Governments_in_Transition by hedongchenchen

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									Governments in Transition

  Moving toward democracy from
       the right and the left
       Authoritarianism

• Authoritarian implies: of, relating to,
  or favoring a concentration of power
  in a leader or an elite not
  constitutionally responsible to the
  people
  (Franco’s Spain may be one
  example).
     And Totalitarianism
• As a political system, authoritarianism is
  antidemocratic in that political power is
  concentrated in a leader or small elite not
  constitutionally responsible to those
  governed. It differs from totalitarianism in
  that authoritarian governments usually
  lack a guiding ideology, tolerate some
  pluralism in social organization, lack the
  power to mobilize the whole population in
  pursuit of national goals, and exercise
  their power within relatively predictable
  limits. (The USSR)
      We will concentrate on
  Authoritarian Left Wing Systems

• Especially the former USSR and
  “Soviet-type” Eastern and Central
  European Countries and the
  Balkans.
   What is Communism?

• AThe State owns and controls thethe
     system of government in which
    means of and controls the
  state plans production and
    distribution.
  economy, and a single, often
  authoritarian, government holds
    It is a state-driven form of social
  power, claiming to make progress
    engineering through economics.
  toward a higher social order in which
  all goods are equally shared by the
  people.
                   Cadres
                     So, the public administration
                     is overtly politicized, and is
                     rewarded for loyalty. As the
•                    system such a
    The “administration” of tolerates no
                     opposition, they are also
    system is generally referred to as the
                     part of the “Control
    “Cadre” system. Structure”
• A cadre is a tightly knit group of
  zealots who are active in advancing
  the interests of a revolutionary party
  (which, under Marxism-Leninism,
  Communism is)
            Transition

• Former Communist states are
  receiving a lot of “help” from us in
  making their transition to democracy.
• We concentrate on the political and
  economic systems, and tend to
  forget about the public
  administration.
• But this is what the public sees and
  deals with on a daily basis. It delivers
  democracy.
     Provenance, again
             Can I
                   help
• You cannot reform something you do
  not fully understand.
                   you?
• The bureaucracy of the Communist
  system is too easily seen as just a
  machine carrying out orders. But, the
  system gives it several
  characteristics that must be
  recognized and dealt with.
        Remember this

• In a transition, you inherit the
  bureaucracy intact, and you had
  better understand how it works, how
  it was chosen, and what it thinks its
  role is.
• First, let’s summarize the system that
  created the bureaucracy.
           Communism
• It is based on a monopoly of political
  power, and monopolistic control of
  economic assets.
• It takes over the functions of supply,
  demand, market and price.
• Since it owns and controls the means of
  production and distribution, it needs to
  make all the decisions otherwise made by
  the market.
• This requires everything to be planned,
  and centrally-planned at that.
The fight against
corruption is one of
the biggest      Accountability
challenges facing
                  •
former Communist The only accountability   is to the
states. (Georgia) Party, not the people

             • Therefore, loyalty is greatly prized,
               and loyal (rather than necessarily
               capable) people are promoted.
             • Loyalty is also part of the control
               function.
             • Monopoly brings power and power
               provides the basis for corruption.
   Other Market Factors

• There is, within these non-Market
  economy systems, no unemployment
  because jobs are created for reasons
  other than the need of the market.
• Prices are totally controlled and,
  again, bear no relation to supply and
  demand except through the
  functioning of the “Black Market.”
          Incentives?

• There is no monetary incentive
  system, so the “rewards” have to
  come through some sort of social
  recognition.
• The “Black Market” brought more
  tangible rewards.
          Perspective

• Hobbesian World View preventing
  exploitation of labor by capital, and
  the welfare of the individual is
  through the welfare of the state. The
  state is supreme in all things.
• It is “perfect” thus no need for
  opposition (reactionary elements).
  Change is evil. Under threat from
  Capitalism, so ever vigilant
  (totalitarian control).
 Why Did Communism Fail?

• Not accountable, so impersonal
• Monopolistic, so potential for
  corruption, and miserable quality
• Loyalty replaces ability
• Obsession with dogma and
  procedures
• Almost totally centralized, remote.
• Rightness of system leads to cynical
  posturing—alienation of people
• Stresses conformity and procedures
Problems for Transition 1

• The inherited bureaucracy has been
  selected and advanced for all the
  things we just mentioned, most of
  which were overtly undemocratic
• Putting the fox in charge of the
  henhouse
• Democracy stresses local
  government, the cadre system was
  totally centralized
Problems for Transition 2
• Obstructionism was important because it
  created the barriers that provided the
  opportunity for corruption. Nobody expects
  the bureaucracy to facilitate anything.
• The system was totally politicized, and
  now has to be depoliticized, even though it
  was selected for its loyalty to the former
  system.
• The issue of psychosis.
   Technical Assistance
• Transition countries have looked for
  “models” to follow. Poland took
  France.
• Technical Assistance always totally
  ignores the political dimension,
  stressing “SPEA-type” skills which
  make a bad system more efficiently
  bad.
• People obstructive because their
  sources for milking the system are
  being dried up.
            Reform 1

• New basis of training and education
  for the “next generation” of
  bureaucrats.
• Problem: salaries in the private
  sector are much lower.
• The Transition countries should
  share experiences with each other
  as well as with the “West.”
            Reform 2

• You could not indict the entire civil
  service as being corrupted, mainly
  because there was no other civil
  service to replace it.
• You could declare the former system
  bad and acknowledge that there are
  good people in it.
• Set professional standards and give
  everyone a set time to match these
  standards.

								
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