like published in the newsletter, the dates for submission are the 25th of each month. They can be emailed to Linda MacDonald. All suggestions and comments are most welcome. Please feel free to contact me at any time.

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