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salmonilla

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					Salmonella
What is it? Salmonella bacteria are a major cause of food poisoning and infection from poultry, reptiles, and pets. Salmonella organisms can cause a wide variety of illnesses, including typhoid fever, meningitis, and osteomyelitis (infection of the bone). Some infected children have no symptoms at all, but the most common infection caused by Salmonella is gastroenteritis. Who gets it? Anyone can get Salmonella, but it is most common in children under 5 (and in the elderly). Millions of cases occur each year in the United States, and at least half of them are in children. Salmonella is found in almost all kitchens. Thankfully, proper food handling, cooking, and cleaning will reliably kill the Salmonella bacteria. Eating raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, or red meat is a common cause of infection. So is cross contamination from uncooked poultry or red meat in the kitchen. Contamination can also come from animal products or infected people involved in food preparation. Children can also get sick from drinking raw milk (unpasteurized milk) or from eating unwashed fruits or vegetables. Poultry, livestock, amphibians, and reptiles can carry Salmonella. Children can get sick from playing with or handling these animals if the bacteria get in the children’s mouths. Drinking contaminated water is a major source of Salmonella worldwide, and is one of the reasons that a clean water supply is so important. What are the symptoms? Most commonly, Salmonella causes gastroenteritis with cramping, diarrhea, abdominal tenderness, vomiting, and fever. The diarrhea is usually watery, but may contain blood or mucus. Some children get very sick, with high fevers, headaches, confusion, and sometimes even seizures. Salmonella can cause enteric fever (typhoid fever). Some children have a salmon-colored rash (rose spots). When Salmonella bacteria get into the bloodstream, they can travel and cause infection throughout the body. Children with sickle cell disease, HIV, and certain other causes of anemia are among those at risk for complications from Salmonella. Is it contagious? Salmonella can be spread from person to person by the fecal-oral route. How long does it last? Salmonella symptoms usually begin about 24 hours after exposure (from 6 to 72 hours). Enteric fever can occur up to 60 days after exposure. The symptoms usually go away within a week in otherwise healthy children.

How to do the test: TYPHOID ANTIGENE A TYPHOID ANTIGENE B TYPHOID ANTIGENE O TYPHOID ANTIGENE H

40 MICL SERUM + GOUTTE R A Agglutination:test+ On continu dilution T=1/40 Pas Agglutination:TT<1/20

40 MICL SERUM + GOUTTE R B Agglutination:test+ Pas Agglutination:T-

40 MICL SERUM + GOUTTE R O Agglutination:test+ Pas Agglutination:T-

40 MICL SERUM +GOUTTE R H Agglutination:test+ Pas Agglutination:T-

20 MICL SERUM T+: dilution T=1/80 T-:titre=T=1/40

20 MICL SERUM

20 MICL SERUM

20 MICL SERUM

10 MICL SERUM T+:dilution T=1/160 T-:titre=1/80

10 MICL SERUM

10 MICL SERUM

10 MICL SERUM

5 MICL SERUM T+:T=1/320 T-:T=1/160

5 MICL SERUM

5 MICL SERUM

5 MICL SERUM


				
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Description: science lab and blood