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blood test (DOC)


science lab and blood

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									Normally, where are the aminotransferases? AST (SGOT) is normally found in a diversity of tissues including liver, heart, muscle, kidney, and brain. It is released into serum when any one of these tissues is damaged. For example, its level in serum rises with heart attacks and with muscle disorders. It is therefore, not a highly specific indicator of liver injury. ALT (SGPT) is, by contrast, normally found largely in the liver. This is not to say that it is exclusively located in liver, but that is where it is most concentrated. It is released into the bloodstream as the result of liver injury. It therefore serves as a fairly specific indicator of liver status.
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Another name for aminotransferase is transaminase. The enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is also known as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT); and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is also known as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT).


To put matters briefly, AST = SGOT and ALT = SGPT. GGT BLOOD TEST: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid. GGT participates in the transfer of amino acids across the cellular membrane and in glutathione metabolism. High concentrations are found in the liver, bile ducts, and the kidney. A test that measures the amount of GGT in the blood is used to detect diseases of the liver, bile ducts, and kidney; and to differentiate liver or bile duct (hepatobiliary) disorders from bone disease. 1. Normal: 0-30 U/L 2. Increased (Elevation 3 times normal is significant) 1. Chronic Alcoholic Hepatitis or other liver disease 2. Liver neoplasm or metastases 3. Nephrotic Syndrome 4. Cholestasis 5. Pancreatic Carcinoma 6. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) 7. Sepsis 8. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) 9. Medications 1. Phenytoin 2. Barbiturates

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