Root to Health and Performance-Ginseng

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Root to Health and Performance-Ginseng Powered By Docstoc
					Root to Health and Performance

           Zubaida Qamar

 Root of Araliaceous plant
 Panax ginseng-most famous of all species
 The term “ginseng” usually applies to the dried root of
  the plant
 Active component=Ginsenoside
   Potential Benefits of Ginseng

 Ginseng is “believed” to have many beneficial effects
    relieving pain and headaches
    stimulating appetite
    improving mental function and physical stamina
    boosting immune system
    counteracting fatigue
    ergogenic agent to optimize exercise performance
                    Animal Studies

 Grandhi et al.
    compared aqueous suspensions of roots of P. ginseng (100
     mg/kg administered orally for 7 days)
    significant increases in swimming time compared with a control
    Bodyweight gain was significantly higher following treatment and
     increase in weight of the levator ani muscle was significant
    These studies demonstrate that administration of ginseng may
     prolong endurance performance in mice and rats along with gains
     in muscle mass
                  Animal Studies

 Wang and Lee
    reported significantly prolonged aerobic endurance(18
     minutes at 70% of maximal oxygen (VO2 max) in a placebo
     controlled study with non-trained rats
    Study done for 4 days with 10 and 20 mg/kg/day ginseng
    Possible Mechanism: Ginseng enhances exercise endurance
     by altering fuel homeostasis during exercise by increasing
     free fatty acid utilization preference over glucose for cellular
     energy demands
                 Human Studies
 Physically active 13 male college students were divided into
  two groups (AG or placebo) and received supplementation
  for 4 weeks, before the exhaustive running exercise
 Treadmill speed was increased to a pace equivalent to 80%
  VO2max of the subject. A 4- wk washout period followed
  before the subjects crossed over and received the alternate
  supplement for the next 4 wk. They then completed a
  second exhaustive running exercise
 The plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate were measured
  prior to exercise and after exercise at different time
 Supplementation with AG for 4 wk prior to an exhaustive
  aerobic treadmill running reduced the leakage of CK during
  exercise, but did not enhance aerobic work capacity
 The reduction of plasma CK may be due to the fact that AG
  is effective for the decrease of skeletal muscle cell
  membrane damage, induced by exercise during the high-
  intensity treadmill run
Animal Studies

o Methodological flaws
   o lack of double blind, control and placebo paradigms
   o small sample size
   o varied treatment duration
   o compliance issues
   o lack of “sourcing” data
   o combination of ginseng with other items e.g. fenugreek
   o differences in administration of ginseng dosage
   o type of ginseng used

 The recommended daily dose for dry ginseng root is
  generally 0.5 to 2.0g
 There are no reports of acute toxicity of high-dose
  ginseng in humans
 NOT a banned substance-the International Olympic
  Committee (IOC)and the US Olympic Committee (USOC)

 The success of ginseng in animal studies could have
  been attributed to the higher dosage of ginseng .Hence,
  inferences from animal models must be carefully applied
  to humans
 Very few human studies have shown positive benefits on
 Be careful of the misleading claims on supplemental
 Try to follow the natural and scientifically proven “food
  first” approach for overall health and better performance

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