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									 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ENGINEERING
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME
                            AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)                                                       IJMET
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI)                  ©IAEME
www.jifactor.com




       ANALYSIS AND MODELING OF SINGLE POINT CUTTING
 (HSS MATERIAL) TOOL WITH HELP OF ANSYS FOR OPTIMIZATION OF
             (TRANSIENT) VIBRATION PARAMETERS

              Prabhat Kumar Sinha,         Rajneesh Pandey*,       Vijay Kumar yadav
 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shepherd School of Engineering & Technology, Allahabad




ABSTRACT

        The purpose of this article is to study the change of vibration on lathe machine by the change
of tool material. Industrial vibration on analysis is a measurement tool used to identify, predict and
prevent failure in any rotating machinery. By the vibration analysis on any mechanical component
will improve the reliability of machine and lead to better machine efficiency and reduce down time
for eliminating electrical and mechanical failure. Machining and measuring operations are invariably
accompanied by relative vibration between work piece and tool. The main cause of vibration is as
follows: Unbalance forces in the machine: these forces are produced from within itself. Dry friction
between the two mating surfaces: this produces what are known as self excited vibration. The effect
of vibration is excessive stresses, undesirable noise, looseness of part and partial or complete failure
of parts. in spite of these harmful effects the vibration phenomena does have some uses also , e.g in
musical instrument ,vibrating screens , shakers stress reliving.

Keywords: Lathe Machine, hss Tool, Mild Steel Work Material, Ansys, Vibration Parameter
(Temperature, Pressure).

INTRODUCTION

       Machining and vibration measuring are invariably accompanied by relative vibration between
work piece and tool. These vibrations are due to one or more of the following causes:

(1) In homogeneities in the work piece material;
(2) Variation of chip cross section;
(3) Disturbances in the work piece or tool drives;
(4) Dynamic loads generated by acceleration/deceleration of massive moving components;

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

(5) Vibration transmitted from the environment;
(6) Self-excited vibration generated by the cutting process or by friction (machine-tool chatter).

       The tolerable level of relative vibration between tool and work piece, i.e., the maximum
amplitude and to some extent the frequency is determined by the required surface finish and
machining accuracy as well as by detrimental effects of the vibration on tool life and by the noise
which is frequently generated.

ANALYSIS OF MACHINE TOOL VIBRATION BY ANASYS METHOD

        Trainsents Vibrations can be analyzed by developing software’s. In this paper we design tool
of hss material has comparatively better resistance to heat and wear, and work piece used of mild
steel all the data are taken from standard researches paper the and input values are used analysis
vibration through ansys method . we know that vibration is directly factor of temperature so in this
analysis we find transient analysis, geometric analysis ,mesh analysis on different vibration
producing parameters like pressure and temperature and by taking analysis on different pressures all
are shown given below.

                                          Tool specification
                  Back Rake angle                                     12degree
                   Side Rake angle                                    12degree
                   End relief angle                                   10degree
               End cutting edge angle                                 30degree
               Side cutting Edge angle                                15degree
                     Nose Radius                                       0.8mm

Contents

   •   Unit




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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

   •    Model (A4)
          o Geometry
                   Part 1
          o Coordinate Systems
          o Mesh
          o Transient Analysis (A5)
                   Analysis Settings
                   Loads
                   Solution (A6)
                          Solution Information
                          Results
                          Stress Tool
                                  Safety Factor
                          Stress Tool 2
                                  Safety Factor
                          Minimum Principal Elastic Strain

   •    Material Data
          o High speed Steell

Units
                                         TABLE 1
                     Unit System Metric (m, kg, N, s, V, A) Degrees rad/s Celsius
                            Angle                     Degrees
               Rotational Velocity                      rad/s
                     Temperature                       Celsius

Model (A4)
Geometry
                                           TABLE 2
                                    Model (A4) > Geometry
                                   Object Name               Geometry
                                           State           Fully Defined
                                           Definition
                                         Source    C:\Users\vijay\Desktop\tool.igs
                                           Type                 Iges
                                    Length Unit                Meters
                                Element Control         Program Controlled
                                   Display Style             Part Color
                                         Bounding Box
                                      Length X            3.0001e-002 m
                                      Length Y            8.6052e-002 m
                                       Length Z           3.7476e-002 m
                                           Properties
                                        Volume            6.9165e-005 m³

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

                                           Mass             0.54295 kg
                              Scale Factor Value                1.
                                            Statistics
                                          Bodies                 1
                                  Active Bodies                  1
                                          Nodes                4418
                                       Elements                854
                                    Mesh Metric                None
                                           Preferences
                            Import Solid Bodies                Yes
                          Import Surface Bodies                Yes
                             Import Line Bodies                 No
                           Parameter Processing                Yes
                        Personal Parameter Key                  DS
                        CAD Attribute Transfer                  No
                   Named Selection Processing                   No
                   Material Properties Transfer                 No
                              CAD Associativity                Yes
                    Import Coordinate Systems                   No
                           Reader Save Part File                No
                         Import Using Instances                Yes
                               Do Smart Update                  No
                      Attach File Via Temp File                Yes
                           Temporary Directory C:\Users\vijay\AppData\Local\Temp
                                  Analysis Type                3-D
                       Mixed Import Resolution                 None
            Enclosure and Symmetry Processing                  Yes

                                           TABLE 3
                               Model (A4) > Geometry > Parts
                                 Object Name             Part 1
                                         State          Meshed
                                     Graphics Properties
                                      Visible             Yes
                                Transparency               1
                                           Definition
                                  Suppressed              No
                           Stiffness Behavior           Flexible
                           Coordinate System Default Coordinate System
                       Reference Temperature        By Environment
                                            Material
                                  Assignment        Structural Steel
                            Nonlinear Effects             Yes
                       Thermal Strain Effects             Yes

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

                                         Bounding Box
                                    Length X          3.0001e-002 m
                                    Length Y          8.6052e-002 m
                                    Length Z          3.7476e-002 m
                                           Properties
                                     Volume           6.9165e-005 m³
                                         Mass           0.54295 kg
                                  Centroid X          1.4936e-002 m
                                  Centroid Y          2.6577e-002 m
                                  Centroid Z          1.6318e-002 m
                         Moment of Inertia Ip1      3.1446e-004 kg·m²
                         Moment of Inertia Ip2      8.3141e-005 kg·m²
                         Moment of Inertia Ip3      3.1255e-004 kg·m²
                                            Statistics
                                       Nodes               4418
                                    Elements               854
                                Mesh Metric                None

Coordinate Systems

                                           TABLE 4
                     Model (A4) > Coordinate Systems > Coordinate System
                                 Object Name Global Coordinate System
                                         State       Fully Defined
                                           Definition
                                        Type           Cartesian
                       Ansys System Number                  0.
                                             Origin
                                     Origin X             0. m
                                     Origin Y             0. m
                                     Origin Z             0. m
                                     Directional Vectors
                                  X Axis Data          [ 1. 0. 0. ]
                                  Y Axis Data          [ 0. 1. 0. ]
                                  Z Axis Data          [ 0. 0. 1. ]

Mesh
                                           TABLE 5
                                      Model (A4) > Mesh
                                     Object Name         Mesh
                                             State      Solved
                                            Defaults
                                Physics Preference    Mechanical
                                        Relevance         0
                                             Sizing
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

                      Use Advanced Size Function                Off
                                 Relevance Center             Coarse
                                       Element Size           Default
                                   Initial Size Seed     Active Assembly
                                         Smoothing            Medium
                                          Transition            Fast
                                Span Angle Center             Coarse
                           Minimum Edge Length            1.7765e-003 m
                                              Inflation
                      Use Automatic Tet Inflation              None
                                   Inflation Option Smooth Transition
                                   Transition Ratio            0.272
                                 Maximum Layers                  5
                                       Growth Rate              1.2
                               Inflation Algorithm              Pre
                          View Advanced Options                 No
                                             Advanced
                                   Shape Checking Standard Mechanical
                          Element Midside Nodes Program Controlled
                          Straight Sided Elements               No
                                Number of Retries           Default (4)
                             Rigid Body Behavior Dimensionally Reduced
                                   Mesh Morphing             Disabled
                                                Pinch
                                   Pinch Tolerance         Please Define
                              Generate on Refresh               No
                                              Statistics
                                              Nodes            4418
                                           Elements             854
                                       Mesh Metric             None

Transient Analysis (A5)
                                           TABLE 6
                                     Model (A4) > Analysis
                                     Object Name Static Structural (A5)
                                              State        Solved
                                           Definition
                                     Physics Type        Structural
                                    Analysis Type     Static Structural
                                     Solver Target ANSYS Mechanical
                                            Options
                          Environment Temperature          22. °C
                               Generate Input Only           No


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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

                                             TABLE 7
                    Model (A4) > Trasient Analysis (A5) > Analysis Settings
                     Object Name                       Analysis Settings
                              State                      Fully Defined
                                          Step Controls
                 Number Of Steps                               1.
             Current Step Number                               1.
                   Step End Time                              1. s
              Auto Time Stepping                      Program Controlled
                                         Solver Controls
                      Solver Type                     Program Controlled
                    Weak Springs                      Program Controlled
                 Large Deflection                             Off
                     Inertia Relief                           Off
                                       Nonlinear Controls
               Force Convergence                      Program Controlled
            Moment Convergence                        Program Controlled
      Displacement Convergence                        Program Controlled
            Rotation Convergence                      Program Controlled
                      Line Search                     Program Controlled
                                         Output Controls
                  Calculate Stress                            Yes
                  Calculate Strain                            Yes
              Calculate Results At                      All Time Points
                                    Analysis Data Management
            Solver Files Directory C:\Users\vijay\Documents\tool static_files\dp0\SYS\MECH\
                  Future Analysis                            None
    Scratch Solver Files Directory
                 Save ANSYS db                                No
           Delete Unneeded Files                              Yes
               Nonlinear Solution                             No
                      Solver Units                      Active System
               Solver Unit System                             Mks

                                        TABLE 8
                        Model (A4) > Transient Analysis (A5) > Loads
                   Fixed    Fixed Support
  Object Name                                  Pressure        Pressure 2         Pressure 3
                  Support         2
          State                                Fully Defined
                                           Scope
      Scoping
                                              Geometry Selection
      Method
     Geometry                                       1 Face
                                          Definition

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

          Type         Fixed Support                              Pressure
    Suppressed                                        No
     Define By                                                   Normal To
                                                2000. Pa          1100. Pa         1200. Pa
    Magnitude
                                                (ramped)          (ramped)         (ramped)




                                        FIGURE 1
                       Model (A4) > Transient Analysis (A5) > Pressure




Solution (A6)
                                         TABLE 9
                       Model (A4) > Transient Analysis (A5) > Solution
                                      Object Name Solution (A6)
                                              State   Solved
                                Adaptive Mesh Refinement
                            Max Refinement Loops         1.
                                 Refinement Depth        2.

                                         TABLE 10
         Model (A4) > Transient Analysis (A5) > Solution (A6) > Solution Information
                                    Object Name Solution Information
                                            State        Solved
                                   Solution Information
                                 Solution Output     Solver Output
                       Newton-Raphson Residuals             0
                                  Update Interval         2.5 s
                                   Display Points          All

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

                                          TABLE 11
                 Model (A4) > Transient Analysis (A5) > Solution (A6) > Results
                             Total
          Object Name                       Shear Elastic Strain         Equivalent Stress
                         Deformation
                  State                                 Solved
                                            Scope
      Scoping Method                              Geometry Selection
             Geometry                                  All Bodies
                                          Definition
                             Total                                    Equivalent (von-Mises)
                  Type                      Shear Elastic Strain
                         Deformation                                          Stress
                     By                                  Time
         Display Time                                     Last
       Calculate Time
                                                          Yes
                History
              Identifier
            Orientation                           XY Plane
                                             Global Coordinate
    Coordinate System
                                                   System
          Use Average                                             Yes
                                           Results
             Minimum         0. m            -1.2165e-007 m/m               23.598 Pa
             Maximum 2.7172e-009 m            3.6283e-008 m/m               46326 Pa
                                         Information
                  Time                                     1. s
             Load Step                                      1
               Substep                                      1
     Iteration Number                                       1




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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

                                        TABLE 12
          Model (A4) > Transient Analysis (A5) > Solution (A6) > Stress Safety Tools
                             Object Name          Stress Tool
                                       State            Solved
                                           Definition
                                     Theory      Max Shear Stress
                                     Factor              0.5
                          Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material

                                         TABLE 13
         Model (A4) > Transient Analysis (A5) > Solution (A6) > Stress Tool > Results
                                  Object Name      Safety Factor
                                           State       Solved
                                           Scope
                                 Scoping Method Geometry Selection
                                       Geometry    All Bodies
                                            Definition
                                             Type      Safety Factor
                                                By         Time
                                     Display Time          Last
                           Calculate Time History          Yes
                                     Use Average           Yes
                                         Identifier
                                            Results
                                        Minimum            > 10
                                           Information
                                             Time           1. s
                                         Load Step           1
                                           Substep           1
                                 Iteration Number            1

                                         TABLE 14
          Model (A4) > Transient analysis (A5) > Solution (A6) > Stress Safety Tools
                            Object Name          Stress Tool 2
                                       State            Solved
                                           Definition
                                    Theory      Max Tensile Stress
                          Stress Limit Type Tensile Yield Per Material

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

                                           TABLE 15
        Model (A4) > Transient Analysis (A5) > Solution (A6) > Stress Tool 2 > Results
                                   Object Name        Safety Factor
                                            State        Solved
                                             Scope
                                Scoping Method Geometry Selection
                                       Geometry        All Bodies
                                           Definition
                                            Type      Safety Factor
                                               By         Time
                                   Display Time           Last
                         Calculate Time History            Yes
                                    Use Average            Yes
                                        Identifier
                                            Results
                                       Minimum            > 10
                                          Information
                                            Time           1. s
                                       Load Step            1
                                         Substep            1
                               Iteration Number             1

                                           TABLE 16
                Model (A4) Transient Analysis (A5) > Solution (A6) > Results
                             Object Name Minimum Principal Elastic Strain
                                     State               Solved
                                             Scope
                         Scoping Method            Geometry Selection
                                Geometry                All Bodies
                                            Definition
                                     Type Minimum Principal Elastic Strain
                                        By                Time
                            Display Time                   Last
                  Calculate Time History                   Yes
                             Use Average                   Yes
                                 Identifier
                                             Results
                                Minimum             -2.1986e-007 m/m
                                Maximum             -8.5164e-011 m/m
                                          Information
                                     Time                   1. s
                                Load Step                    1
                                  Substep                    1
                        Iteration Number                     1

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

Material Data
High Speed Steel

                                          TABLE 17
                                 High Speed Steel > Constants
                                               Density 7850 kg m^-3
                      Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 1.2e-005 C^-1
                                          Specific Heat 434 J kg^-1 C^-1
                                  Thermal Conductivity 60.5 W m^-1 C^-1
                                             Resistivity 1.7e-007 ohm m

                                         TABLE 18
                      High Speed Steel > Compressive Ultimate Strength
                              Compressive Ultimate Strength Pa
                                             0

                                        TABLE 19
                       High Speed Steel > Compressive Yield Strength
                               Compressive Yield Strength Pa
                                         4.5e+008

                                         TABLE 20
                          High Speed Steel > Tensile Yield Strength
                                  Tensile Yield Strength Pa
                                          4.5e+008

                                         TABLE 21
                         High Speed Steel > Tensile Ultimate Strength
                                 Tensile Ultimate Strength Pa
                                           4.6e+008

                                           TABLE 22
                           Transient Analysis > Alternating Stress
                         Alternating Stress Pa Cycles Mean Stress Pa
                             3.999e+009          10         0
                             2.827e+009          20         0
                             1.896e+009          50         0
                             1.413e+009          100        0
                             1.069e+009          200        0
                              4.41e+008         2000        0
                              2.62e+008        10000        0
                              2.14e+008        20000        0
                              1.38e+008       1.e+005       0
                              1.14e+008       2.e+005       0
                              8.62e+007       1.e+006       0


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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

                                            TABLE 23
                             High Speed Steel > Strain-Life Parameters
                                                                                   Cyclic Strain
   Strength        Strength       Ductility     Ductility     Cyclic Strength
                                                                                    Hardening
 Coefficient Pa    Exponent      Coefficient    Exponent      Coefficient Pa
                                                                                    Exponent
   9.2e+008         -0.106          0.213         -0.47          1.e+009               0.2

                                           TABLE 24
                             High Speed Steel > Relative Permeability
                                      Relative Permeability
                                              10000

                                        TABLE 25
                           High Speed Steel > Isotropic Elasticity
                       Temperature C Young's Modulus Pa Poisson's Ratio
                                          2.e+011              0.3


7. CONCLUSION

        Thus we have seen the various aspects of machine tools vibrations and their effects. It has
been seen that the effect of vibrations can be disastrous. It may lead to undesirable results on the
work piece. Hence to minimize the vibrations in the tools a lot of research and study has been done.
This has drastically changed the machine efficiency and also minimized the harmful effects of
vibrations on the workers. With the advent of technology, software’s and highly precision
instruments have been developed to measure and analyze the vibrations caused in tools and to bring
up solutions quickly. It has become easier to evaluate the unwanted motions at different parts of a
machine and to rectify it. Hence it may be concluded that a machine tool should be designed keeping
all kinds of errors in mind.

8. REFERENCES

8.1 BOOKS

 [1]   Harris' Shock and Vibration Handbook 6th.Ed.(2009)
 [2]   James L. Taylor, The Vibration Analysis Handbook
 [3]   E.I. Rivin, Machine Tool Vibration
 [4]   MECHANICAL VIBRATION BY G.K. GROVER 8TH EDITION
 [5]   Mechanical vibration by vp Singh.

8.2 JOURNALS AND TECHNICAL PAPERS

 [6]   Eiji Nabata, Yuji Terasaka Jig Rigidity Evaluation Technology by Vibration Analysis, VOL.
       52, 2006.
 [7]   S. Braun Adaptronic Vibration Damping for Machine Tools.
 [8]   S.Y. Lin, Y.C. Fang, C.W. Huang, Improvement strategy for machine tool vibration induced
       from the movement of a counterweight during machining process, February 2008.


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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 14-27 © IAEME

 [9]    Kourosh Tatar, Per Gren, Measurement of milling tool vibrations during cutting using laser
        vibrometry.
 [10]   John G .Cherng, Mahmut Eksioglu, Kemal Kızılaslan, Vibration reduction of pneumatic
        percussive rivet tools: Mechanical and ergonomic re-design approaches.
 [11]   Effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and cutting forces in turning mild steel by
        research journal of recents sciences vol.1(10), 19-26, October (2012) for standard design
        parameters for tool design.
 [12]   Optimization of cutting parameters on mild steel with hss & cemented carbide tipped tools
        using Ann by Proff A.V.N .L SHARMA(2006).
 [13]   Shaw metal cutting principle, Oxford University press (2006).
 [14]   Basic machining refrenance handbook, industrial press (2001).
 [15]   Analysis of cutting force during milling with regards to dependency on the penetration angle
        (2009).
 [16]   Patel K. Batish and Bhattacharya A optimization of t surface roughness in an end milling
        operation using nested experimental design (2009).
 [17]   Mile j.R-square, Adjusted R-squared, Encyclopedia of stastican Behavioral science, john
        Wiley and son’s ltd (2005).
 [18]   Ricci L and Martinez R, Adjusted R2 –Type measure for tweedy model, computational
        statics and data analysis.(2008)
 [19]   Sharma V.S,, Sharma S.K, and Sharma A.K, cutting wear estimation for turning, journal of
        intelligent manufacturing (2007)
 [20]   Montgomery, D.C, Design and Analysis of experiment, John Wiley and sons (2001)
 [21]   Das M.N and Girl N.C, Design and analysis of experiment second New age international
        p. ltd New Delhi(1999)
 [22]   Rodrigues L.I.R, Kantharaj B, and Murthy B.R.N Effect of cutting Parameters on surface
        roughness and cutting forces in turning mild steel (2012).
 [23]   Prabhat Kumar Sinha, Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Rajneeshpandey and Vijay Kumar Yadav,
        “Analysis of Residual Stresses and Distortions in Tig-Welded Stainless Steel Pipe”,
        International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 5, Issue 5,
        2014, pp. 13 - 27, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.
 [24]   Prabhat Kumar Sinha, Rakesh Kumar Maurya, Rajneeshpandey and Vijay Kumar Yadav,
        “Analysis for Free Vibration of Laminated Composite & Sandwich Plates with the Help of
        Euler-Lagrange Equation Based on First Order Shear Deformation Theory, Formulations and
        Solution to the Natural Frequency & Compare to Obtained Results”, International Journal of
        Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 5, Issue 5, 2014, pp. 45 - 53,
        ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.
 [25]   Ganesan.H and Mohankumar.G, “Study on Optimization of Machining Parameters in
        Turning Process using Evolutionary Algorithm with Experimental Verification”,
        International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 2, Issue 1,
        2011, pp. 10 - 21, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.
 [26]   Pravin Kumar.S, Venkatakrishnan.R and Vignesh Babu.S, “Process Failure Mode and Effect
        Analysis on End Milling Process- A Critical Study”, International Journal of Mechanical
        Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 191 - 199, ISSN Print:
        0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.
 [27]   R S Rajpurohit and R S Prasad, “Analysis of Mechanical Structure Under Vibration using
        Vibration Measuring System”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering &
        Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 134 - 141, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340,
        ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.


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