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Issue 1 How Far Checklists

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					Paper 2 How Far Checklists: Scotland and the Impact of the Great
                              War
         ISSUE 1: SCOTS ON THE WESTERN FRONT
                    Voluntary recruitment
    1. All young men aged 19-35 were asked to volunteer via a massive
        government propaganda campaign such as Kitchener’s ‘Your
        Country Needs You’ poster and it was a huge success, by 1915
        almost 1¼ million men volunteered.
    2. More Scots volunteered in proportion to the population than any
        other part of Britain e.g. by the end of August 1914 over 20,000
        had volunteered to fight from Glasgow alone.
    3. Many joined due to Patriotism/Belgian atrocities – doing your duty
        for Scotland and Britain and the fact that the censored media
        told horror stories of German troops raping women as they
        invaded Belgium – increased hatred of ‘The Hun’
    4. Peer pressure – friends volunteered, girl friends etc – many men
        didn’t want to miss out on an adventure that all their workmates/
        classmates/ brothers were going on. Fathers/ Grandfathers
        encouraged young boys. Wives and Girlfriends often encouraged
        men to become war heroes – men didn’t want to be the only one not
        going
    5. Guilt, fear of white feather – many men felt that they were
        letting their country down by not volunteering; they felt a duty to
        ‘King and Country’ or to protect their town or village. The White
        Feather movement humiliated men not uniform; no one wanted to
        be a victim of it
    6. Sense of adventure – get away from mundane lives. Many men had
        boring manual labour jobs and no prospect of ever leaving their
        town/ city. Joining up was a chance to see Europe and have
        experiences that they never thought possible.
    7. Money – many men worked in difficult jobs and worked long hours
        for little money i.e. shipyards, therefore joining up was a chance
        to make a living and enjoy a decent income
    8. Scottish martial (fighting) tradition inspired many. Many grew up
        hearing stories of the Scots regiments and bravery – many men
        were inspired and wanted to become the next Scots war hero
    9. Scotland suffered higher unemployment and more widespread
        poverty than most areas in Britain. The army was a chance for a
        regular job and wage.
    10. Over By Christmas – according to the Press, Britain would win the
        war in a matter of months. Men didn’t want to miss their chance to
        fight for their country and become a hero therefore rushed to
        join up



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11. Paper 2 How Far Checklists: Scotland and the Impact of the Great
  War
               ISSUE 1: SCOTS ON THE WESTERN FRONT
   Experience of Scots on Western Front (including Loos and Somme)
     1. Trench conditions – wet, muddy, no shelter, rats, lice, no
        sanitation, little sleep, bad weather etc
     2. Trench illnesses – Trench Foot, Trench Fever, Shell Shock
        (make sure you can describe the causes and symptoms )
     3. Trench Life - monotonous and boring, constant chores to do i.e.
        repairing barbed wire, cleaning rifles, little time to do personal
        things such as write letters or play cards – Generals ensured
        soldiers were always busy
     4. Trench Food – meagre rations; bully beef, hard biscuits, beans
        and pork fat, tea. Little fresh food available as food had to be
        tinned and last a long time.
     5. Battle of Loos September 1915 - Over 3 days 35,000 Scottish
        soldiers were involved, almost half of all battalions involved
        were Scots or Scots Canadian.
     6. Out of the 21,000 dead over 7,000 (over 1/3) were Scots, a far
        higher proportion than any other nation involved, nearly every
        community in Scotland was affected by loss.
     7. Battle facts for Loos – most soldiers volunteers, troops led by
        French and Haig, British used Chlorine Gas for first time but it
        was unsuccessful due to wind direction, gas masks proved
        largely ineffective due to how new they were, little ground was
        gained from Germans
     8. Battle of the Somme July 1916 - at least 3 full Scottish
        divisions, between 36,000 – 50,000 troops were to be involved
        in the British army’s greatest offensive to date, commanded by
        General Haig.
     9. Scots suffered disproportionate losses e.g. the Highland Light
        Infantry lost 3,500 men in one day; McCrae’s battalion of Royal
        Scots had a 75% casualty rate.
     10. Battle Facts for Somme – Haig led the troops, British
        bombarded Germans unsuccessfully due to their deep dug outs,
        tank used for first time but proved unreliable, battle ended
        November 1916, massive losses (400,000 British dead)




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Paper 2 How Far Checklists: Scotland and the Impact of the Great
                                War
           ISSUE 1: SCOTS ON THE WESTERN FRONT
                       The kilted regiments
 1. When war broke out in 1914 the British Government focussed on
    the heroic deeds of past Scots soldiers to encourage men to
    enlist. The government brought back the ideas of Highland clans
    to appeal to the patriotism of Highlanders.
 2. Highland soldiers wore the kilt as part of their uniform. They
    marched to the sound of bagpipes wherever they were in the
    British Empire.
 3. Scottish soldiers were seen as brave, loyal and trustworthy who
    would fight to the end. Scots soldiers were also seen as
    aggressive types who would terrify the enemy. They were also
    viewed as hardworking and committed.
 4. Scots Regiments such as the Royal Scots were often used as
    shock troops – they would be sent across No Man’s Land first to
    terrify and weaken the enemy before the other regiments came
    behind
 5. However Scottish soldiers (Jocks) often faired better than
    many as Scots regiments employed a rotation system so Scots
    troops would only spend a short period time on the frontline,
    roughly a week, before being sent to the rear.
 6. William Angus VC was a Celtic player who served in the Royal
    Scots. In 1915 he left his trench under heavy rifle fire to
    rescue a wounded officer. He received 40 wounds but was
    awarded the Victoria Cross on return to Scotland and was met
    with a Hero’s welcome.
 7. Unlike England there were no official ‘pals battalions’ but many
    Scots rushed to join up together to fight alongside friends.
    Examples - Highland Light Infantry (the HLI were Glasgow’s
    regiment) called the Tramway battalion as it was made up mainly
    of tram drivers and workers
 8. McCrae’s battalion of the Royal Scots Regiment which included
    the entire first and reserve team as well as supporters of
    Hearts Football club.




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Paper 2 How Far Checklists: Scotland and the Impact of the Great
                              War
         ISSUE 1: SCOTS ON THE WESTERN FRONT
              Role of Scottish military personnel

 1. More Scots volunteered in proportion to the population than any
     other part of Britain e.g. by the end of august 1914 over 20,000
     had volunteered to fight from Glasgow alone.
 2. Due to the nature of the war on the Western Front (e.g. so
     many bodies were left in no man’s land) it proved impossible to
     accurately calculate the number of war dead.
 3. Over half a million Scots served in the war. Figures on Scottish
     dead vary from 74,000 to 100,000.
 4. The Scots had a casualty rate of 26%, roughly 1 in 4 Scots
     soldiers were killed or wounded, among the highest of any
     nation.
 5. The Battle of Loos became the ‘Scottish Battle’ due to the
     massive involvement of Scots regiments such as the Black
     Watch, Cameron Highlanders, the Cameronians, the Scots
     Fusiliers and Gordon Highlanders
 6. The Battle of the Somme signalled the end of ‘Pals Battalions’
     due to the devastation it caused for many Scots towns and
     villages such as Cranston’s and McCrae’s Battalions of
     Edinburgh. Many smaller villages lost most of their male
     population.
 7. Of the 16th Battalion of the HLI (who were mainly ex Boys
     Brigade members), 500 alone were killed on the Somme
 8. General Douglas Haig was a key leader at both Battles of the
     Somme and Loos – born in Edinburgh, he had been in the army
     for 30years when war broke out. He was old fashioned and
     spoke highly of the use in cavalry in war but it was his decision
     to use the Tank at the Somme
 9. Critics have hit out at Haig’s leadership, saying he sent
     hundreds of thousands of men out to their death in the Somme
     – he is often known as the ‘Butcher of the Somme’
 10. After the war Haig made efforts to see justice done for
     veterans, helping create the British Legion and the Earl Haig
     Fund to help ex servicemen




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