Management Techniques for the Health Unit Coordinator by pptfiles

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									 The Language Of
     Medicine
Dr. Michael P. Gillespie
2
 Name and locate female reproductive organs
  and learn their combining forms.
 Explain how these organs and their hormones
  function in the processes of menstruation and
  pregnancy.
 Identify abnormal conditions of the female
  reproductive system and of the newborn.
˜ Describe important laboratory tests and clinical
  procedures used in gynecology and obstetrics,
  and recognize related abbreviations.
˜ Understand medical terms in their proper
  contexts, such as medical reports and records.
Sexual Reproduction
  Ø This is the union of the nuclei of
    ovum and sperm cell.
  Ø Ovum and sperm cells are called
    gametes.
  Ø Each gamete contains half the
    number of chromosomes of a
    normal body cell.
Gametes
 (ovum and sperm cell)

  Ø Gametes are produced in the
    gonads.
  Ø Female gonads are the ovaries;
    male gonads are the testes.
Fertilization
  Ø An ovum leaves the ovaries and travels
    through the fallopian tube.
  Ø Fertilization takes place if sperm cells.
    are present and unite with the ovum.
  Ø Fertilized egg implants then divides to
    form a ball of cells, called a zygote (and
    later an embryo and then a fetus).
   Label the diagram

    Organs of the
     female reproductive
     system,
    lateral view .
           Organs of the
     Female Reproductive System
˜   Organs of the female reproductive system, lateral
    view.
1.    Fertilized egg implants, then
      divides to form a ball of cells,
      called a…
     A. embryo
     B. fetus
     C. follicle
     D. zygote
   Label the diagram
   Organs of the female reproductive system
    anterior view
˜   Organs of the female reproductive system
    anterior view
● The Breast
  sagittal view
● The Breast
  sagittal view
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
     Day 1-5     Blood cells, endometrial cells, and glandular
                  secretions discharge from the body.

     Day 6-12     Estrogen aids repair of endometrium.
                  The ovum grows in the follicle.

     Day 13-14    Egg leaves the ovary and passes through
                   the fallopian tube.

     Day 15-28    Corpus luteum secretes progesterone;
                  uterus lining builds up.
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
PREGNANCY
   If fertilization occurs, the egg implants in the
    uterine endometrium.
   Placenta forms within the uterine wall.

   Amnion holds the fetus in an amniotic cavity.

   Nutrients, oxygen and wastes exchange
    between fetus and mother.
   Placenta produces human chorionic
    gonadotropin (hCG).
A, Implantation in the uterus
B, Embryo’s relationship to the placenta
A, Implantation in the uterus
B, Embryo’s relationship to the placenta
2.   Corpus luteum secretes this
     monthly to build up the lining of
     the uterus…..

     A.   adreniline
     B.   estrogen
     C.   progesterone
     D.   hCG
3. During Pregnancy what does the
   placenta secrete?

  A.   adreniline
  B.   hCG
  C.   progesterone
  D.   estrogen
PREGNANCY
  Progesterone   maintains placenta
   development.
  Uterus expands as fetus grows.

  Normal delivery fetal position is cephalic
   presentation (head first).
PREGNANCY

    Three Phases of Labor
     1.   Dilation of the cervix
     2.   Birth of the infant
     3.   Delivery of the placenta
A, Cephalic presentation.   B, Delivery of the placenta.
   Pituitary secretes:
                        hormone (FSH)
     Follicle-stimulating

     Luteinizing hormone (LH)



   Pituitary stops producing FSH and LH
     During  pregnancy
       With oral contraceptives
   Menopause
     Gradual  ending of the menstrual cycle
     Normally begins between 45 and 55

     Falling estrogen levels

     Option for estrogen replacement therapy (careful
      consideration of risks required)
˜   adnexa uteri

˜   amnion

˜   areola

˜   Bartholin glands

˜   cervix
˜   chorion

˜   clitoris

˜   coitus

˜   corpus luteum

˜   cul-de-sac
˜   embryo

˜   endometrium

˜   estrogen

˜   fallopian tube

˜   fertilization

˜   fetus
˜   fimbriae

˜   follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

˜   gamete

˜   genitalia

˜   gestation

˜   gonad
   gynecology

   human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

   hymen

   labia

   lactiferous ducts
˜   luteinizing hormone (LH)

˜   mammary papilla

˜   menarche

˜   menopause

˜   menstruation
   myometrium
   neonatology
   obstetrics
   orifice
   ovarian follicle
   ovary
   ovulation

   ovum

   parturition

   perineum

   pituitary gland
˜   placenta

˜   pregnancy

˜   progesterone

˜   puberty

˜   uterine serosa
   uterus

   vagina

   vulva

   zygote
4. Which term refers to the inner,
   mucous membrane lining of the
   uterus?

   A.   endometrium
   B.   fallopian tube
   C.   chorion
   D.   amnion
        Terminology: Combining Forms,
        Suffixes, and Prefixes
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

   amni/o        amnion
   cervic/o      cervix, neck
   chori/o       chorion
   chorion/o     chorion
   colp/o        vagina
        Terminology: Combining Forms,
        Suffixes, and Prefixes
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

˜ culd/o          cul-de-sac
˜ episi/o         vulva
˜ galact/o        milk
˜ gynec/o         woman, female
˜ hyster/o        uterus, womb
        Terminology: Combining Forms,
        Suffixes, and Prefixes
COMBINING FORMS
Combining FormMeaning

 lact/o            milk
 mamm/o                 breast
 mast/o            breast
 men/o             menses, menstruation
 metr/o            uterus
        Terminology: Combining Forms,
        Suffixes, and Prefixes
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

 my/o            muscle
 myom/o          muscle tumor
 nat/i           birth
 obstetr/o       midwife
 o/o             egg
        Terminology: Combining Forms,
        Suffixes, and Prefixes
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning


 oophor/o        ovary
 ov/o            egg
 ovari/o         ovary
 ovul/o          egg
 perine/o        perineum
        Terminology: Combining Forms,
        Suffixes, and Prefixes
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning


 phor/o          to bear
 salping/o       fallopian tubes
 uter/o          uterus
 vagin/o         vagina
 vulv/o          vulva
         Terminology: Combining Forms,
         Suffixes, and Prefixes
SUFFIXES
Suffix          Meaning


 -arche        beginning
 -cyesis       pregnancy
 -gravida      pregnancy
 -parous       to bear, bring forth
         Terminology: Combining Forms,
         Suffixes, and Prefixes
SUFFIXES
Suffix          Meaning


 -rrhea        discharge
 -salpinx      uterine tube
 -tocia        labor, birth
 -version      act of turning
         Terminology: Combining Forms,
         Suffixes, and Prefixes
PREFIXES
Suffix          Meaning


 dys-          painful
 endo-         within
 in-           in
 intra-        within
 multi-        many
         Terminology: Combining Forms,
         Suffixes, and Prefixes
PREFIXES
Suffix          Meaning


 nulli-        no, not, none
 pre-          before
 primi-        first
 retro-        backward
5. Which term means removal of the
   breast?

  A.   hysterectomy
  B.   mastectomy
  C.   mastitis
  D.   mammoplasty
   Carcinoma of the cervix
          Malignant cells within the cervix

   Cervicitis
          Inflammation of the cervix

   Carcinoma of the endometrium
          Malignant tumor of the uterus

   Endometriosis
          Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus
˜   Fibroids
    Ø   Benign tumors of the
        uterus
    Ø   Figure shows location of
        uterine fibroids.
˜   Breast
    Ø Carcinoma of the breast
    Ø Fibrocystic disease
Ovaries
     Ovarian carcinoma
          Malignant tumor of the ovary


     Ovarian cysts
          Collections of fluid within a sac in the ovary


Fallopian Tubes
     Pelvic inflammatory disease
          Examples: salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis
Pathology: Breast
   Abruptio placentae
       Premature separation of the implanted
        placenta
   Choriocarcinoma
       Malignant tumor of the placenta
   Ectopic pregnancy
       Misplaced implantation of egg
 Placenta previa
 Preeclampsia
˜ Down syndrome
˜ Erythroblastosis fetalis
˜ Hyaline membrane disease
˜ Hydrocephalus
˜ Meconium aspiration syndrome
˜ Pyloric stenosis
˜   APGAR SCORING CHART
    Ø Assessment of newborn
    Ø Scoring 1 to 5 mins after birth
Clinical tests
     Pap test (Pap smear)
     Pregnancy test


Procedures
     X-rays
     Ultrasound
     Gynecological procedures
     Procedures during pregnancy
Gynecological procedures
   Conization
     Removal  of a
      cone-shaped
      section of the
      cervix.
     Figure shows
      LEEP for cone
      biopsy
GYNECOLOGICAL PROCEDURES
   Laparoscopic
        oophorectomy
     A, Ovary placed in
      plastic bag.
     B, Extracted through
      the laparoscope
Procedures
Procedures during pregnancy
     Amniocentesis

      Needle placement guided by ultrasound images.
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form           Meaning

   amni/o               _________
   cephal/o             _________
   cervic/o             _________
   chori/o, chorion/o   _________
   colp/o               _________
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form           Meaning
   amni/o               amnion
   cephal/o             head
   cervic/o             cervix, neck
   chori/o, chorion/o   chorion
   colp/o               vagina
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

˜ culd/o          _________
˜ episi/o         _________
˜ galact/o        _________
˜ gynec/o         _________
˜ hyster/o        _________
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

˜ culd/o          cul-de-sac
˜ episi/o         vulva
˜ galact/o        milk
˜ gynec/o         woman, female
˜ hyster/o        uterus, womb
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

 lact/o          _________
 mamm/o          _________
 mast/o          _________
 men/o           _________
 metr/o          _________
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

 lact/o          milk
 mamm/o          breast
 mast/o          breast
 men/o           menses, menstruation
 metr/o          uterus
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

˜ my/o            _________
˜ myom/o          _________
˜ nat/i           _________
˜ obstetr/o       _________
˜ olig/o          _________
˜ o/o             _________
COMBINING FORMS
Combining FormMeaning

 my/o              muscle
 myom/o            muscle tumor
 nat/i             birth
 obstetr/o         midwife
 olig/o            scanty
 o/o               egg
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning


˜ oophor/o        _________
˜ ov/o            _________
˜ ovari/o         _________
˜ ovul/o          _________
˜ perine/o        _________
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

 oophor/o        ovary
 ov/o            egg
 ovari/o         ovary
 ovul/o          egg
 perine/o        perineum
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

˜   phor/o        _________
˜   py/o          _________
˜ salping/o       _________
˜ uter/o          _________
˜ vagin/o         _________
˜ vulv/o          _________
COMBINING FORMS
Combining Form    Meaning

   phor/o        to bear
 py/o            pus
 salping/o       fallopian tubes
 uter/o          uterus
 vagin/o         vagina
 vulv/o          vulva
SUFFIXES
Suffix        Meaning

   -arche    _________
   -cele     _________
   -cyesis   _________
 -ectasis    _________
 -ectomy     _________
SUFFIXES
Suffix       Meaning


   -arche   beginning
 -cele      hernia
 -cyesis    pregnancy
 -ectasis   stretching, dilation
 -ectomy    removal, excision
SUFFIXES
Suffix         Meaning

   -flexion   _________
 -genesis     _________
 -gravida     _________
 -itis        _________
 -pareunia    _________
 -parous      _________
SUFFIXES
Suffix        Meaning

 -flexion    flexible
 -genesis    producing; forming
 -gravida    pregnancy
 -itis       inflammation
 -pareunia   sexual intercourse
 -parous     to bear, bring forth
SUFFIXES
Suffix         Meaning

˜   -plasia    _________
˜   -plasty    _________
˜   -ptosis    _________
˜   -rrhagia   _________
˜   -rrhaphy   _________
SUFFIXES
Suffix         Meaning

   -plasia    development, formation
   -plasty    surgical repair
   -ptosis    dropping, sagging
   -rrhagia   bursting forth (blood)
   -rrhaphy   suture
SUFFIXES
Suffix        Meaning

 -rrhea      _________
 -salpinx    _________
 -scopy      _________
 -stenosis   _________
 -stomy      _________
SUFFIXES
Suffix        Meaning

 -rrhea      discharge
 -salpinx    uterine tube
 -scopy      visual examination
 -stenosis   tightening
 -stomy      new opening
SUFFIXES
Suffix       Meaning

˜ -tocia     _________
˜ -tomy      _________
˜ -tresia    _________
˜ -version   _________
SUFFIXES
Suffix       Meaning

˜ -tocia     labor, birth
˜ -tomy      process of cutting
˜ -tresia    opening
˜ -version   act of turning
PREFIXES
Prefix     Meaning

˜   bi-    _________
˜ dys-     _________
˜ endo-    _________
˜ in-      _________
˜ intra-   _________
˜ multi-   _________
PREFIXES
Prefix     Meaning

   bi-    two
 dys-     painful
 endo-    within
 in-      in
 intra-   within
 multi-   many
PREFIXES
Prefix       Meaning


˜   nulli-   _________
˜ oxy-       _________
˜ peri-      _________
˜ pre-       _________
PREFIXES
Prefix       Meaning


   nulli-   no, not, none
 oxy-       swift, sharp
 peri-      surrounding
 pre-       before
PREFIXES
Prefix        Meaning


˜   primi-    _________
˜   pseudo-   _________
˜   retro-    _________
˜   uni-      _________
PREFIXES
Prefix       Meaning


   primi-   first
 pseudo-    false
 retro-     backward
 uni-       one

								
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