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									Lightweight Fuel Efficient 
     Engine Package 
                     Team Introduction
                         P12221:
• Brittany Borella      • Chris Jones    • Stanley Fofano
• Evan See              • John Scanlon   • Taylor Hattori
           Materials Reviewed
•   Project Description
•   Work Breakdown Structure
•   Customer Needs
•   Customer Specifications
•   Concept Development and Proposed Design
•   Current System Design Schematic
•   Project Plan
•   Risk Assessment
                  Project Introduction
• Background: Fuel efficiency is becoming increasingly more 
   important in Formula SAE competition scoring. In order to improve 
   the RIT Formula SAE Race Team’s score, an engine package is 
   desired that will be more fuel efficient while still producing a 
   competitive amount of power.

                                                            Points lost 2011
       Percentage Scored (Detroit)                              Detroit         Germany
                 2009      2010        2011     Design                     25             60
Design            67%       67%         83%
                                                Cost                       20              0
Cost              87%       89%         77%
                                                Sales                       7              7
Sales             96%       93%         90%
Acceleration      75%       80%         92%     Acceleration                6              0
Skidpad           76%       81%         85%     Skidpad                     8              6
Autocross         93%       86%         83%     Autocross                  25             18
Endurance        100%       92%         N/A
                                                Endurance                 N/A             86
Fuel              20%       52%      60% est.
                                                Fuel                       40             42
              Project Introduction
• Problem Statement: Develop a more fuel efficient and 
  powerful engine package to be used by the RIT Formula SAE 
  2012 car


• Previous Formula SAE Senior Design Projects:
   –   Variable Intake System
   –   Paddle Shift System
   –   Data Acquisition System
   –   Engine Control Unit
           Objective and Scope
• Entire engine package able to provide the 
  following:
  – Approximately 55 horsepower
  – Operation in ambient temperatures up to 100°F 
    under racing conditions
  – Reduction in fuel required by 60%  compared to  the 
    previous engine package over a similar run
• Well understood and documented development 
  process
Deliverables

        • Engine Package
        • Cooling System
        • Engine Model and 
          CFD Analysis
        • Wiring Diagram
        • Engine Maps
          – Power Output 
          – Fuel Economy
        Assumptions and Constraints

• RIT Formula Team previously selected a single 
  cylinder engine – 2009 Yamaha WR450F
• Must comply with all Formula SAE rules
  – Including, but not limited to:
     • Use provided race fuel: 93 or 100 Octane Gasoline or 
       E85 Ethanol
     • Spark Ignition
     • Four Stroke
Work Breakdown Structure
                         Customer Needs
Customer Need 
                 Importance                                 Description
      #
                                                               Engine
                              The engine must reduce fuel consumption when compared to the previous 
    CN1              1
                                                          engine package
    CN2              1           The engine must provide sufficient power output and acceleration
                                                          Control System
    CN11             2        The control system must provide accurate fuel delivery and measurement
                                                          Cooling System
                               The cooling system must be able to allow the engine to operate in high 
    CN14             1
                                            ambient temperatures under race conditions
                                                    Documentation and Testing
    CN17             1                Documented theoretical test plan and anticipated results
                                 Must provide a CFD analysis of the intake manifold, restrictor, and 
    CN18             1
                                                             throttle
    CN19             2               Must provide an accurate model of the engine in GT-suite
                       Engineering Specifications

                                 Specification  Unit of    Marginal    Ideal 
Spec. #   Importance   Source                                                         Comments/Status
                                   (metric)     Measure     Value      Value
                                   Fuel                                          Want to use ~0.7 gal for the 
  S1          1         CN1                      km/l        6.9        8.3
                                Consumption                                              22km run
  S3          1         CN2     Power Output      HP          45        55                     

  S4          1         CN2        Torque        ft-lbs       31        35                     
                                                                                 Should be able to perform in 
  S6          1        CN4,15    Reliability      km          50        100      all Formula SAE events and 
                                                                                testing before major overhaul
  S8          1         CN6        Weight         lbs         75        68             Engine weight 
                                                                                E85 Ethanol-Gasoline Blend 
  S9          1         CN8      Fuel Type       N/A                      
                                                                                   or 100 Octane Gasoline
                                                                                Cooling system must keep the 
                                                                                 engine under 200 degrees in 
 S12          1         CN14    Temperature       °F         220        200
                                                                                 ambient temperatures up to 
                                                                                         100 degrees
                                        Sensor List
                                       Sensors Necessary For Dynamometer Testing

Parameter                    Qty.   Acquisition System   Required Range Warning Limit     Units   Method
Throttle Position             1     MoTeC M400               0-100                          %     Rotary Potentiometer
Manifold Air Pressure         2     MoTeC M400               0-110                        kPaa    Pressure Transducer
Mass Air Flow                 1     MoTeC M400                0-60                         g/s    Cold Wire MAF
Inlet Air Temperature         1     MoTeC M400               0-100          >80             C     Thermistor
Exhaust Gas Temperature       4     NI PCI-6034E             0-950         >850             C     K-Type Thermocouple
Air Fuel Ratio                1     MoTeC M400               .7-1.3                     Lambda    O2 Sensor
Crank Reference Sensor        1     MoTeC M400                                                    Magnetic Pickup
Cam Sync Sensor               1     MoTeC M400                                                    Inductive Proximity
Engine Coolant Temperature    1     MoTeC M400               0-120          >90             C     Thermistor
Engine Oil Temperature        1     NI PCI-6034E             0-150         >130             C     Thermistor
Engine Oil Pressure           1     NI PCI-6034E             0-800         <140           kPag    Pressure Transducer
Barometric Pressure           1     MoTeC M400              95-105                        kPaa    Pressure Transducer
Ambient Air Temperature       1     NI PCI-6034E              0-50          >40             C     Thermistor
Engine Crank Angle            1     NI PCI-6034E             0-360                       dATCD    Encoder
Cylinder Pressure             1     NI PCI-6034E            0-5000                        kPaa    Piezo Pressure Transducer
Fuel Pressure                 1     NI PCI-6034E              0-70                        kPag    Pressure Transducer
Fuel Inlet Flow Rate          1     NI PCI-6034E              0-2.4                       lpm     Turbine Flow Meter
Fuel Inlet Temperature        1     NI PCI-6034E              0-70          >60             C     K-Type Thermocouple
Fuel Outlet Flow Rate         1     NI PCI-6034E              0-2.4                       lpm     Turbine Flow Meter
Injector Duty                       MoTeC M400               0-100          >90             %     MoTeC Parameter
Spark Advance                       MoTeC M400                0-50                       dBTDC    MoTeC Parameter
Coolant Inlet Temperature     1     NI PCI-6034E             0-120          >90             C     K-Type Thermocouple
Coolant Outlet Temperature    1     NI PCI-6034E             0-120          >90             C     K-Type Thermocouple
Coolant Flow Rate             1     NI PCI-6034E              0-70                        lpm     Variable Area or Turbine
Knock                         1                                              Y             Y/N    Knock Tube
Engine Management System

            • ECM: Motec M400
            • Custom fuel maps for 
              each event
            • Controls various 
              auxiliary devices
            • Built-in data acquisition
System Design Schematic:
        Engine
                               Concept Development and 
                               Proposed Design - Engine
                                                                                                                        Possible Engine Packages




                                                                                                                                                                                            Forced Induction 550 V-Twin
                                                                        Forced Induction 250 Single




                                                                                                                                 Forced Induction 450 Single


                                                                                                                                                               Naturally Aspirated 550 V-




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Naturally Aspirated 500 I2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Naturally Aspirated 600 I4
                                             Naturally Aspirated 250 




                                                                                                      Naturally Aspirated 450 




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Forced Induction 500 I2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Forced Induction 600 I4
                                                      Single




                                                                                                               Single




                                                                                                                                                                          Twin
                                    Weight
                   Fuel Efficient     5              1                     1                                   1                    0                                  0                      -1                             0                           -1                         0                           -1
                      Reliable        5              0                    -1                                   1                    0                                 -1                      -1                             1                            0                         0                            0
                        Light         5              1                     1                                   1                    1                                  1                       0                            -1                           -1                        -1                           -1
                      Practical       5             -1                     0                                   1                    0                                  0                      -1                             1                            1                         1                            0
Requirements




                     Driveable        4              1                     0                                   1                    0                                  1                       0                             1                            0                         1                            0
                      Powerful        3             -1                     0                                   0                    1                                  1                       1                            -1                            0                         1                            1
                    Serviceable       3              1                     0                                   1                    0                                  1                       0                             1                            0                         1                            0
                




                    Complexity        3              1                    -1                                   1                   -1                                  0                      -1                             0                           -1                         0                           -1
                       Ease of 
                                      3               1                   -1                                   1                   -1                                   1                     -1                                1                        -1                            1                        -1
                     calibration
                    Inexpensive       2               1                   -1                                   0                   -1                                   0                     -1                                1                           0                          1                           0
                     Attractive 
                                      1             -1                        0                                0                       0                                1                         1                             0                           0                          1                           1
                       Sound
                       Totals:                     16                     -3                                33                         0                              14                    -19                           14                           -11                       16                           -12
                            Concept Selection and Proposed 
                              Design – Cooling System


                                                                                Possible Cooling System Designs




                                                                                                                                                                               Mechanical pump
                                                                                 Single Radiator




                                                                                                                                               No Surge Tank
                                                                                                   Twin Radiator
                                                                No Oil Cooler




                                                                                                                                                               Electric pump
                                                                                                                                  Surge Tank
                                                   Oil Cooler




                                                                                                                         No Fan
                                                                                                                   Fan
                                          Weight
                           Light            5        0             1                1                 0            -1     1         0            0                0               0
                   Effective high speed     5        0             0                0                 0             0     1         1           -1                0               0
Requirements




                      Effective low 
                                            4        0             0                0                 1            1      0         0             0               1               0
                        speed/off
                       CG Height            4       0            1                0                   1             0     1        0              1              0                0
                




                       Complexity           3       0            1                1                   0             0     1        0              1              0                0
                       Serviceable          3       0            0                0                   0             0     0        0              0              0                0
                           Cost             2      -1            1                1                   0            -1     0       -1              0             -1                1
                                                   -2           14               10                   8            -3    17        3              2              2                2
System Design Schematic:
     Cooling System
          Concept Selection and Proposed 
              Design – Fuel Choice

                                            Possible Fuel Choices




                                                                                             E85 Ethanol/Gasoline
                                                                       100 Octane Gasoline
                                                  93 Octane Gasoline
                                      Weight

                   Power potential      5             0                    1                     1


                   Knock Protection     4             0                    1                     1
Requirements




                   Energy Content       4             1                    1                     0
                




                     Corrosivity        3             1                    1                     0

                        Cost            3             1                 -1                       0

                      Innovative        2          -1                   -1                       0

                                                      8                11                        9
Project Plan
Project Plan
               Risk Assessment - Technical
ID        Risk Item              Effect            Cause              L        S   I   Action to Minimize Risk          Owner
                                                             Technical Risks


                                                                                         Be familiarized with the
                                                                                          Dynamometer control
                                                                                          programs. Attempt to
                              Unable to         Dynamometer
     Engine Dynamometer                                                                      characterize the       Stanley Fofano ,
1                            characterize       control system        2        2   4
          not reliable                                                                  Dynamometer and create          Phil Vars
                            engine torque        not reliable
                                                                                       an accurate control system
                                                                                          in case the original is
                                                                                                inefficient.
                                 Engine     Cooling system                              Correctly analyze cooling
     Insufficient Cooling of                                                                                           Evan See,
3                            Overheats/damag undersized or            2        3   6       system to maximize
           the Engine                                                                                               Brittany Borella
                               e to engine     inefficient                                       efficiency
                                                                                         Accurately control initial
   Unable to accuractly
                              Inaccurate                                                    assumptions and
  predict airflow through                    Improper CFD
4                          theoretical model                          2        2   4      conditions in order to     Taylor Hattori
   the intake manifold,                        analysis
                               of engine                                                create the most accurate
  restrictor, and throttle
                                                                                              model possible
     Unable to accurately                                                               Verify engine model with
                            Inefficiencies in     Improper
         predict fuel                                                                    dynamometer testing in
5                             the engine           Engine             2        3   6                                  Jon Scanlon
      consumption and                                                                   correlation with fuel flow
                                package           Modeling
        power output                                                                             sensors.
                                                Ratio leaned
                                                                                       Slowly change the air fuel
                                                out too far in
                              Damage to                                                mixture in order to realize   Chris Jones,
8 Air:Fuel Ratio too lean                          order to           2        3   6
                               engine                                                    effects before another      Jon Scanlon
                                                increase fuel
                                                                                            change is made
                                                  economy
                Risk Assessment - Management
ID   Risk Item          Effect               Cause             L   S   I        Action to Minimize Risk              Owner
                                                Project Management Risks

                                                                           Use funds wisely and try to do as
                  Outside contracted                                       much in house testing as possible.
     Insufficient                    Outside Contracting
10                work won't be able                           1   1   1   When outside testing is necessary, Brittany Borella
       funding                        work is expensive
                    to be paid for                                             try to take advantage of
                                                                                     sponsorships.

                                                                             Project Manager(s) in charge of
                                       Actual engineering in
                     Actual Senior                                         keeping track of all deliverables, for
     Inconsistant                     the project given more
                        Design                                               the class and the actual engine      Evan See,
11      Team                            priority than Senior   1   1   1
                  deliverables do not                                       design, and making sure they are Britttany Borella
       Priorities                     design paperwork and
                        get met                                            being taken care of by everyone on
                                            deliverables
                                                                                        the team

                                                                          Lead engineer will make sure that
                 Formula team
    Project not                                                           sufficient time is put into all engine
                does not have a Poor time management
12 completed on                                      1             3   3 systems so that all components are        Jon Scanlon
                complete engine      and planning
       time                                                              properly tested and prepared for the
                   package
                                                                                  final engine package

                    Engine Dyno
      Parts are                       long lead parts not
                 testing and on car                                         Long lead time parts ordered as
13   ordered too                    identified and ordered     1   2   2                                           Jon Scanlon
                  testing cannot be                                        soon as identified - early in MSD1
         late                                on time
                 completed on time
           Action Items for Detailed Design

• Well Documented Testing Plan

• BOM and 3D Model of Key Cooling System Components, 
  Intake and Exhaust

• Preliminary Engine Model

• Wiring Diagram

• Baseline Engine Maps
   – Power Output 
   – Fuel Economy
General Questions and 
    Comments?

								
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