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CHAPTER 3 UNIX Utilities for Power Users

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CHAPTER 3 UNIX Utilities for Power Users Powered By Docstoc
					Programmable Text Processing
         with awk

                   Lecturer: Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad
                         Email: andrzej@csun.edu
                           Phone: 818-677-4954


                 “UNIX for Programmers and Users”
       Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, GRAHAM GLASS, KING ABLES

   Slides partially adapted from Kumoh National University of Technology (Korea) and NYU
             Programmable Text Processing with awk
Programmable Text Processing with awk
• The awk utility scans one or more files and an action on all of the lines that
  match a particular condition.

• The actions and conditions are described by an awk program and range from
  the very simple to the complex.

• awk got its name from the combined first letters of its authors’ surnames: Aho,
  Weinberger, and Kernighan.




                             Aho        Weinberger     Kernighan


• It borrows its control structures and expression syntax from the language C.


            Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   2
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk
• awk's purpose: A general purpose programmable filter that handles text (strings)
  as easily as numbers
  – this makes awk one of the most powerful of the Unix utilities
• A programming language for handling common data manipulation tasks with
  only a few lines of code
• awk is a pattern-action language
• awk processes fields
• The language looks a little like C but automatically handles input, field splitting,
  initialization, and memory management
  – Built-in string and number data types
  – No variable type declarations
• awk is a great prototyping language
  – start with a few lines and keep adding until it does what you want
• awk gets it’s input from
  – files
  – redirection and pipes
  – directly from standard input

• nawk (new awk) is the new standard for awk
  – Designed to facilitate large awk programs
  – gawk is a free nawk clone from GNU

           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954      3
             Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk Program
• An awk program is a list of one or more commands of the form:

           [ pattern ] [ \{ action \} ]

• For example:
          BEGIN { print "List of html files:" }
          /\.html$/ { print }                         ---> “/” then “\.” then “html” then “$”
          END { print "There you go!" }

• action is performed on every line that matches pattern (or condition in other words).

• If pattern is not provided, action is performed on every line.

• If action is not provided, then all matching lines are simply sent to standard output.

• Since patterns and actions are optional, actions must be enclosed in braces to distinguish
  them from pattern.

• The statements in an awk program may be indented and formatted using spaces, tabs,
  and new lines.

            Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954            4
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Patterns and Actions
• Search a set of files for patterns.
• Perform specified actions upon lines or fields that contain instances of patterns.
• Does not alter input files.
• Process one input line at a time

• Every program statement has to have a pattern or an action or both
• Default pattern is to match all lines
• Default action is to print current record
• Patterns are simply listed; actions are enclosed in { }
• awk scans a sequence of input lines, or records, one by one, searching for lines
  that match the pattern
  – meaning of match depends on the pattern




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954     5
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Patterns
• Selector that determines whether action is to be executed pattern can be:

• the special token BEGIN or END
• extended regular expressions (enclosed with //)
• arithmetic relation operators
• string-valued expressions
• arbitrary combination of the above:

  /CSUN/ matches if the string “CSUN” is in the record

  x > 0 matches if the condition is true

  /CSUN/ && (name == "UNIX Tools")




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   6
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
Special awk Patterns: BEGIN, END

• BEGIN and END provide a way to gain control before and after processing, for
  initialization and wrap-up.

• BEGIN: actions are performed before the first input line is read.

• END: actions are done after the last input line has been processed.

BEGIN { print "List of html files:" }
/\.html$/ { print }
END { print "There you go!" }




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   7
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Actions
• action is a list of one or more of the following kinds of C-like statements
  terminated by semicolons:

            if ( conditional ) statement [ else statement ]
            while ( conditional ) statement
            for ( expression; conditional; expression ) statement
            break
            continue
            variable = expression
            print [ list of expressions ] [>expression]
            printf format [, list of expressions ] [>expression]
            next(skips the remaining patterns on the current line of input)
            exit(skips the rest of the current line)
            { list of statements }

• action may include arithmetic and string expressions and assignments and
  multiple output streams.




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   8
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: An Example
$ ls | awk '
  BEGIN { print "List of html files:" }
  /\.html$/ { print }
  END { print "There you go!" }
  ‘
List of html files:
index.html
as1.html
as2.html
There you go!
$_




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   9
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Variables
• awk scripts can define and use variables

BEGIN { sum = 0 }
{ sum ++ }
END { print sum }

• Some variables are predefined:

•NR - Number of records processed
•NF - Number of fields in current record
•FILENAME - name of current input file
•FS - Field separator, space or TAB by default
•OFS - Output field separator, space by default
•ARGC/ARGV - Argument Count, Argument Value array
  – Used to get arguments from the command line




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   10
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Records
• Default record separator is newline
  – by default, awk processes its input a line at a time.

• Could be any other regular expression.

• Special variable RS: record separator
  – can be changed in BEGIN action

• Special variable NR is the variable whose value is the number of the current
  record.




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   11
             Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Fields
• Each input line is split into fields.

• Special variable FS: field separator: default is whitespace (1 or more spaces or
  tabs)

awk –Fc
  – sets FS to the character c
  – can also be changed in BEGIN

• $0 is the entire line

• $1 is the first field, $2 is the second field, …., $NF is the last field

• Only fields begin with $, variables are unadorned




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   12
                Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Simple Output From AWK
• Printing Every Line

  – If an action has no pattern, the action is performed to all input lines

{ print }
  will print all input lines to standard out

{ print $0 }
  will do the same thing

• Printing Certain Fields

  – multiple items can be printed on the same output line with a single print statement

{ print $1, $3 }

  – expressions separated by a comma are, by default, separated by a single space when
    output



               Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   13
             Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Output (continued)
• Special variable NF: number of fields
  – Any valid expression can be used after a $ to indicate the contents of a particular field
  – One built-in expression is NF: number of fields

{ print NF, $1, $NF }
  – will print the number of fields, the first field, and the last field in the current record

{ print $(NF-2) }
  – prints the third to last field

• Computing and Printing
  – You can also do computations on the field values and include the results in your output

{ print $1, $2 * $3 }




            Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954             14
             Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Output (continued)
• Printing Line Numbers

  – The built-in variable NR can be used to print line numbers

{ print NR, $0 }
  – will print each line prefixed with its line number

• Putting Text in the Output

  – you can also add other text to the output besides what is in the current record

{ print "total pay for", $1, "is", $2 * $3 }

  – Note that the inserted text needs to be surrounded by double quotes




            Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   15
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Fancier Output
• Lining Up Fields

  – like C, Awk has a printf function for producing formatted output

  – printf has the form:

printf( format, val1, val2, val3, … )

{ printf(“total pay for %s is $%.2f\n”, $1, $2 * $3) }

  – when using printf, formatting is under your control so no automatic spaces or newlines
    are provided by awk. You have to insert them yourself.

{ printf(“%-8s %6.2f\n”, $1, $2 * $3 ) }




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954      16
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Selection
• Awk patterns are good for selecting specific lines from the input for further
  processing

• Selection by Comparison
$2 >= 5 { print }

• Selection by Computation
$2 * $3 > 50 { printf(“%6.2f for %s\n”, $2 * $3, $1) }

• Selection by Text Content
$1 == “CSUN"
/CSUN/

• Combinations of Patterns
$2 >= 4 || $3 >= 20

• Selection by Line Number
NR >= 10 && NR <= 20

           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   17
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Arithmetic and Variables
• awk variables take on numeric (floating point) or string values according to
  context.
• User-defined variables are unadorned (they need not be declared).
• By default, user-defined variables are initialized to the null string which has
  numerical value 0.

•awk Operators:

  =                assignment operator; sets a variable equal to a value or
                   string
  ==               equality operator; returns TRUE is both sides are equal
  !=               inverse equality operator
  &&               logical AND
  ||               logical OR
  !                logical NOT
  <, >, <=, >=     relational operators
  +, -, /, *, %, ^ arithmetic
  String concatenation

           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   18
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Arithmetic and Variables Examples
• Counting is easy to do with Awk

$3 > 15 { emp = emp + 1}                  # work hours are in the third field
END { print emp, “employees worked more than 15 hrs”}

• Computing sums and averages is also simple

{ pay = pay + $2 * $3 }                            # $2 pay per hour, $3 - hours
END { print NR, “employees”
     print “total pay is”, pay
     print “average pay is”, pay/NR
   }




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   19
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Handling Text
• One major advantage of awk is its ability to handle strings as easily as many
  languages handle numbers

• awk variables can hold strings of characters as well as numbers, and Awk
  conveniently translates back and forth as needed

• This program finds the employee who is paid the most per hour:

# Fields: employee, payrate

$2 > maxrate { maxrate = $2; maxemp = $1 }
END { print “highest hourly rate:”, maxrate, “for”, maxemp }




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   20
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: String Manipulation
• String Concatenation
  – new strings can be created by combining old ones

{ names = names $1 " " }
END { print names }

• Printing the Last Input Line

  – although NR retains its value after the last input line has been read, $0 does not

{ last = $0 }
END { print last }




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954      21
               Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Built-In Functions
• awk contains a number of built-in functions.

• Arithmetic
  – sin, cos, atan, exp, int, log, rand, sqrt

• String
  – length, substitution, find substrings, split strings

• Output
  – print, printf, print and printf to file

• Special
  – system - executes a Unix command
     • e.g., system(“clear”) to clear the screen
     • Note double quotes around the Unix command
  – exit - stop reading input and go immediately to the END pattern-action pair if it exists,
    otherwise exit the script




            Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954            22
              Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Built-in Functions

• Example:

• Counting lines, words, and characters using length (a poor man’s wc):

{
    nc = nc + length($0) + 1
    nw = nw + NF
}
END { print NR, "lines,", nw, "words,", nc, "characters" }

• substr(s, m, n) produces the substring of s that begins at position m and is at
  most n characters long.




             Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   23
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Control Flow Statements
• awk provides several control flow statements for making decisions and writing
  loops

• if-then-else

$2 > 6 { n = n + 1; pay = pay + $2 * $3 }
END {
  if (n > 0)
           print n, "employees, total pay is", pay, "average pay is", pay/n
  else
           print "no employees are paid more than $6/hour"
}




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   24
                 Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Loops
• while
# interest1 - compute compound interest
# input: amount, rate, years
# output: compound value at end of each year
{i=1
  while (i <= $3)
  {
  printf(“\t%.2f\n”, $1 * (1 + $2) ^ i)
  i=i+1
  }
}
• do-while
do {
 statement1
 } while (expression)
• for
# interest2 - compute compound interest
# input: amount, rate, years
# output: compound value at end of each year
{ for (i = 1; i <= $3; i = i + 1)
               printf("\t%.2f\n", $1 * (1 + $2) ^ i)
}



               Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   25
             Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Arrays
• Array elements are not declared
• Array subscripts can have any value:
  – numbers
  – strings! (associative arrays)

  arr[3]="value"
  grade["Korn"]=40.3

• Example

# reverse - print input in reverse order by line
{ line[NR] = $0 } # remember each line
END {
  for (i=NR; (i > 0); i=i-1)
          { print line[i] }
}




            Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   26
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• In the following example, we run a simple awk program on the text file “float” to
  insert the number of fields into each line:

$ cat float                                   --> look at the original file.
Wish I was floating in blue across the sky,
My imagination is strong,
And I often visit the days
When everything seemed so clear.
Now I wonder what I’m doing here at all…
$ awk `{ print NF, $0 }` float                --> execute the command.
9 Wish I was floating in blue across the sky,
4 My imagination is strong,
6 And I often visit the days
5 When everything seemed so clear.
9 Now I wonder what I’m doing here at all…
$_



          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   27
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• We run a program that displayed the first, third, and last fields of every line:

$ cat awk2                            --> look at the awk script.
BEGIN { print “Start of file:”, FILENAME }
{ print $1 $3 $NF }                   --> print first, third and last fields.
END { print “End of file” }
$ awk -f awk2 float                   --> execute the script.
Start of file: float
Wishwassky,
Myisstrong,
Andoftendays
Whenseemdedclear.
Nowwonderall…
End of file
$_




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   28
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• In the next example, we run a program that displayed the first, third, and last
  fields of lines 2 and 3 of “float”:

$ cat awk3                        --> look at the awk script.
NR > 1 && NR < 4 { print NR, $1, $3, $NF }
$ awk -f awk3 float               --> execute the script.
2 My is strong,
3 And often days
$_




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   29
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• A variable’s initial value is a null string or zero, depending on how you use it.

• In the next example, the program counts the number of lines and words in a file
 as it echoed the lines to standard output:

$ cat awk4                        --> look at the awk script.
BEGIN { print “Scanning file” }
{
  printf “line %d: %s\n”, NR, $0;
  lineCount++;
  wordCount += NF;
}
END {printf “lines = %d, words=%d\n”, lineCount, wordCount}




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   30
            Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
$ awk -f awk4 float                    --> exeute the script.
Scanning file
line 1 : Wish I was floating in blue across the sky,
line 2 : My imagination is strong,
line 3 : And I often visit the days
line 4 : When everything seemed so clear.
line 5 : Now I wonder what I’m doing here at all…
lines = 5, words = 33
$_




           Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   31
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• In the following example, we print the fields in each line in reverse order:

$ cat awk5                                         --> look at the awk script.
{
   for ( i=NF; i>=1; i-- )
     printf “%s ”, $i;
    printf “\n”;
 }
$ awk -f awk5 float                                --> execute the script.
sky, the across blue in floating was I wish
strong, is imagination My
days the visit often I And
clear, so seemed everything When
all… at here doing I’m what wonder I Now
$_




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   32
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• In the next example, we display all of the lines that contained a t followed by an
  e, with any number of characters in between.

$ cat awk6                           --> look at the script.
/t.*e/ { print $0 }
$ awk -f awk6 float                  --> execute the script.
Wish I was floating in blue across the sky,
And I often visit the days
When everything seemed so clear.
Now I wonder what I’m doing here at all…
$_




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   33
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• A condition may be two expressions separated by a comma. In this case, awk
  performs action on every line from the first line that matches the first condition
  to the next line that satisfies the second condition:

$ cat awk7                                         --> look at the awk script.
/strong/, /clear/ { print $0 }
$ awk -f awk7 float                                --> execute the script.
My imagination is strong,                          --> first line of the range
And I often visit the days
When everything seemed so clear.                   --> last line of the range
$_




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954     34
           Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• In the next example, we process a file whose fields are separated by colons:

$ cat awk3                                  --> look at the awk script.
NR > 1 && NR < 4 { print $1, $3, $NF }
$ cat float2                                --> look at the input file.
Wish:I:was:floating:in:blue:across:the:sky,
My:imagination:is:strong,
And:I:often:visit:the:days
When:I:wonder:what:I’m:doing:here:at:all…
Now:I:wonder:what:I’m:doing:here:at:all…
$ awk -F: -f awk3 float3                    --> execute the script.
My is strong,
And often days
$_




          Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   35
             Programmable Text Processing with awk
awk: Examples
• Here’s an example of the use of some built-in functions:

$ cat test                                 --> look at the input file.
1.1 a
2.2 at
3.3 eat
4.4 beat
$ cat awk8                                            --> look at the awk script.
{
  printf “$1 = %g ”, $1
  printf “exp = %.2g “, exp($1);
  printf “log = %.2g “, log($1);
  printf “sqrt = %.2g “, sqrt($1);
  printf “int = %d “, int($1);
  printf “substr( %s,1,2) = %s \n”, $2, substr( $2,1,2);
}
$ awk -f awk8 test                         --> execute the script.
$1=1.1 exp=3 log=0.095 sqrt=1 int =1 substr(a,1,2)=a
$1=2.2 exp=9 log=0.79 sqrt=1.5 int=2 substr(at,1,2)=at
$1=3.3 exp=27 log=1.2 sqrt=1.8 int=3 substr(eat,1,2)=ea
$1=4.4 exp=81 log=1.5 sqrt=2.1 int=4 substr(beat,1,2)=be
$_


            Prof. Andrzej (AJ) Bieszczad Email: andrzej@csun.edu Phone: 818-677-4954   36
Programmable Text Processing with awk




      awk challenge

				
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