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									 International Journal of Civil
                                 JOURNAL OF CIVIL ISSN
                                              and Technology (IJCIET),
INTERNATIONALEngineering May (2014), pp. 114-122 © IAEME 0976 – 6308 (Print),
 ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5,
                                                                       ENGINEERING
                      AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)
ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)                                                          IJCIET
Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 114-122
© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp
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  EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HARDENED CONCRETE BY USING STEEL
             FIBERS WITH MINERAL ADMIXTURE

                   1                     2                    3
                       R. Madheswaran,       S. Arun Singh,       K.S. Sathyanarayanan
                               1
                                 Research Scholar, Allabad University and
         Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Priyadharashini Engineering College.
                  2
                    Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Allabad University.
              3
                Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, SRM University, Chennai.



 ABSTRACT

          Concrete is probably the most extensively used construction material in the world. The main
 ingredient in the conventional concrete is Portland cement. The amount of cement production emits
 approximately equal amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Cement production is
 consuming significant amount of natural resources. That has brought pressures to reduce cement
 consumption by the use of supplementary materials. Availability of mineral admixtures marked
 opening of a new era for designing concrete mix of higher and higher strength. Fly Ash and silica
 fume is a new mineral admixture, whose potential is not fully utilized. Moreover only limited studies
 have been carried out in India on the use of silica fume for the development of high strength concrete
 with addition of steel fibers. The study focuses on the compressive strength performance of the
 blended concrete containing different percentage of silica fume and Fly Ash and steel fiber as a
 partial replacement of OPC. The cement in concrete is replaced accordingly with Silica fume content
 was use from 0% to 10%in the interval of 2% in weight basis and also fly ash content was use from
 10% in weight basis. So to improve the strength of concrete steel fibers were added 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%,
 2% by weight of steel fiber. Concrete cubes are tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days of curing.
 Finally, the strength performance of Fly ash and silica fume blended fiber reinforced concrete is
 compared with the performance of conventional concrete. From the experimental investigations, it
 has been observed that, the optimum replacement Fly ash and silica fume to cement and steel fiber
 without changing much the compressive strength is 10% -8 % & 1.5 % respectively for M25 grade
 Concrete.

 Keywords: Cement, Hardened Concrete, Steel Fiber, Fly Ash and Silica Fume.



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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 114-122 © IAEME

I. INTRODUCTION

         Inspired from the ancient application of techniques artificial fibers are commonly used
nowadays in order to improve the mechanical properties of concrete. Especially Synthetic
(Polypropylene, polyester etc.,) glass, nylon, asbestos, carbon and steel fibers used in concrete
caused good results to improve numerous concrete properties. In general, tensile, flexural, impact,
deformation capability, loads bearing capacity after cracking and toughness properties of concrete
are considerably ductility and flexural toughness [1]. For long term, strength and toughness and high
stress resistance, steel fiber reinforced Concrete (SFRC) is increasingly being used in structures such
as flooring, housing, precast, tunneling , heavy duty pavement and mining. Generally, aspect ratios
of steel fibers used in concrete mix are varied between 50 and 100.Themost suitable volume fraction
values for concrete mixes are between 0.5% and 1.5% by volume of concrete [2].
         Newly developed admixtures allow lowering the water/binder ratio to very low-levels
without loss of workability. By incorporation of super plasticizers, the strength development of fly
ash concrete can be accelerated to achieve the desired performance at early ages by adding
accelerating agents such as metakaolin, slag, silica fume etc. The initial interest in the use of silica
fume was mainly caused by the strict enforcement of air-pollution control measures in various
countries to stop release of the material into the atmosphere. Silica fume is a pozzolanic material
which is a bye-product of the silicon smelting process. It is used to produce silicon metal and
ferrosilicon alloys which have a high content of glassy-phase silicon dioxide (SiO2) and consist of
very small spherical particles.
         Silica fume is known to produce a high-strength concrete and is used in two different ways:
as a cement replacement, in order to reduce the cement content (usually for economic reasons); and
as an additive to improve concrete properties (in both fresh and hardened states). Therefore,
utilization of silica fume together with fly ash provides an interesting alternative and can be termed
as high strength and high performance concrete. In general, the character and performance of fiber
reinforced concrete changes with varying concrete formulation as well as the fiber material type,
fiber geometry, fiber distribution, fiber orientation and fiber concentration [3].
         During the viaduct construction between J.J hospital and Crawford market in Mumbai, Saini
[3] has undergone a research work based on high performance concrete (HPC) of grade M75 where
SF was added @ 10% by weight of cement to ensure durability of the structure. They found 28days
compressive strength of HPC varied between 79.6 to 81.3 MPa indicating good control of quality of
concrete. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of steel fibers on the workability,
compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, splitting tensile strengths, modulus of elasticity of
hardened concrete.

II. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

Materials
A. Cement
        Ordinary Portland Cement of Sanghi brand of 53 grade confirming to IS: 12269-1987 was
used in present study. The property of cement is shown in Table 1.

                                    Table 1: Properties of Cement
                                       Properties               Obtained
                                   Specific gravity               3.15
                                  Initial setting time           65 min
                                  Final setting time            175 min
                                     Consistency                  30%

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B. Silica fume
        Silica Fume used was confirming to ASTM C (1240-2000) and was supplied by Fortune
minerals and abrasives, Ahmedabad. Silica Fume is used as partial replacement of cement. The
properties of Silica Fume are shown in Table 2.

                               Table 2: Properties of Silica Fume
                             Property                        Value
                              Colour                  Dark to Light Gray
                           Bulk density                 450-650 g/cm3
                          Specific gravity                    2.22
                          Moisture content                    1%
                               Sio2                           92%

C. Fly Ash
        Flyash obtained from Neyveli Lignite Corporation Thermal Power Plant I is used in the
experimental investigation. The physical and chemical analysis of lignite ashes were carried out at
Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd. The results were compared to Indian standard specification IS:
3812-1981. The physical and chemical properties are shown in the Table 3 was used in this
investigation.

                 Table 3: The chemical analysis and physical properties of fly ash




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D. Aggregate
       Good quality river sand was used as a fine aggregate. The fineness modulus, specific gravity
and dry density are 2.32, 2.68 and 1690 kg/m3.Coarse aggregate passing through 20mm and retained
10mm sieve was used. Its specific gravity and dry density was 2.7 and 1550 kg/m3.

E. Fibers
        Steel fiber having low carbon and it’s both end were hooked were used. The steel fibers have
a length of 30 mm, diameter of 0.50 mm, aspect ratio of 50, and density of 7.85 g/cm3. Collect from
Stewols Pvt. Ltd. Nagpur.

F. Plasticizer
        A commercial AC- Green Slump-GS-02 black cat Chemical Limited plasticizer From Nagpur
was used to maintain the workability of fresh concrete. The dosage of hyper plasticizer was kept
constant in mass basis; it was 1% of the binder content of concrete. The aim of keeping the amount
of plasticizer constant is to neglect, if any, the influence of plasticizer on the properties of hardened
concrete.

III. MIXTURE COMPOSITION AND PREPARATION

        Mix design is made for M25 grade concrete accordance with the Indian Standard
Recommended Method IS 10262-1982. At the beginning of the mixture design, binder content
380kg/m3 (M25) and water– cement ratio 0.5 was kept constant and then, the volume of aggregate
was determined for reference Portland cement concrete by assuming approximately 2% air is trapped
in fresh concrete. The volume of aggregate was used to determine the aggregate weight. Fresh
concretes containing 0.1% to 10% silica fume and 10% of fly ash as cement replacement in weight
basis were prepared by modifying the reference Portland cement concrete. Fresh fiber reinforced
concretes containing with different percentage of steel fibers (i.e. 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%) fiber in
volume basis were prepared. Aggregate weight for a cubic meter was adjusted when blended cement
or fiber introduced into concrete. The procedures for mixing the fiber reinforced concrete involved
the following. First, the gravel and sand were placed in a concrete mixer and dry mixed for 1 min.
Second, the blended cement and fiber were spread and dry mixed for1 min. Third, the mixing water
(90%) was added and mixed for approximately 2 min. fourth and the remaining mixing water (10%)
and plasticizer were added and mixed 3 min. Finally, the freshly mixed fiber-reinforced concrete was
cast into specimens mold and vibrated simultaneously to remove any air remained entrapped. After
casting, each of the specimens was allowed to stand for 24 h in laboratory before demolding. To
improve the Workability Super plasticizer is used in various percentages of silica fume and fly ash
and steel fibers for M25 Grade of concrete

IV. TESTING METHODS

A. Workability
        The workability of silica fume with steel fiber concrete has found to decrease with increase in
silica & steel replacement so; it appeared that the addition of super plasticizer might improve the
workability. Super plasticizer was added range of 0.75 to 1.80% by weight of cementations materials
for maintaining the slump up to 20mm.

B. Compressive strength
       Series of cubes cube with a 150 mm side are casted using different percentage of Silica Fume
(i.e. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%) with different percentage of fibers (i.e. 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%).

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ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 114-122 © IAEME

Specimens were for compressive strength and were measured 3, 7, 28 days and Compression test are
conducted and results are obtained shown below

 Table 4: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (2%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber
                                      Compressive Strength (M25)
                          Fiber %                N/mm2
                                     3 days      7 days      28 days
                             0       20.24        28.64       38.64
                            0.5      13.23        22.14       36.92
                             1       14.34        24.54       37.46
                            1.5      15.24        25.59       39.59
                            2.0      16.83        26.63       41.67




Figure 1: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (2%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber


 Table 5: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (4%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber
                        Fiber %       Compressive Strength (M25)
                                                 N/mm2
                                    3 days       7 days        28 days

                            0         20.24         28.64       38.64
                           0.5        14.93         24.14       38.92
                            1         15.34         26.54       39.46
                           1.5        16.24         27.59       41.59
                           2.0        17.83         29.63       44.67



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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
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Figure 2: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (4%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber

 Table 6: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (6%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber
                                       Compressive Strength (M25)
                      Fiber %                    N/mm2
                                     3 days         7 days      28 days
                          0          20.24          28.64        38.64
                         0.5         15.12          25.90        40.56
                          1          16.21          26.88        42.53
                         1.5         17.56          28.79        43.24
                         2.0         18.34          31.95        46.38




Figure 3: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (6%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 114-122 © IAEME

 Table 7: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (8%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber
                                        Compressive Strength (M25)
                                                 N/mm2
                      Fiber %
                                     3 days         7 days       28 days

                         0           20.24          28.64         38.64
                        0.5          16.33          27.89         43.90
                         1           16.98          28.19         45.72
                        1.5          17.38          30.78         46.87
                        2.0          19.94          33.80         50.51




Figure 4: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (8%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber


Table 8: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash (10%
                                   & 10%) with steel fiber
                                         Compressive Strength (M25)
            Fiber %                                  N/mm2
                                   3 days              7 days              28 days
                 0                 20.24               28.64                38.64
                0.5                14.27               24.68                39.74
                 1                 14.89               25.55                41.67
                1.5                15.37               27.94                42.93
                2.0                17.95                30.75              45.75




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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
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   Figure 5: Compressive Strength on M25 Grade of concrete containing silica Fume and fly Ash
                                 (10% & 10%) with steel fiber

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

        Effect of steel fiber, Fly ash and Silica Fume on compressive strength of concrete: Series of
cubes are casted using different percentage of Silica Fume (i.e. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) with
different percentage of fibers (i.e. 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%). Compressive strength test is carried out
on specimen cubes of concrete blended with various percent replacements to cement by Fly ash and
Silica Fume & steel fiber (varying percentages) and conventional concrete at 3, 7 and 28 days of
curing with compression testing machine. Optimized Results of Trial Mixes are as shown in tables
from the results of trial mix, it is seen that the compressive strength of Concrete for all percentage
remains nearly same at 7 days with replacement of cement by Fly ash and S F and found maximum
for 10% and 8% slag & S F respectively replacement of cement. After testing the concrete
(compressive strength) for M25 grade concrete separately for replacement of slag Fly ash, Silica
Fume and steel fiber by cement respectively finally combined percentage of Fly ash, Silica Fume and
steel fiber mix in which maximum strength is obtained was used to get optimized strength
discussion: Results shown that initially addition of fibers in concrete containing Fly ash and Silica
Fume decrease the compressive strength compared with Plain concrete. But at age of 28days curing
it shows good results. Due to lower aspect ratio there is no problem of balling and handling is easily.
As increasing volume of fibers it is observed that there is increased in compressive strength. Thus
addition of Steel fibers, fly ash and Silica Fume increases the compressive strength up to 30% with
different combination. Among all replacement of Silica Fume with steel fiber, 8%, fly ash 10% and
Silica Fume with 1.5% volume of fiber is best combination.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

       The results insure the effectiveness of minerals admixtures as fly ash, and silica fume to
improve properties of concrete and to increase the resistance. The optimum dosage for partial
replacement of cement by fly ash and silica fume is (10% and 8%) for the addition of steel fiber is
1.5%.

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ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 5, May (2014), pp. 114-122 © IAEME

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