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RAS - ShingleRecycling.org


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									      Shingles Recycling:
    CMRA’s Best Practices Guide
            A presentation at the
           CMRA Annual Meeting
        On Sunday, January 14, 2007

January 14 – 16, 2007 ● San Antonio, Texas
• Manufacturers’ Asphalt Shingle Scrap

• Tear-Off Asphalt Shingle Scrap

• Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS)
  (Crushed & screened)
         Quality Control Plan
· Quality control of supply
  (Must comply with NESHAP*)

· Worker safety and health protection

· Final product quality, storage and handling

· Shingle recycling system design

· Final product sampling and lab testing
       “Best Practices Guide”
•   Markets first (especially HMA)
•   RAS product specifications
•   Processing guidelines
•   Worker health and safety
•   Sourcing *
•   Overall system design
            Key Barriers
• Lack of clear industry standards and
• Inconsistent state regulations
• Lack of adequate information /
  technology transfer
• Lack of national leadership by private
  industry and government
• Sean Anestis, Roof Top Recycling
• Ken Snow, Recycle America Enterprises
• John Adelman, Commercial Paving &
  Recycling Systems
• Ron Sines, PJ Keating
            (continued in the midwest)

•   Dusty Ordorff, Bituminous Roadways
•   Jim Omann, Omann Brothers
•   Roger Brown, Pace Construction
•   Joe Schroer, MoDOT
•   Mn/DOT
•   NAPA
CMRA’s Web Site
     Multiple Applications
• Hot mix asphalt (HMA)
• Aggregate / gravel
• Dust control
• Cold patch
• Ground cover
• Fuel (e.g., cement kilns)
• New shingles
        Factors Affecting
       HMA Performance
• Aggregate gradation of RAS
• Properties of final blended binder
  content within the HMA as affected by:
  – RAS asphalt binder
  – Virgin binder
   Factors Affecting
HMA Performance (continued)
• Location RAS is incorporated
  into HMA drum
• Temperature
• Moisture content of RAS and
  other aggregates
• Retention time in HMA drum
       Potential Benefits
• Rutting resistance (especially at warmer

• Conservation of landfill space

• Economic savings to HMA producer due
  to reduced need for virgin asphalt binder
  (add oil)
   Potential Disadvantages
• Contamination (tear-offs)

• Added costs of processing and use in

• Increased low-temperature / fatigue
Performance Grading (PG)
         Asphalt Grades
• PG 64-22
  (“PG sixty-four minus twenty-two”)
• High temperature for rut resistance
  64°C (147°F)
• Low temperature for fatigue and
  cold weather performance
  (e.g., cracking) -22°C (-8°F)
Mitigating Low Temperature
      Impacts of RAS

• Use less RAS instead of 5%
  (e.g., use 2% to 3%)
• Adjust the virgin binder PG to one grade
  softer (e.g., PG 52-34)
• Assure minimum amount of virgin
  binder (regardless of PG)
Engineering Design Philosophy

• Manufacturing a high quality product
• Not just recycling a waste material
• Long-term sustainability
        Deleterious Material
•   Nails
•   Other metal
•   Wood
•   Cellophane
•   Other plastic
•   Paper
•   Fiber board
List of Roofing Waste Items
   Included for Recycling
“YES” (Include these items):
  • Asphalt shingles
    List of Roofing Waste Items
      Excluded for Recycling
     “NO” (Do NOT include):
•   Wood
•   Metal flashings, gutters, etc
•   Nails (best effort)
•   Plastic wrap, buckets
•   Paper waste
•   No other garbage or trash
    Lista de material para techos basura
           artículo para reciclar:
       Si (Incluya)           No / Ningun
                              (No incluya)
• Repias               • Madera
• Papel del fietro     • Metal: flashings, canales
                       • Clavos
                       • Plastico
                       • Basura de papel

                       • La otra basura
   Two Sourcing Alternatives
• Source separation
  (at the job site)
• Central processing
  (at the shingle recycling facility)
• Inspections prior to any grinding
• Manual removal of any large items
• Elevated sorting platform
      Require Certification
• Require written “chain-of-custody”
• Develop pre-approved customer list of
  certified suppliers
• Maintain permanent file of all supply
 Grinding Equipment Vendors
• Examine designs dedicated to shingles
• Get customer references and then ask the
  questions about actual operating
• Plan for adequate maintenance
Ayres, April 2004
            Dust Control
• Comprehensive plan
• Spray with optimum amounts of water at
  critical grinding stages
• Shrouds
• Negative air (i.e., suction) systems to
  remove ambient dust and light debris
• Standard employee health and safety
  protection equipment and procedures
            Removal of
     Nails and Other Ferrous
• Assure an even layer of material on conveyor
  belts equipped with magnets
• Multiple magnets (minimum of three or four)
• Use combination of pulley belt and overhead
• Combine metal detection device with manual
  hand sorting for final quality control process
     Final Product Quality
• Conduct adequate testing
• Provide quality guarantees
• Keep covered to reduce unwanted
• Metered pre-blending with bituminous
  aggregate or RAP to reduce
 Final Product Preparation
• If stockpiled, pulverization of final
  product may be necessary immediately
  prior to use in HMA plant
• Alternatively, use RAS “fresh” about one
  week after production to avoid extended
            RAS Tests
• Gradation
• Asphalt content
• Asphalt cement (AC) performance grade
• Debris
• Moisture
           Quality Specs:
        Scrap Feedstock and
           Final Products
• Free of debris / trash / foreign matter

• Tear-off scrap must be asphalt shingles

• No nails!
• Tipping fees
• Value of final product
          Business Models
• Mobile and stationary
• Multiple products
• Integrate with existing RAP and
  aggregate production infrastructures
          Multiple Products
           (Beyond RAS)
• Clean wood for mulch
• Clean wood and other organic wastes for
  biomass fuel
• Gypsum (sheetrock) for land application
• Metals for recycling
       Regulatory Compliance
•   Pro-active, assertive planning
•   Anticipate requirements
•   Use precedents to your advantage
•   Document adequate market demand to
    avoid “speculative stockpiling”
• Optimize location of tear-off shingles
  processing facility
• Consider location of competing landfills
  and transfer stations
• Consider location of HMA plants
     Additional National
• New AASHTO specification
• EPA / CMRA study
• www.ShingleRecycling.org
• Asbestos data base
      AASHTO Specification (continued)
• Deleterious material maximum limits (Section 8):
  (material retained on the No. 4 sieve)
   – Heavy fraction = 0.50%
   – Lightweight fraction = 0.05%
      Missouri Shingle Spec
• Extrinsic Material Allowance Raised
  – 3.0% Total
  – 1.5% Wood
    AASHTO Specification (continued)
              Asbestos levels:
“…shall be certified to be asbestos free.”
  (Section 5.2)
“(Tear-off shingles are) construction debris
  and various state and local regulations may
  be applicable to its use. The user of this
  specification is advised to contact state and
  local transportation departments and
  environmental agencies to determine what
  additional requirements may be necessary.”
  (Note 2)
            Asbestos Risk
• Incidence of asbestos is extremely low

• Average content was only:
  – 0.02% in 1963

  – 0.00016% in 1973

                                   NAHB, 1999
             ASRAS Data
• Iowa (1,791 samples), no hits
• Maine (118 samples), no hits
• Mass:
  – (2,288 composite samples) 11 hits < 1%
  – (69 tarpaper samples) 2 < 5%
  – (109 ground RAS samples) 2 < 1%
• Florida (287 samples), 2 hits > 1%
                                       Ruesch, April 2003.
                ASRAS Data
•   Missouri (6 samples), no hits
•   Hawaii (100 samples), 1 hit > 1%
•   Minnesota (156 samples), no hits
•   Minnesota (50 tarpaper), 1 hit @ 2% - 5%
             We still want more data!
           (for EPA / CMRA project.)

                                         Ruesch, April 2003.
           DKA / AES
       Airborne Fiber Tests
       As part of the RMRC Project:
Environmental Testing of Airborne Particles at
        The Shingle Processing Plant

                                   Krivit, April 2003.
       Summary Highlights
• Risk from asbestos is negligible to non-
• Two rounds of sampling for total:
  – Dust (1999)
  – Fibers (2002)
• Common sense and best management
  practices can help prevent employee
                                   Krivit, April 2003.
          Asbestos Testing
• Explore exemption alternative, but if not,
  then …..
• ….develop product sampling plan
• ….develop supply sampling plan on
  whole shingles / mixed roofing scrap
• Recognize that more initial testing may
  be needed to gather adequate baseline
       Environmental Risks
• Air emissions impacts from tear-off RAS
  in HMA plants
• PAH and other particulates
• Run-off from whole shingles and RAS
• Run-off from RAS use as ground cover
  or dust control (in 100% form)

2. MANAGE the asbestos issue (b)

3. PROTECT employee health and safety (c)

4. GUARANTEE your product quality (d)
CMRA’s Web Site
    Dan Krivit and Associates

January 14 – 16, 2007 ● San Antonio, Texas

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